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monocyclic or uniseriate –

General Terminology 
with a single whorl of parts
 dicyclic or biseriate – with two
whorls of parts
COLOR  tricyclic or triseriate – with
three whorls of parts
 Color – is a measure of wavelengths of  most commonly used for parts of
light reflected from or transmitted the perianth or androecium
through an object.
 Very precise way of utilizing  Merosity – number of parts per whorl
components of hue, value, and or cycle
chroma  may also be designated as a simple
 When designating a color, the part number or terms such as:
should be precisely designated.  bimerous – a whorl with two
 Ex. “Flowers yellow”, “Ovary green” members
 Color Pattern – is a measure of the  trimerous – whorl with three
distribution of colors on an object members
 tetramerous – four
> COMMON COLOR PATTERN  pentamerous – five
 Maculate – spotted, with small spots on
a more or less uniform background  Two general merosity terms are:
 Pellucid – having a translucent spots or  Isomerous – having the same
patches number of members in
 Variegated – with two or more colors different whorls
occurring in various irregular patterns,  Anisomerous – having a
generally used for leaves different number of members
in different whorls
SIZE  Additional terms:
 Polymerous – having a larger
 Size – refers to linear measurements, as than the typical number of
in “leaf length” or “corolla width” parts
 Metric units should be used  Oligomerous – having a fewer
throughout than typical number of parts
 most commonly designated for
NUMBER floral parts
 Number – refers to a simple count of
parts
TEXTURE
 With whorled structures, a  Texture – is the internal structural
distinction should be made consistency of an object
between cycly and merosity  Some texture terms also take color
 Cycly – number of cycles or whorl of into account
parts.  Often described for leaves
 May simple be designated as  May be correlated with plant
numbers or terms such as habitat
N. A.
 Common terms: actually developed from a common
 Cartilaginous – with the meristem
texture of cartilage; hard and  Terms that are distinguished as to
tough but flexible; usually whether fusion is between like and
whitish unlike parts:
 Chartaceous – opaque and of  Connate – integral fusion of
the texture of writing paper like parts, such that parts are
 Coriaceous – thick and not easily separable.
leathery, but somewhat ˃ “stamens are connate” –
flexible fused to one another
 Herbaceous – having a soft or (monodelphous,
slightly succulent texture diadelphous,
 Indurate – hardened and syngenesious, etc.)
inflexible  Adnate – similar integral fusion
 Membranous – thin and of unlike parts
somewhat translucent, ˃ “stamens adnate” – fused
membranelike to something else (ex.to
 Mesophytic – having an the corolla)
intermediate texture between  Two similar terms to represent
coriaceous and membranous partial or incomplete fusion:
 Ruminate – unevenly textured,  Coherent – like parts joined
coarsely wrinkled, looking as if but only superficially and easily
chewed separable
 Scarious – thin and appearing  Adherent – unlike parts joined
dry, usually whitish or but only superficially and easily
brownish separable
 Succulent (baccate or  Some terms designate lack of fusion
carmose) – fleshy and juicy  Distinct – like parts unfused
 Woody – having a hard, and separate
woodlike structure  Free – unlike parts unfused and
separate
FUSION  Contiguous – parts touching
but not connate, adnate,
 Fusion – refers to the apparent joining
coherent, or adherent; may
or lack or joining of two or more
appear fused, but are only in
discrete plant organs or parts
close contact
 Entities that are “fused” may have
developed separately and then
SHAPE
come into contact and joined later
 Postnatal or Postgenital fusion –  Shape – may be used for stems leaves,
may happen when organs fuse after leaflets or other leaf parts, bracts,
being separately formed sepals, petals, stamens, pistils,
 Congenital fusion – organs or plants trichomes, or other plant parts
parts that appear fused that  An important feature in plant
description and identification

