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JOB SATISFACTION AND PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES

OF THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT OF ILOCOS NORTE

A Thesis Proposal
Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School
Open Univeristy
University of Northern Philippines
Vigan City, Ilocos Sur

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Course Requirements for the Degree
Master of Public Administration

BY:

JOSEPHINE T. RETUTA

2016

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CHAPTER 1

THE PROBLEM

Introduction

The nature of work and other pressures in society has been changing the attitudes of people

towards work itself. In this age of specialization, motivating a worker and providing him with the

much needed job satisfaction is extremely important to enable him to realize his true

Potential and worth to the organization. It is therefore important to explain the relationship

Between job satisfaction and job performance.

There is a common feeling that a proactive human resources policy through proper

reinforcement of workers, by means of implementation of various productivity linked schemes,

suggestion schemes, workers participation in management, quick disposal of grievances,

counseling and provision of good working conditions, welfare facilities etc. would help maintain

a satisfied and productive work force, better quality of service and industrial peace, with its

consequent benefits.

The strength of any organization is in its workforce and that an organization that does not

have a well performing and dedicated workforce has a poor foundation to exist in a sound

operational manner. This implies that human resources need to be treated with great care, since

they are a special resource that needs to be given special managerial attention and time (Storey,

2011).

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Due to popularity of job satisfaction with in the field of occupational and organizational

psychology, various researchers and practitioners have provided their own definitions of what job

satisfaction is. However, the two most common definitions to describe job satisfaction as “the

pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job as achieving or facilitating

the achievement of one’s job values, and ”the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike

(dissatisfaction) their jobs.

The Provincial Government of Ilocos Norte is famous for its being rich in cultural and

socio-economic resources. It has the vision-mission of the provincial government to help the

people of Ilocos Norte to attain a better quality of life.

PGIN employees are motivated by the Honorable Governor aggressiveness to sectored

development especially in the eradication of poverty, agribusiness and tourism, because we

consider our office as a part of these goals to be achieve by the PGIN as a whole.Although, we are

motivated to perform more than our assigned tasks, we work as a Team because we always

believed in group effort. We share our ideas and compliment instead of competing with each other.

Despite the reduction of regular employees, (and) non filling up of vacancies, and detailing

of employees to other offices, abolition of vacant positions and creation of a new positions, the

department heads are trying to distribute the numerous PGIN PPAs, collaborative projects from

national government and attached line agencies including the non- government agencies/ rural

based organizations to our Technical/administrative staff. Excellent services are always the

motivating words of the office, “Smile and prompt service to our clients (farmers, fisherfolks,

women/youth and the like) because without them we do not exist as an office / institution”.

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More so, we appeal to the Honorable Governor to please fill-up vacancies in order to

perform more than expectations by our clients. If we augment our force, we can be more competent

in discharging our duties and functions inconsonance to each and every specialization of our staff.

As to present condition we are overloaded with work assignments but trying to perform more than

we can offer.

As personnel of the PGIN, the researcher finds the goodness and importance of relating the

level of Job Satisfaction of the employees wherein lies the heart of the organizational system to

their performance.

The results and findings of this research is very useful and appropriate to the following

stakeholders that can be used for future reference.

To the Employees - through this study they will be able to gauge their level of job satisfaction

and performance whether they are satisfied with the benefits or not and the level performance they

contributed to the success of the organization. This is also an opportunity for them to reflect how

they can make the best for the team and work place in particular.

The Head of Office- the results and finding will be the basis of improving the working

environment if in case there is a need to sustain or there is a need to review for the betterment of

the work place and employees. This is also a springboard for them to make a necessary action for

the welfare of the employees whether they deserve to promote or provide incentive for them.

The researcher and future researcher-They will benefit through better understanding on the job

satisfaction and performance of employees, the results and finding will be the basis for them to

make a follow up or parallel study regarding employee job satisfaction and performance. The

Government Sector- The final results and recommendations of this research will be useful in

realizing the vision and mission of the organization. Thus, providing quality service to the people

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will help to grow and meet challenges in the in the field and provide a better framework of work

place in all agency in the government in particular.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to describe determine work motivation and performance of employee in the

provincial government of Ilocos Norte during the fiscal year 2015.

Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions:

1. What is the demographic profile of the Provincial government employees of the

Province of Ilocos Norte as to their:

a. Sex,

b. Civil status,

c. Age,

d. Employment Status

e. Highest Educational Attainment,

f. Number of years in the service,

g. Number of Seminars training attended?

2. What is the level of Job Satisfaction of the respondent along or in terms of:

a. Salaries and fringes and other incentives

b. Work environment

c. Leadership

d. Recognition?

3. What is the level of performance of the respondent along the following:

a. Quality Output

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b. Attendance

c. Punctuality

d. Work Attitude

e. Observance of PGIN policies and orders

f. Team Player?

4. Is the level of Job Satisfaction and Work Performance significantly influenced using their

profile?

5. Is the level of Work Performance influenced by the Job Satisfaction?

SCOPE AND DELIMITATION

This study will be conducted to determine the level ofjob satisfaction and performance

among the employees from the different organic department of the Provincial Government of

Ilocos Nortefor the rating period of July to December 2015 such as :Office of the Governor;

General Service Office; Sanggunian Panlalawigan; Administrators Office; Budget Office;

Assessor’s Office; Accounting; INPJ; Legal Office; PPDP; Invest/PESO/SME; Communication

and Media office; Treasurers Office; IT office; Agriculture office; Engineering office; ENRO

office; Veterinary Office; Provincial Library; Tourism Office; Health Office; GAD office;

GRSBASHM, Bangui District Hospital; Dingras District Hospital; Dona Josefa Edralin District

Hospital; Vintar District Hospital; Piddig District Hospital; Social Worker Office; Sports and

development office and Special Project Office.

