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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia History of Tamil Nadu

History of Tamil Nadu


straddling the Bay of Bengal. The Chola navy
held sway over the Sri Vijaya kingdom in
Southeast Asia.
Rapid changes in the political situation of
the rest of India due to incursions of Muslim
armies from the northwest marked a turning
point in the history of Tamil Nadu. With the
decline of the three ancient dynasties during
the fourteenth century, the Tamil country be-
came part of the Vijayanagara Empire. Under
this empire the Telugu speaking Nayak gov-
ernors ruled the Tamil land. The brief ap-
A temple from the Chola period. The Cholas pearance of the Marathas gave way to the
united most of the south Indian peninsula un-
European trading companies, who began to
der a single administration during the tenth
appear during the seventeenth century and
and the eleventh century CE.
eventually assumed greater sway over the in-
digenous rulers of the land. The Madras Pres-
The region of Tamil Nadu in modern India
idency, comprising most of southern India,
has been under continuous human habitation
was created in the eighteenth century and
since prehistoric times, and the history of
was ruled directly by the British East India
Tamil Nadu and the civilization of the Tamil
Company. After the independence of India,
people are among the oldest in the world.
the state of Tamil Nadu was created based on
Throughout its history, spanning the early
linguistic boundaries.
Paleolithic age to modern times, this region
Part of a series on
has coexisted with various external cultures.
Except for relatively short periods in its his- History of Tamil Nadu
tory, the Tamil region has remained inde-
pendent of external occupation.
The four ancient Tamil empires of Chera,
Chola Pandya and Pallavas were of ancient
origins. Together they ruled over this land
with a unique culture and language, contrib-
uting to the growth of some of the oldest ex- Chronology of Tamil history
tant literature in the world. They had extens- Sangam period
ive maritime trade contacts with the Roman Sources
empire. These three dynasties were in con-
Government · Economy
stant struggle with each other vying for hege-
mony over the land. Invasion by the Society · Religion · Music
Kalabhras during the third century disturbed Early Cholas · Early Pandyans
the traditional order of the land by displacing Medieval history
the three ruling kingdoms. These occupiers Pallavas
were overthrown by the resurgence of the Pandyas
Pandyas and the Pallavas, who restored the
Chola Dynasty
traditional kingdoms. The Cholas, who re-
Chera Dynasty
emerged from obscurity in the ninth century
by defeating the Pallavas and the Pandyas, Vijayanagara Empire
rose to become a great power and extended Madurai Nayaks
their empire over the entire southern penin- Tanjore Nayaks
sula. At its height the Chola empire spanned
almost 250,000,000 acres (1,000,000 km2)

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia History of Tamil Nadu

Pre-historic period Partition of British India 1947

Nation histories
History of South Asia (Indian
Subcontinent) Afghanistan • Bangladesh • Bhutan • India
Maldives • Nepal • Pakistan • Sri Lanka
Stone Age 70,000–3300 BCE
Regional histories
• Mehrgarh Culture • 7000–3300 BCE
Assam • Bihar • Balochistan • Bengal
Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BCE Himachal Pradesh • Orissa • Pakistani Regions
Late Harappan Culture 1700–1300 BCE Punjab • South India • Tibet

Iron Age 1200–1 BCE Specialised histories

• Maha Janapadas • 700–300 BCE Coinage • Dynasties • Economy


Indology • Language • Literature • Maritime
• Magadha Empire • 545–550 BCE Military • Science and Technology • Timeline

• Maurya Empire • 321–184 BCE

• Chera Empire • 300 BCE–1200


Further information: Prehistoric South In-
CE dia, South Asian Stone Age, Bronze Age In-
dia, and Iron Age India
• Chola Empire • 300 BCE–1279
CE
Paleolithic
• Pandyan Empire • 250 BCE–1345
The prehistoric period during which the Pa-
CE
laeolithic civilisations existed in the Tamil
• Satavahana • 230 BCE–220 CE Nadu region has been estimated to span the
Middle Kingdoms 1CE–1279 CE
period from about 500,000 BCE until around
3000 BCE.[1] For most part of the lower Pa-
• Kushan Empire • 60–240 CE laeolithic stage, humans lived close to river
• Gupta Empire • 280–550 valleys with sparse forest cover or in grass-
land environments. The population density
• Pala Empire • 750–1174 was very low and so far only two localities of
• Chalukya Dynasty • 543–753 this lower Palaeolithic culture have been
found in south India. One of these is in At-
• Rashtrakuta • 753–982
tirampakkam valley in the northwest of Chen-
• Western Chalukya • 973–1189 nai in Tamil Nadu.[2] Archaeological research
Empire has uncovered evidence of fossil remains of
• Yadava Empire • 850–1334 animals and primitive stone implements
around the northern Tamil Nadu that could
Hoysala Empire 1040–1346 be dated to belong to around 300,000 BCE.[3]
Kakatiya Empire 1083–1323 Humans in South India, belonging to the spe-
cies of Homo erectus, lived in this primitive
Islamic Sultanates 1206–1596
’old stone age’ (Palaeolithic) for quite a long
• Delhi Sultanate • 1206–1526 time, using only crude implements such as
hand axes and choppers and subsisting on
• Deccan Sultanates • 1490–1596
food he hunted and gathered instead of act-
Ahom Kingdom 1228–1826 ively growing it according to his needs.[4]
The ancestor of modern humans (Homo
Vijayanagara Empire 1336–1646
sapiens sapiens) who appeared around
Mughal Empire 1526–1858 50,000 years ago was more developed and
Maratha Empire 1674–1818 could make thinner flake tools and blade-like
tools using a variety of stones. From about
Sikh Confederacy 1716–1799 10,000 years ago, humans made still smaller
Sikh Empire 1799–1849 tools called Microlithic tools. The material
used by the early humans to make these tools
Company rule in India 1757–1858
were jasper, agate, flint, quartz, etc. In 1949,
British Raj 1858–1947 researchers found such microliths in
Tirunelveli district.[5] Archaeological