N. A.
 May be classified as:  Turbinate – means turban or top-
 Solid – three dimensional shaped, as in turbinate heads or
 Plane – two-dimensional compound receptacles
˃ May be divided into:
> SHAPE: PLANE (TWO-DIMENSIONAL)
o Overall plane shape
o Base  Are based, on the ratio of the length
o Margin to the width of the shape of the
o Apex shape outline
o Apical process
o Division - Shapes in which the margins (sides) of
the object are straight and
> SHAPE: SOLID (THREE-DIMENSIONAL)
approximately parallel are:
 Capitate – a head-shaped, spherical  Acicular – which are needle-like with
with a short basal stalk length:width ratio greater than 12:1
 Globose – spherical  Ensiform – sword-shaped, with
 Hemispheric – half-sphere-shaped length:width ratio greater than 12:1
 Strap-shaped – flat, no needle-like
 Prolate – ellipsoid shape with the long but with length:width ratio greater
axis parallel to point of attachment than 12:1
 Oblate – one extended  Linear – length:width ratio between
perpendicular to the point of 12:1 and 6:1
attachment  Narrowly oblong – length:width ratio
 Clavate – club-shaped, cylindrical with a between 6:1 and 3:1
gradually, thickened and rounded end.  Oblong – length:width ratio between
 Discoid – disk-shaped 2:1 and 3:2
 Fusiform – spindle-shaped, narrowly
ellipsoid with attenuate ends - Shapes in which the margins are
 Cymbiform – shaped like a boat, as the symmetrically curved, with the widest
glumes of many grasses point near the midpoint of the object
 Filiform – means threadlike or are:
filamentous, being long, thin, and  Narrowly elliptic – length:width ratio
typically flexous between 6:1 and 3:1
 Fistulose or Fistular – means cylindrical  Elliptic – length:width ration between
and hollow within 2:1 and 3:2
 Lenticular – means lens-shaped, disk-  Widely elliptic – length:width ration
shaped with two convex sides approx. 6:5
 Ligulate – is tongue-shaped; flattened  Orbicular (circular) – length:width
and somewhat oblong in shape ratio approx. 1:1
 Pilate – means with a long, cylindrical - Shapes in which margins are curved
stalk terminating in a globose or with the widest point near the base:
ellipsoid apical thickening, as in pilate-  Lanceolate – l:w ratio bet 6:1 and 3:1
glandular trichomes  Lance-ovate – also termed “widely
 Terete – general plant term meaning lanceolate” or “narrowly ovate”; l:w
cylindrical ratio 3:1 and 2:1

N. A.
 Ovate – l:w ratio bet 2:1 and 3:2  Pandurate – violin-shape, obovate
 Widely ovate – l:w ratio approx. 6:5 with the middle margin regions
 Very widely ovate – l:w ratio close to concave
1  Reniform – kidney-shaped, wider
than lone with a rounded apex and
- Shapes in which the margins are curved, reniform base
with the widest point near the apex are:  Spatulate – oblong, obovate, or
 Oblanceolate – l:w ratio bet 6:1 and oblanceolate with a long attenuate
3:1 base
 Oblance-ovate – l:w ratio bet 3:1 and  Subulate – awl-shaped, approx.
2:1 narrowly oblong to narrowly
 Obovate – l:w ratio between 2:1 and triangular
3:2
 Widely obovate – l:w ratio approx. BASE
6:5 - Base – in which the sides are incurved
 Very widely obovate – l:w ratio close or approx. straight are:
to 1  Attenuate – basal margins abruptly
incurved (concave), intersection
- Three-sided shapes, in which sides are
angle less than 45
approx. straight are:
 Narrowly cuneate – basal margins
 Narrowly triangular – l:w ratio bet
approx. straight, intersection angle
6:1 and 3:1
less then 450
 Triangular – l:w bet 2:1 and 3:2
 Cuneate – basal margins approx.