The level of Job Satisfaction of the respondent is also delimited to in terms of the following

indicators: a. Salaries and fringes and other incentives; b. Work environment and; c.

leadership’and d. Recognition. The level of performance of the respondents is also delimited on

the following variables: a. Quality Output (Target vs. Accomplishment); b. Attendance; c.

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Punctuality; d. Work Attitude (Client & peers, find ways to save PGIN money/

equipment/expenses); e. Observance of PGIN policies and orders (compliance to memo:

attendance to PGIN events and special occasions); f. Team Player (gets along with co-workers;

leadership; cooperativeness; appreciativeness; selflessness?

The study will use the descriptive survey method of research. It will use a job satisfaction

questionnaire, and Employees Performance Evaluation to gather the needed data of this study.

Theoretical Framework

To provide basis for the conduct of this study and provide the researcher a better

comprehension of the chosen topic on hand, a review of related literature and studies as well as a

standards and experiences are presented.

Definition and Importance of Job Satisfaction

Different authors have different approaches towards defining job satisfaction.

Hoppock defined job satisfaction as any combination of psychological, physiological and

environmental circumstances that cause a person truthfully to say I am satisfied with my job

(Hoppock, 1935). According to this approach although job satisfaction is under the influence of

many external factors, it remains something internal that has to do with the way how the employee

feels. That is job satisfaction presents a set of factors that cause a feeling of satisfaction.

Vroom in his definition on Job Satisfaction focuses on the role of the employee in the

workplace. Thus he defines job satisfaction as affective orientations on the part of individuals

toward work roles which they are presently occupying (Vroom,1964).

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On the most often cited definitions on job satisfaction is the one given by Spector according

to whom job satisfaction has to do with the way how people feel about their job and its various

aspects. It has to do with the extent to which people like or dislike their job. That’s why job

satisfaction can appear in any given work situation.

Job satisfaction represents a combination of positive or negative feelings that workers have

towards their work. Meanwhile, when a worker employed in a business organization, brings with

the needs, desires and experiences which determines expectations that he has dismissed. Job

satisfaction represents the extent to behavior in the work place (Davies et al., 1985)

Job Satisfaction is a worker’s sense of achievement and success on the job. It is generally

perceived to be directly linked to productivity as well as to personal well being. Job satisfaction

implies doing a job one enjoys, doing it well and being rewarded for one’s efforts. Job satisfaction

further implies enthusiasm and happiness with one’s work. Job satisfaction is a key ingredient that

leads to recognition, income, promotion, and the achievement of other goals that lead to a feeling

of fulfillment (Kaliski,2007).

Job satisfaction can be defined also as the extent to which a worker is content with the

rewards he or she gets out of his or her job, particularly in terms of intrinsic motivation

(Statt,2004).

Job satisfaction is the collection of feelings and beliefs that people have about their current

job. People’s levels of degrees of job satisfaction can range from extreme satisfaction to extreme

dissatisfaction. In addition to having attitudes about their jobs as a whole. People also can have

attitudes about various aspects of their jobs such as the kind of work they do, their co-workers,

supervisors or subordinates and their pay (George et al.,2008).

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Job satisfaction is a complex and multifaceted concept which can mean different things to

different people. Job satisfaction is usually linked with motivation, but the nature of this

relationship is not clear. Satisfaction is not the same as motivation. Job satisfaction is more of an

attitude, an internal state. It could, for example, be associated with a personal feeling of

achievement, either quantitative or qualitative (Mullins, 2005).

We also consider that job satisfaction represents a feeling that appears as aresult of the

perception that the job enables the material and psychological needs (Aziri, 2008).

Job satisfaction can be considered as one of the main factors when it comes to efficiency

and effectiveness of business organizations. In fact the new managerial paradigm which insists the

employees should be treated and considered primarily as human beings that have their own wants,

needs, personal desires is a very good indicator for the importance of jab satisfaction in

contemporary companies. When analyzing job satisfaction the logic that a satisfied employee is a

happy employee and a happy employee is a successful employee.

The importance of Job Satisfaction specially emerges to surface if had in mind the many

negative consequences of job dissatisfaction such a lack of loyalty, increased absenteeism, increase

number of accidents etc. Spector (1997) lists three important features of job satisfaction. First,

organizations should be guided by human values. Such organizations will be oriented towards

treating workers fairly and with respect. In such cases the assessment of job satisfaction may serve

as a good indicator of employee effectiveness. High levels of job satisfaction may be sign of a

good emotional and mental state of employees. Second, the behavior of workers depending on

their level of job satisfaction will affect the functioning and activities of the organization’s

business. From this it can be concluded that job satisfaction will result in positive behavior and

vice versa, dissatisfaction from the work will result in negative behavior of employees. Third, job

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satisfaction may serve as indicators of organizational activities. Through job satisfaction

evaluation different levels of satisfaction in different organizational units can be defined, but in

turn can serve as a good indication regarding in which organizational unit changes that would

boost performance should be made.

Smith, Kendal, and Hukin (1969), have suggested that there are six job dimensions that

represent the most important characteristics of a job about which people have affective responses.

These are pay, the work itself, promotions, supervisions the work group, and working conditions.

1. Pay. Wages are a significant factor in job satisfaction. Money not only helps people attain

their basic needs but it is instrumented in providing upper-level need satisfaction. People in

the organizations often see pay as a reflection of how management views their contributions

to the organization. Fringe benefits to are also important, but they are not as influential. One

reason, undoubtedly, is the most people in an organization do not even know how much they

are receiving a benefits. Moreover most tend to undervalue these benefits because they

cannot see their practical value (Major and Komar, 1984).

