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Meaning and Definition:

Consumer behaviour is the study of how individual customers, groups or

organizations select, buy, use, and dispose ideas, goods, and services to satisfy their

needs and wants. It refers to the actions of the consumers in the marketplace and the
underlying motives for those actions.

Marketers expect that by understanding what causes the consumers to buy particular

goods and services, they will be able to determine—which products are needed in the

marketplace, which are obsolete, and how best to present the goods to the

Importance of Consumer Behaviour to Marketers:

It is important for marketers to study consumer behaviour. It is important for them to know
consumers as individual or groups opt for, purchase, consumer or dispose products and services
and how they share their experience to satisfy their wants or needs (Solomon, 2009). This helps
marketers to investigate and understand the way in which consumers behave so that they can
position their products to specific group of people or targeted individuals.

In regard to the marketer’s view point, they assume that the basic purpose of marketing is to
sell goods and services to more people so that more profit could be made. This principle of
making profits is heavily applied by almost all marketers. Earlier, the marketers were
successful in accomplishing their purpose. However, today, as the consumers are more aware
about the use of product and other information of the product, it is not easy to sell or attract
customer to buy the product (Kumar, 2004). Thus, in order to sell a product or service or to
convince consumers to buy product, the marketers have to undergo through proper research to
win them over.

The following are some of the points discussed that explains the value to marketers of
understanding and applying consumer behaviour concepts and theor
Buying of
th refers to the
Factors affecting consumer buying behaviour:

Consumer buying behavior refers to the selection, purchase and consumption of goods and
services for the satisfaction of their wants. There are different processes involved in
the consumer behavior. Many factors, specificities and characteristics influence the individual
in what he is and the consumer in his decision making process, shopping habits,
purchasing behavior, the brands he buys or the retailers he goes. A purchase decision is the
result of each and every one of these factors. Initially the consumer tries to find what
commodities he would like to consume, then he selects only those commodities that promise
greater utility. After selecting the commodities, the consumer makes an estimate of the
available money which he can spend. Lastly, the consumer analyzes the prevailing prices of
commodities and takes the decision about the commodities he should consume. Meanwhile,
there are various other factors influencing the purchases of consumer such as social,
cultural, economic, personal and psychological.

Cultural factors affecting consumer buying behaviour:

Cultural factors have a significant impact on customer behavior.Culture is the most basic cause
of a person’s wants and behavior. Growing up, children learn basic values, perception and
wants from the family and other important groups. Marketers are always trying to spot “cultural
shifts” which might point to new products that might be wanted by customers or to
increased demand.

Social factors affecting consumer buying behavior:

A customer’s buying behavior is also influenced by social factors, such as the groups to which
the customer belongs and social status.

Each culture contains “sub-cultures” – groups of people with share values. Sub-cultures can
include nationalities, religions, racial groups, or groups of people sharing the same
geographical location. Sometimes a sub-culture will create a substantial and distinctive market
segment of its own. For example, the “youth culture” or “club culture” has quite distinct values
and buying characteristics from the much older “gray generation”

Similarly, differences in social class can create customer groups. In fact, the official six social
classes in the UK are widely used to profile and predict different customer behavior. In the
UK’s socioeconomic classification scheme, social class is not just determined by income. It is
measured as a combination of occupation, income, education, wealth and other variables

1.Problem Recognition
Put simply, before a purchase can ever take place, the customer must have a reason to believe
that what they want, where they want to be or how they perceive themselves or a situation is
different from where they actually are. The desire is different from the reality – this presents
a problem for the customer.
However, for the marketer, this creates an opportunity. By taking the time to “create a
problem” for the customer, whether they recognize that it exists already or not, you’re
starting the buying process. To do this, start with content marketing. Share facts and
testimonials of what your product or service can provide. Ask questions to pull the potential
customer into the buying process. Doing this helps a potential customer realize that they have
a need that should be solved.

2. Information Search
Once a problem is recognized, the customer search process begins. They know there is an
issue and they’re looking for a solution. If it’s a new makeup foundation, they look for
foundation; if it’s a new refrigerator with all the newest technology thrown in, they start
looking at refrigerators – it’s fairly straight forward.
As a marketer, the best way to market to this need is to establish your brand or the brand of
your clients as an industry leader or expert in a specific field. Methods to consider include
becoming a Google Trusted Store or by advertising partnerships and sponsors prominently on
all web materials and collaterals.
Becoming a Google Trusted Store, like CJ Pony Parts – a leading dealer of Ford Mustang
parts – allows you to increase search rankings and to provide a sense of customer security by
displaying your status on your website.
Increasing your credibility markets to the information search process by keeps you in front of
the customer and ahead of the competition.
3. Evaluation of Alternatives
Just because you stand out among the competition doesn’t mean a customer will absolutely
purchase your product or service. In fact, now more than ever, customers want to be sure
they’ve done thorough research prior to making a purchase. Because of this, even though they
may be sure of what they want, they’ll still want to compare other options to ensure their
decision is the right one.
Marketing to this couldn’t be easier. Keep them on your site for the evaluation of alternatives
stage. Leading allows customers to compare rates with other insurance providers all under
their own website – even if the competition can offer a cheaper price. This not only simplifies
the process, it establishes a trusting customer relationship, especially during the evaluation of
alternatives stage.

4. Purchase Decision
Somewhat surprisingly, the purchase decision falls near the middle of the six stages of the
consumer buying process. At this point, the customer has explored multiple options, they
understand pricing and payment options and they are deciding whether to move forward with
the purchase or not. That’s right, at this point they could still decide to walk away.
This means it’s time to step up the game in the marketing process by providing a sense of
security while reminding customers of why they wanted to make the purchase in the first
time. At this stage, giving as much information relating to the need that was created in step
one along with why your brand, is the best provider to fulfill this need is essential.
If a customer walks away from the purchase, this is the time to bring them back. Retargeting
or simple email reminders that speak to the need for the product in question can enforce the
purchase decision, even if the opportunity seems lost. Step four is by far the most important
one in the consumer buying process. This is where profits are either made or lost.
5. Purchase
A need has been created, research has been completed and the customer has decided to make
a purchase. All the stages that lead to a conversion have been finished. However, this doesn’t
mean it’s a sure thing. A consumer could still be lost. Marketing is just as important during
this stage as during the previous.
Marketing to this stage is straightforward: keep it simple. Test your brand’s purchase process
online. Is it complicated? Are there too many steps? Is the load time too slow? Can a
purchase be completed just as simply on a mobile device as on a desktop computer? Ask
these critical questions and make adjustments. If the purchase process is too difficult,
customers, and therefore revenue, can be easily lost.

6. Post-Purchase Evaluation
Just because a purchase has been made, the process has not ended. In fact, revenues and
customer loyalty can be easily lost. After a purchase is made, it’s inevitable that the customer
must decide whether they are satisfied with the decision that was made or not. They evaluate.
If a customer feels as though an incorrect decision was made, a return could take place. This
can be mitigated by identifying the source of dissonance, and offering an exchange that is
simple and straightforward. However, even if the customer is satisfied with his or her
decision to make the purchase, whether a future purchase is made from your brand is still in
question. Because of this, sending follow-up surveys and emails that thank the customer for
making a purchase are critical.
Take the time to understand the six stages of the consumer buying process. Doing this
ensures that your marketing strategy addresses each stage and leads to higher conversions and
long-term customer loyalty.
The core function of the marketing department is to understand and satisfy consumer need,
wants and desire. Consumer behaviour captures all the aspect of purchase, utility and disposal
of products and services. In groups and organization are considered within the framework of
consumer. Failing to understand consumer behaviour is the recipe for disaster as some
companies have found it the hard way. For example, Wal-Mart launched operations in Latin-
America with store design replicating that of US markets. However, Latin America consumer
differs to US consumer in every aspect. Wal-Mart suffered consequences and failed to create

Social, cultural, individual and emotional forces play a big part in defining consumer buying
behaviour. Cultural, sub-culture and social class play an important is finalizing consumer
behaviour. For example, consumer growing up in US is exposed to individualism, freedom,
achievement, choice, etc. On sub-culture level influence of religion, race, geographic location
and ethnicity define consumer behaviour. Social class consists of consumer with the same
level of income, education, taste, feeling of superiority and inferiority. Over time consumer
can move from one social level to another.

Culture alone cannot define consumer behaviour; social forces also play an important role.
Social forces consist of family, friends, peer groups, status and role in society. Groups which
have direct or indirect influence on consumer are referred to as reference groups. Primary
groups consist of friends, family and peers with whom consumer has direct contact for
considerable time. Secondary groups are association where interaction is at formal level and
time devoted is less.

Consumer buying behaviour is influenced by individual’s own personality traits. These

personality traits do not remain the same but change with the life cycle. The choice of
occupation and corresponding income level also play part in determining consumer
behaviour. A doctor and software engineer both would have different buying pattern in
apparel, food automobile etc. Consumers from similar background, occupation and income
levels may show a different lifestyle pattern.

An individual buying behaviour is influenced by motivation, perception, learning, beliefs and

attitude. These factors affect consumer at a psychological level and determine her overall
buying behaviour. Maslow’s hierarchy, Herzberg Theory and Freud Theory try and explain
people different motivational level in undertaking a buying decision. Perception is what
consumer understands about a product through their senses. Marketers have to pay attention
to consumer’s perception about a brand rather than true offering of the product. Learning
comes from experience; consumer may respond to stimuli and purchase a product. A
favorable purchase will generate positive experience resulting in pleasant learning. Belief is
the pre-conceived notion a consumer has towards a brand. It is kind of influence a brand
exerts on consumer. For example, there is a strong belief product coming through German
engineering are quality products. Companies may take advantage of this belief and route their
production through Germany.