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia History of Tamil Nadu

evidence suggests that the microlithic period the Tamil country are that of the Pandya king
lasted between 6000–3000 BCE.[6] Kadungon (c. 560–590 CE) who displaced the
Kalabhras from the Pandyas country. —Nil-
Neolithic akanta Sastri, A history of South India, pp
In Tamil Nadu, the Neolithic period had its 105, 137
advent around 2500 BCE. Humans of the
Neolithic period made their stone tools in Early history
finer shapes by grinding and polishing. A
Neolithic axe head with ancient writing on it • Kumari Kandam (200,000 BCE - 800 BCE)
has been found in Tamil Nadu.[7] The Neo- Kumari Kandam (????????????? Ku-
lithic humans lived mostly on small flat hills marikkaṇṭam) is the name of a legendary
or on the foothills in small, more or less per- sunken landmass said to have been located to
manent settlements but for periodical migra- the south of present-day Kanyakumari Dis-
tion for grazing purposes. They gave the trict at the southern tip of India in the Indian
dead proper burials within urns or pits. They Ocean. The legend assigns the continent and
were also starting to use copper for making its final submergence an antiquity ranging in
certain tools or weapons. tens of thousands of years.[13][14][15][16]
The sinking of the landmass is attributed
Iron Age to Continental Drift
• 800 BCE – 300 CE
During the Iron Age humans started using
See also: Tamil history from Sangam
iron for making tools and weapons. The Iron
literature
Age culture in peninsular India is marked by
7th century BC: Tolkappiyam (the earliest ex-
Megalithic burial sites, which are found in
tant work in Tamil grammar)
several hundreds of places.[8] On the bases of
both some excavations and the typology of
the burial monuments, it has been suggested
that there was a gradual spread of the Iron
Age sites from the north to the south. Com-
parative excavations carried out in Adi-
chanallur in Thirunelveli district and in
Northern India have provided evidence of a
southward migration of the Megalithic cul-
ture. [9]
The earliest clear evidence of the pres-
ence of the megalithic urn burials are those
dating from around 1000 BCE, which have
been discovered at various places in Tamil
Hathigumpha inscription of Kharavela
Nadu, notably at Adichanallur, 24 km from
Tirunelveli, where archaeologists from the
Ancient Tamil Nadu contained three mon-
Archaeological Survey of India unearthed
archical states, headed by kings called Vent-
157 urns, including 15 containing human
ar and several tribal chieftaincies, headed by
skulls, skeletons and bones, plus husks,
the chiefs called by the general denomination
grains of rice, charred rice and Neolithic
Vel or Velir.[17] Still lower at the local level
celts. One urn has writing inside, which, ac-
there were clan chiefs called kizar or man-
cording to archaeologists from the Archae-
nar.[18] During the third century BCE, the
ological Survey of India, resembles early
Deccan was part of the Mauryan kingdom,
Tamil-Brahmi script, confirming it of the Neo-
and from the middle of the first century BCE
lithic period 2800 years ago.[10] Adhichanal-
to second century CE the same area was
lur has been announced as an archaeological
ruled by the Satavahana dynasty. The Tamil
site for further excavation and studies.[11][12]
area had an independent existence outside
Mentions of the political situation of Tamil
the control of these northern empires. The
Nadu before the common era are found in
Tamil kings and chiefs were always in con-
Asoka’s edicts dated c 300 BCE and, vaguely,
flict with each other mostly over property.
in the Hathigumpha inscription dated c.150
The royal courts were mostly places of social
BCE. The earliest epigraphical evidence in

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia History of Tamil Nadu

gathering rather than places of dispensation kingdom.[26] The Pandyas controlled the
of authority; they were centres for distribu- present districts of Madurai, Tirunelveli, and
tion of resources. Gradually the rulers came parts of south Kerala. They had trading con-
under the spell of north Indian influence and tacts with Greece and Rome.[27] With the
Vedic ideology, which encouraged perform- other kingdoms of Tamilakam, they main-
ance of sacrifices to enhance the status of the tained trading contacts and maritial relation-
ruler.[19] ships with Tamil merchants from Eelam. Vari-
The names of the three dynasties, Cholas, ous Pandya kings find mention in a number of
Pandyas, and Keralaputras or Cheras are poems in the Sangam literature. Among them
mentioned in the Pillars of Ashoka (inscribed Nedunjeliyan, ’the victor of Talaiyalan-
273–232 BCE) inscriptions, where they are ganam’, yet another Nedunjeliyan ’the con-
mentioned among the kingdoms, which queror of the Aryan army’ and Mudukudimi
though not subject to Ashoka, were on Peruvaludi ’of several sacrifices’ deserve spe-
friendly terms with him.[20][21] The king of cial mention. Besides several short poems
Kalinga, Kharavela, who ruled around 150 found in the Akananuru and the Purananuru
BCE, mentioned in the famous Hathigumpha collections, there are two major
inscription of the confederacy of the Tamil works—Mathuraikkanci and the Netunalvatai
kingdoms that had existed for over 100 (in the collection of Pattupattu) that give a
years.[22] glimpse into the society and commercial
Karikala Chola was the most famous early activities in the Pandyan kingdom during the
Chola. He is mentioned in a number of poems Sangam age. The early Pandyas went into ob-
in the Sangam poetry.[23] In later times scurity at the end of the third century CE
Karikala was the subject of many legends during the incursion of the Kalabhras.
found in the Cilappatikaram and in inscrip- The kingdom of the Cheras comprised the
tions and literary works of the eleventh and modern state of Kerala, along the western or
twelfth centuries. They attribute to him the Malabar Coast of southern India. Their prox-
conquest of the whole of India up to the Him- imity to the sea favoured trade with
alayas and the construction of the flood Africa.[28][29] The people of the current Indi-
banks of the river Kaveri with the aid of his an state of Kerala, which constitutes the an-
feudatories.[24] These legends however are cient territories of the Cheras spoke the
conspicuous by their absence in the Sangam same language and had extensive interaction
poetry. Kocengannan was another famous with the rest of the Tamil country. It was only
early Chola king who has been extolled in a towards the ninth or the tenth centuries CE,
number of poems of the Sangam period. He their individual identity and language began
was even made a Saiva saint during the me- to evolve.[30]
dieval period.[25] These early kingdoms sponsored the
growth of some of the oldest extant literature
in Tamil. The classical Tamil literature, re-
ferred to as Sangam literature is attributed
to the period between 200 BCE and 300
CE.[31][32] The poems of Sangam literature,
which deal with emotional and material top-
ics, were categorised and collected into vari-
ous anthologies during the medieval period.
These Sangam poems paint the picture of a
fertile land and of a people who were organ-
Ancient map of south India created after ised into various occupational groups. The
Ptolemy, probably following his cartography. governance of the land was through heredit-
ary monarchies, although the sphere of the
Pandyas ruled initially from Korkai, a sea state’s activities and the extent of the ruler’s
port on the southernmost tip of the Indian powers were limited through the adherence
peninsula, and in later times moved to to the established order (dharma).[33] The
Madurai. Pandyas are also mentioned in people were loyal to their kings and roving
Sangam Literature, as well as by Greek and bards and musicians and danseuse gathered
Roman sources during this period. Megas- at the royal courts of the generous kings. The
thenes in his Indika mentions the Pandyan arts of music and dancing were highly