 Widely triangular – l:w approx. 6:5 straight, intersection angle 45-900
 Deltate – l:w approx. 1  Obtuse – basal margins approx.
straight, intersection angle greater
- Four-sided, parallelogram-like shapes then 900
are
 Truncate – basal margin cut straight
 Rhombic – widest near middle l:w 2:1 across, intersection angle approx.
and 3:2 1800
 Trullate – widest near the base; l:w
2:1 and 3:2 - Base shapes in which the sides are
curved outward are:
- Specialized shapes  Rounded – basal margins convex,
 Cordate (cordiform) – shaped like an forming a single, smooth arc
inverted Valentine heart, approx.  Cordate – with two rounded, basal
ovate with a cordate base lobes intersecting at sharp angle, the
 Falcate (falciform) – scimitar-shaped, margins above lobes smoothly
lanceolate to linear and curved to rounded
one side  Reniform – with two rounded, basal
 Lyrate – pinnatifid, but with a large lobes, smoothly concave at
terminal lobe and smaller basal and intersection of lobes
lateral lobes - Bases in which there are two protruding
lobes are:
N. A.

Auriculate – with two rounded, basal 
truncate – has apical margin cut
lobes, the margins above lobes straight across, the angle approx.
concave 1800
 Hastate – with two basal lobes more  rounded- has convex apical margins,
or less pointed or oriented outwardly, forming a single, smooth arc
approx. 900 relative to central axis  oblique – has an asymmetrical shape
 Sagittate – with two basal lobes, - two terms that describe apical cleft
more or less pointed or oriented  emarginate – has an incision cut 1/16
downward, away from the apex – 1/8 of the distance midrib, midvein
- Some other specialized base shapes are: or junction of primary veins
 Oblique – having an asymmetrical  retuse - incision cut up to 1/16 of the
shape distance to midrib, midvein or
 Palpate – with the petiole attached junction of primary veins
away from the margin, on the - Apical process – generally denotes an
underside of the table extension of a vein (typically midvein);
 Sheathing – having a basal, clasping most apical process is vascular tissue
leaf sheath - Common apical process
 Apiculate – with a flexible apical
APEX process, l:w ratio >3:1, usually slightly
curled
- Apex shape – shape of the apical region
 Aristate – with a stiff apical process,
below the apical process or vein
l:w ratio >3:1, usually prolonged and
extension, if present
straight
 Acuminate – is one with the apical
 Cirrhose - with a flexible, greatly
margins abruptly incurved (concave),
curled apical process
the apical intersection angle <450
 Mucronate - with a stiff, straight
- two other apex shapes are specialized
apical process, the length:width ratio
variants of acuminate:
1:1–3:1
 caudate – abruptly acuminate into a
 Mucronulate - with a stiff, straight
long, narrowly triangular (tail-like)
apical process, length:width ratio ≤
apical region
1:1
 cuspidate – abruptly acuminate into
 spinose or pungent - with a sharp,
a triangular, stiff or sharp apex
stiff, spinelike apical process
- four apex shapes have straight, not
curved, sides:
- Shape combinations - overall shape,
 narrowly acute – one with margins
base shape, and apex shape can be
approx. straight, the intersection
used in combination to describe a
angle less than 450
variety of two-dimensional forms
 acute – has more or less straight
- Margins - refers to the sides of an
margins, with the intersection angle
object, usually a leaf, bract, sepal, or
between 450-900
petal; Many margin terms describe the
 obtuse – apical margins approx.
presence and morphology of teeth,
straight, intersection greater than 900
small sharp-pointed or rounded
projections or lobes along the sides
 Entire – margin without teeth
N. A.
- A margin with teeth can be generally (e.g., “sparsely serrate”).
termed “toothed,” but more specific - Margins with teeth bearing sharp, stiff,
terms are preferable. spinelike processes are termed spinose.