Companies need to think beyond buying behaviour and analyze the actual buying process.
Complex buying behaviour requires high involvement of buyers, as it is infrequent in nature,
expensive, and they are significant differences among the available choice e.g. automobile.
Grocery buying is referred to as habitual buying, which requires less involvement as few
differences among brands, frequent and inexpensive. Buying process involves purchase need,
decision makers, information search, alternatives evaluation, purchase decision and post
purchase behaviour. Companies try hard to understand consumer experience and expectation
at every stage of buying process. Marketers need to figure the right combinations which will
initiate purchase need e.g. marketing programs. Companies should ensure consumer have
readily available information to take the decision e.g. internet, friends. Consumers evaluate
alternatives based on their brand perception and belief. Companies need to work hard to
develop products, which match this perception and belief every time. Final purchase decision
is taken looking other’s perception of the brand. Post purchase if expectations meet actual
performance consumer is satisfied and more likely to repurchase or recommend the brand to

Consumer markets are defined by various geographical, social and cultural factors.
Furthermore, consumer behaviour is influenced by psychological, personality, reference
groups and demographic reasons. Finally actual buying process involves complex process
and cycle. Companies have to keep a tab on all three factors in formulating strategy.


Objectives of Consumer Behaviour Analysis

The objectives of consumer behaviour analysis are mostly consumer researches are undertaken to
find out the attitudes of the consumer about a product. Their preferences, likes and dislikes which
lead to the further modernization of the sales strategies by the marketer.
Researches can be conducted to find out the percentage of people using a certain product or facility
(a pager or mobile phone).
Researchers may also like to know the types of consumers and their demographic characteristics for
a particular product.
They may also like to experiment with new promotional campaigns, and since these campaigns
require a lot of expenditure, they may do researches to be sure of the campaign’s success, before
the final launch of the campaign.
The decline in sales may require the marketer to conduct researches which can give a clue of the
changing consumer behaviour.
The objective therefore, must be clearly set and followed strictly. Then only can we decide what type
of Research Design should be used. The researches can be quantitative or qualitative in nature.
Qualitative research design is undertaken to come up with new ideas, and in this design,brain
storming tools and other face to face techniques with experts are used. This is confined indoors, and
is less expensive than the quantitative research.

Quantitative research design is used in the market place where we have to interview people,
to find out the number of persons using the product, or how frequently they use the product

Market segmentation depends on two levels − the strategic level and the tactical level. At a
strategic level, it has a direct link with the decisions on positioning. At a tactical level, it
relates with the decision of which consumer groups are to be targeted. We will discuss here
the parameters based on which a market can be segmented.

Geographic Segmentation
Prospective customers are in local, state, regional or national marketplace segment. If a firm
is selling a product such as a farm equipment, the geographic location will remain a major
factor in segmenting the target markets because their customers are located in specific rural

In case of retail stores, geographic location of the store is one of the most important
considerations. Here, urban areas are preferred.

Segmentation of customers based on geographic factors are −

 Region − Segmentation by continent / country / state / district / city.

 Size − Segmentation on the basis of size of an urban area as per the population size.

 Population Density − Segmentation on the basis of population density such as urban /

sub-urban / rural etc.

Demographic Segmentation
Market segmentation can be done based on demographic factors such as
Age. For example, Rico watches have segmented their product portfolio
according to different age groups of people.

Psychographic Segmentation:

Psychographic Segmentation focuses on group customers according to their life-style and

purchasing psychology. Many businesses offer products based on the attitudes, beliefs and
emotions, ideas, and perceptions of the target market. Psychographic segmentation includes
variables such as Activities, Interests, Opinions, Attitudes, and Values.
Behavioralistic Segmentation:

Markets can be segmented on the basis of buyer behavior. It is because the buying behavior
of consumers differ based on the geographic, demographic and psychographic factors.
Marketers often find practical benefits in using buying behavior as a separate segmentation
basis in addition to factors like geographic, demographics, and psychographics.


It was around the year 1CC0, when 2arle 4Gports took charge of the brand
operations and the business took off
in the market. 8ith factories across India and a strong distribution network,-isleri
established itself as a force to reckon with in the domestic packaged safe drinking
water market.4arlier the packaged drinking water consisted of five star
hotels, tourists and foreigners. As amarketing strategy, a conscious decision was
taken by the company that only /@ of these saless h o u l d c o m e f r o m t h e
outlets and ;@ from general market. i.e. paanwalas, street
s h o p s , general stores and even non"tourists.This brought about a sea change in the
perception in the consumer+s mind about consumption of B -isleri. 4arlier,
drinking bottled water was considered to be more of a status symbol.
Thatthinking was slowly changed to the point where today, not drinking -
isleri is considered
as been behind the times. #uch has been the presence and penetration of the -isleri
brand in the bottled water segment.
-isleri was the first to market bottled water in a totally virgin market and
naturally peopleassociate the brand with bottled water. &ow -isleri is
perhaps already ten steps ahead of itslocal competitors and endeavor to widen
its gap in the months to come.The brand positioning of -isleri stresses on
pure, clean and safe drinking water. #ales havegrown by 1/@ in the year
!@@@ in the coming year, -isleri hopes to boost its sales by morethan
/@@ .-isleri eGpects <0 of its volume to come from bulk parts of 0 lt.
and !@ lt. )3urrently itamounts to be less than '0 *. The latter is to be targeted at
homes and the former at offices.#ome of the future plans to be at the top"spot that -
isleri commands in the Indian market areJ
*1Ne! >a08a#in# in ?ottles an" () lt1 ar1(1In0rease the "istri?ution net!or8 !ith
an investment of over ()) 0rores1

In 1967, Bisleri an Italian company, started by Signer Felice Bisleri, first brought the idea
of selling bottled water in India. It started a company called Bisleri India. In 1969, Ramesh
Chauhan,the Chairman of Parle Exports, bought over the brand. In those days, Bisleri
packaged drinkingwater was available in glass bottles.
Being a returnable package owing to various other problems such as breakage and weight,
in1972-73, Bisleri was made available in PVC (Poly Vinyl Chloride) bottles. After this
plastic packaging was introduced, things started to change, and sales increased rapidly.The
upsurge in the sales of Bisleri started in 1993 as Ramesh Chauhan sold off the Parle stable
of brands, including Thums Up, Limca and Gold Spot. Recognising the potential of the pack
ageddrinking water market, he then went on to concentrate on making Bisleri a top selling
brand inIndia.

The Present
It was around the year 1995, when Parle Exports took charge of the brand operations and
the business took off in the market. With factories across India and a strong distribution netw
ork,Bisleri established itself as a force to reckon with in the domestic packaged drinking
water market.Earlier the packaged drinking water market consisted of five star hotels, tourists
and foreigners. Asa marketing strategy, a conscious decision was taken by the company that
only 40% of the
sales should come from these outlets and 60% from general market, i.e. paanwallas, street
shops,general stores and even non-tourists.This brought about a sea change in the perception
in the consumer's mind about consumption of Bisleri. Earlier, drinking bottled water was
considered to be more of a status symbol. That thinkinghas slowly changed to the point where
today, not drinking Bisleri is considered as being behind thetimes. Such has been the
presence and penetration of the Bisleri brand in the bottled water segment.
About few years ago, in 1998, a strategy was adopted to concentrate aggressively on the
homemarket. The habit of boiling water or using electronic gadgets was not adequate, since
the sourceof water itself was unreliable. The bulk packages like the 2, 5 and 20 litre bottles
were introducedto meet this market need. The price per litre went down as a result, making
bottled water veryeconomical for the consumer.
Bisleri was the first to market bottled water in a totally virgin market
and naturally peopleassociate the brand with bottled water. Now Bisleri is perhaps already
ten steps ahead of itscompetitors and will endeavour to widen its gap in the times to
come.Bisleri's brand positioning stresses on pure, clean and safe drinking water.Some of
the future plans to maintain the top spot that Bisleri commands in the Indian market are:
New pack sizes in bottles and cups
Increase the distribution network with an investment of over 200 crores
Strengthen presence in traditionally weak areas by setting up 12 new bottling facilities at
acost of Rs. 150 crores.