2. Work itself. The content of the work itself is another major source of satisfaction. For

example, research related to the job characteristics approach to job design shows that

feedback from the job itself and autonomy are two of the major job related motivational

factors. Some of the most important ingredients of a satisfying job uncovered by surveys

include interesting and challenging work. Work that is not boring, and a job that provides

status (Ciabattri, 1986).

3. Promotion opportunities. Promotion opportunities have seem to have a varying effect on

job satisfaction. This is because promotions take a number of different forms and have a

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variety of accompanying rewards. For example, individuals who promoted on the basis

of seniority often experience job satisfaction but not as much those who are promoted in

the basis of performance. Additionally, a promotion with a 10 percent salary raise is

typically not as satisfying as one with a 20 percent salary raise. This helps explain why

executive promotions maybe more satisfying their promotions that occur at the lower

levels of organizations (Luthans, 1992)

4. Supervision. Supervision is another moderately important source of job satisfaction. It

can be said that these seem to be two dimensions of supervisors style that affect job

satisfaction. One is subordinate-centeredness. This is commonly manifested in ways such

as checking to see how the subordinate will is doing, providing advice and assistance to

the individual, and communicating with the worker on a personal, as well as on an official

level. The other dimension is participation or influence, as illustrated by administrations

who allow their people in the organization to participate in decisions that affect their job.

In most cases, their approach leads to higher job satisfaction. For example,

comprehension Meta-analysis concluded that participation does have a position affect on

job satisfaction. A participation climate created by the supervisor has a more substantial

effect on worker’s satisfaction than those participation in a specific decision (Miller and

Monge, 1986).

5. Work Group. The nature of the work group will have an effect on job satisfaction.

Friendly, cooperative coworkers are modest sources of job satisfaction to individual

employees. The work group serves as a source of support. The provide comfort, advice,

and assistance to the individual worker. A “good” work group makes the job more

enjoyable. However, this factor is not essential to job satisfaction.

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6. Working condition. Working condition is another factor that has a modest effect on job

satisfaction. If the working conditions are good (clear, attractive surroundings for

instance), the personnel will find it easier to carry out their jobs. If the working conditions

are poor (hot, noisy surroundings, for example), personnel will find it more difficult to

get things done. In other words, the effect of working conditions on job satisfaction is

similar to that of the work group. If things are good, there will not be a job satisfaction

problem; if things are poor, there will be (Luthans, 1992).

Swenson (2000) stated that job satisfaction is a predictor of how much pressure and stress

someone can handle while on the job. If employees are enjoying their job, they are more likely to

be affective in handling daily stressors they experience. Furthermore, he stated that employees

with higher job satisfaction believe that the organization will be satisfying in the long run; care

about the quality of their work; are more committed to the organization; have higher retention

rates, and are more productive. Similarly, Brand noted that job satisfaction is inversely related to

absenteeism, alcoholism, job turn over, and filing of worker compensation claims, all of which

cost employers money. When the employees are more satisfied with their job, they are more likely

to work harder, complain less, show up on time, and treat costumers and co-workers with respect

(Brand,1999).

Factors of Job Satisfaction

Christen, Iyer and Soberman(2006) provide a model of job satisfaction which the following

elements are included:

 Job related factors,

 Role perceptions,

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 Job performance and

 Firm performance

Job performance Firm performance

Job factors

Problems with Job satisfaction


role perceptions

Fugure 1. Christen,Lyer and Soberman Model of Job Satisfaction (Christen et.2006)

Lawler and Porter (1967) give their model of job satisfaction which unlike the previous model

places a special importance on the impact of rewards on job satisfaction.

Intrinsic rewards Perceived equitable


rewards

Performance Job satisfaction

Extrinsic rewards

Figure 2. Lawler’s and Porter’s model of Job Satisfaction (Lawler and Porter, 1967)

According to this model the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards are not directly connected with job

satisfaction because of the employees’ perceptions regarding the deserved levelof pay.

Locke and Latham (1990) provide somewhat different model of job satisfaction. They proceed

from the assumption that the objectives set at the highest level and high expectations from success
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in work provides achievement and success in performing tasks. Success is analyzed as a factor that

creates job satisfaction. This figure is presented in Figure 3.

Moderating factors

Specific high
goals
High expectancy High Rewards
self-efficiency performance

High expectancy
self-efficiency
Commitment to Satisfaction and
the goals of the anticipated
organization

Figure 3. Locke and Latham Model of Job Satisfaction (Locke and Latham,1990)

Job sataisfaction is under the influence of series of factors such as: Nature of work, Salary,

Advancement opportunities, Management, Work groups and Work conditions.

A somewhat different approach regarding the factors of job satisfaction is provided by

Rue and Byars.

- Manager’s concern for people


- Job design (scope,depth,interest,perceived value)
- Compensation (external and internal consistency)
- Working conditions
- Social relationships
- Perceived long range opportunities
- Perceived opportunities elsewhere
- Levels of aspiration and need achievement

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Job satisfaction or dissatisfaction

Commitment to organization Turnover, absenteeism,


tardiness, accidents, strikes,
grievance, sabotage etc.

Figure 4. Determinants of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction (Rue and Byaes,2003)

When talking about factors of job satisfaction the fact that they can also cause job

dissatisfaction are two opposite and excluded able phenomena. There is no consensus regarding

this issue among authors. Herberg’s Two factor Theory is probably the most often cited point of

view. In fact the main idea is that employees in their work environment are under the influence of

factors that cause job satisfaction and factors that cause job dissatisfaction. Therefore all factors

that all have derived from a large empirical research and divided in factors that cause job

satisfaction (motivators) and factors that cause job dissatisfaction (hygience factors).