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia History of Tamil Nadu

developed and popular. Musical instruments and Buddhism, took deep roots in the society,
of various types find mention in the Sangam giving birth to a large body of ethical poetry.
poems. The amalgamation of the southern Writing became very widespread and vat-
and the northern styles of dancing started teluttu evolved from the Tamil-Brahmi be-
during this period and is reflected fully in the came a mature script for writing Tamil.[41]
epic Cilappatikaram.[34] While several anthologies were compiled by
Internal and external trade was well or- collecting bardic poems of earlier centuries,
ganised and active. Evidence from both ar- some of the epic poems such as the Cilap-
chaeology and literature speaks of a flourish- patikaram and didactic works such as the
ing foreign trade with the yavanas. The port Tirukkural were also written during this peri-
city of Puhar on the east coast and Muziris on od.[42] The patronage of the Jain and
the west coast of south India were emporia of Buddhist scholars by the Kalabhra kings in-
foreign trade, where huge ships moored, off- fluenced the nature of the literature of the
loading precious merchandise.[35] This trade period, and most of the works that can be at-
started to decline after the second century tributed to this period were written by the
CE and the direct contact between the Ro- Jain and Buddhist authors. In the field of
man empire and the ancient Tamil country dance and music, the elite started patron-
was replaced by trade with the Arabs and the ising new polished styles, partly influenced
Auxumites of East Africa. Internal trade was by northern ideas, in the place of the folk
also brisk and goods were sold and bartered. styles. A few of the earliest rock-cut temples
Agriculture was the main profession of a vast belong to this period. Brick temples (known
majority of the populace and Vellalars, the as kottam, devakulam, and palli) dedicated to
hereditary agriculturalists, owned the bulk of various deities are referred to in literary
the land.[36] works. Kalabhras were displaced around the
7th century by the revival of Pallava and
Interregnum (300–600) Pandya power.[43]
Even with the exit of the Kalabhras, the
After the close of the Sangam era, from about Jain and Buddhist influence still remained in
300 to about 600 CE, there is an almost total Tamil Nadu. The early Pandya and the Pal-
lack of information regarding occurrences in lava kings were followers of these faiths. The
the Tamil land. Some time about 300 CE, the Hindu reaction to this apparent decline of
whole region was upset by the appearance of their religion was growing and reached its
the Kalabhras. These people are described in peak during the later part of the seventh cen-
later literature as ’evil rulers’ who overthrew tury.[44] There was a widespread Hindu re-
the established Tamil kings and got a vival during which a huge body of Saiva and
strangle hold of the country.[37] Information Vaishnava literature was created. Many Saiva
about their origin and details about their Nayanmars and Vaishnava Alvars provided a
reign is scarce. They did not leave many arte- great stimulus to the growth of popular devo-
facts or monuments. The only source of in- tional literature. Karaikkal Ammaiyar who
formation on them is the scattered mentions lived in the sixth century CE was the earliest
in Buddhist and Jain literature.[38] of these Nayanmars. The celebrated Saiva
Historians speculate that these people fol- hymnists Sundaramurthi, Thirugnana Samb-
lowed Buddhist or Jain faiths and were antag- anthar and Thirunavukkarasar were of this
onistic towards the Hindu and Brahminical period. Vaishnava Alvars such as Poigai
religions adhered by the majority of inhabit- Alvar, Bhoothathalvar and Peyalvar produced
ants of the Tamil region during the early cen- devotional hymns for their faith and their
turies C.E.[39] As a result Hindu scholars and songs were collected later into the four thou-
authors who followed their decline in the 7th sand poems of Naalayira Divyap Prabhand-
and 8th century may have expunged any ham.[45]
mention of them in their texts and generally
tended to paint their rule in a negative light.
It is perhaps due to this reason, the period of
Age of empires
their rule is known as a ’Dark Age’—an inter- (600–1300)
regnum. Some of the ruling families migrated
northwards and found enclaves for them- The medieval period of the history of the
selves away from the Kalabhras.[40] Jainism Tamil country saw the rise and fall of many

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia History of Tamil Nadu

kingdoms, some of whom went on to the ex- Jayamkondar’s Kalingattupparani, a semi-his-


tent of empires, exerting influences both in torical account on the two invasions of
India and overseas. The Cholas who were Kalinga by Kulothunga Chola I was an early
very active during the Sangam age were en- example of a biographical work.[50]
tirely absent during the first few centur-
ies.[46] The period started with the rivalry Pallavas
between the Pandyas and the Pallavas, which
in turn caused the revival of the Cholas. The
Cholas went on to becoming a great power.
Their decline saw the brief resurgence of the
Pandyas. This period was also that of the re-
invigorated Hinduism during which temple
building and religious literature were at their
best.[47]
The Hindu sects Saivism and Vaishnavism
became dominant, replacing the prevalence
of Jainism and Buddhism of the previous era.
Saivism was patronised more by the Chola
kings and became more or less a state reli-
gion.[48] Some of the earliest temples that
are still standing were built during this peri- Shore Temple in Mamallapuram built by the
od by the Pallavas. The rock-cut temples in Pallavas. (c. eighth century C.E.)
Mamallapuram and the majestic Kailasanatha
and Vaikuntaperumal temples of Kan- The seventh century Tamil Nadu saw the rise
chipuram stand testament to the Pallava art. of the Pallavas under Mahendravarman I and
The Cholas, utilising their prodigious wealth his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I. The
earned through their extensive conquests, Pallavas were not a recognised political
built long-lasting stone temples including the power before the second century.[51] It has
great Brihadisvara temple of Thanjavur and been widely accepted by scholars that they
exquisite bronze sculptures. Temples dedic- were originally executive officers under the
ated to Siva and Vishnu received liberal Satavahana kings.[52] After the fall of the
donations of money, jewels, animals, and Satavahanas, they began to get control over
land, and thereby became powerful economic parts of Andhra and the Tamil country. The
institutions.[49] Pallavas were at their finest during the
Tamil script replaced the vatteluttu script reigns of Narasimhavarman I and Pal-
throughout Tamil Nadu for writing Tamil. lavamalla Nandivarman II. Pandya was well
Both secular and religious literature flour- known since ancient times, with contacts,
ished during the period. The Tamil epic, Kam- even diplomatic, reaching the Roman Em-
ban’s Ramavatharam, was written in the 13th pire; during the 13th century of the Christian
century. A contemporary of Kamban was the era Marco Polo mentioned it as the richest
famous poetess Auvaiyar who found great kingdom in existence[53].
happiness in writing for young children. The During the sixth and the seventh centur-
secular literature was mostly court poetry de- ies, the western Deccan saw the rise of the
voted to the eulogy of the rulers. The reli- Chalukyas based in Vatapi. Pulakesi II
gious poems of the previous period and the (c.610–642) invaded the Pallava kingdom in
classical literature of the Sangam period the reign of Mahendravarman I. Narasimhav-
were collected and systematised into several arman who succeeded Mahendravarman
anthologies. Sanskrit was patronised by the mounted a counter invasion of the Chalukya
priestly groups for religious rituals and other country and took Vatapi. The rivalry between
ceremonial purposes. Nambi Andar Nambi, the Chalukyas and the Pallavas continued for
who was a contemporary of Rajaraja Chola I, another 100 years until the demise of the
collected and arranged the books on Saivism Chalukyas around 750. The Chalukyas and
into eleven books called Tirumurais. The ha- Pallavas fought numerous battles and the
giology of Saivism was standardised in Per- Pallava capital Kanchipuram was occupied by
iyapuranam by Sekkilar, who lived during the Vikramaditya II during the reign of Nandivar-
reign of Kulothunga Chola II (1133–1150 CE). man II.[54] Nandivarman II had a very long

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia History of Tamil Nadu

reign (732–796). He led an expedition to the countries. The armies met in several battles
Ganga kingdom (south Mysore) in 760. Pal- and the Pandya forces scored decisive victor-
lavas were also in constant conflict with the ies in them. Pandyas under Srimara Sri-
Pandyas and their frontier shifted along the vallaba also invaded Sri Lanka and devast-
river Kaveri. The Pallavas had the more diffi- ated the northern provinces in 840.[58]
cult existence of the two as they had to fight The Pandya power continued to grow un-
on two fronts—against the Pandyas as wells der Srimara and encroached further into the
as the Chalukyas. Pallava territories. The Pallavas were now fa-
cing a new threat in the form of the
Pandyas Rashtrakutas who had replaced the Chaluky-
as in the western Deccan. However the Pal-
lavas found an able monarch in Nandivarman
III, who with the help of his Ganga and the
Chola allies defeated Srimara at the battle of
Tellaru. The Pallava kingdom again extended
up to the river Vaigai. The Pandyas suffered
further defeats in the hands of the Pallava
Nripatunga at Arisil (c. 848). From then the
Pandyas had to accept the overlordship of the
Pallavas.[59]