To make sure that the product that reaches the consumer is always of highest standard and
alsomeets international standards, Bisleri has always been involved in improving its product
packaging. One such recent development is the tamper proof break away seal. Bisleri alsorec
ognises the need to produce environment friendly products and is working on the PET


Keeping in mind the consumer's need to recognise a genuine product that cannot be tampered
with,Bisleri developed the break away seal. The unique cap has been patented and cannot be
duplicatedor tampered with. This technology development in the product ensures that the
consumer will onlyget a highly safe product when they consume Bisleri packaged drinking

To ensure purity of the bottled water, the bottles that are used are blown and filled at the
factoryitself, to avoid contamination.
At BISLERI plants, water undergoes multi - stage purification process to ensure proper blend
of minerals and complete removal of microorganisms and toxic substances. So a habit of
Many home appliances are available in market for water purification. These gadgets use
either filtration technique or Ultra Violet rays or a combination of the two techniques. Theset
echniques do not guarantee 100 % purity of water.Filtration removes only the visible
suspended particles and not the minute , invisible particles ,toxic substances or
microorganisms. The filters are cleaned rarely and all the muck accumulatesinside leading to
more contamination. Ideally such filters need to be cleaned every day which iscumbersome.
Ultra Violate rays kill the microbes but cannot ensure removal of toxic substancesand
physical impuritiesdrinkingPURE and SAFE BISLERI will ensure a healthy life What
advantages bisleri purification process has over purification done by other
methodsTraditional process of boiling water for purification has its limitations. lt is time
consuming. For boiling, water has to be heated to 100 deg. Celsius. Also, to kill microbes
water should be boiledcontinuously for a minimum of 20 minutes. Boiling may kill the
microbes but can not remove other physical impurities and toxic substances. These
purification equipment are incomplete and need continuous monitoring and
maintenance.At BISLERI, through our multi - stage purification process we ensure removal
of toxicsubstances as well as physical and microbiological impurities. In our state-of-the-art
processing plants we follow rigorous Good Manufacturing Practices and strict Quality
Assurance norms soeach and every bottle of BISLERI is made tasty, pure and safe for the

A major, diversified, transitional, integrated consumer product manufacturing company,
with National Leadership and a strong environment conscience, playing a national role in safe
water and Agro based drinks. Our vision is to be the dominant player in the branded water
business. We must expand and be a leader in the premium beverage category.

I. To provide the highest quality product, keeping in mind all aspects includingfreshness,
purity and safety, and making it easily available to the consumer at a veryaffordable
II. To achieve international standards of excellence in all
aspects of energy anddiversified business with focus on consumer delight through
value and services of product and cost reduction.
III. To enhance capital and fixed assets of the group to withstand challenges and
toughmarket trends.
IV. To attain leadership in developing, adopting and assimilating state or arttechnology
for competitive advantage.
V. To provide better quality of product and services through sustained marketresearch
and product development.
VI. To foster a culture of participation and innovation for employee growth
andcontribution To cultivate high standards of business ethics, and total quality
management for astrong corporate identity and brand equity with continuous and
positive growth.
VII. To help enrich the quality of life of all the communities specially the neglectedones
and preserve ecological balance and heritage through a strong environmentconscience
Bisleri International Pvt. Ltd, also known as Parle Bisleri, is an Indian beverages company
best known for its eponymous Bisleri brand of bottled mineral water.[1]
The Parle Group, founded by Late Jayantilal Chauhan, began manufacturing soft drinks in 1949.
Bisleri, an Italian mineral water company, was launched in Mumbai in the year 1965. The Parle
Group purchased Bisleri from the Italian entrepreneur Signor Felice Bisleri in 1969.
Several Parle Bisleri soda brands including Citra, Thums Up, Maaza, Limca and Gold Spot were
sold to Coca-Cola in 1993 for a reported $40 million. At the time of sale, the Parle brands
together had a 60% market share in the industry.The brand was strong in South India. Citra was
phased out by 2000 to make way for Coke's international brand, Sprite.
A few years back, the packaged drinking water market had been crawling at the rate of or
even a lower figure. Indians carried drinking water in earthen pitchers, plastic or 2$= bottles.-
ut increasing case of typhoid and other water borne diseases began to be reported. In
additionto this, liberalisation happened and the mineral water industry began to be stirred and
shaken. The market started growing an astounding rate of over per annum. The fact that
therewere very few players in the market meant that their business grew by leaps and bounds.
The market today has grown to 6s.11 crore. The organized sector" branded packaged
drinking water has only 6s. crore of market share. The rest is accounted for by
theunorganied sector which is dominated by small regional players. The market is still
growing at a rate greater than per annum.

The origin of -isleri lies in Italy and the brand owes its name to founder =elice -
isleri, anItalian 4ntrepreneur. In 1C;<, -isleri set up a plat in (umbai for bottling and
marketing mineralwater, which was first of its kind in India. 5owever, it did not work.
Among other reasons, thefact was that the Indian consumer was unprepared to accept bottled
mineral water. This was themain reason responsible for its failure. 3onsumer
mindsets were more geared towards boiling water at home. In 1C;C, 2arle bought over
the Bisleri brand. In those days the -isleri water was not available inglass bottles. 2arle+s
taking charge of Bisleri did not make a dramatic difference to the brands fortunes
immediately. 8hile it did gain in
terms of visibility and reach ) piggy backing on Parlese Gisting distribution network*,
efforts to eGpand the bottled water market were not eGactly painstaking. 2arle at
that particular time was interested in
making soda water and not packageddrinking water. There were just minor initiatives
on the part of the
making packaged drinking water as it is not considered to be very profitable business at that ti
me a people stillconsidered boiling water to be safer than packaged drinking water. (oreover t
heywere not ready to pay for a commodity like water which was so abundantly available. In
1C<!"<' 2arle changed the packaging of its boiling water and made it available in
273 )poly vinylchloride* bottles and that significantly made a difference in the
sales. The buyers, then, weremainly the upper class" the trendy people.
The bottled water industry has two other industries as its biggest competitors infrom of Water
purifiers industry and the soft drinks industry. Though the water purifier industry should be
credited to have done the spadework, for setting upthe foundation of bottled water industry
but still it acts as competitors especiallyin the household and institutional consumption
market. So the water purifier is astrong competitor in household and institutional market the
soft drinks market isa strong rather very strong competitor in the retail consumption market
Bottled water became a product in the West during the 1920’s and
developedr a p i d l y . H u g e m a r k e t s i z e , n u m e r o u s l o c a l b r a n d s a n d c o
n t r o l l e d p r i c e mechanism are some of the features of the market there. Consumers in the Westare
. Indian consumers lack on boththe counts.In Asia, Indonesia is the largest and the
oldest market for bottled water. InIndia, bottled water is still not perceived as a
product for masses though; thes c e n e i s c h a n g i n g s l o w l y t h a n k s t o
aggressive marketing strategy
adopted by new entrants. Some surveys show that truck drivers onhighways form
a major chunk of bottled water drinkers. Penetration in
rurala r e a s i s a n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r t h a t i s l i k e l y t o p l a y a k e
y r o l e i n t h e development of the bottled water trade. In comparison
to global standards India’s bottled water segment is largelyunregulated. Safe water is
rated with a different yardstick in different countries.In India, the aspect has been overlooked
for long. Indian consumers tend to believe that any bottled water is safe water. This may not be the


There are several different varieties of bottled water. The product may belabeled as bottled
water, drinking water or any of the following terms.
Artesian Well Water:
Bottled water from a well that taps a confined aquifer (awater bearing underground layer of
rock or sand) in which the water levelstands at some height above the top of the aquifer.

Drinking Water:
Drinking water is another name for bottled water.Accordingly drinking water is water that is
sold for human consumption insanitary containers and contains no added sweeteners or
chemical additives(other than flavors, extracts or essences). It must be calorie-free and sugar-
free,Flavors, extracts or essences may be added to drinking water, but they mustcomprise less
than one-percent- by –weight of the final product or the productwill be considered a soft
Mineral Water:
Bottled water containing not less than 250 parts per
milliontotal dissolved solids may be labeled as mineral water. Mineral water isdistinguished
from other types of bottled water by its constant level and relative proportions of mineral and
trace elements at the point of emergence from thesource. No mineral can be added to this
Purified Water:
Water that has been produced by distillation, deionization,reverse osmosis or other suitable
process can be labeled as purified bottledwater. Other suitable product names for bottled
water treated by one of theabove processes may include “distilled water” if it is produced by
distillation,“de-ionized water” if the water is produced by deionization, or “reverse
osmosiswater” if the process used is reverse osmosis


It was in 1967 that BISLERI set up a bottling plant for manufacturing andmarketing its
mineral water, which failed badly.
In 1968-69 the brand “ BISLERI” was sold to the “Parle group” by theItalian company, Parle
group launched BISLERI soda and mineral water, but again the concept failed as the Indian
customer was not ready to buy water in bottled form.
The market remained dormant for the next two decades (i.e. from 1970to 1990) the market
throughout this period was formed mainly by the premium segment like five- star hotels.
In the early 1990’s was the onset of liberalization policy, and sell-off of major soft drinks
brands, BISLERI was compelled to test the watersagain.
Today the demand of bottled water is increasing at a much higher ratethat of carbonated soft
drinks. The market size of bottled water too is
expected to surpass the size of soft drinks market in near future. HLL,which too has
identified the bottled water as a growth area of future, is presently looking or some suitable
brand for acquisition. Britannia
tooevinced some initial interest in the market but now seems to have postponed its plans. The
existing players too are set to expand their distribution network to have their presence across
the country
The market is also expected to undergo a major consolidation phase. Asone of the major
factors that are important for success in the market isthe distribution network, the players
with deep pockets are expected
togo for acquisition of existing small regional players to spread their network across the
country. Already Coke has tied up with Yes for manufacturing of its brands in areas where it
doesn’t have presence.
Though Coke and Pepsi have both, well established distribution
network as well as bottling & manufacturing plants, they seems to be atadvantage but players
like HLL and Nestle with strong financial musclecan easily turn the tables in their favor
through acquisition route.