JOB SATISFACTION FACTORS (HERBERG, 1976)

Hygiene Factors Motivators


Company Policies Achievement
Supervision Recognition
Interpersonal Relations Work itself
Work conditions Responsibility
Salary Advancement

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Status Growth
Job Security

Job satisfaction plays an important role for an employee in terms of health and well being
(Kornhaurser, 1965; Khaleque, 1981) and for an organization in terms of its productivity,
efficiency, employee relations, absenteeism and turnover (Vroom, 1964; Locke, 1976; khaleque,
1984). Job satisfaction is a complex variable and influenced by situational factors of the job as
well as the dispositional characteristics of the individual (Sharma & Ghosh, 2006). It can be
captured by either a one dimensional concept of global job satisfaction or a multi faceted construct
capturing different aspects of job satisfaction that can vary independently.

Research examining the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance has
been conducted since at least as early as 1945 (e. g., Brody, 1945) and methodology utilized has
varied greatly. Some researchers used established scales to measure job satisfaction, while some
developed their own. Some used self-report ratings to assess performance, while others used peer
or supervisor ratings.

The idea that job satisfaction leads to better performance is supported by Vroom's (1964)
work which is based on the notion that performance is natural product of satisfying the needs of
employees. The study relating to the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance has
now become a research tradition in industrial-organizational psychology. The relationship between
job satisfaction and job performance has been described as the "Holy Grail" of industrial
psychologists (Landy, 1989). Many organizational theories are based on the notion that
organizations that are able to make their employees happy will have more productive employees.
Over the years, scholars examined this idea that a happy worker is a productive worker; however,
evidence is not yet conclusive in this regard. Empirical studies have produced several conflicting
viewpoints on the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance. Strauss (1968)
commented, "Early human relationists viewed the morale--productivity relationship quite simple:
higher morale would lead to improved productivity". Siegel & Bowen (1971) and Bagozzi (1980)
suggested that job performance leads to job satisfaction but not the reverse. Anderson (1984)
indicated that autonomy and feedback from the job is significantly correlated with the
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performance. Keaveney and Nelson (1993) found a non-significant correlation coefficient between
job satisfaction and job performance. Manjunath (2008) found job satisfaction of agricultural
scientists significantly correlated with their scientific productivity. Ravindran (2007) found that
job satisfaction is non-significantly correlated with job performance.

The relationship between job satisfaction and job performance has been of great interest to
researchers for a very long time. The Hawthorne studies and the subsequent human relations
movement sanctified the search for the relationship. Brayfield and Crockett (1955) concluded that
no appreciable relationship existed between the two. On the other hand, Herzberg, Mausner,
Peterson and Chapwell (1957) concluded that there was a systematic relationship between job
satisfaction and certain work behaviors as well as between job dissatisfaction and other work
behaviors. Two decades later Locke (1976), conducted an extensive review of the satisfaction
literature and concluded that ‘job satisfaction has no direct effect on productivity’. Job satisfaction
is a pleasurable or positive emotional state that arises when people appraise their job or job
experiences (Locke, 1976). Implicit in Locke’s definition is the importance of both affect, or
feeling, and cognition, or thinking. Of all the major job satisfaction areas, satisfaction with the
nature of the work itself—which includes job challenge, autonomy, variety, and scope—best
predicts overall job satisfaction, as well as other important outcomes like employee retention (e.g.,
Fried & Ferris, 1987; Parisi & Weiner, 1999). There is an important difference between the earlier
conceptions of the satisfaction-performance relationship, and some subsequent findings. In the
beginning, researchers attempted to show that satisfaction caused productivity. But later the
opposite relationship was suggested. viz. good performance causes satisfaction (Locke, 1970;
Porter & Lawler, 1968). Thus, to understand what causes people to be satisfied with their jobs, the
nature of the work itself is one of the first places for practitioners to focus on. Many studies have
shown that dissatisfied employees are more likely to quit their jobs or be absent, as compared with
satisfied employees (e.g., Hackett & Guion, 1985; Hulin, Roznowski, & Hachiya, 1985; Kohler &
Mathieu, 1993). Job satisfaction has been studied both as an independent and dependant variable.
As a dependent variable, the degree of satisfaction has been correlated with gender, age,
intelligence, race, education and various personality traits. As an independent variable, it has been

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correlated with productivity, absenteeism, accidents and turnover. But the pattern of correlation in
these studies is highly diverse in nature.

Also Taylor's approach has close links with the concept of an autocratic management style

(managers take all the decisions and simply give orders to those below them) and Macgregor's

Theory X approach to workers (workers are viewed as lazy and wish to avoid responsibility).

However workers soon came to dislike Taylor's approach as they were only given boring,

repetitive tasks to carry out and were being treated little better than human machines. Firms could

also afford to lay off workers as productivity levels increased. This led to an increase in strikes

and other forms of industrial action by dis-satisfied workers.

According to Elton Mayo (2008), believed that workers are not just concerned with money

but could be better motivated by having their social needs met whilst at work. He introduced the

Human Relation School of thought, which focused on managers taking more of an interest in the

workers, treating them as people who have worthwhile opinions and realizing that workers enjoy

interacting together.

Briton (2009),conclude that to conducted a series of experiments at the Hawthorne factory

of the Western Electric Company in Chicago. He isolated two groups of women workers and

studied the effect on their productivity levels of changing factors such as lighting and working

conditions.He expected to see productivity levels decline as lighting or other conditions became

progressively worse.What he actually discovered surprised him: whatever the change in lighting

or working conditions, the productivity levels of the workers improved or remained the same.

Job Performance

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Job Performance is one of the major concepts in organizational behavioral theory and

organization theory. Performance is strongly affected by many other factors including relative among

workers of work groups. The quality of leadership they receive from supervisors, and their perceptions

that they are being treated family or unfairly by management (Orlanberg, 1987). It is important for

administration to focus on their both activities that generate the performance (behavior) and on

performance results (outcome) because outcome measures serve the needs of the organization as a whole,

whereas behavior measures serve the individual administrator in determining and improving job

performance of people in organizations (Onchi and Maguire,1975).