- Margin terms describing sawlike teeth,  Praemorse - describes a margin
i.e., sharp-pointed and ascending having a jagged, chewed appearance,
 Serrate - teeth cut 1/16– 1/8 of the as in some palms
distance to midrib, midvein, or - Terms describing margins with
junction of primary veins trichomes are
 Serrulate - diminutive of serrate,  Ciliate - with trichomes protruding
teeth cut to 1/16 of the distance to from margins
midrib, midvein, or junction of  Ciliolate - with minute trichomes
primary veins protruding from margins, minutely
 doubly serrate- with large, serrate ciliate.
teeth having along the margin  Eciliate - describes a margin without
smaller, serrate teeth trichomes, regardless of presence or
- Margin terms describing sharklike teeth absence of teeth.
that point outward at right angles to  Filiferous - refers to margins bearing
the margin outline coarse, fiberlike structures (e.g.,
 Dentate - with teeth cut 1/16 – 1/8 fibrovascular bundles, as in the leaf
of the distance to midrib, midvein, or margins of some Yucca species).
junction of primary veins - Terms that are often treated as features
 Denticulate - diminutive of dentate, of margin, but treated here as
cut to 1/16 of the distance to midrib, “longitudinal posture,” are
midvein, or junction of primary veins  Involute- with margins rolled upward,
- Margin terms describing rounded to  Revolute- with margins rolled under
obtuse teeth, that point outward at
right angles or shallowly ascend DIVISION
 Crenate - with teeth cut 1/16 – 1/8
- Division - is a shape character referring
of the distance to midrib, midvein,
to the presence and characteristics of
or junction of primary veins
sinuses (incisions), the sinuses defining
 Crenulate - diminutive of crenate,
lobes or segments.
teeth cut to 1/16 of the distance to
- Division character states are sometimes
midrib, midvein, or junction of
treated as features of “margin.”
primary veins.
- Four division terms that precisely
- The relative size and density of teeth
denote the degree of division are:
may also be described, with terms such
 Lobed - sinuses extending 1/8 to 1/4
as:
of the distance to the midrib, midvein,
 Coarsely - to describe large and
or vein junction;
uneven teeth (e.g., “coarsely
 Cleft - sinuses extending 1/4 to 1/2 of
crenate”)
the distance to the midrib, midvein, or
 Finely - to describe relatively small,
vein junction;
evenly spaced teeth (e.g., “finely
 Parted - sinuses extending 1/2 to 3/4
denticulate”)
of the distance to the midrib, midvein,
 Sparsely- to describe teeth that are
or vein junction;
few in number or spaced well apart
N. A.
 Divided - sinuses extending 3/4 to  Sinuate - in contrast, refers to sinuses
almost to the midrib, midvein, or vein being shallow and smooth, wavy in a
junction. horizontal plane
 Lacerate - refers to sinuses that are
- Lobed, cleft, parted, and divided should irregularly cut, the lobes appearing
be prefaced by terms that denote torn.
further the type of division:  Laciniate - denotes lobes that are cut
 pinnately (e.g., “pinnately lobed” or into narrow, ribbonlike segments.
“pinnately cleft”) to specify a division  Pectinate - means comblike, being
along a central axis (typically the pinnately divided with close, very
midvein), narrow lobes.
 palmately (e.g., “palmately divided”)
to specify a division relative to a point DISPOSITION
(typically the basal junction of major - Disposition - refers to the relative
veins). placement of objects
- Some useful, general terms that indicate - Disposition is logically broken down into
the general form, but not the extent, of
 Position
division are
 Arrangement
 Pinnatifid - pinnately lobed to divided;
 Orientation
 Pinnatisect - pinnately divided, almost
 Posture
into discrete leaflets but confluent at
the midrib; POSITION
 Bipinnatifid - bipinnately lobed to
- Position - is the placement of parts
divided; palmatifid, palmately lobed
relative to other, unlike parts
to divided;
- Some general position terms, which may
 Palmatisect - palmately divided,
apply to leaves, bracts, and flower parts,
almost into discrete leaflets but
have to do with development.
confluent at the lobe bases.
