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SERV1859

July 2008

GLOBAL SERVICE LEARNING

TECHNICAL PRESENTATION

992K WHEEL LOADER AND


854K WHEEL DOZER
INTRODUCTION

Service Training Meeting Guide


(STMG)
992K WHEEL LOADER AND 854K
WHEEL DOZER - INTRODUCTION
AUDIENCE

Level II - Service personnel who understand the principles of machine system operation,
diagnostic equipment, and procedures for testing and adjusting.

CONTENT

This presentation provides information on the system operation of the operator's station, engine,
power train, implement, steering, fan, and brake systems. This presentation may be used for
self-paced and self-directed training.

OBJECTIVES
After learning the information in this meeting guide, the technician will be able to:
1. locate and identify the major components in the operator's station, engine, power train,
implement, steering, fan, and brake systems;
2. explain the operation of the major components in the systems;
3. trace the flow of oil through the systems.

REFERENCES

Specalog "992K Wheel Loader" AEHQ5939


Specalog "854K Wheel Dozer" AEHQ5961

PREREQUISITES

"Fundamentals of Engines Self Study Course" TEMV3001


"Fundamentals of Mobile Hydraulics Self Study Course" TEMV3002
"Fundamentals of Power Trains Self Study Course" TEMV3003
"Fundamentals of Electrical Systems Self Study Course" TEMV3004
STMG546 "Graphic Fluid Power Symbols" SESV1546

Estimated Time: 36 Hours


Illustrations: 259
Form: SERV1859
Date: 07/08

© 2008 Caterpillar
SERV1859 -3- Text Reference
07/08

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................2

OPERATOR'S STATION............................................................................................................10

VITAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (VIMS)................................................23


VIMS Components ...............................................................................................................26
Warning Operation................................................................................................................37
Data Events ...........................................................................................................................39
Maintenance Events..............................................................................................................41

C32 ACERT™ ENGINE ............................................................................................................43


Engine Electronic Control System .......................................................................................44
Engine Derates......................................................................................................................59
Cooling System.....................................................................................................................66
Lubrication System ...............................................................................................................68
Fuel System...........................................................................................................................69
Air Intake and Exhaust System ............................................................................................73
Engine Compression Brake ..................................................................................................78

POWER TRAIN .........................................................................................................................82


Power Train Electrical System .............................................................................................83
Power Train Hydraulic System ...........................................................................................111
Power Train Hydraulic Schematics ....................................................................................124
Torque Strategy Circuit.......................................................................................................133
Automatic Lubrication System ...........................................................................................136

992K ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC IMPLEMENT SYSTEM ....................................................144


Implement Electronic Control System ...............................................................................146
992K Positive Flow Control ...............................................................................................159
Main Hydraulic System ......................................................................................................173
Implement Pump Operation................................................................................................178
Implement Control Valve Operation...................................................................................183
Implement Hydraulic System Operation ............................................................................187
Ride Control System...........................................................................................................202
Implement System Calibrations..........................................................................................207

854K IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM........................................................................210


Pilot System ........................................................................................................................212
Main Hydraulic System ......................................................................................................218
Dozer Control Valve ...........................................................................................................223
Lift Circuit Operation .........................................................................................................230
Tilt Circuit Operation..........................................................................................................236
SERV1859 -4- Text Reference
07/08

FAN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM .................................................................................................242


Fan Drive System Schematics ............................................................................................246

STEERING AND BRAKE SYSTEMS....................................................................................250


Component Locations .........................................................................................................250
Steering Pump.....................................................................................................................266
Pilot Control Valve .............................................................................................................271
Steering Control Valve........................................................................................................273

BRAKE SYSTEM ....................................................................................................................279


Brake Pump Schematics .....................................................................................................281
Brake System Schematics...................................................................................................291

AXLE OIL COOLING SYSTEM ............................................................................................295

CONCLUSION.........................................................................................................................303

VISUAL LIST ..........................................................................................................................304

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC COLOR CODE.........................................................................309


SERV1859 -5- Text Reference
07/08

NOTES
SERV1859 -6- Text Reference
07/08 Introduction

992K WHEEL LOADER AND 854K WHEEL DOZER


INTRODUCTION

© 2008 Caterpillar

INTRODUCTION

The 992K Wheel Loader replaces the 992G Wheel Loader and the 854K Wheel Dozer replaces
the 854G Wheel Dozer in the Caterpillar product line. The 992K and 854K meet U.S
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Tier 2 and European Union Stage II emissions control
standards.