In the study of Ricotoso (2004), it was found out that the respondents have a very high work values

attributed to their very high intrinsic and extrinsic work values. Teachers’s performance is not necessarily

affected by their inner and external drive to work for the organization.

According to Kennis (2014), the success of an organization in achieving its goals and

objectives depends to the great extent on its human resources. Evaluating performance is not an

event. It is a process that includes up-front planning and regular maintenance. It is only one part

of the continuous cycle to determine the situation of the organization and use to manage individual

and team performance. Performance evaluations provide an opportunity for a leader and it’s

subordinate to talk about how things are going on the job and how they can improve their

performance in the future.

The management of people at work is an integral part of the management process. To

understand the critical importance of people in the organization is to recognize that the human

element and the organization are synonymous. A well-managed organization usually sees an

average worker as the root source of quality and productivity gains.

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Such organizations do not look to capital investment, but to employees, as the fundamental

source of improvement. An organization is effective to the degree to which it achieves its goals.

An effective organization will make sure that there is a spirit of cooperation and sense of

commitment and satisfaction within the sphere of its influence. In order to make employees

satisfied and committed to their jobs in academic and research libraries, there is need for strong

and effective motivation at the various levels, departments, and sections of the library.

In the study of In-Eav, Narong,(2008), The implementation of organizational management;

namely: Strategic planning, results based management, personnel capability, and information

technology utilization in the Electric-Greening companies in Rayong is successful. This means

that the companies have the capability to implement these principles. The performance of the of

the Electricity-Generating companies as a result of implementing management principles has a

high impact on employees’ quality of work life and customers’ satisfaction. The position

characteristics of the managers and staff, results based management, role and task perception,

financial capability and leadership capability contributed significantly to the performance in

achieving organizational performance. The performance of the company in terms of efficiency and

quality of service contributed significantly to employees’ quality of work life and costumers’

satisfaction impact.

Performance and Motivation is a basic psychological process. A recent data-based

comprehensive analysis concluded that competitiveness problems appear to be largely

motivational in nature (Mine, Ebrahimi, and Wachtel, 2005). Along with perception, personality,

attitudes, and learning, motivation is a very important element of behavior. Nevertheless,

motivation is not the only explanation of behavior. It interacts with and acts in conjunction with

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other cognitive processes. Motivating is the management process of influencing behavior based

on the knowledge of what make people tick (Luthans, 1998). Motivation and motivating both deal

with the range of conscious human behavior somewhere between two extremes: • reflex actions

such as a sneeze or flutter of the eyelids; and • learned habits such as brushing one's teeth or

handwriting style (Wallace and Szilag 1982).

Attitude has direct impact on job satisfaction. Organizational commitment on the other

hand, focuses on their attitudes towards the entire organization. Although a strong relationship

between satisfaction and commitment has been found, more recent research gives more support to

the idea that commitment causes satisfaction. However, most studies treat satisfaction and

commitment differently, especially in light of things like downsizing that are part of modern

organizations.

Campbell defines performance as behavior. It is something done by the employee. This

concept differentiates performance from outcomes. Outcomes are the result of an individual's

performance, but they are also the result of other influences. In other words, there are more factors

that determine outcomes than just an employee's behaviors and actions.

Campbell allows for exceptions when defining performance as behavior. For instance, he

clarifies that performance does not have to be directly observable actions of an individual. It can

consist of mental productions such as answers or decisions. However, performance needs to be

under the individual's control, regardless of whether the performance of interest is mental or

behavioral.

There are factors of Job Performance with their meanings are enumerated below:

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1. Quality of work. It refers to the characteristics of output that enhance usefulness to the

recipient. People in the organization have direct control over output and there is a minimum

of subsequent rework of the output.

2. Quantity of Work. It refers to the volume of useful output associated with the employee.

Job assignment output over which people in the organization have direct control.

3. Timeliness. It refers tp the use of appropriate time on the production of output, which is

speedy, fast, fishing on time, etc.

4. Efficiency. It refers to the ability of people in the organization to minimize input and

maximize output, which means that they use the administrative resources of input-over,

money, and materials – for purpose of best production.

5. Job Knowledge or skills. It refers to the ability of people in organization to exercise

discretionary behavior to derive at a wise decision when comforted with problem situation,

after instructed and at short notice.

6. Adoptability. It refers to the ability of people in organization to adjust properly and

expeditiously to changing and unstructured situation as well as problems encountered in

the job environment(as cited by J. Singsilarak, 1997).

Job Performance in the Work Place

According to Ryan et.al. ( 2010), job performance is a consistent and important outcome

of core self-evaluations (CSE). The concept of core self-evaluations was first examined by Judge,

Locke, and Durham (1997) as a dispositional predictor of job satisfaction, and involves four

personality dimensions; locus of control, neuroticism, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. The way in

which people appraise themselves using core self-evaluations has the ability to predict positive

work outcomes, specifically, job satisfaction and job performance.

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The most popular theory relating the CSE trait to job performance argues that people with

high CSE will be more motivated to perform well because they are confident they have the ability

to do so.Motivation is generally the most accepted mediator of the core self-evaluations and job

performance relationship. These relationships have inspired increasing amounts of research on

core self-evaluations and suggest valuable implications about the importance this trait may have

for organizations.

Your ability to perform effectively in your job requires that you have and understand a

complete and up-to-date job description for your position, and that you understand the job

performance requirements and standards that you are expected to meet. Your supervisor should

review your job description and performance requirements with you.

