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DESIGN OF REINFORCED

CONCRETE STRUCTURES
MATERIAL PROPERTIES
STRUCTURAL CONCRETE
all concrete used for structural purposes
includes:

PLAIN CONCRETE:
plain concrete without reinforcement or with reinforcement
less than the minimum specified for reinforced concrete

REINFORCED CONCRETE:
structural concrete with at least the minimum specified

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE:
structural concrete in which internal stresses have been
introduced to reduce potential tensile stresses
CONCRETE

Definitions:

ASTM C125 - a composite material that consists


essentially of a binding medium within which is embedded
particles or fragments of aggregates.

ACI 318 - mixture of portland cement or any other


hydraulic cement, fine aggregates, coarse aggregates and
water, with or without admixtures.
CONCRETE

Concrete is a heterogeneous multiphase material

Structure of Concrete:

3 phases
•aggregate particles
•hydrated cement paste (hcp)
•transition zone
CONCRETE

Polished Specimen of a Concrete Section


AGGREGATES

Comprise from 60% to 80% with an average of 75% of


volume
Coarse Aggregates:
• particles larger than 4.75 mm (retained
on No. 4 sieve)
• usually from 4.75 to 50 mm except for
mass concrete which may contain up to
150 mm

Fine Aggregates:
• particles less than 4.75 mm
AGGREGATES

Predominantly responsible for the unit weight, elastic


modulus and dimensional stability of concrete

Unit Weight of Concrete:


• light weight: 1800 kg/m3
•reduce unit weight by using natural or pyro-
processed aggregates having lower bulk density
• normal weight : 2400 kg/m3
•containing natural sand, gravel or crushed rock
• heavy weight: greater than 3200 kg/m3
•high density aggregates
•for radiation shielding
AGGREGATES

Shape and Surface Texture of Coarse Aggregate Particles


HYDRATED CEMENT PASTE

Hydrated Cement Paste (HCP) – refers to the pastes made


from ordinary portland cement

Solids in HCP: Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate, Calcium


Hydroxide, Calcium Sulfoluminates,
Unhydrated Clinker
Water in HCP: Capillary water, adsorbed water,
interlayer water, chemically combined
water
Voids in HCP: Interlayer space in C-S-H, capillary
voids, air voids
HYDRATED CEMENT PASTE

Microstructure of Hydrated Cement Paste


CEMENTS

Hydraulic Cement:
• those which react with water to form water-resistant
products
Portland Cement: (ASTM C150)
TYPE I: Ordinary
TYPE II: Moderate Sulfate Resistance and Heat of
Hydration
TYPE III: High Early Strength
TYPE IV: Low Heat of Hydration
TYPE V: High Sulfate Resistance
TRANSITION ZONE

• Thin shell, typically 10 to 50 μm thick around large


aggregates

• Typically weaker than either the two main components.


Thus, it has considerable influence on the mechanical
behavior of concrete (note: This is where concrete fails
at a considerably lower stress level than the strength
of the aggregates and HCP)

• Concrete has microcracks in the transition zone even


before loading (due to differential movement between
hcp and aggregates on drying (shrinkage) or cooling)
TRANSITION ZONE

Non-linearity in the Stress-Strain relation of Concrete is due to the


interfacial transition zone
Concrete Strength, fc’

Specified compressive strength of concrete

minimum fc’
• 17 MPa (2500 psi)
• 21 Mpa (3000 psi) – members subject to seismic
forces. NSCP 2010 Section 421.3.4.2 (ACI Chapter
21)
Concrete Strength, fc’

Minimum required for durability: Chapter 4


Concrete Strength, fc’

• For evaluation and acceptance

fc’ - the maximum compressive strength

• At a designated test age


• Of a standard 4” by 8” or 6” by 12” cylinder
• Cured under standard temperature and humidity
conditions and
• Loaded longitudinally at a ‘slow’ strain rate
Required Average Compressive Strength, fcr’

• Used in concrete mix proportioning (ACI 5.3)

• Required average compressive


strength when data are available to
establish a sample standard deviation

• Required average compressive


strength when data are not available
to establish a sample standard
deviation
Required Average Compressive Strength, fcr’

• A. Strength test shall be the average of the strength of


at least
• 2 – 6” x 12” cylinders or
• 3 – 4” x 8” cylinders

• B. TEST AGE
• ACI gives designer freedom to specify age
• Unless otherwise specified – taken as 28 days
Required Average Compressive Strength, fcr’

• C. CURING CONDITIONS
• Control of humidity and temperature
• Specimens placed in tanks to keep them
fully saturated at the control temperature
Stress – Strain Relationship
Stress – Strain Relationship

Notes:
1. Max stress, fc’, reached at a strain between 0.0015
to 0.003 followed descending branch
2. Initial slope, initial tangent modulus of elasticity
increases as fc’ increases
3. Rising portion of σ-ε resembles a parabola with its
vertex at fc’
4. Slope of descending branch tends to be less than
ascending branch as fc’ becomes smaller
5. Maximum strain εCU, decreases as fc’ increases
Modulus of Elasticity, Ec

• taken as tangent
modulus to a stress of
≈ 0.45 fc’ (from ACI)

for normal weight concrete:


Ec = 4700 √(fc’)
or
Ec = w1.5(0.043 √(fc’))
Reinforcing Steel

Reasons for using steel as reinforcement:

• the properties of expansion for both steel and concrete


are considered to be approximately the same
• steel bonds well with concrete. bond strength is
proportional to the contact surface of the steel with the
concrete
Reinforcing Steel

Types of Reinforcing Steel

• Plain Bars
• Round in cross section
• Used for special purposes such as dowels at expansion joints or
construction joints in roads and runways.

• Deformed bars
• Differ from plain bars in that they have indentations or ridges in
them, in a regular pattern
Reinforcing Steel
Reinforcing Steel