1969: Buys Bisleri bottled water from an Italian company, Felice Bisleri. It was bottled in glass bottles
Shifts to PVC bottles. Sales surgeMid-1980s: Switches to PET bottles, which meant more transparency and
lifefor water.
1993: Sells carbonated drink brands like Thums Up, Gold Spot and Limca toCoca-Cola for Rs 400 crore.
1995: Bisleri launches a 500 ml bottle and sales shoot up by 400 per cent.2000: Introduces the 20-litre
container to bring prices down from Rs 10 a litre toRs 2 a litre.
1998: Introduces a tamper-proof and tamper-evident seal.
2000: BIS cancels Bisleri's licence of a water bottling in Delhi [ Images ] sincesome of the bottles did not carry
ISI label; the licence is restored one-and-a-half months later.
2002: Kinley overtakes Bisleri. The national retail stores audit by ORG-MARGshow Kinley's marketshare at
35.1 per cent compared to Bisleri's 34.4 per cent.

Parle Bisleri Limited: Expansion plans

Parle Bisleri Limited is undertaking a major expansion to increase itsmanufacturing facility as also to widen
the distribution network. The total project cost is estimated around Rs 260 crore. Of this, Rs 60 crore will
beutilised to expand the existing manufacturing facilities wherein the bottlingcapacity would be doubled to 200
million cases per day. Around Rs 200 crorewill be spent on increasing its distribution network five-fold over
the next twoyears. As a result, the company will have 10-lakh retail outlets backed by a fleetover 5,000
vehicles.Parle Bisleri also plans to procure recycling plants from Japan, for its PET bottles, and set up at least
two such plants in Chennai and Delhi at a cost of Rsfive crore each by this year-end. Crushed and compacted
bottles from other parts of the country will be transported to the two plants and a better part of thecompacted
PET will go into manufacturing polyester yarn.Though the company plans to come out with an IPO, two
years down the line,the present capital expenditure plan will be financed entirely through internalaccruals.


BISLERI manufacturers its own products and has its own manufacturing unitwhich includes
various machines, the whole manufacturing process is carried on b y B I S L E R I a t i t s p l a n t . T h e
whole manufacturing process is divided
intodifferent parts and it consists of different activities like water puri
f i c a t i o n treatment, blowing of the bottles, filling of the bottles, packing of the
bottlesetc.The manufacturing process of BISLERI is carried on in different parts:

Storing Of Water

The water is taken from the boring well and then is stored in huge
t a n k s , BISLERI has 6 tanks of 50,000 litres each, and water is first taken from
the boring well and stored in these tanks.
The process of ozonation ensures that the water remains free from bacteria, so that the water
can have a longer life and the machine used for this process of ozonation is called ozonator.
The process of filteration removes suspended particles from the water bysand filteration.
The stage of carbon filteration removes bad odour and colour from water and purifies it.
This stage of reserve osmosis system controls all the dissolves solid particles and it converts
hard water into soft water.
Under this stage of micro filteration additional safety measures are takedto guarantee purity
of water. In this stage addition of mineral magnesiumsulphate and potassium bicarbonate is
The ozone treatment increases the shelf life of water. To ensure mineral water isheld safe free
from contamination, ultraviolet treatment and ozonisation processis carried out. Ozone is
unstable trivalent oxygen, a very powerful bactericidewith no side effect, as it disintegrates
into oxygen within couple of hours.Sterilization effect of ozonised water continues even after
water is packaged,thereby ensuring safety of Mineral Water up to its final packing. To ensure
highquality of packing materials, components like caps and bottles are manufacturedin-house
from resins of quality suppliers.Good Manufacturing Practices are stringently followed at all
Processingis religiously monitored at every stage. Testing source water, processing parameter
s, microbial quality, packaging material integrity and finally, shelf lifestudies, forms an
integral part of quality and safety assurance plan
Sudha Menon PUNE, April 4PARLE Drinks plans to put up its own distribution network
across the country for the Bisleri mineral water brand. The company will invest
approximately Rs. 200 crores to procure 2,000 trucksand hire the same number of sales
people by end-2000 to extend the penetrationof the brand.Mr. Ramesh Chauhan, Chairman,
Parle Drinks, said he expects an almost 400 per cent growth in business when the number of
trucks transporting Bislerimineral water doubles from the current 1,000.
Predicting that he expects his company's turnover to touch Rs. 1,000 croreswithin the next
two years, he said the idea is to ensure that the Bisleri brandreaches every nook and cranny of
the country. He said: ``The key to success inany business is the distribution and if you have
that in your control, you havewon more than half the battle.''Meanwhile, Mr. Chauhan, who
puts Parle's 1999-2000 turnover at Rs. 350crores (up from Rs. 160 crores last fiscal), also
plans to grow the market withthe five-litre value pack, targeted mainly at homes and
This bottle, priced at Rs. 25, essentially makes mineral water available to theconsumer at Rs.
5 a litre. The one-litre bottle is available at Rs. 12, while thehalf-litre one is priced at Rs. 5.
Mr. Chauhan is now on the look-out for high-quality cups to make the water available in
smaller quantities.Consumers who buy the five-litre value pack have to pay a Re. 1 deposit to
theretailer, which can be redeemed once the bottle is returned. The five-litre packs,launched
last December in Goa, are currently available in six cities, includingDelhi, Bomba y and
Bangalore, and sell over 5,000 bottles a day, according toMr. Chauhan.``The company hopes
to make the value packs available across India in the nextcouple of months,'' he added.He is,
meanwhile, dispatching people to Japan this week to procure a recycling plant for the PET
bottles and said at least two such plants would be set up inChennai and Delhi at the cost of
Rs. 5 crores each, by the end of the year.Crushed and compacted bottles from other parts of
the country will betransported to the two plants, Mr. Chauhan said, adding that a better part
of thecompacted PET will go into the manufacture of polyester yarn: ``I have
alreadydiscussed _ with Relian ce and a couple of other manufacturers _ the possibilityof
selling the polyester yarn thus manufactured.'' He hopes to ensure that allused Bisleri bottles
come back to retailers by offering incentives.The company plans to double its advertising
budget from the Rs. 3 crores of lastyear to Rs. 6 crores next year, according to Mr. Chauhan,
who said it will also promote the five-litre pack with events and PoP displays.
BISLERI values their customers & therefore have developed 8 unique pack sizes to suit the
need of every individual. They presently have 250ml cups,250ml bottles, 500ml, 1L, 1.5L
and 2L which are the non-returnable packs &5L, 20L which are the returnable packs.Products
Produced by BISLERI.


BISLERI with added Minerals BISLERI Mineral Water contains minerals suchas magnesium
sulphate and potassium bicarbonate which are essential mineralsfor healthy living. They not
only maintain the pH balance of the body but alsohelp in keeping you fit and energetic at all

Bisleri Mountain Water

BISLERI Natural Mountain emanates from a natural spring, located in Uttaranchal and
Himachal nestled in the vast Shivalik Mountain ranges. Lauded as today's 'fountain of youth',
BISLERI Natural Mountain Water resonates with the energy and vibrancy capable of taking
you back to nature. BISLERI Natural Water is bottled in its two plants in Uttaranchal and
Himachal Pradesh and is available in six different pack sizes of 250ml, 500ml, 1 litre, 1.5
litre, 2 litre and5 litres. Himalayan Water The water that almost descends from the Gods: The
Himalayas, the abode of the Gods, where the earth meets the heavens and where in lies
nature's untouched bounty. White glaciers, snow-capped
mountains and a plethora of exotic herbs and other flora that have therapeutic properties. This
is where you'll find a treasure trove of hidden natural springwater that flows through natural
purifying filters, mineral rich rocks and herbsfrom which it absorbs many healing properties.
We bottle this pristine springwater directly at source, at the foothills of the Himalayas.And
now the customers, will get every drop of purity, right here, in this bottle.BISLERI Mountain
Water is available in 500ml. bottles & 1 litre bottles


In endeavor to maintain strict quality controls each unit purchases pre-forms &caps only from
approved vendors. BISLERI produces its own bottles in-house;they have recently procured
the latest world class state of the art machineries that put them at par with International
standards. This has not only helped BISLERI improve its packaging quality but has also
reduced raw material wastage & doubled production capacity. You can be rest assured that
you aredrinking safe & pure water when you consume BISLERI. BISLERI is free of
impurities & 100% safe. Enjoy the Sweet taste of Purity !Rigorous Research and
Development and stringent quality controls have made BISLERI market leaders in the bottled
water segment. BISLERI has always been committed to offering every Indian pure and clean
drinking water. Hence BISLERI water is put through multiple stages of purification,
Ozonisation andis hygienically packed for final consumption .The machines which are used
for the blowing and filling of the bottles are alsocleaned twice a month. All the tanks are also
cleaned by the use of chemicals.
There is an online monitoring system where the batches of bottles are shownand once the
batch crosses a certain limit, an alarm is heard. Everyday almostone lakh bottles are passed
through the monitoring system. Moreover, in casethere is a problem regarding the batch for
example, the cap seal of a particular bottle is not there or labeling is not done properly, the
system records that andimmediately the production is halted. This is followed as per the
BureauStandards and if any mistake occurs then the whole batch is discarded.
This shows that the whole batch is replaced and stopped which indicates highquality control.
Even practically every 2 days testing and sampling of the water and its bottles are done in the
market and in their Quality Department to check in case anything is wrong or not. In fact
there is a quality checker under thequality department for the final checking done of the water
before it is enteredthe market.
There is also a warehouse where the 20 litre bottles are kept for 48 hours toallow the ozone to
settle in it. This helps in prevention of any germs or harmfulchemicals and also purifies the
water. The cost of quality undoubtedly is veryefficiently taken care of in BISLERI, there are
times when the cost of qualityincreases i.e. in the rainy seasons the cost increases because the
water is purifiedtwice than the normal seasons as sometimes the water might be dirty due to
therains, bisleri doesn’t take any risks and does not compromise with their quality.