Sometimes an employee’s performance will not be consistent with the requirements of

the position. If this happens, and normal coaching, counseling and/or training do not bring

performance to an acceptable level, a supervisor may use the corrective action process to help

constructively bring an employee’s performance to an acceptable level. The University’s

corrective action process implements progressively more formal counseling, feedback, and

goal setting.

Work Performance Problems

Quantity of work (untimely completion, limited production),Poor prioritizing, timing,

scheduling, Lost time, Lateness, absenteeism, leaving without permission, Excessive visiting,

phone use, break time, use of the Internet, Misuse of sick leave, Slow response to work requests,

untimely completion of assignments, Preventable accidents ,Quality of work (failure to meet

quality standards)Inaccuracies, errors, Failure to meet expectations for product quality, cost or

23
service, Customer/client dissatisfaction, Spoilage and/or waste of materials, Inappropriate or poor

work methods.

Work Behaviors Which Result in Performance Problems

Inappropriate behaviors (often referred to as "poor attitude"), negativism, lack of

cooperation, hostility, failure or refusal to follow instructions, unwillingness to take responsibility

("passing the buck"),insubordination, power games, resistance to change, unwillingness, refusal

or inability to update skills, resistance to policy, procedure, work method changes, lack of

flexibility in response to problems.

Inappropriate interpersonal relations

Inappropriate communication style: over-aggressive, passive, Impatient, inconsiderate,

argumentative, Destructive humor, sarcasm, horseplay, fighting, inappropriate conflict with

others, customers, coworkers, supervisors. Inappropriate physical behavior, Smoking, eating,

drinking in inappropriate places, Sleeping on the job, Alcohol or drug use, Problems with personal

hygiene, Threatening, hostile, or intimidating behaviors, Promoting a Healthy Work place.

Encourage employees to move more. Provide support to staff to use scheduled breaks or lunchtime

to walk or be physically active, rest, or get sunshine or fresh air. Suggest a “walking meeting”

when meeting one-on-one with a staff member or small employee workgroup. Use staff meetings

24
and other regular communication venues, such as bulletin boards and newsletters, to promote ways

to improve employee health, safety, and fitness. Workday activities can require repetitive motion

that may lead to discomfort and injury.

Kennis (2014) assert that leadership motivation is the key to an effective work site wellness

program. Accommodate employees who express milk during the work day by providing a

reasonable break time and an appropriately private space to pump or express milk by

following these guidelines Employee development is a joint, on-going effort on the part of an

employee and the organization for which he or she works to upgrade the employee's knowledge,

skills, and abilities. Successful employee development requires a balance between an individual's

career needs and goals and the organization's need to get work done.Employee development

programs make positive contributions to organizational performance.

A more highly-skilled workforce can accomplish more and a supervisor's group can

accomplish more as employees gain in experience and knowledge. Everyone goes through several

stages of development as they move from being a career "beginner" to a full expert in their field.

Each stage has specific needs and tasks to consider. As you work with employees on development,

it can be helpful to look at their stage in order to find the best kind of activities for them. It is very

helpful for an employee to get an honest assessment of their work, as well as access to others who

may be able to provide information or coach the employee.

The successful supervisor will also respect every employee's learning curve. It takes time

for anyone to learn new skills and be able to apply them well; this does not happen overnight.

25
Building this development time into the application of a new skill set will make the employee more

successful.http://www1.umn.edu/ohr/toolkit/development/supervisor/index.html

The personal performance evaluation system comprises the procedures for evaluating the

performance of individuals, the associated evaluation factors and the evaluation scale. The impact

of personal performance on the personal salary element is stipulated in the collective agreement.

The Job Characteristics Model (JCM), as designed by Hackman and Oldham attempts to use

job design to improve employee intrinsic motivation. They show that any job can be described in

terms of five key job characteristics:

1. Skill Variety - the degree to which the job requires the use of different skills and talents
2. Task Identity - the degree to which the job has contributed to a clearly identifiable larger
project
3. Task Significance - the degree to which the job has an impact on the lives or work of other
people
4. Autonomy - the degree to which the employee has independence, freedom and discretion
in carrying out the job
5. Task Feedback - the degree to which the employee is provided with clear, specific,
detailed, actionable information about the effectiveness of his or her job performance

An appraisal of the employee's performance is important to both the organization and the

employee and is also used to; objectively evaluate performance, motivate workers, help with

administrative decisions, and improve performance. When appraising an employee's performance

there are two different approaches that can be used which include; objective performance

measures, and subjective performance measures.

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Many of the stressors involved with this job are a result of inadequate training, which

causes a lot of frustration with employees. When employees are constantly confused and unsure

of how they are suppose to do their job, tempers can be begin to flare with both employees and

management. Another reason for stress in the workplace is ineffective communication from the

manager. "The most important part in motivation is played precisely by managers, who guide their

employees, listen to them and reward them." (Peklar, et al., 2012, para. 4).

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DEPENDENT VARIABLES

Level of JOB SATISFACTION


Socio economic profile of PGIN A. Salaries and fringes and other
employees incentives
B. Work environment
a. Sex C. Leadership
D. Recognition
b. Civil status

c. Age

d. Employee status LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE


a. Quality Output
e. Highest educational attainment b. Attendance
c. Punctuality
f. number of years in the gov’t service
d. Work Attitude
g. Trainings/ seminar attended
e. Observance of PGIN policies and
Orders
f. Team Player 27
Figure 4. The Paradigm of the Study

The paradigm of the study shows that the Socio Demographic Profile of the respondents is
influenced by the Level of Job Satisfaction and Level of Performance.

Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined operationally and theoretically to understand better the researcher

conducting this study.

Job Satisfaction refers to the level of contentment employees feel about their work which
can affect performance.

Salary refers to the fixed amount of money or compensation paid to an employee by an

employer in return for work performed. Salary is paid, most frequently, in a monthly paycheck to

an employee.