Cholas
See also: Early Cholas, Medieval Cholas, and
Later Cholas
Around 850, out of obscurity rose Vijayalaya,
made use of an opportunity arising out of a
conflict between Pandyas and Pallavas, cap-
tured Thanjavur and eventually established
Pandyan Kingdom the imperial line of the medieval Cholas. Vi-
jayalaya revived the Chola dynasty and his
Pandya Kadungon (560–590) is credited with son Aditya I helped establish their independ-
the overthrow of the Kalabhras in the ence. He invaded Pallava kingdom in 903 and
south.[55] Kadungon and his son Maravarman killed the Pallava king Aparajita in battle,
Avanisulamani revived the Pandya power. ending the Pallava reign.[60] The Chola king-
Pandya Cendan extended their rule to the dom under Parantaka I expanded to cover the
Chera country. His son Arikesari Parantaka entire Pandya country. However towards the
Maravarman (c. 650–700) had a long and end of his reign he suffered several reverses
prosperous rule. He fought many battles and by the Rashtrakutas who had extended their
extended the Pandya power. Pandya was well territories well into the Chola kingdom.
known since ancient times, with contacts,
even diplomatic, reaching the Roman Em-
pire; during the 13th century of the Christian
era Marco Polo mentioned it as the richest
kingdom in existence[56].
After some decades of expansion, the
Pandyan Kingdom was large enough to pose
a serious threat to the Pallava power. Pandya
Maravarman Rajasimha aligned with the
Chalukya Vikramaditya II and attacked the
Pallava king Nandivarman II.[57] Varagunan I
defeated the Pallavas in a battle on the banks
of the Kaveri. The Pallava king Nandivarman
sought to restrain the growing power of the Chola Empire under Rajendra Chola (c.
Pandyas and went into an alliance with some 1030).
minor chieftains of Kongu and Chera

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia History of Tamil Nadu

The Cholas went into a temporary decline


during the next few years due to weak kings,
palace intrigues and succession disputes.
Despite a number of attempts the Pandya
country could not be completely subdued and
the Rashtrakutas were still a powerful enemy
in the north. However, the Chola revival
began with the accession of Rajaraja Chola I
in 985. Cholas rose as a notable military, eco-
nomic and cultural power in Asia under Raja-
raja and his son Rajendra Chola I. The Chola
territories stretched from the islands of Mal-
dives in the south to as far north as the banks
of the river Ganges in Bengal. Rajaraja Chola
conquered peninsular South India, annexed
parts of Sri Lanka and occupied the islands of
Maldives. Rajendra Chola extended the Chola
conquests to the Malayan archipelago by de-
feating the Srivijaya kingdom.[61] He de-
feated Mahipala, the king of Bihar and
Bengal, and to commemorate his victory he
built a new capital called Gangaikonda
Cholapuram (the town of Cholas who
conquered the Ganges). At its peak the Chola
Empire extended from the island of Sri Lanka
in the south to the Godavari basin in the
north. The kingdoms along the east coast of
India up to the river Ganges acknowledged
Brihadishwara Temple
Chola suzerainty. Chola navies invaded and
conquered Srivijaya in the Malayan ar-
chipelago.[62] Chola armies exacted tribute were exhausted by the endless battles and a
from Thailand and the Khmer kingdom of stalemate existed.
Cambodia.[63] During the reign of Rajaraja
and Rajendra, the administration of the Chola
empire matured considerably. The empire
was divided into a number of self-governing
local government units, and the officials were
selected through a system of popular elec-
tions.[64]
Throughout this period, the Cholas were
constantly troubled by the ever resilient Sin-
halas trying to overthrow the Chola occupa-
Medieval Cholas at the height of its power (c.
tion of Lanka, Pandya princes trying to win
1050).
independence for their traditional territories,
and by the growing ambitions of the Chaluky-
Marital and political alliances between the
as in the western Deccan. The history of this
Eastern Chalukya kings based around Vengi
period was one of constant warfare between
located on the south banks of the river Go-
the Cholas and of these antagonists. A bal-
davari began during the reign of Rajaraja fol-
ance of power existed between the Chalukyas
lowing his invasion of Vengi. Virarajendra
and the Cholas and there was a tacit accept-
Chola’s son Athirajendra Chola was assassin-
ance of the Tungabhadra river as the bound-
ated in a civil disturbance in 1070 and Ku-
ary between the two empires. However, the
lothunga Chola I ascended the Chola throne
bone of contention between these two
starting the Chalukya Chola dynasty. Ku-
powers was the growing Chola influence in
lothunga was a son of the Vengi king Rajaraja
the Vengi kingdom. The Cholas and Chaluky-
Narendra. The Chalukya Chola dynasty saw
as fought many battles and both kingdoms

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia History of Tamil Nadu

very capable rulers in Kulothunga Chola I the country, quickly overran the southern
and Vikrama Chola, however the eventual de- Tamil Nadu and brought the entire region
cline of the Chola power practically started from Kanyakumari to Kanchipuram, under
during this period. The Cholas lost control of the Chera kingdom. His inscription was
the island of Lanka and were driven out by found in Punaamalli, a suburb of Madras.[68]
the revival of Sinhala power.[65] Around 1118
they also lost the control of Vengi to Western
Chalukya king Vikramaditya VI and
Vijayanagar and Nayak
Gangavadi (southern Mysore districts) to the period (1300–1650)
growing power of Hoysala Vishnuvardhana, a
Chalukya feudatory. In the Pandya territor-
ies, the lack of a controlling central adminis-
tration caused a number of claimants to the
Pandya throne to cause a civil war in which
the Sinhalas and the Cholas were involved by
proxy. During the last century of the Chola
existence, a permanent Hoysala army was
stationed in Kanchipuram to protect them
from the growing influence of the Pandyas.
Rajendra Chola III was the last Chola king.
The Kadava chieftain Kopperunchinga I even
captured Rajendra and held him prisoner. At
The Meenakshi temple in the city of Madurai
the close of Rajendra’s reign (1279), the
in southern India renovated by the Nayak
Pandyan Empire was at the height of king.
prosperity and had completely absorbed the
Chola kingdom.[66] The fourteenth century invasion by the Delhi
Sultans caused a retaliatory reaction from
Pandya revival the Hindus, who rallied to build a new king-
After being overshadowed by the Pallavas dom, called the Vijayanagara Empire. Bukka,
and Cholas for centuries, Jatavarman with his brother Harihara founded the Hindu
Sundara Pandyan briefly revived the Pandya Vijayanagara Empire based in the city of Vi-
glory in 1251 and the Pandya power exten- jayanagara in Karnataka.[69] Under Bukka
ded from the Telugu countries on banks of the empire prospered and continued to ex-
the Godavari river to the northern half of Sri pand towards the south. Bukka and his son
Lanka. When Maaravaramban Kulasekara Kampana conquered most of the kingdoms of
Pandyan I died in 1308, a conflict stemming southern India. In 1371 the Vijayanagar em-
from succession disputes arose amongst his pire defeated the short lived Madurai Sultan-
sons - the legitimate Sundara Pandya and the ate, which had been established by the rem-
illegitimate Vira Pandya (who was favoured nants of the invading Khilji army.[70] Eventu-
by the king) fought each other for the throne. ally the empire covered the entire south In-
Soon Madurai fell into the hands of the invad- dia. Vijayangara empire established local
ing armies of the Delhi Sultanate (which ini- governors called Nayaks to rule in the vari-
tially gave protection to the vanquished ous territories of the empire.
Sundara Pandyan). The Vijayanagar Empire declined in 1564
defeated by the Deccan sultans in the battle
Delhi Sultanate of Talikota.[71] The local Nayak governors de-
Malik Kafur, a general of the Delhi Sultan clared their independence and started their
Alauddin Khilji invaded and sacked Madurai rule. The Nayaks of Madurai and Thanjavur
in 1311.[67] Pandyas and their descendants were the most prominent of them. Ragunatha
where confined to a small region around Nayak (1600–1645) was the greatest of the
Thirunelveli for a few more years. Ravivar- Tanjavur Nayaks.[72] Raghunatha Nayak en-
man Kulasekara (1299–1314), a Chera feud- couraged trade and permitted a Danish set-
atory of Kulasekara Pandya, staked his claim tlement in 1620 at Tarangambadi.[73] This
to the Pandya throne. Ravivarman Ku- laid the foundation of future European in-
lasekhara, utilising the unsettled nature of volvement in the affairs of the country. The