The brand that was till now marketed as packaged drinking water (cleaned through
reverseosmosis) will now be available in a natural avatar.Bisleri International will invest Rs
lOO crore for the project which constitutes a Rs40- crore investment in two plants in
Uttaranchal and HimachalPradesh in line expansion, Bisleri International chairman Ramesh
Chauhan said. The plants willcome up next year. Chauhan said the rest of the investment of
about Rs60 crore would go intoinfrastructure development. The investment would be funded
through internal accruals.
Launching 'Bisleri Natural Mountain Water' he said the company was looking for four
morelocations from where we look to source natural water. The likely locations would be in
South andWest India he said. Bisleri has 23 plants across the country producing bottled
water.Bisleri Natural Mountain water will be available in aqua green packaging against the
blue packaging of old and will be available in six sizes. The company is also planning an
aggressivemarketing and advertising campaign with a two-year budget of Rs60 crore
Chauhan said the new packaging has been adopted in order to stand apart from the others and
inChauhan's words, "As leader, we want to differentiate ourselves and hence have adopted
this ,aquagreen colour," he said. Priced at a significant premium to packaged water Natural
MountainWater will be available for Rs20 per litre
The natural water segment, which accounts for about 5 per cent of the total bottled water
segment,is expected to grow by leaps and bounds as health awareness and disposable
incomes rise.According to the company the foray into spring water will be followed by an
entry into the packaged ice segment (Bisleri Ice) as well into flavoured, vitamin and sparkling
water categories.The company is said to be setting up R&D facilities for ice and studying
various packagingoptions. Ramesh Chauhan, chairman, Bisleri International expects to sell
10 million cases of Bisleri Mountain Water over the next two years- a turnover of Rs200
The bottled water industry is worth Rs 1,000 crore in India and is growing at 40 per cent
per annum. It is projected to reach Rs5,000 crore by 2010. The main players in the spring
water segment are Himalaya, Catch and Leh Berry. At present Himalaya leads the segment
with a 50-per cent market share.Bisleri claims to have a 40-per cent market share of the
organized packaged water market. Thenatural spring water market is very small and accounts
for 5 per cent of the entire segment. Bisleriis projecting a turnover of Rs300 crore this
financial year, as against Rs220 crore last year.Chauhan says he is also preparing for an entry
into the US market with his spring water and is talkswith US authorities for this. He would
not export India-bottled Bisleri into US, but would set up
a bottling operation there as transportation costs are a huge obstacle in sourcing the product
fromIndia. "We are in the process of getting the regulatory approvals for the venture,"
Chauhan said. Hesaid Bisleri was at par with companies in the developed world as far as
meeting internationalstandards were concerned.


I. Brand Recall: Bisleri is very popular around the country for its product. This has
made it achieve a very high brand recall among the minds of the customers. The
product is so popular that it has become synonymous with mineral water. This is a
very big success for the brand as its values and ideologies have clearly resonated with
the customers. This has also earned the trust of the customers for the brand.
II. Quality Standard: They have always focused on quality of its product and have
never compromised on the same. They claimed their bottled water to be 100% safe
to with its competitors. They introduced the breakaway seal to make sure they deliver
on their promise.

III. Innovation: They have always strived for innovations among They were the ones
that moved from the glass bottles to PET bottles to ensure quality. The PET bottles
are 100% recyclable thereby taking care of their ecosystem. They introduced the
breakaway seal to maintain the purity. They also introduced the hexagonal bottles for
better handling, balance and usage. They introduced the big family packs for the
usage at homes and offices.
IV. Market Share: According to the Euromonitor report of 2016 Bisleri leads the
country in market share with 24.6%.
V. No Close Competitors: Apart from Aquafina and Kinley, Bisleri is at a very
comfortable position in market share in the country.
VI. Point of purchase marketing – Bisleri is known to be very strong and
aggressive where point of purchase marketing is concerned. It brands the shops of
its dealers and distributors very well across the country. Furthermore, the colors used
are such that they are noticeable even on highways when the cars are going fast. As a
result, the branding activity results in good turnover overall.

I. Distribution Method: The Routeselling method used by Bisleri is more
expensive than the common method of appointing distributors in different towns. This
increases the cost and many retailers refrain from keeping the product as well. This
directly attacks their distribution potential, revenue and market share.

II. Reuse of Bottles by Locals: Lot of local people collect the Bisleri bottles and
refill it using the local unclean water and then mix it with the original batch. This
reduces the brand image of Bisleri and may prove harmful during consumption.
III. Faults in Production: Many times it comes under scrutiny in lapses of quality.
This damages their brand value and reputation. They also lost the license to produce
at their Noida facility due to a similar case.
IV. Unmet market Potential: It is unable to meet the market potential of the south
India as well as in various pockets of India. Production is not as high as it should be
because the consumption is very high. Naturally, there are other limiting factors to
production such as government norms as well. So if production is increased, Bisleri
can match the potential of the market.
I. Expansion: It can expand in different locations across the global markets to
increase the market revenues and profits. Europe and the Middle East is a lucrative
option for the same.
II. Expected Growth Rate: Packaged water grew at 23-25% compared to last year
which is almost double the growth rate of carbonated drinks. This shows there is still
huge potential in the country.
III. Premium Segment: It can launch a premium bottled water for 5-star hotels and
high-end customers. It can diversify its target audience and cash in on this segment as
IV. Matching demand and supply – A major problem for any retailer to shift to
brands other then bisleri is the regular supply and refill capacity of Bisleri. The more
production Bisleri has, the more market it will conquer and the more it will be able to
match demand with supply. This will increase its revenues tremendously.

I. Competition : Indian markets is getting crowded in this product category. Giants
like Coca-Cola, Pepsi and Tata Global Beverages have launched packaged mineral
water in the country. This can affect the market share of the company and thereby cut
its profits and revenues.
II. New big Players eyeing the market : Apart from this there are several other
giants that are eyeing the lucrative mineral water industry of India. Nestle,
Tata, HUL and DS group are all eyeing this market. This would increase the
competition to the next level.
III. Localised players : Because the barriers to entry are very low for packaged
drinking water industry, there are many competitors who have cropped up in various
places. As they have a smaller operation then Bisleri, they are able to give higher
margins to retailers and capture the market in pockets. This is affecting Bisleri where
small pockets in urban areas are concerned.
IV. RO and Filters : The increase in the sales of water filter and ROs in the country is
also an issue to the sales of Bisleri. People prefer their home water when travelling
then to buy a bottled water from a retailer. And as the rates of such filters are falling
the threat is increasing.
V. Counterfeiting : Local and illegal manufacturer package their products similar to
Bisleri and sell it across local destinations harming the market share of Bisleri.
VI. Changing Government Policies: For every drop of water packaged
some needs to be given back to the earth and create sustainability in the environment.
Bisleri would need to change their production style and suit the government norms.
This would increase their cost of production and thereby make their products costlier
or drive their profits down.
The market is segmented into premium, popular and bulk
They changed their segments as per market situation keeping the oldintact.
Bulk segment has always been a prime focus for the company
Every new entrant in the mineral water market adopted the purity so theshift was necessary.
The ad campaign of play safe saw a shift in positioning from "pure and
safe" to "play safe“.
It has developed 8 unique pack sizes to suit the need of every individual.It is present in 250ml
cups, 250ml bottles, 500ml, 1L, 1.5L, and 2L whichare the non-returnable packs & 5L, 20L
which are the returnable packs.Till date the Indian consumer has been offered Bisleri water,
however inits effort to bring something refreshingly new, it has introduced BisleriNatural
Mountain Water - water brought from the foothills of themountains situated in Himachal


Bisleri traditional marketing theory and practice ha!e focused on attracting newcustomers
rather than retaining existing ones" 5oday howe!er although attracting
newcustomers remains an important marketing task the emphasis has shifted towardrelation
ships with customers and other stakeholders" ,eyond designing strategies toattract new
customers and create transactions with them ,isleri is going all out to retaincurrent
customers and build profitable long term relationships with them" 5he new!iew is that
marketing is the science and art of finding retaining and growing profitablecustomers
,isleri has also reali8ed that losing a customer means losing more than a single
sale" Itmeans losing the entire stream of purchases that the customer would make o!er
alifetime of patronage" 5hus working to retain and grow customers makes goodeconomic
sense" - *ompany can lose money on a specific transaction but still benefitgreatly from a
long term relationship

-ttracting Retaining and Growing customers'In ,isleri the key to building lasting
relationships is the creation of superior customer !alue and satisfaction" %atisfied customers
are more likely to be loyal customers andloyal customers are more likely to gi!e the
company a lasting share of their business"
Why the new Bisleri 500 ad camping is kissing success

Bisleri's new 'Kiss to drink' campaign

Taking the diktat, "it's water at the end of the day, you don't take it seriously" Bisleri has
made humour the lifeline of the new marketing campaign that has many firsts to its credit.