Key 992K features include:


- Improvements to operator station with trainer's seat
- C32 ACERT™ Engine
- Air to Air AfterCooler (ATAAC)
- Electro-hydraulic Positive Flow Control (PFC) hydraulic system
- Expanded service center in left rear bumper
- Remote diagnostic pressure taps at the front frame and rear frame
SERV1859 -7- Text Reference
07/08 Introduction

Technical Specifications

992K
- Serial number prefixes: H4C
- Operating weight: 98 188 kg (216,467 lb)
- Max ground speed forward: 22.8 km/h (14.2 mph)
- Max ground speed reverse: 24.8 km/h (15.4 mph)
- Engine: C32 ACERT™
- Net power: 597 kW (801 hp)
- Length: 15.7 m (52.0 ft)
- Width: 4.5 m (14.8 ft)
- Height: 5.7 m (18.6 ft)
SERV1859 -8- Text Reference
07/08 Introduction

Key 854K features include:


- Improvements to operator station with trainer's seat
- C32 ACERT™ Engine
- Air to Air AfterCooler (ATAAC)
- Pilot controlled hydraulic system with a dual tilt function
- Expanded service center in left rear bumper
- Remote diagnostic pressure taps at the front frame and rear frame
SERV1859 -9- Text Reference
07/08 Introduction

Technical Specifications:

854K
- Serial number prefixes: 221
- Operating weight: 98 488 kg (217,128 lb)
- Max ground speed forward: 22.8 km/h (14.2 mph)
- Max ground speed reverse: 25.1 km/h (15.6 mph)
- Engine: C32 ACERT™
- Net power: 597 kW (801 hp)
- Length: 13.4 m (44.0 ft)
- Width: 4.5 m (14.8 ft)
- Height: 5.5 m (18.1 ft)
SERV1859 - 10 - Text Reference
07/08 Operator's Station

1 2 3
6
4

5 8

OPERATOR'S STATION

The operator's station on the 992K and 854K retain the general appearance and control
locations found on the previous "G" series models. This illustration shows the 992K operator's
station. The 854K cab is similar. The main components in the operator's station are:

- quad gauge module (1)


- tachometer/speedometer module (2)
- VIMS message center (3)
- STIC lever (4)
- parking brake control (5)
- implement control levers (6)
- control switches (7)
- Cat comfort air suspension seat (8)
- trainer seat (9)
SERV1859 - 11 - Text Reference
07/08 Operator's Station

The cab air filter (arrow) is located behind the operator's seat.
SERV1859 - 12 - Text Reference
07/08 Operator's Station

1 2 5 8 9

6 7
10
3 4

Shown are the various display modules located in the front dash panel.

- coolant temperature gauge (1)


- torque converter oil temperature gauge (2)
- hydraulic oil temperature gauge (3)
- fuel level gauge (4)
- tachometer (5)
- speedometer (6)
- gear/direction (7)
- alert indicator (8)
- universal gauge (9)
- message center display (10)

When the key start switch is turned to the ON position, the display modules will perform a
three second self-test. During this test all alert indicators will illuminate and the gauges will do
a single sweep.
Sometimes the data needed for an indicator is unknown. This can be due to data link
communication problems or active sensor diagnostics.
SERV1859 - 13 - Text Reference
07/08 Operator's Station

Effects of unknown data at the display module are as follows:


- When data needed for an indicator is unknown the indicator will be illuminated.
- When data needed for a gauge is unknown the gauge will be driven to its red zone.
- When data needed for the LCD is unknown the LCD will either be blank or display "---".
- When there is a communication problem all indicators will be off, all gauges will point to
the left, and the action lamp will blink red.
SERV1859 - 14 - Text Reference
07/08 Operator's Station

3
4

5 6

Several dash mounted indicator lights are located to the left and right of the display modules.
The action lamp (1) alerts the operator of a malfunction in the machine systems.