 Adaxial (also known as ventral) -
 Decompound - denotes deeply
corresponds to the upper or inner
divided into numerous segments such
surface of an organ - means toward
that leaflets are not clearly defined.
the axis – (early development) of the
 Pedate - refers to a palmately divided
primordia -- the surface that is initially
leaf in which the lateral lobes are
facing toward or nearest the axis will
further divided, as in some ferns.
typically become the uppersurface.
Confusion - arises when the organ in
- Some division terms refer specifically to
question bends downward or twists
the shape of the sinuses and lobes.
later in development
 Dissected - means divided into very
 Abaxial (also known as dorsal) -
fine, often indistinct segments.
corresponds to the lower or outer
 Bifid - means 2-lobed to 2-divided,
surface of an organ
especially at the apex.

 Incised - means the sinuses are sharp
- With respect to a horizontally oriented
and deeply cut, usually jaggedly.
structure

N. A.
 Posterior - refers to the upper lobe or ˃ Monistichous - alternate with
part points of attachment in one,
 Anterior - refers to the lower lobe or vertical row/rank
part. ˃ Distichous - alternate, with points
 Basal or radical - indicates at or near of attachment in two vertical
the bottom or base of a structure. rows/ranks
 Proximal - is similar to basal or radical ˃ Tristichous - alternate, with points
and means near the point of origin or of attachment in three rows/ranks,
attachment, as in the point of ˃ Spiral (also termed polystichous) -
attachment of a leaf. alternate, with points of
 Apical or terminal – means at or near attachment in more than three
the top, tip, or end of a structure. rows/ranks.
 Distal - is similar to apical or terminal ˃ Opposite - describes two leaves or
and means away from the point of other structures per node - Two
origin or attachment subcategories of opposite are:
 Decussate - opposite leaves or
- Some other general position terms are other structures at right
 lateral or axillary - on the side of a angles to preceding pair
structure or at the axil  Nondecussate - opposite
 central - at or near the middle or leaves or other structures not
middle plane of a structure at right angles to preceding
 circumferential - at or near the pair. - Nondecussate leaves
circumference of a rounded structure. may be superficially the result
of stem twisting.
- Some position terms are used primarily
to describe the position of structures
relative to the stem.  Subopposite - refers to two
 radical or basal - mean positioned at leaves or other structures on
the base of the stem opposite sides of the stem or
 cauline - means positioned along the central axis but at different
length of the stem nodes slightly displaced
 acrocaulis – means positioned at the relative to one another.
apex of the stem  Whorled or verticillate -
means having three or more
ARRANGEMENT leaves or other structures per
node.
- Arrangement - is the placement of parts
with respect to - More arrangement terms denote more
- Some arrangement terms, used specialized conditions.
primarily for leaves, bracts, or flower
 Equitant - refers to leaves with
parts, describe the number of organs
overlapping bases, usually sharply
per node.
folded along the midrib.
 Alternate - refers to one leaf or other
 Fasciculate - refers to leaves or other
structure per node. - Subcategories of
structures in a fascicle or short shoot,
alternate are
a cluster with short internodes.
N. A.
 Imbricate - is a general term for  Antrorse – means bent or directed
leavesor other structures overlapping. upward, usually referring to small
 Valvate - means the sides are appendages
enrolled, so that the margins touch.  Retrorse - means bent or directed
 Rosulate - means in a rosette, an downward
arrangement in which parts (usually  Connivent - means convergent
leaves) radiate from a central point at apically without fusion, as in anthers
ground level that come together in a flower
 Secund or unilateral – refers generally  Erect - is pointing upward (usually
to flowers, inflorescences, or other without reference to an axis)
structures on one side of the axis,  Pendant or pendulous - means
often due to twisting of stalks. hanging downward loosely or freely.