In the deserts of Rajasthan, water is so scarce that the villagers hire private guards to secure
their wells from water thieves. Scientists fret that World War III will be fought over water.

In the new Bisleri ad though, we get a bite-sized view of this impending apocalypse.

The films created by WPP’s agency Soho Square (formerly Meridian) are a part of a larger
marketing campaign that aggressively pushes the 500 ml bottle.

Interestingly, this is the first time ever that Bisleri is doing SKU led advertising. The
campaign accounts for 30% of its annual marketing spends.

Image: Youtube grab of the Official Bisleri 500 ad.

The Bisleri 500 ads

The campaign takes us through three situations of water rage: a newly married bride slapping
her groom, a young college girl whacking a boy and an old aunt beating up a Supermanesque

In each of these, the point is that one should buy their own bottle of water and not share or
"kiss" somebody else's drink.

Bisleri aims to 'double the half'

The brand is betting big on this SKU as a key growth driver taking a leaf from global trends
across the world.

Elaborates Ramesh Chauhan chairman and managing director; Bisleri International, "Most
marketing guys get carried away by what the retailer wants and the retailer often is not fully
aware of what the consumer wants.
Bisleri 500 ads by Soho Square:
Elaborating on the creative treatment, Anuraag Khandelwal, ECD and creative head, Soho
Square says, "It's the two-faced contradiction that on one hand we shun "jhootha" and
reprimand it and at the same time if unnoticed, most of us would put our lips to the bottle."

This is the core insight of the positioning platform, albeit articulated via a more youthful
terminology — “Kiss to drink”, he adds.

There is a conscious effort to have a humorous and over the top feel to the communication.

Bisleri 500 ads: a new approach:

Brands in this space have been on the airwaves following the safety, purity, and hygiene
stories, so much so that even water purifiers have hammered that message home.

Shares Satish deSa, ECD and creative head, Soho Square, "When we had a relatively fresher
message to give out, we wanted to make the most of it in terms of engagement, likeability
and repeatability of viewing and decided to use effective and relevant humour."

Kiss to drink Digital campaign:

Along with the first ever SKU-led communication this campaign also marks the maiden foray
of the brand in the digital space.

Shares Shraddha Waikar Nathani, marketing head, Bisleri International, "We started on
digital with a teaser campaign followed by a pre-launch of the films on YouTube and
Facebook." This was done to give the younger audience a chance to preview the ads.

Taking the message of 'don't share' and acknowledging people who get their own bottle,
twitter handles #Shabaash and #dontshare were planted.

A single day, 18th April 2013, was celebrated as #WorldShabaashDay on twitter,

encouraging tweeples to acknowledge anybody and anything.

The digital campaign has been conceptualised and executed by Flying Cursor.

The campaign along with TV and digital is also finding a leg on radio and Out-of-Home
media. The packaging of the bottles has been slapped with the 500 message boldly in yellow.
Bisleri's new campaign strategy
The campaign idea is edgy, and so is the articulation of the idea feels Emmanuel Upputuru,
founder and chief innovation officer, ITSA, and it has direct links to sales since the campaign
is asking everyone to have their own bottle.

In his view there are leaders who play safe and lose the ground eventually to new comers —
like Sony and Nokia lost the plot to Apple and Samsung.

And there are leaders who continue to extend their lead and he puts Bisleri in the latter

Water wars aka stiff competition

After all the competition for Bisleri in the bottled water category valued at 25,000 crore could
very well be from not just other water brands, it could even be from water-purifier brands like
Eureka Forbes and Kent in their quest to make mineral water a household item.

The other big players in the market include Coca-Cola's Kinley and PepsiCo's Aquafina along
with Parle Agro's Bailley and Kingfisher


Porter¶s five forces model is specially used in industry analysis. This will helps an
organizationto make a strategy. The bottled packaged water industry is a part of beverage
industry whichagain comes under fast moving consumer goods. According to American
agency the world¶s bottled packed water is expected to reach $65.9bn by 2012.
The cause behind this is populationrising, consumer buying pattern, life style trends and
growing level of health consciousness.

Threat of entry:
As the number of Bottled packaged water consumption is increasing in all over the world,
theopportunity for other players in increasing rapidly. In the bottled packaged industry the
entry barrier is low. The entry barrier is low due to local low production cost, less amount of
capital,easy to access government and legal law, local production law, less legal and
government barrier and low switching cost. The existing brand in beverage industry is paying
attention and moving
into bottled packed water, as they have good brand image and the opportunity is very huge in
thisindustry. Eg. Pepiso coca colaAccording to industry life cycle the bottled packed industry
is at mature state and the most of themarket is covered by the Bisleri, Aquafina, kinley and
Ozone. So the pressure for new entrants tocapture the market is very high. But according to
still there are many local player that coveredthe 26% of the market. But when we observe the
product on differentiation the different among product is very less or equal lent to nil.
According to product differentiation the threats of entrants is high. But the overall threat of
new entrants is medium.

argaining power of suppliers:

The bargaining power of supplier is low, as the suppliers include municipal water system,
bottlesand plastic cap, label printer filtration and deionization equipment, plastic grains and
etc.Sometimes the bargaining power of suppliers is depends on geographical location and
thetechnology adopted by the organization. The recyclable bottle used by the company
needsadvanced technology or some dependant, like other packaging industry as the
packaging cost ishigh. But the large availability of suppliers leads to less bargaining
power. The bargaining power of supplier may include the inventory stock of bottles. Overall
bargaining power of supplier is less.
argaining power of buyer:
As the bottled packed water industry comes in oligopoly industry. The no of producer is less
thusthe bargaining power of suppliers is less. The bargaining power of buyer is depends on
the priceand product. The availability of product also affects the bargaining power of buyers.
Availabilityof substitute is also affects the bargaining power. As the competition is not much
high, there aremainly five to ten producer like Bisleri, Aquafina, Kinley, Oxyrich and Pure
life so thecustomers do not have any advantage moving from one brand to other brand. The
productdifferentiation is almost zero, so the bargaining power of customer is low.Sometimes
it depend upon the geographical location, segment of consumers both rural and
urban population, consumer buying behavior and consumer preferences.

Substitute product:
The availability of substitute is coffee, soft drink, juice and tea. The substitute of product
affectsthe price and market. The availability of substitute provides the option to customer and
customer can switch from one product to other. The beverage industry is always appreciated
by everycountry. The availability of various health drinks, juice, carbonic and no carbonic
drinks andavailability of taste changed the consumer preferences. Consumer is using various
health drinks,carbonic and non carbonic drinks to quench the thirst.The total size of food
industry in India is almost $ 65.6 billion and soft drinks (juices andcarbonated beverage)
contain $ 1 billion. Indian soft drink market consumption in a year is 284million crates. Soft
drink market is highly seasonal in nature, consumption in during offseason is15 million crates
and in peak season is around 25 million crates per month. In urban areaConsumption of soft
drinks is 75% of whole Indian market. Indian soft drink market isdominated by multinational
companies Coca-Cola and PepsiCo. In India mineral water market is$50 million and 65
million in crates. The monthly average consumption of mineral water is 4.9million crates that
increase in peak season to 5.2 million (Non-alcoholic beverage market inIndia, 2009).So we
can draw that the bottled packed water consumption in India is one third of the total beverage

The degree of rivalry and the competition affects the price, quality, profit and revenue in
anindustry. As the market is almost on saturation state, and the industry refers the
oligopolycompetition so there is a high competition to increase the market share. The market
is dominated by the very few players like bisleri(%), aquafina(%), kinley(%) and oxyrich,
and they are tryingto increase their market share by product introduction, price, packaging
and volume of water. Asthere is no much difference among the product by different
competitor, the rivalry is only interms of service and of marketing strategy. The intensity of
rivalry is low as there is limited player and the product is not price sensitive. According to
Indian beverage association themarket will grow by in 2012 , the market shows the high
growth rate so the competition is less

On the basis of porter analysis we can draw that the market is safe for beverage
industry.According to producer perspective there is a huge opportunity and the control over
marketcannot be influenced by one competitor or one supplier. The dependency of industry
over supplier is less also the rivalry is low among competitor.