9
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia History of Tamil Nadu

from the Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu, the


Nayak of Vandavasi. The East India Company
built Fort St George and castle on an approx-
imate five square kilometre sand strip.[75]
This was the start of the town of Madras. The
coromandel coast was ruled by the Vijay-
anagara King (Aravidu Dynasty), Peda Ven-
kata Raya, based in Chandragiri and Vellore
Fort. With his approval the English began to
Tanjore became a major cultural centre during the exercise sovereign rights over their strip of
18th & 19th centuries, under Maratha rule. Figure de-
land.[76]
picts a Tanjore painting from this era.
In 1675, a column of Bijapur army came to
From the collection of the V&A Museum.
Thanjavur to help Vijayaraghava and re-
trieved Vallam from the Madurai Nayak.
success of the Dutch inspired the English to However the same army subsequently killed
seek trade with Thanjavur, which was to lead Vijayaraghava Nayak and Ekoji managed to
to far-reaching repercussions. Vijaya ascend the throne of Thanjavur kingdom.
Raghava (1631–1675) was the last of the Thus began the Maratha rule of Thanjavur.
Thanjavur Nayaks. Nayaks reconstructed After Ekoji, his three sons namely Shaji, Ser-
some of the oldest temples in the country and foji I, Thukkoji alias Thulaja I ruled Than-
their contributions can be seen even today. javur. The greatest of the Maratha rulers was
Nayaks expanded the existing temples with Serfoji II (1798–1832 ). Serfoji devoted his
large pillared halls, and tall gateway towers, life to the pursuit of culture and Thanjavur
which is representative of the religious archi- became renowned as a seat of learning. Ser-
tecture of this period. foji’s patronised art and literature and built
In Madurai, Thirumalai Nayak was the the Saraswati Mahal Library at his palace.
most famous Nayak ruler. He patronised art The incursion of the Muslim armies from the
and architecture creating new structures and north forced a southward migration of Hin-
expanding the existing landmarks in and dus from the central Deccan and the Andhra
around Madurai. On Thirumalai Nayak’s countries to seek shelter under the Nayak
death in 1659, the Madurai Nayak kingdom and the Maratha kings. The famous Carnatic
began to break up. His successors were weak music composer Tyagaraja (1767–1847),
rulers and invasions of Madurai recom- along with the Trinity of Carnatic music
menced. Shivaji Bhonsle, the great Maratha flourished in the Thanjavur district during
Ruler, invaded the south, as did Chikka Deva this time.[77]
Raya of Mysore and other Muslim Rulers,
resulting in chaos and instability. Rani
Mangammal, a local ruler, tried to resist
these invasions showing great courage.[74]

Rule of Nizams and


Nawabs
European settlements began to appear in the
Tamil country during the Vijayanagara Em-
pire. In 1605, the Dutch established trading
posts in the Coromandel Coast near Gingee
Fort St.George, Chennai. 18 century sketch.
and in Pulicat. The British East India Com-
pany built a ’factory’ (warehouse) at
With the demise of the Mughal Emperor
Armagaon (Durgarazpatnam), a village
Aurangzeb in 1707, his empire dissolved
around 35 miles (56 km) North of Pulicat, as
amidst numerous succession wars and the
the site in 1626. In 1639, Francis Day, one of
vassals of the empire began to assert their in-
the officers of the company, secured the
dependence. The administration of the south-
rights over a three-mile (5 km) long strip of
ern districts of Tamil Nadu was fragmented
land a fishing village called Madraspatnam
with hundreds of Poligars or Palayakkarars

10
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia History of Tamil Nadu

governing a few villages each. These local eventually the British and the French forces
chieftains often fought amongst each other in India were caught up in the conflict. There
over territory. This turned the political situ- were numerous naval battles between the
ation in the Tamil country and in South India two navies along the Coromandel coast. The
in general into confusion and chaos. The French led by La Bourdonnais attacked the
European traders found themselves in a situ- poorly defended Fort St. George in Madras in
ation where they could exploit the prevailing 1746 and occupied it. Robert Clive was one
confusion to their own advantage.[78] of the prisoners of war from this battle. The
war in Europe ended in 1748 and with the
European colonisation peace of Aix-la-Chapelle Madras was restored
to the British.[79]
(1750–1850) The conflict between the British and the
French continued, this time in political rather
Anglo-French conflicts than military terms. Both the Nawab of the
Carnatic and Nizam of Hyderabad positions
were taken by rulers who were strongly sym-
pathetic to the French. Chanda Sahib had
been made Nawab of the Carnatic with
Dupleix’s assistance, while the British had
taken up the cause of the previous incum-
bent, Mohammed Ali Khan Walajah. In the
resultant battle between the rivals, Clive as-
sisted Mohammed Ali by attacking Chanda
Sahib’s fort in Arcot and took possession of it
in 1751. The French assisted Chanda Sahib
in his attempts to drive Clive out of Arcot.
However the large Arcot army assisted by the
French was defeated by the British. The
Treaty of Paris (1763) formally confirmed
Mahommed Ali as the Nawab of the Carnatic.
It was a result of this action and the in-
creased British influence that in 1765 the
Emperor of Delhi issued a firman (decree) re-
cognising the British possessions in southern
India.[80]

British Government control


Although the Company was becoming in-
creasingly bold and ambitious in putting
down resisting states, it was getting clearer
day by day that the Company was incapable
of governing the vast expanse of the captured
Mohamed Ali Khan Wallajah, Nawab of the territories. Opinion amongst the members of
Carnatic (1717–1795) the British Parliament urged the government
to control the activities of the Company. The
The French were relative newcomers to In- Company’s financial position was also bad
dia. The French East India Company was and it had to apply for a loan from Parlia-
formed in 1664 and in 1666 the French rep- ment. Seizing this opportunity, the Parlia-
resentatives obtained Aurangzeb’s permis- ment passed the Regulating Act (also known
sion to trade in India. The French soon setup as East India Company Act) in 1773.[81] The
trading posts in Pondicherry on the Coroman- act set down regulations to control the Com-
del coast. They occupied Karaikal in 1739 pany Board and created the position of the
and Joseph François Dupleix was appointed Governor General. Warren Hastings was ap-
Governor of Pondicherry. In Europe the War pointed the first Governor-General. In 1784
of the Austrian Succession began in 1740 and