 Deflexed - means bent abruptly
ORIENTATION downward
- Orientation - denotes the angle of a  Reflexed - means bent or turned
structure relative to a central (often downward.
vertical) axis
- These terms are (from top to bottom):
POSTURE
 Appressed - pressed closely to axis - Posture - refers to the placement
upward, with divergence angle of 0 – relative to a flat plane.
15° from upper axis - It may be further classified as
 Ascending - directed upward, with  Transverse
divergence angle of 15°– 45° from  Longitudinal
upper axis  Twisting/ bending posture, or
 Inclined - directed upward, with ptyxis/vernation
divergence angle of 15°– 45° from
horizontal axis  Transverse - is the placement of the
 Divergent - or horizontal, more or less tip (distal end) of an object with
horizontally spreading with respect to a starting plane.
divergence angle of ≤15° up or down
from the horizontal axis (also termed ˃ Recurved - tip gradually curved
divaricate or patent) outward or downward (abaxially)
 Reclined or reclinate - directed ˃ Cernuous - tip drooping downward
downward, with divergence angle of (abaxially)
15°– 45° from horizontal axis ˃ Squarrose - sharply curved
 Descending - directed downward, downward or outward (abaxially)
with divergence angle of 15°– 45° near the apex
from lower axis ˃ Incurved - tip gradually curved
 Depressed - pressed closely to axis inward or upward (adaxially)
downward, with divergence angle of 0 ˃ plane or straight - flat, without
–15° from lower axis. vertical curves or bends
˃ flexuous - the central axis and tip
- Other orientation terms are more curved up and down.
general.

N. A.
 Longitudinal posture - is the ˃ sinistrorse, twining helically like a
placement of the margins of an object left-handed screw
with respect to a starting plane  Ptyxis, also termed vernation - refers
to the posture of embryonic
- Common longitudinal posture terms are: structures, such as cotyledons within
˃ Conduplicate - ongitudinally folded a seed or immature leaves or leaf
at central axis, with adjacent parts.
adaxial sides facing one another - Some specialized ptyxis terms include
˃ Revolute - with margins or outer  Circinate - with the leaf and leaf parts
portion of sides rolled outward or coiled from apex to base, as in young
downward over the abaxial surface fern and cycad leaves
˃ Involute - with margins or outer  Supervolute - with one half of a simple
portion of sides rolled inward or leaf coiled tightly around the midrib,
upward over adaxial surface the other half coiled
˃ cup-shaped - concave-convex
along entire surface (may be SURFACE
abaxially or adaxially concave) - Surface features can be broken down
˃ plicate - pleated, with a series of into three characters:
longitudinal folds  configuration, epidermal excrescence,
 subcategories of are: and vestiture.
 induplicate - plicate with
adjacent adaxial sides facing CONFIGURATION
one another, V-shaped in - Configuration - refers to the gross
cross-section surface patterns of the epidermal cells
 reduplicate – plicate with other than that caused by venation or
adjacent abaxial sides facing excrescences (below).
one another, Λ-shaped in - Configuration terms include:
cross-section)  Canaliculate - longitudinally grooved,
 undulate or repand - the usually in relation to petioles or
margins wavy in a vertical midribs
plane  Fenestrate - having windowlike holes
 Twisting/bending posture - refers to in the surface
the posture of a twisting or bending  Punctate - covered with minute,
object relative to a starting plane. pitlike depressions; rugose or bullate,
 Resupinate - means inverted or covered with coarse reticulate lines,
twisted 180° during development usually with raised blisterlike areas
early in development between
 Geniculate - is having a “zig-zag”  Ruminate - unevenly textured,
posture, as in the inflorescence rachis coarsely wrinkled, looking as if
of some grasses chewed (also used for texture)
 Twining - is twisted around a central  Smooth - or plane, with a smooth
axis, as in many vines. The stems of configuration
twining vines may be  Striate - with fine longitudinal lines;
˃ dextrorse, twining helically like a tessellate, with small, defined areas,
typical, right-handed screw
N. A.
having a cobblestone or - Glabrous - is the term meaning without
checkerboard-like sculpturing trichomes at all.