Issues about the bottled water industry
Bottled water as daily drinking water Thirty five years after Bisleri launched India's first
bottled water, urban India is filled with numerous bottled water brands, some known, and
some unknown. There are more then 250 brands and 2000 plus bottling plants across the
country. The market for packaged drinking water is around Rs 10 billion and is growing at
the rate of 40 percent per annum. However, there are many issues that come with this huge
industry. One was the CSE expose that found contaminants in bottled water. That
concentrated on pesticides and targeted the known brands like Kinley, Aquafina and Bisleri. I
want to raise a few issues here about this industry that can be discussed: 1. There are
numerous unknown bottled water brands across the country. There is a huge demand for
packaged water among middle class urban Indian which believes bottled water to be better
quality than tap, boiled or other water for drinking. Due to the presence of so many brands in
the market, it is difficult monitor their manufacturing process and water quality. My question
is -- are they adhering to quality standards or is the water is spurious? How does a consumer
know it and where are the regulators to monitor it? 2. Another question that comes to my
mind (I am not technically sure) is about the claims of the treatment undertaken to treat the
water before it is sealed. Many brands, especially unknown local brands write in their bottles
that the water is UV treated, RO treated, ozonized and various other treatments that the water
went through before it was bottled. My question is -- are these technically true or they are just
claims? Do we need water to pass though so many multiple treatment processes or one or two
processes are enough? Does any of these treatment processes clash with each other? Are
these just tall claims or they are actually undertaking all these processes? 3. It's my
understanding that many times, when one opens a packaged water bottle, it is filled to the
brim. But many bottles especially of known brands are not filled to the brim. The bottle has a
capacity (500 ml for e.g.) and that capacity is not till the brim of a bottle but about a few ml
below. Hence, when the water is packed though standard bottling procedure, the filled water
is equal to the bottle capacity and this leaves a small portion near the rim of a bottle empty
over which the cap is sealed. In case of spurious filling of water, which can happen from a
normal tap, then the one who is filling does not normally think about this gap that has to be
maintained, and hence fills the bottle to the rim and seals it. I found many bottles once
opened filled to the rim in places like airport, railway stations etc. What is others take on
similar experiences? 4. My final question to ponder: Is this urban India's sustainable choice
for their daily drinking water needs-- the water which in most cases is extracted illegally from
the already depleting groundwater? Does the urban consumer think about how much they are
spending buying this water in a month and compare it to their regular water bills? The
consumer is willing to pay about Rs 50 per bottle (one needs more then a bottle a month) for
a 20 litre bottled water but is unhappy about paying for corporation water if that rate is hiked.
- Binayak


The study was designed to provide information help to “BISLERI” in planning and
implementing advertising /MARKETING approaches for BISLERI. More specifically the
research attempted to provide answer to the following research question.

I. To find the awareness about various brand of Bisleri.

II. To determine the level of brand recall for various brands of bisleri.
III. To find the most preferred brand of bisleri.
IV. To determine important attributes and factors, consumer consider swhile choosing a
V. To find the influencing factor in while MARKETING purchase decision.
VI. To know the market share of various brands.
VII. To measure the overall performance of the various brand of bisleri.

Objective of the Study

To study the customer’s brand awareness about the packaged drinking water.

Competition is rife, in today’s complex world, the aspect of considering the food as the prime
concept has been eliminated in the fastest world, every person who live in the fast growing
complex world would like to consume food not by large but by mean. Hence the aspect of
considering the leverage of mixing food items in to digestive component is determined by
intake of drinking water. No matter where the water procured viz., ground water, rain water,
distilled water, purified water and by any other mean. It is recapitalization that the vitality of
water is the need of any aspect of digestive function. Hence the intake of water has
accumulated his necessity in the consumption of normal man. The failure of monsoon, no
availability of pure water has necessitated to invent packaged drinking water. Now the older
of the day is to consume packaged drinking water whereby it substances the aspect quality,
worth, affordable price and easy carrying. The business world today had been accord in large
consumption of packaged drinking water as it eliminates disease like dengue, cold, fever,
metropolis attacks, dysentery and other viral infections. Due manufacture step in to the
process of inventing packaged drinking water which is of sterilized ultra violet treated,
The study based on primary data and secondary data i) Primary data The data are those which
are collected a fresh and for the first time and thus happen to be original in character.
It was collected with the help of a structured interview schedule were administered to the
selected 120 respondents. ii) Secondary data The secondary data related to the study has been
collected from the information published in journals, magazines, newspapers and websites.
Sampling Design And Technique Design of the study The present study is empirical based
on the opinion of the respondents.
Sample design The researcher has adopted convenient sampling method for selecting
respondents from the population.
Sample size Sample size refers to the number of item to be selected from the universe the
size of sample taken for the study is 120.
Statistical Tools
Used The collected data were analysed by using the appropriate statistical tools and
techniques. The tools applied for the purpose of the analysis are
1. Percentage Analysis
2. Two – Way Table
3. Chi – square Test
4. Anova Table
5. Garret ranking Technique

species of microorganism was crytosporidium. In contrast, there was no documented case of

disease outbreak due to contaminated bottled mineral water. Tap water as well as bottled
water is both supremely safe components of nutrition. The recommendation that tap water is
better than mineral water, particularly for high-risk patients, is not supported by the literature.

proven correct or wrong, and must be capable of refutation. If it remains unrefuted by facts, it
is said to be verified or corroborated .

An assumption about certain characteristics of a population. If it specifies values for every
parameter of a population, it is called a simple hypothesis; if not, a composite hypothesis. If it
attempts to nullify the difference between two sample means by suggesting that the
difference is of no statistical significance, it is called a null hypothesis.
Research Process : Choosing the research problem · Review of related litreature · Collection
of data · Interpretation of data · Preparing the research report The purpose of research is to
inform action. Thus, the study should seek to contextualize its findings within the larger body
of research. Research must always be of high quality in order to produce knowledge that is
applicable outside of the research setting with implications that go beyond the group that has
participated in the research. Furthermore, the results of the study should have implications for
policy and project implementation. Well-conducted research is vital to the success of global
health endeavors. Not only does research form the foundation of program development and
policies all over the world, but it can also be translated into effective global health programs.
Research draws its power from the fact that it is empirical: rather than merely theorizing
about what might be effective or what could work, researchers go out into the field and
design studies that give policymakers hard data on which they can base their decisions.
Furthermore, good research produces results that are examinable by peers, methodologies
that can be replicated, and knowledge that can be applied to real-world situations.
Researchers work as a team to enhance our knowledge of how to best address the world’s
problems. In my study I had analyzed my data from various sources which are based on some
assumptions which are related to the growth of packaged drinking water industry on the other
hand I had done my research on the basis of following : · The study is description in nature
data is collected from various journal, internet. · The information has been collected from
primary and secondary sources. · The source of data was mainly e-newspapers and journals,
magazine, various internet sites. This research is done on the basis of collecting of
Information and data from various sources. As the study is description in nature the
population data is collected from the various websites of internet, Growth aspects of
Packaged Drinking water Industry is taken from Journals, Newspaper and Internet websites,
Sources of water and water supply coverage is collected from the records of Municipal
Corporation and compared with the Internet websites. - 6 - On the other hand primary and
secondary data are collected through Questionnaire, Survey of the Packaged Drinking water
manufacturers on the basis of questionnaire, Analysis of questionnaire by making various
tables. Here I had also used the Reference books, Journals, Newspapers, Published Essays for
Marketing Chapters. At Last all the data collected is mainly from the Internet, Journals,
questionnaire, survey of the companies and analysis of the view of public.

Limitations and Scope :

Madhya Pradesh is a state having large number of industries producing so many kinds and
varieties of goods in which one of them is packaged drinking water industry. This is the
industry that has taken a tremendous growth in the recent years. As the state Madhya Pradesh
is vast and having large number of industries therefore, to restrict the area of the research the
study is done in one of the well known city Indore falls in the state of Madhya Pradesh which
is also called as “Mini Mumbai” . In this research I had tried my best to understand each and
every aspect of packaged drinking water industry which is based on critical study done to
alert the consumers and to alert the governments to make control over these industries. The
reason behind choosing Indore for the survey on packaged drinking water industries is that
Indore is my native place where I had completed by studies, managing my Business and the
working at designation of Assistant Professor in SJHS Gujarati Innovative College which
enables my study with good results by visiting all the active industries of packaged drinking
water and their activities as well. This is the reason I had chosen the area of Indore for my
research which includes the survey of all the packaged drinking water industries, their
product variants, their growth, area of supply, rural and urban area of Indore, production
capacity of the industries, their sales, their marketing strategies, branded packaged drinking
water industries, government policies, market price, profit margin of the industries, sources of
supply of water by the Indore municipal corporation, problems of the industries etc are taken
in to critical analysis .
The limitations taken for the research is as follows : ·
On the basis of research I had taken the area of Indore rural and urban both.
· On an approx the data of 80 Packaged Drinking water Manufacturers which are classified
into three categories i.e. Major Players, BIS Certified, IMC Certified.
· The Government Policies of Drinking water is related to M.P. State Government, Indian
Government and Indore Municipal Corporation only.
· The Government Policies of Packaged Drinking Water Industry are at national level. All
the Quality Norms are directly related to Bureau of Indian Standards norms.
· The water sources available are of Indore City only.
· The market area covered is limited to Indore only.
· The Population counted is of Indore and Madhya Pradesh.
Scope :
· Present steps for Drinking Water.
· Look at each value add in terms of cost components, technical depth requirements, likely
innovation trends.
· Look at present worldwide industry in terms of size, technology cluster and geographical
location; identify input costs and availability.
· Identify any barriers (preservation innovation cycle, additional overheads) to outsourcing to
model cost savings in emerging markets.
· Identify matrix filters for sourcing opportunities.
The research contains all the data, information and analysis limited to Indore and Madhya
Pradesh. In the research Historical, Societal, Political, Geographical and Cultural references
are placed according to their need.
The research work is done on both primary and secondary sources of data according to the
needs in the study.


The management process through which goods and services move from concept to the
customer. It includes the coordination of four elements called the 4 P's of marketing:
(1) identification, selection and development of a product,

(2) determination of its price,

(3) selection of a distribution channel to reach the customer's place, and

(4) development and implementation of a promotional strategy.

For example, new Apple products are developed to include improved applications and
systems, are set at different prices depending on how much capability the customer desires,
and are sold in places where other Apple products are sold.

Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/marketing.html

Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating,
delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and
society at large.