11
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia History of Tamil Nadu

six years Wellesley made vast conquests and


doubled the Company’s territory. He shut out
the French from further acquisitions in India,
destroyed several ruling powers in the Dec-
can and the Carnatic, took the Mughal Em-
peror under the company’s protection and
compelled Serfoji, the king of Thanjavur to
cede control of his kingdom. The Madras
Presidency was established so that the territ-
ory under direct Company control could be
administered effectively. The direct adminis-
tration began to cause resentment among the
people. In 1806 the soldiers of the Vellore
cantonment rebelled when William Bentinck,
the Governor of Madras decreed that the nat-
ive soldiers should abandon all caste marks.
Fearing this act to be an attempt of forceful
conversion to Christianity, the soldiers mu-
tinied. The rebellion was suppressed but 114
British officers were killed and several hun-
dred mutineers executed. Bentinck was re-
called in disgrace.[84][85]

Madras Presidency, 1909 End of Company rule


The simmering discontent in the various dis-
Pitt’s India Act made the Company subordin-
tricts of the company territories exploded in
ate to the British Government.
1857 into the Sepoy war. Although the rebel-
The next few decades were of rapid
lion had a huge impact on the state of the co-
growth and expansion in the territories con-
lonial power in India, Tamil Nadu was mostly
trolled by the British. The Anglo-Mysore
unaffected by it. In consequence of the war,
Wars of 1766 to 1799 and the Anglo-Maratha
the British Government enacted the Act of
Wars of 1772 to 1818 put the Company in
1858 to abolish the powers of the Company
control of most of India.[82] In a sign of the
and transfer the government to the Crown.
early resistance against the English control,
the Palayakkarar chieftains of the old
Madurai Kingdom, who had independent au- British rule (1850–1947)
thority over their territories, ran into a con- In 1858 the British Crown assumed direct
flict with the Company officials over tax col- rule in India. During the early years the gov-
lection. Kattabomman, a local Palayakkarar ernment was autocratic in many ways. The
chieftain in the Tirunelveli district, rebelled opinion of Indians in their own affairs was
against the taxes imposed by the Company not considered by Britain as important.
administration in the 1790s. After the First However, in due course the British Raj began
Polygar War (1799–1802), he was captured to allow Indians participation in local govern-
and hanged in 1799. A year later, the Second ment. Viceroy Ripon passed a resolution in
Polygar War was fought by Dheeran chin- 1882, which gave a greater and more real
namalai, by winning three wars against Brit- share in local government to the people. Fur-
ish after the fall of tipusultan kingdom at last ther legislation such as the 1892 Indian coun-
he and his two brothers was illeagelly hanged cils Act and the 1909 "Minto-Morley Re-
and Dheeran chinnamalai was the last Tamil forms" eventually led to the establishment of
king died in the war against Britishers and the Madras Legislative Council.[86] The non-
was put down by the Company after a long cooperation movement started under Ma-
and expensive campaign. The end of the Poly- hatma Gandhi’s leadership led the British
gar Wars gave the British complete control government to pass the Government of India
over a major portion of Tamil Nadu.[83] Act (also known as Montagu-Chelmsford
In 1798 Lord Wellesley became the
Governor-General. In the course of the next

12
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia History of Tamil Nadu

Reforms) of 1919. First elections were held British Police. Aurobindo was one such living
for the local assemblies in 1921.[86] in Pondicherry in 1910. The poet Subraman-
ya Bharathi was a contemporary of Auro-
bindo.[89] Bharathi wrote numerous poems in
Tamil extolling the revolutionary cause. He
also published the journal India from Pondi-
cherry. Both Aurobindo and Bharathi were
associated with other Tamil revolutionaries
such as V.V.S.Aiyar and V. O. Chidambaram
Pillai.[89] Tamils formed a significant percent-
age of the members of the Indian National
Army (INA), founded by Netaji to fight the
British occupation in India.[90][91] Lakshmi
Sahgal from Tamil Nadu was a prominent
Madras famine (1877). Distribution of relief. leader in the INA.
From the Illustrated London News (1877) In 1916 Dr. T.M. Nair and Rao Bahadur
Thygaraya Chetty released the Non-Brahmin
Failure of the summer monsoons and ad- Manifesto sowing the seeds for the Dravidian
ministrative shortcomings of the Ryotwari movements.[92] During the 1920s, two move-
system resulted in a severe famine in the ments focused mainly on regional politics
Madras Presidency during 1876–1877.[87] began in Tamil Nadu. One was the Justice
The government and several charitable insti- Party, which won the local legislative elec-
tutions organised relief work in the city and tions held in 1921. The Justice Party was not
the suburbs. Funds were also raised from focused on the Indian independence move-
Europeans in India and overseas for the fam- ment, rather on the local issues such as af-
ine relief. Humanitarians such as William firmative action for socially backward
Digby wrote angrily about the woeful failure groups. The other main movement was the
of the British administration to act promptly anti-religious, anti-Brahimin reformist move-
and adequately in response to the wholesale ment led by E.V. Ramasami Naicker.[92] Fur-
suffering caused by the famine.[88] When the ther steps towards eventual self-rule were
famine finally ended with the return of the taken in 1935 when the British Government
monsoon in 1878, between three and five mil- passed the All-India Federation Act of 1935.
lion people had perished.[87] In response to Fresh local elections were held and in Tamil
the devastating effects of the famine, the Nadu the Congress party captured power de-
government organised a Famine Commission feating the Justice party. In 1938, Ramasami
in 1880 to define the principles of disaster re- Naicker with C. N. Annadurai launched an
lief. The government also instituted a famine agitation against the Congress ministry’s de-
insurance grant, setting aside 1.5 million Ru- cision to introduce the teaching of Hindi in
pees. Other civic works such as canal build- schools.[93]
ing and improvements in roads and railway
were also undertaken to minimise effects of
any future famines. Post Independence
Independence struggle period
The trauma of the partition did not impact
The growing desire for independence began
Tamil Nadu when India was granted
to gradually gather pace in the country and
Independence in 1947. There was no sectari-
its influence in Tamil Nadu generated a num-
an violence against various religions. There
ber of volunteers to the fight against the Brit-
had always been an atmosphere of mutual re-
ish colonial power in the struggle for
spect and peaceful coexistence between all
Independence. Notable amongst these are
religions in Tamil Nadu. Congress formed the
Tiruppur Kumaran, who was born in 1904 in
first ministry in the Madras Presidency. C.
a small village near Erode. Kumaran lost his
Rajagopalachari (Rajaji) was the first Chief
life during a protest march against the Brit-
Minister. Madras Presidency was eventually
ish. The location of the French colony of Pon-
reconstituted as Madras State. Following
dicherry, offered a place of refuge for the fu-
agitations for a separate Andhra state
gitives freedom fighters trying to flee the

13
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia History of Tamil Nadu

people died in the disaster.[98] The sixth most


populous state in the Indian Union, Tamil
Nadu was the seventh largest economy in
2005 among the states of India.[99] The grow-
ing demands for skilled labour has caused in-
creased number of educational institutions in
Tamil Nadu. The widespread application of
caste based affirmative action caused the
state to have 69% of all educational and em-
ployment vacancies to be reserved to the
backward castes. Such caste-based reserva-
tions have huge public support in Tamil
Nadu, with no popular protests organised
against its implementation.[100]

