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Aesthetic Considerations in Design

Each product has a definite purpose. It has to perform specific functions to the satisfaction
of customer. The contact between the product and the people arises due to the sheer necessity of
this functional requirement.

However, when there are number of products in the market, having the same qualities of
efficiency, durability and cost, the customer is attracted towards the most appealing product. The
external appearance is an important feature.

The growing realization of the need of aesthetic consideration has given rise to a separate
discipline, known as ‘industrial design’. The job of the industrial designer is to create new forms and
shape, which are aesthetically pleasing. The industrial designer has, therefore, become the fashion
maker in hardware.

Selection of the proper colour is an important consideration in product aesthetics. The

choice of colour should be compatible with the conventional ideas of the operator. The external
appearance of the product is a cumulative effect of number of factors such as rigidity and resilience,
tolerances and surface finish, motion of individual components, materials, manufacturing methods
and noise.

Ergonomic Considerations in Design

Ergonomics is defined as the relationship between man and machine and the application of
anatomical, physiological and psychological principles to solve the problems arising from man-
machine relationship. The word ‘ergonomics’ is coined from two Greek words – ‘ergon’, which
means ‘work’ and ‘nomos’, which means ‘natural laws’. Ergonomics means natural laws of work.

From design considerations, the topics of ergonomic studies are as follows:

1. Anatomical factors in design of driver’s seat.

2. Layout of instrumental dials and display panels for accurate perception by the operators.
3. Design of hand levers and hand wheels.
4. Energy expenditure in hand and foot operations.
5. Lighting, noise and climatic conditions in machine environment.

The aim of ergonomics is to reduce the operational difficulties present in man-machine joint
system and thereby, reduce the resulting physical and mental stress.
Simultaneous or Concurrent Engineering

Concurrent engineering is defined as the design process that brings both design and
manufacturing engineers together during the early phases of the design process. In this process a
team of specialists examines the design from different angles as shown in the figure below.

The specialists include manufacturing engineer, tool engineer, field personnel, reliability
engineer and safety engineer. They consider various aspects of the product such as feasibility,
manufacturability, assembly, testability, performance, reliability, maintainability, safety and cost.
All these aspects are simultaneously considered early in design stage.


[1] Design of Machine Elements 2nd Edition by V.B. Bhandari © 2007, by Tata McGraw-Hill
Publishing Company Limited.