Marketing Research
Marketing research is the function that links the consumer, customer, and public to the
marketer through information–information used to identify and define marketing
opportunities and problems; generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions; monitor
marketing performance; and improve understanding of marketing as a process. Marketing
research specifies the information required to address these issues, designs the method for
collecting information, manages and implements the data collection process, analyzes the
results, and communicates the findings and their implications.
Philip Kotler (born May 27, 1931)
Is an American marketing author, consultant, and professor; currently the S. C. Johnson
Distinguished Professor of International Marketing at the Kellogg School of
Management at Northwestern University. He gave the definition of marketing mix .He is the
author of over 60 marketing books, including Marketing Management, Principles of
Marketing, Kotler on Marketing, Marketing Insights from A to Z, Marketing 4.0, Marketing
Places, Marketing of Nations, Chaotics, Market Your Way to Growth, Winning Global
Markets, Strategic Marketing for Health Care Organizations, Social Marketing, Up and Out
of Poverty, and Winning at Innovation. Kotler describes strategic marketing as serving as
"the link between society's needs and its pattern of industrial response.

In Drucker on Marketing, William Cohen, a former student, has sifted through Drucker’s
huge body of work, singled out his most salient ideas on marketing, and constructed them
into a framework that not only outlines Drucker’s marketing philosophy but provides
practical advice on how to achieve marketing goals in today’s business setting. For Drucker,
profitability should not be the main focus of a business. The customer should be; the market
should be. He didn’t consider marketing as one of many tools to generate profits. Rather, he
viewed marketing as the driving force of business, a philosophy for defining and capturing
the most enriching customer opportunities.

Importance of Marketing in today’s World:

Due to Economic downturn marketing has gained importance in past few years in order to
gain the attention of the consumers.In 21st century marketing has become one of the key
strategies used by organisations world wide. Companies can not use one simple marketing
strategy which meets the need of both markets’ and consumers’ because they are so versatile
to be dealt collectively this is because of continues change in modern society. Cultural
changes and advancements in technology divided a market into so many segments.In order
for M&S to capture large market share it has to set up successful market strategies and make
the most of technology.
A hypothesis is a proposed explanation of a phenomenon which still has to be rigorously tested. In
contrast, a theory has undergone extensive testing and is generally accepted to be the accurate
explanation behind an observation. A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis
proposed for further research. A different meaning of the term hypothesis is used in formal logic, to
denote the antecedent of a proposition.

Definition :

A supposition or explanation theory that is provisionally accepted in order to interpret certain

events or phenomena, and to provide guidance for further investigation. A hypothesis may be
proven correct or wrong, and must be capable of refutation. If it remains unrefuted by facts, it is said
to be verified or corroborated.

Statistics: An assumption about certain characteristics of a population. If it specifies values for every
parameter of a population, it is called a simple hypothesis; if not, a composite hypothesis. If it
attempts to nullify the difference between two sample means by suggesting that the difference is of
no statistical significance, it is called a null hypothesis.


· Null Hypothesis : A denial of an attribute, an existence, a difference or an effect or relationship
expressed in negative statement.

· Alternative Hypothesis : Affirms the existence of the phenomenon, acceptance of the attribute of
relationship effects and differences.

Characteristics of Hypothesis

· Testable

· Logical

· Directly related to the research problem

· Represents the single unit or subset of the problem

· Factually or theoretically based

· States relationship between variables

· Sets the limits of the study

· Stated in the form that can be rejected or accepted.

- 4 - In framing a hypothesis, we must not currently know the outcome of a test or that it remains
reasonably under continuing investigation. Only in such cases does the experiment, test or study
potentially increase the probability of showing the truth of a hypothesis. If we already know the
outcome, it counts as a "consequence" — and we should have already considered this while
formulating the hypothesis. If one cannot assess the predictions by observation or by experience,
the hypothesis classes as not yet useful, and must wait for others who might come afterward to
make possible the needed observations.
Hypothesis of the present research were as follows:
· Packaged Drinking Water is essential to make drinking water available to all the people and helps
in maintenance of health

· Packaged Drinking Water industry is growing in Indore but cannot meet the demand of growing

· Packaged Drinking Water is being consumed by urban population only.

· When Packaged Drinking Water industry will develop it will be required to meet out challenges in
the market by opposition of general public and government.

· Government policies regarding Drinking Water will always interfere in the development of
Packaged Water industry.

· Bottled water is the safest type of Packaged Drinking Water and should be encouraged in the
marketing strategy of Drinking Water industry.

Criteria for Evaluating the Hypothesis

· Stated in declarative form

· Be consistent with known facts, previous researches and theories

· It should follow the research problem

· State the expected relationship between two or more variables

· Testable

· Stated clearly and concisely

· Level of significance must be indicated when stating the null hypothesis


The aim of literature review is to highlight what has been done so far in the field of interest
and how your findings relate to earlier research. The review of literature also indicates the
(a) Approaches;
(b) Methods;
(c) Variables used; and
(d) Statistical procedure.
Of foremost importance in a literature review is the findings itself. In the field of ICT,
compiling literature review has always been a challange. This is due to the nature of
computing and information field which go through tremendous changes and new findings
within a short period. The review gives an overview on findings based on previous research
work done at the time of research period. The review also traces the general patterns of the
findings and the conclusions that can be made based on the findings.


Buys Bisleri bottled water from an Italian company, Felice Bisleri. It was bottled in
glass bottles then.
Shifts to PVC bottles. Sales surge
Switches to PET bottles, which meant more transparency and life for water.
Sells carbonated drink brands like Thums Up, Gold Spot and Limca_to Coca-Cola for Rs.400
Bisleri launches a 500 ml bottle and sales shoot up by 400 per cent.
Introduces the 20-litre container to bring prices down from Rs 10 a litre to Rs 2 a litre.
Introduces a tamper-proof and tamper-evident seal.
BIS cancels Bisleri's licence of a water bottling in Delhi since some of the bottles did notcarry
ISI label; the licence is restored one-and-a-half months later.
Kinley overtakes Bisleri. The national retail stores audit by ORG-MARG show
Kinley'smarketshare at 35.1 per cent compared to Bisleri's 34.4 per cent.
Bisleri says it plans to venture out into Europe and America to sell bottled water
water king, Mr Ramesh Chauhan, set to take brand Bisleri across the globe.
Bisleri has announced its plans to foray into the domestic fruit juice market and earmarkedan
investment of Rs 100 crore for upgradation of its Chittor plant and setting up of a new facility.
Bisleri Natural Mountain water will be available in aqua green packaging against the
blue packaging of old and will be available in six sizes.
Parle Bisleri changed the look introduced a new variant (natural
mountain water)andannounced it’s plan to launch the brand in US- a huge market for designer waters.
Bisleri International has decided to register the mango drink brand — Maaza — in
easternEuropean countries, and launch the brand through a franchisee operation.
company plans to concentrate on markets such as Jammu and Kashmir,Kerela,Southern partof Tamil Nadu
and Punjab,which are its Weaker links to steer a 40% annual growth in sales.


AUTHOR: Patricia J.Sethi
Thunder Unbottled: From Thums Up to Bisleri Hardcover – 23 Oct 2013
by Patricia J. Sethi (Author)
Thunder Unbottled - From Thums Up to Bisleri, is a much-anticipated document which gives
corporate head honchos, executives and even lay-folk a fascinating glimpse into the life of a
man who has made history as a David who challenged Goliath and came out beaming. The
questions that linger in the minds of legions of his followers - how does one pull this off,
what mind-set motivates such a person, how does such a talented leader and game-changer
relax when the work day is through - are all answered here in a volume crafted by long-time
ally and former Newsweek UN Bureau Chief, Patricia J. Sethi. It is an indispensable addition
to the library of those involved in Indian business or anyone eager to learn how remarkably
well local talent can compete with the best in the world.

Abstract: Marketing mix is a powerful tool that enables the marketers to

concentrate on specific marketing tasks of 4p's and allocates the resources lime
money time etc., to these tasks to be successful in marketing of products. On the other
hand, retailing is the task of selling products to the final customers who are influenced
by the marketers or by the retailers to make a purchase. The present case study
focuses on retailers perception of the marketing mix strategies adopted by major
players in the Indian mineral water market, that is Bisleri, Kinley, AquaFina etc., the
study will be conducted in the Hyderabad with an objective of a comparative analysis
on the perceptions of the retailers towards the marketing mix strategies adopted by
these organization.

Brief review of the past studies related to bottled water

Bohmer H, Resch K.L. (2000)1 in their article, “Mineral water or tap waterA
systematic analysis of the literature concerning the question of microbial safety”, say
that based on sporadic reports of microbial contamination of mineral waters, it has
been recommended that, for safety reasons, particularly immuno compromised
patients should drink tap water rather than bottled mineral water. However, in terms
of safety, evidence of the clinical consequences may allow a better estimate than a
positive in vitro test for contamination. Therefore, they reviewed the literature on
documented disease outbreaks due to contaminated mineral and tap waters. Cases of
contamination of tap water were documented in nearly all countries. In 35
communications they found reports on a total of 423,000 cases of disease outbreaks
due to contaminated tap water, in some cases even with lethal outcome. Main
diagnosis was gastroenteritis, and main species of microorganism was
crytosporidium. In contrast, there was no documented case of disease outbreak due to
contaminated bottled mineral water. Tap water as well as bottled water is both
supremely safe components of nutrition. The recommendation that tap water is better
than mineral water, particularly for high-risk patients, is not supported by the