Evolution of regional politics


The politics of Tamil Nadu have gone through
three distinct phases since independence.
The domination of the Congress Party after
1947 gave way to the Dravidian populist mo-
The political state of Tamil Nadu in India was bilisation in the 1960s. This phase lasted un-
created in 1969 when erstwhile Madras State til towards the end of the 1990s. The most re-
was renamed. cent phase saw the fragmentation of the
Dravidian political parties and led to the ad-
comprising the Telugu speaking regions of vent of political alliances and coalition gov-
the Madras state by Potti Sriramalu, the Indi- ernments.[101]
an Government decided to partition the Annadurai formed the Dravida Munnetra
Madras state.[94] In 1953 Rayalaseema and Kazhagam (DMK) in 1949 after splitting from
the coastal Andhra regions became the new Dravidar Kazhagam.[102] DMK also decided
state of Andhra Pradesh and the Bellary dis- to oppose the ’expansion of the Hindi culture’
trict became part of the Mysore state. In in Tamil Nadu and started the demand for a
1956 south Kanara district was transferred to separate homeland for the Dravidians in the
Mysore, the Malabar coastal districts became South. The demand was for an Independent
part of the new state of Kerala, and the state called Dravida Nadu (country of
Madras state assumed its present shape. The Dravidians) comprising Tamil Nadu and parts
Madras state was named Tamil Nadu (the of Andhra, Karnataka and Kerala.[103] The in-
land of the Tamils) in 1968. creased involvement of the Congress Party in
Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka during the Madras during the late 1950s and the strong
1970s and the 80s saw large numbers of Sri pan-Indian emotions whipped up by the
Lankan Tamils fleeing to Tamil Nadu. The Chinese invasion of India in 1962 led to the
plight of Tamil refugees caused a surge of demand for Dravida Nadu losing some of its
support from most of the Tamil political immediacy. Consequently in 1963, when the
parties.[95] They exerted pressure on the In- Sixteenth Amendment to the Constitution of
dian government to intercede with the Sri India, precluded secessionist parties from
Lankan government on behalf of the Sri contesting elections, the DMK chose to form-
Lankan Tamilians. However, LTTE lost much ally drop its demand for an independent
of its support from Tamil Nadu following the Dravidistan, focusing instead on securing
assassination of Rajiv Gandhi on 21 May greater functional autonomy within the
1991 by an operative from Sri Lanka for the framework of the Indian Constitution.[104]
former Prime Minister’s role in sending Indi- The Congress party, riding on the wave of
an peacekeepers to Sri Lanka to disarm the public support stemming from the independ-
LTTE.[96][97] ence struggle, formed the first post-inde-
The east coast of Tamil Nadu was one of pendence government in Tamil Nadu and
the areas affected by the Indian Ocean earth- continued to govern until 1967. In 1965 and
quake of 2004, during which almost 8000 1968, DMK led widespread anti-Hindi

14
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia History of Tamil Nadu

agitations in the state against the plans of


the Union Government to introduce Hindi in
Timeline
the state schools. Affirmative action in em-
ployment and educational institutions were
pioneered in Tamil Nadu based on the de-
mands of the Dravidian movement.[105] The
leadership of the Dravidian movement had Notes
very capable authors and literati in An- [1] "Historical Atlas of South India-
nadurai and Karunanidhi, who assiduously Timeline". French Institute of
utilised the popular media of stage plays and Pondicherry. Institut Françoise de
movies to spread its political messages.[106] Pondichéry. http://www.ifpindia.org/
MG Ramachandran (MGR) who later became Historical-Atlas-of-South-India-
the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, was one Timeline.html. Retrieved on 2006-11-15.
such stage and movie actor.[107] [2] Pappu et al, Antiquity vol 77 no 297,
In 1967 DMK won the state election. DMK September 2003
split into two in 1971, with MGR forming the [3] K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India,
splinter AIADMK. Since then these two OUP, reprinted 2000, p 44.
parties have dominated the politics of Tamil [4] Tools of the Madras Industry have been
Nadu.[108] AIADMK, under MGR retained found in the Kaveri and Vaigai beds
control of the State Government over three —K.A.N. Sastri, Srinivasachari,
consecutive assembly elections in 1977, 1980 Advanced History of India, p. 14.
and 1984. After MGR’s death AIADMK was [5] K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India, p.
split over the succession between various 45.
contenders. Eventually J. Jayalalithaa took [6] K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India, p.
over the leadership of AIADMK. 46.
Several changes to the political balance in [7] "Significance of Mayiladuthurai find".
Tamil Nadu took place during the later half The Hindu May 1, 2006. The Hindu
of the 1990s, eventually leading to the end of Group. http://www.thehindu.com/2006/
the duopoly of DMK and AIADMK in the polit- 05/01/stories/2006050101992000.htm.
ics of Tamil Nadu. In 1996, a split in the Con- Retrieved on 2006-11-15.
gress party in Tamil Nadu eventuated in the [8] One such was found at Krishnagiri in
formation of Tamil Maanila Congress (TMC). Tamil Nadu—"Steps to preserve
TMC aligned with the DMK, while another megalithic burial site". The Hindu, Oct 6,
party MDMK, which split from DMK aligned 2006. The Hindu Group.
with the AIADMK. These and several smaller http://www.thehindu.com/2006/10/06/
political parties began to gain popular sup- stories/2006100617521000.htm.
port. The first instance of a ’grand alliance’ Retrieved on 2006-11-15.
was during the 1996 elections for the Nation- [9] K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India,
al parliament, during which the AIADMK pp. 49–51
formed a large coalition of a number smaller [10] Subramanian T.S. (Feb 17, 2005) The
parties to counter the electoral threat posed Hindu, retrieved 7/31/2007Rudimentary
by the alliance between the DMK and TMC. Tamil-Brahmi script’ unearthed at
Since then the formation of alliances of large Adichanallur
number of political parties has become an [11] Subramanian T.S. (May 26, 2004 ) The
electoral practice in Tamil Nadu.[109] The Hindu, retrieved 7/31/2007 Skeletons,
electoral decline of Congress party at the na- script found at ancient burial site in
tional level, which started during the early Tamil Nadu
1990, forced the Congress to seek coalition [12] ’The most interesting pre-historic
partners from various states including Tamil remains in Tamil India were discovered
Nadu. This paved the way for the Dravidian at Adichanallur. There is a series of urn
parties to be part of the Central Govern- burials. seem to be related to the
ment.[110] megalithic complex. - Zvelebil, K.A.,
Companion Studies to the History of
Tamil Literature - pp 21–22, Brill
Academic Publishers.