 Wrinkled - with irregular, fine lines or - Subglabrous - means nearly glabrous
deformations. - Glabrate - means the same or can mean
becoming glabrous with age by loss of
EPIDERMAL EXCRESCENCE trichomes
- Epidermal excrescence - refers to - Bearded - means with a single tuft or
surface patterns caused by secretions or patch of trichomes arising from the
structural outgrowths of the epidermis, surface of an object, e.g., from a petal.
otherthan trichomes or bristles - Comose - is similar, but refers to an
- Terms that denote epidermal secretions apical tuft of trichomes, e.g., from a
are seed.
 Glandular - covered with minute, - Penicillate - means tufted, like an artist’s
blackish to translucent glands brush.
 Glaucous - covered with a smooth, - Two terms that are also treated under
usually whitish, waxy coating (that can “margin” are
be rubbed off with touch)  Ciliate - with conspicuous marginal
 Shining (nitid or laevigate)- appearing trichomes
lustrous or polished  Ciliolate - with tiny or small marginal
 Viscid or glutinous - having a shiny, trichomes
sticky surface. - Pubescent - is a common vestiture type
- Terms that denote epidermal meaning with more or less straight,
outgrowths short, soft, somewhat scattered, slender
 Aculeate - or prickly, with prickles, trichomes
sharp nonspine, nonthorn - Puberulent - means minutely pubescent,
appendages i.e., pubescent but with very short or
 Farinaceous (scurfy or granular) - sparse (scattered) trichomes
finely mealy, covered with small - Canescent or incanous - white
granules trichomes.
- Tomentose - means covered with very
 Muricate - having coarse, radially
dense, interwoven trichomes.
elongate, rounded protuberances
- Tomentulose - is minutely tomentose,
 Papillate, Tuberculate, or Scabrous -
i.e., tomentose but with very short
having a rough surface, like that of
trichomes.
sandpaper
- Villous or lanate - means covered with

long, soft, crooked trichomes
VESTITURE - Pilose - means having soft, straight to
slightly shaggy trichomes, generally at
- Vestiture - denotes trichome cover right angles to the surface
 Trichomes - are surface hairlike - Arachnose - or arachnoid means having
structures that may function by trichomes forming a dense, cobwebby
protecting the plant from herbivory, mass (but which resemble villous and
reflecting visible and UV light, and can be confused with that type).
inhibiting water transpiration. - Scabrous - means having rough
trichomes, like that of sandpaper
N. A.
- Scaberulous - means minutely scabrous. 
Malpighian or two-armed trichomes -
- Hirsute - means having long, rather stiff are those with two arms arising from
trichomes (but not quite skin- a common base.
penetrating)  Glandular trichomes - are secretory or
- Hispid - means having very long, stiff excretory trichomes, usually having an
trichomes, often capable of penetrating apical glandular cell.
skin  Branched trichomes - include two
- Urent - means having hispid trichomes types:
that are stinging, as in Urtica, stinging ˃ Stellate - which are star-shaped
nettle. trichomes having several arms
- Strigose - is covered with dense, coarse, arising from a common base
bent and mostly flat trichomes often (either stalked or sessile)
with a bulbous base. ˃ Dendritic - which are treelike
- Strigulose - is minutely strigose, i.e., with trichomes with multiple lateral
the same morphology but a much branches
smaller a silky appearance or sheen.  Peltate trichomes - are those with a
- Floccose - means having dense disk-shaped apical portion atop a
trichomes that are in several patches or peltately attached stalk.
tufts. - Trichomes may also be delimited based
- Lepidote - means covered with scales or on their position and function.
scalelike structures (intergrading with an  intravaginal (or axillary) squamules -
epidermal excrescence character). trichomes found in the axils of
typically sheathing leaves, which may
TRICHOME AND BRISTLE TYPE
function in secreting protective
- Trichome type - refers to the specific, mucilage
microscopic structure of individual - Bristles - are similar to trichomes but are
trichomes and may come under the generally much stouter (although
realm of plant anatomy and constitute a bristles and trichomes may intergrade).