Incentive refers to the rewards given to an employee either monetary or in kind in

exchange to his exemplary accomplishment.

Work environment refers to the all existing circumstances affecting labor in the

workplace, including job hours, physical aspects, legal rights and responsibilities place which

includes the adequate and proper lighting facilities, ventilation and convenient to do the job during

working hours.

28
Leadership refers to the action of leading, motivating and guiding the employees through

the work process in attaining its vision and mission in achieving the organizational goals.

Performance refers to the accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known

standards of accuracy, completeness, cost, and speed in a contract, performance is deemed to be

fulfillment of an obligation, in a manner that releases the performer from all liabilities under the

contract.

Quality Output refers to the work performance of an employee based on his target versus

accomplishment.

Attendance refers to a work ethics of an employee to report for work regularly and always

at the workplace anytime his service is needed.

Punctuality refers to a wonderful trait of an employee to be admired and respected. It

displays a person’s respect for time. It is also a characteristic of being able to complete the required

task on time.

Work attitude refers to the positive attitude of an employee to do the given task in the

workplace.

Team Player refers to on how an employee gets along with his co-workers, leadership,

cooperativeness, appreciativeness and selflessness in the workplace.

Employee Status pertains to the privileges, job titles and other symbols of position of an
employee.

the level of contentment employees feel about their work which can affect performance.

Trainings refer to an organized activity aimed at imparting information to improve the


employee performance to attain a required level of knowledge or skill.

29
Hypotheses

The following hypotheses will be tested.

1. There is no significant influence of the demographic profile and the level of job satisfaction
of the respondents.
2. There is no significant influence of the level of job satisfaction to the performance of the
respondents.

Research Methodology

This study will discuss the research design, population and samples, data gathering

instrument, data gathering procedure and statistical tools.

Research Design. The descriptive method of research will be employed in this study. According

to Calderon and Gonzales (2013), the descriptive method of research describes “what is”. It

involves descriptions, recording, analysis, and interpretation of the present nature, composition or

processes of phenomena. The focus of descriptive research is on prevailing conditions, or how a

person, group or thing behaves or functions in the present. It often involves some type of

comparison or contrast.

This study will use the descriptive-correlationa ldesign. The researcher finds the method

appropriate because this study seeks to find answers to questions through the analysis of variable

relationships. The descriptive aspects demonstrate by the manner of employee respondents in the

levels of job satisfaction questionnaire.

Population and Sample

This study will be conducted in the Provincial Government of Ilocos Norte. One hundred (150)

employees in different department of the agency will be the respondents of the study. They will be

chosen by purposive sampling techniques from the total population of each agency regardless of

30
their profile and the researcher will use the random sampling technique based on a total population

of Provincial Government of Ilocos Norte employees. Sample size will determine using the

stratified random sampling technique using the Linear regression analysis.

No. Department Total Population Sample Size


1 Office of the Governor 31 4

2 General Services Office (GSO) 166 21


3 Sangguniang Panlalawigan 78 10
4 Provincial Administrator 9 1
5 Provincial Accounting 13 2
6 Provincial Assessor 15 2
7 Provincial Budget 10 1
8 INPJ 29 4
9 Legal Office 9 1
10 PPDO 12 2
11 Invest,Peso,SME 15 2
12 Communication Media Office 23 3
13 Provincial Treasurers Office 47 6
14 IT Office 13 2
15 Provincial Agriculture 70 9
16 Provincial Engineering 92 12
17 Enro 6 1
18 Provincial Veterinary 31 4
19 Provincial Library 9 1
20 Provincial Tourism 21 3
21 GRASMH 225 28
22 PHO 44 6
23 GAD 6 1
24 Bangui District Hospital 56 7
25 Dingras District Hospital 43 5
26 Dona Josefa Edralin Dist Hospital 31 4
27 Piddig District Hospital 20 3
28 Vintar District Hospital 10 1
29 PSWD 11 1
30 Sports and Development 9 1
31 Special Project Office 40 5
Total 1194 150

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Data Gathering Instrument. The data gathering tools in this study will utilize the questionnaire

checklist. Questionnaires consist to assess the level of job satisfaction of the employee respondents

in terms of a.) Demographic profile of the respondents, b.)Level of Job Performance.

The researcher will use the Job Satisfaction questionnaire and request a copy of the

performance evaluation of the respondents.

Data Gathering Procedure. The researcher will secure a letter of Request for Approval
of the Local Chief Executive of the Local Government attention to the Human Resource
Management Office to conduct the study. Upon approval of the said letter, a letter of request to
the department heads and the target respondents is also be given to them to gather data regarding
their performance using the latest rating period from January to December 2015.

Statistical Treatment of Data. The data to be collected will be tabulated, organized and
analyzed and interpreted. Weighted means and multiple regression analysis will be used to
determine the answers for the problem.

The descriptive measures like the frequency count, percentage and weighted mean values will be

used to interpret the data.

To categorize the level of Job satisfaction and performance of the employee based on the

criteria of satisfaction with regards to work and performance and relation with the boss and the

working environment this scale will be used:

Points Statistical Limits Descriptive Equivalent Symbols

5 4.20 – 5.00 Extremely Satisfied


4 3.40 – 4.19 Very Satisfied
3 2.60 – 3.39 Satisfied
2 1.80 – 2.59 Somewhat Satisfied
1 1.00 – 1.79 Not Satisfied

To categorize the degree of reasons on the present job as to work and performance in the work

place, this scale is used:

Points Statistical Limits Descriptive Equivalent Symbols

32
Rating Scale Equivalent Rate
1 26-30
2 21-25
3 16-20
4 11-15
5 10 and below

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A. BOOKS

Christen, N.Iyer, G. and Soberman, D. (2006). Job Satisfaction, Job Performance, and
Effort: A Reexamination Using Agency Theory, Journal of Marketing, January. Vol. 70

Davis, K. and Nestrom, J.W. (1985). Human Behavior at work: Organizational Behavior,
7 edition, McGraw Hill, New York.

