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1 . List four types of conductors

a. Perak
b. Kuprum
c. Aluminium
d. Timah
e. Plumbum

2. List four types of Insulators

i. Getah
ii. Polivinil Klorid
iii. Kertas Terisitepu
iv. Penebat Mineral
v. Bakelit

3. List four types of Resistors

a. Perintang tetap,
b. Perintang boleh ubah,
c. Perintang LDR(Lightdioderesistor)
d. Perintang termistor

4. List three types of Capacitor

a. Ceramic capacitor: used in many applications from audio to RF

b. Electrolytic capacitor: most widely used for low frequency applications - power
supplies, decoupling and audio coupling applications as they have a frequency limit if
around 100 kHz.
c. Tantalum capacitor: ke electrolytic capacitors, tantalum capacitors are also polarised
and offer a very high capacitance level for their volume
d. Silver Mica Capacitor: not as widely used these days, but they still offer very high levels
of stability, low loss and accuracy where space is not an issue. They are primarily used
for RF applications and and they are limited to maximum values of 1000 pF or so.
e. Polystyrene Film Capacitor: olystyrene capacitors are a relatively cheap form of
capacitor but offer a close tolerance capacitor where needed.
f. Polyester Film Capacitor: They are generally only available as leaded electronics
g. Metallised Polyester Film Capacitor: advantage of using this process is that because
their electrodes are thin, the overall capacitor can be contained within a relatively small
h. Polycarbonate capacitor: The polycarbonate film is very stable and enables high
tolerance capacitors to be made which will hold their capacitance value over time.
i. Polypropylene Capacitor: used when a higher tolerance type of capacitor is necessary
than polyester capacitors offer.
j. Glass capacitors: uses glass as the dielectric.
k. Supercap: known as a supercapacitor or ultracapacitor, as the name implies these
capacitors have very large values of capacitance, of up to several thousand Farads.

5. List three types of inductors

a. Coupled Inductors: Coupled inductors exhibit magnetic flux that is dependent on other
conductors to which they are linked. When mutual inductance is needed, coupled
inductors are often used. A transformer is a kind of coupled inductor.
b. Multi-Layer Inductors: This particular type of inductor consists of a layered coil, wound
multiple times around the core. As a result of the multiple layers and the insulation
between them, multi-layer inductors have a high inductance level.
c. Ceramic Core Inductors: Although there are numerous kinds of cores, a ceramic core
inductor is unique in having a dielectric ceramic core, meaning it cannot store a lot of
energy but has very low distortion and hysteresis.
d. Molded Inductors: These inductors are molded using plastic or ceramic insulation. Often
used in circuit boards, they can assume either a cylindrical or bar formation, with
windings featuring terminations at each end.
e. Types of Cores: Aside from ceramic core inductors, other core materials can be used to
achieve certain results. Because the core is the material the coil winds around, it directly
affects inductance. Coils wound around iron-based cores yield greater inductance than
those wound around non-iron-based cores.
f. Air Core: In this configuration, there simply is no core. The lack of a metal core results in
very little distortion, but by the same token, the coil must be very long to carry high
amounts of inductance, resulting in a large inductor.
g. Steel Cores: For low resistance, high inductance applications, steel cores are a step
above air cores. The denser the steel core, the less of a problem the core will encounter
with magnetic saturation.
h. Solid Ferrite Cores: When it comes to offering the highest resistance, solid ferrite cores
are at the top of the list. However, when dealing with high inductance they are not
always reliable and tend to reach their magnetic saturation level relatively quickly.
Ferrite cores will use a different ferrite material based on the application, such as
manganese zinc for certain kinds of antenna rods, with various materials offering a
different set of advantages. Powdered ferrite cores are available, which are denser and
offer greater linearity than solid ferrite cores.