systematically valuable character. - Major bristle types include
- Trichome type may assess the number  Barbed or barbellate - with minute,
of cells per trichome lateral, sharp appendages (barbs,
 Unicellular trichome consists of a which may be antrorse or retrorse in
single cell and is usually quite small. orientation) arising along the entire
 Multicellular trichome contains two or bristle surface
more cells. can be either  Plumose - featherlike, covered with
˃ Uniseriate – having a single vertical fine, elongate, ciliate appendages;
row of cells uncinate or hooked, with an apical
˃ Multiseriate- having more than one hooklike structure
vertical row of cells.  Glochidiate - with apical, clustered
- Many trichomes are diagnosed based on barblike structures.
their general shape and morphology.
SYMMETRY
 Tapering trichomes - are those ending
in a sharp apex - Symmetry - is defined by the presence
and number of mirror-image planes of
symmetry.
N. A.
 Zygomorphic or bilateral symmetry  Deciduous - means parts persistent
[monosymmetric, irregular] - is that in for one growing season, then falling
which there is only one plane of off, as the leaves of Acer, maples.
symmetry.  Cladoptosic - refers to dead foliage
 Biradial symmetry [disymmetric] – falling with the accompanying shoot,
means having two (and only two) rather than as individual leaves
planes of symmetry.  Caducous or fugacious - refer to
 Actinomorphic or radial symmetry dropping off very early (compared
[polysymmetric, regular] - is that with with what is typical) and usually
three or more planes of symmetry. applies to floral parts.
 Asymmetric - describes a structure  Deliquescent – means becoming slimy
lacking any plane of symmetry or mucilaginous, e.g., after death.
 Marcescent - means ephemeral but
TEMPORAL PHENOMENA
with persistent remains, withering but
- Temporal phenomena - deal with any persistent such as corollas that
consideration specifically time-based. remain attached during fruit
- These are logically broken down into formation.
 duration, maturation, and periodicity.  Accrescent - refers to plant parts that
 Duration - refers to the length of life persist and continue to grow beyond
of a plant or part of a plant. - annual, what is normal or typical
biennial, and perennial.  Monocarpic - refers to a plant that
˃ Annual - is a plant living 1 year or flowers and fruits only once, then dies
less, typically living for one
growing season within the year. - Maturation - refers to the relative time
Annual plants are herbs of development of plant parts.
˃ Biennials - are plants living 2 years - Anthesis - refers to the time of
(or two seasons), usually flowering flowering, when flowers open with parts
in the second year. Biennial plants available for pollination.
typically form a basal rosette of - Protandrous (meaning “male first”) -
leaves during the first year and refers to stamens or anthers developing
“bolt” (grow an elongate before the carpels or stigma.
inflorescence stalk) in the second - Protogynous (meaning “female first”) -
year. refers to the stigma or carpels maturing
˃ Perennial - is a plant living more before the stamens or anthers.
than 2 years. Perennials include - Both protandry and protogyny are
herbs with rootstocks, shrubs, general mechanisms to promote
lianas, and trees. outcrossing within a species
- Other duration terms describe plant
parts, e.g., of leaves (in which the term - Periodicity - refers to periodically
leaf duration is used). repeating phenomena.
 Evergreen - means persistent two or - Terms that refer to the time of day are
more growing seasons, as in the  diurnal (during the day)
leaves of most conifers.  nocturnal (at night)
 matutinal (in the morning)
 vespertine (in the evening).
N. A.
- These terms are usually used with
respect to when flowers of a given taxon
open.
- Other terms correspond to seasons,
such as
 vernal (appearing in spring)
 aestival (appearing in summer)
 autumnal (appearing in fall).

N. A.

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