15
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia History of Tamil Nadu

[13] TamilNet: 07.01.05 Catastrophes of the account of the northern expeditions of


past: poetic exaggeration or scientific Karikala, which took him as far north as
facts? the Himalayas and gained for him the
[14] An Atlantis in the Indian Ocean alliance and subjugation of the kings of
[15] Tamil Sangams - Madurai Vajra, Magadha and Avanti countries.
[16] http://acharya.iitm.ac.in/mirrors/vv/ There is no contemporary evidence
literature/tlang.html either in Sangam literature or from the
[17] K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India, north Indian source for such an
pp 109–112 expedition.
[18] ’There were three levels of redistribution [25] "63 Nayanmars". Tamilnation.org.
corresponding to the three categories of http://www.tamilnation.org/sathyam/
chieftains, namely: the Ventar, Velir and east/saivaism/63nayanmars.htm.
Kilar in descending order. Ventar were Retrieved on 2006-11-15.
the chieftains of the three major [26] In Megasthenes’ account (350 BCE – 290
lineages, viz Cera, Cola and Pandya. BCE), the Pandya kingdom is ruled by
Velir were mostly hill chieftains, while Pandaia, a daughter of Herakles —K.A.N.
Kilar were the headmen of settlements...’ Sastri, A History of South India, p 23
—"Perspectives on Kerala History". [27] "’Roman Maps and the Concept of Indian
P.J.Cherian (Ed),. Kerala Council for Gems". The Bead Museum, Inc..
Historical Research. Archived from the http://www.thebeadsite.com/UNI-
original on 2006-08-26. MAPS.html. Retrieved on 2006-05-15.
http://web.archive.org/web/ [28] ’Archaeologists from UCLA and the
20060826094724/ University of Delaware have unearthed
http://www.keralahistory.ac.in/ the most extensive remains to date from
historicalantecedents.htm. Retrieved on sea trade between India and Egypt
2006-11-15. during the Roman Empire, adding to
[19] K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India, p mounting evidence that spices and other
129 exotic cargo travelled into Europe over
[20] ’Everywhere within Beloved-of-the-Gods, sea as well as land.’ "Archaeologists
King Piyadasi’s domain, and among the Uncover Ancient Maritime Spice Route
people beyond the borders, the Cholas, Between India, Egypt". Veluppillai, Prof.
the Pandyas, the Satyaputras, the A.,. dickran.net. http://www.dickran.net/
Keralaputras, as far as Tamraparni...’ history/india_egypt_trade_route.html.
—"Asoka’s second minor rock edict". Retrieved on 2006-11-15.
Colorado State University. [29] Archaeological evidence for the maritime
http://www.cs.colostate.edu/~malaiya/ contact between the Sangam age Cheras
ashoka.html. Retrieved on 2006-11-15. and the Roman empire has been found at
[21] K.A.N. Sastri, The CōĻas, 1935 p 20 Karur near Tiruchi. —R. Nagasami,
[22] "Hathigumpha Inscription". Epigraphia Roman Karur
Indica, Vol. XX (1929–1930). Delhi, 1933, [30] "Malayalam first appeared in writing in
pp 86–89. Missouri Southern State the vazhappalli inscription which dates
University. http://www.mssu.edu/ from about 830 AD." "Writing Systems
projectsouthasia/HISTORY/ and Languages of the world". Omniglot.
PRIMARYDOCS/EPIGRAPHY/ Omniglot.com. http://www.omniglot.com/
HathigumphaInscription.htm. Retrieved writing/malayalam.htm. Retrieved on
on 2006-11-15. 2006-11-15.
[23] Pattinappaalai, Porunaraatruppadai and [31] Kamil Veith Zvelebil, Companion Studies
a number of individual poems in to the History of Tamil Literature, p 12
Akananuru and Purananuru have been [32] K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India,
the main source for the information we OUP (1955) p 105
attribute now to Karikala. See also [33] K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India,
K.A.N. Sastri, The Colas, 1935 OUP (1955) pp 118, 119
[24] Cilappatikaram (c. sixth century C.E.) [34] K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India,
which attributes northern campaigns and OUP (1955) p 124
conquests to all the three monarchs of [35] ’The vast quantities of gold and silver
the Tamil country, gives a glorious coins struck by Roman emperors up to

16
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia History of Tamil Nadu

Nero (54–68CE) found all over Tamil centre for redistribution of wealth and
Nadu testify the extent of the trade, the contributed towards the integrity of the
presence of Roman settlers in the Tamil kingdom —John Keays, India a History,
country’. K.A.N. Sastri, A History of pp 217–218
South India, OUP (1955) pp 125–127 [50] K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India pp
[36] K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India, 342–344
OUP (1955) p 128 [51] K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India pp
[37] ’Kalabhraas were denounced as ’evil 91–92
kings’ (kaliararar) —K.A.N. Sastri, A [52] Durga Prasad, History of the Andhras up
History of South India, p 130 to 1565 A. D., pp 68
[38] Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermund, A [53] http://www.tamilnation.org/heritage/
History of India, Routledge (UK), p 105 pandya/index.htm
[39] K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India p [54] K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India pp
130 140
[40] K.A.N. Sastri postulates that there was a [55] "Pandya Dynasty". Encyclopaedia
live connection between the early Cholas Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica,
and the Renandu Cholas of the Andhra Inc.. http://www.britannica.com/eb/
country. The northward migration article-9058245. Retrieved on
probably took place during the Pallava 2006-11-15.
domination of Simhavishnu. Sastri also [56] http://www.tamilnation.org/heritage/
categorically rejects the claims that pandya/index.htm
these were the descendants of Karikala [57] K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India p
Chola —K.A.N. Sastri, The CōĻas, 1935 p 140
107 [58] K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India p
[41] "South Asian Writing Systems". 145
Lawrence K Lo. [59] K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India pp
http://www.ancientscripts.com/ 144–145
sa_ws.html. Retrieved on 2006-11-15. [60] K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India p
[42] The identity of the author of Tirukkural 159
is not known with any certainty. This [61] K.A.N. Sastri, The CoLas, 1935. pp
work of 1330 distichs is attributed to 211–215
Tiruvalluvar, who was probably a Jain [62] The kadaram campaign is first
with knowledge of the Sanskrit didactic mentioned in Rajendra’s inscriptions
works of the north. dating from his 14th year. The name of
[43] Pandya Kadungon and Pallava the Srivijaya king was Sangrama
Simhavishnu overthrew the Kalabhras. Vijayatungavarman —K.A.N. Sastri, The
Acchchutakalaba is likely the last CoLas, 1935 pp 211–220
Kalabhra king —K.A.N. Sastri, The [63] There is an inscription in the
CōĻas, 1935 p 102 Chidambaram temple dated 1114
[44] K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India pp mentioning a peculiar stone presented by
382 the king of Kambhoja (Kampuchea)to
[45] K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India pp Rajendra Chola which the Chola king
333–335 caused to be inserted into the wall of the
[46] K.A.N. Sastri, The CoLas, pp 102 Chidambaram shrine —K.A.N. Sastri,
[47] K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India p The CoLas, 1935 p 325
387 [64] ’In the twelfth year of Parantaka I the
[48] There is an inscription from 1160 that [Uttaramerur] sabha passed a resolution
the custodians of Siva temples who had [...] that the election of local government
social intercourses with Vaishnavites officials will be carried out through lots
would forfeit their property. —K.A.N. (kudavolai)’ —K.A.N. Sastri, The Colas, p
Sastri, The CōĻas, 1935 pp 645 496.
[49] Some of the output of villages [65] K.A.N. Sastri, Srinivasachari, Advanced
throughout the kingdom was given to History of India, pp 294
temples that reinvested some of the [66] K.A.N. Sastri, Srinivasachari, Advanced
wealth accumulated as loans to the History of India, pp 296–297
settlements. The temple served as a

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia History of Tamil Nadu

[67] K.A.N. Sastri, A History of South India pp [87] ^ Romesh Chunder Dutt, Open Letters to
197 Lord Curzon on Famines and Land
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Talikota on 15 September 1564 —K.A.N. Pfaff, said it was always a moving
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[79] John Keay, India, a History, pp 393–394 Dravidian movement dying?, Frontline,
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