Herberg, H.F. (1976). Motivation-Hygience Profiles.

George, J.M. and Jones, G.R. (2008), Understanding and Managing Organizational
Behavior, Fifth Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

Hoppock, R. (1935). Job Satisfaction, Harper and Brothers, New York,

33
Kaliski, B.S. (2007). Encyclopedia of Business and Finance, Second Edition, Thompson
Gale, Detroit.

Lawler, E.E III. and Porter, L.W. (1967). The Efect of Performance on Job Satisfaction,
Industrial Relations.

Locke, E.A. and Latham, G.P.Latham, G.P.(1990). A Theory of Goal Setting and Task
Performance, Prentice Hall.

Luthans, F. (1998). Organizational Behavior, 6 Edition, McGraw-Hill Irwin, Boston.

Mullins, J.L. (2005). Management and Organizational behavior, Seventh Edition, Pearson
Education Limited, Essex.

Rue, L.W. and Byars, L. (2003). Management, Skills and Application, 10th Edition,
McGraw-Hill Irwin, New York.

Spector, P.E. (1997). Job Satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes and consequences.
Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, Inc.

Statt, D. (2004). The Routledge Dictionary of Business Management, Third Edition,


Routledge Publishing, Detroit.

Sweney, P.D. and McFarlin, D,B. (2005). Organizational Behavior, Solutions for
Management, McGraw-Hill Irwin, New York.

Vroom. V.H. (1964). Work Motivation, John Wiley and Sons, New York.

B. UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS

Antonio, Amelia C., 2011. A Thesis: “Performance of the City Health Office in the
Delivery of Maternal and Child Health services in Candon City”, University of Northern
Philippines. Vigan City.

In-Eav, Narong, 2008, A Dissertation: Performance of Electricity Generating Compaanaies


I Rayong, Thailand”, University of Northern Philippines, Vigan City.

Racahco, Esisir. 1994. A Thesis: Performance of the Non-CSAT and CSAT BSCE
Graduates in the Professional Board Examination”, University of Northern Philippines,
Vigan City.

34
Ricotoso, P., 2004, A Thesis: Work Values and Performance of Teachers in St. Paul
College of Ilocos Sur, University of Northern Philippines, Vigan City.

Srisuwan,Nongluk, 2003. A Dissertation: ‘JOB Satisfaction And Performance of the Office


of the National Primary Education Commission (ONPEC) Staff in Bangkok, Thailand”,
University of Northern Philippines, Vigan City.

Pacpaco, Eleuteria. 2012, A Thesis: “The Performance of Student Teachers in the College
of Teacher Education, University of Northern Philippines main and Candon Campuses”,
University of Northern Philippines, Vigan City.

C. JOURNALS

Dovar, S.C. RanjuBala. Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and Job Performance: A
Meta-analysis”, Indian Journal of Industrial Relation.

Vanderberg, R.J. and Lance, Ch.E. (1992). Examining the Causal Order of Job Satisfaction
and Organizational Commitment, Journal of Management.

APPENDIX-A

Questionnaire for the Job Satisfaction and Performance of Employees

PART I – PERSONAL INFORMATION

Please answer honestly and correctly the following questions by putting a check mark or writing
the correct answer on the blank provided for:

Name ______________________________________Sex_____________ Age_______________

(Optional)

35
Civil Status:

______________ Single

______________ Married

______________ Widow ∕Widower

______________Separated

Employment Status:

_____________ Contractual

_____________ Permanent

_____________ Probationary

_____________Job Order

_____________Other please specify ____________________

Highest Educational Attainment:

_____________Undergraduate

_____________Bachelor’s Degree

_____________ with MA∕MS MBA Units

_____________ Masteral Degree

_____________With Doctoral Degree

_____________ Doctorate Degree

_____________Others, Please specify ____________________

Number of years in the service:

____________ Less than a year

____________ 1-5 years

____________ 6-10 years

____________11-15 years

____________16 years in above

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Number of trainings attended__________________________

PART II.

Direction: Read each item carefully then mark (√) the column that most accurately describes your
level of job satisfaction.

5 = Excellent (E)

4 = Very Good (VS)

3 = Good (G)

2 = Never (N)

1 = Need Improvement (NI)

LEVEL OF
JOB SATISFACTION JOB SATISFACTION
5 4 3 2 1

Salaries and Fringe and other incentives


1. Benefits and reasonable treatment
2. Additional welfare assistance for medical
bills, house rental, childcare and child
educational fees.
3. Fair consideration of annual salary
increase.
4. The amount of salary is sufficient for the
current living expense.
5. Appropriate allowances for over time
work, meals and transportation

Work Environment
1. Rules and regulation are flexible
and sensible in the working system.
2. The atmosphere in the office
encourages one to work.
3. Appropriate lighting, temperature
and airflow in the office encourage
one to work.
4. The current size of the organization
is appropriate.
5. A desire to move and work
elsewhere.
LEADERSHIP

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1. The superior is reliable and
willing to be responsible for
his subordinate’s
performance.
2. The superior’s
responsibility in
administrative affairs.
3. The superior’s ability to
solve problem between
subordinates
4. Organized and reasonable
administrative approach
5. The superior’s creativity
and application to work.

RECOGNITION
1. The current position
being honorable and
prestigious.
2. Praise for a job well
done by colleagues.
3. Praise for a job well
done by superior.
4. Being asked for
advice by
colleaques on work
and personal
matters.
5. Praise of excellent
work and public
recognition through
rewards.

Thank you

The Researcher

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