The remaining indicator lights illuminate when specific machine features are switched on from
the right hand control panel. The following lights indicate to the operator that the features are
activated.

- reduced rimpull indicator (2) - throttle lock indicator (5)

- lockup clutch indicator (3) - ride control indicator (6)

- transmission quickshift indicator (4)


SERV1859 - 15 - Text Reference
07/08 Operator's Station

1
4
3

The 992K and 854K are STIC steer machines. The STIC lever (1) at the left armrest combines
steering, speed, and direction control. Pushing the buttons (2) upshifts or downshifts the
transmission. Tilting the lever left or right steers the machine. Forward, neutral, and reverse
are controlled by a yellow toggle switch (3) located at the front of the STIC lever.

The steering and transmission lock lever (4) is located to the left of the STIC console. Moving
the lever forward and right unlocks the STIC steering and transmission controls. The console
adjustment knob (5) moves the STIC lever forward or backward for operator comfort.
SERV1859 - 16 - Text Reference
07/08 Operator's Station

1 2 3 4

6
7

The 992K implement controls are located on the right console. The two levers control the tilt
functions (1) and the lift functions (2).

The tilt control has three positions: Tilt Back, Hold, and Dump.

The lift control has four positions: Raise, Hold, Lower, and Float.

Located at the upper right is the set/decel button (3). With the throttle lock switch (located on
the right control panel) in the ON position, press the button to set the throttle while at the
desired engine rpm. Depress or hold the button to decrease the engine rpm. Pressing the
resume/accel button (4) will resume the engine rpm to the previous setting or accelerate the
engine rpm. Pressing on the right brake pedal or switching the throttle lock switch to OFF will
cancel the throttle setting.

The store button (5) is used with the payload control system. Pressing the button stores payload
data.

Pressing on the front of the hydraulic lockout switch (6) activates an electronic lockout of the
hydraulic controls. Pressing the back of the switch unlocks the controls.

The large button (7) at the lower left of the console activates the horn.
SERV1859 - 17 - Text Reference
07/08 Operator's Station

6 2
4

1 10

1
7

3
2

6 11

5
4

The 854K implement controls are also located on the right console. The 854K is equipped with
a single joystick (1) that controls the lift and tilt functions. Moving the joystick back and forth
controls the lift functions and moving the joystick from side to side controls the tilt functions.

The tilt selection switch (2) enables the dual tilt operation of the blade. Pressing the bottom of
the tilt switch switch will disable the dual tilt operation. Single tilt is the default mode of
operation for the blade. Blade movement is slower in single tilt mode and there is less
movement and less downward force. Blade movement is faster in dual tilt operation and there
is more movement and more downward force.
SERV1859 - 18 - Text Reference
07/08 Operator's Station

A trigger switch (3) on the front of the control lever allows the blade tip to tilt forward and
backward. To tilt the blade tip, press the trigger switch when the joystick is moved to the left
or to the right.

Located at the upper left is the set/decel button (4). With the throttle lock switch (located on
the right control panel) in the ON position, press the button to set the throttle while at the
desired engine rpm. Depress or hold the button to decrease the engine rpm. Pressing the
resume/accel button (5) will resume the engine rpm to the previous setting or accelerate the
engine rpm. Pressing on the right brake pedal or switching the throttle lock switch to OFF will
cancel the throttle setting.

Pressing on the front of the hydraulic lockout switch (6) activates an electronic lockout of the
hydraulic controls. Pressing the back of the switch unlocks the controls.

The large button (7) to the right of the joystick activates the horn.

Push down on the knob (8) at the rear of the right console to slide the console forward or
backward. Release the knob to lock the console into position.
SERV1859 - 19 - Text Reference
07/08 Operator's Station

7 8 9
4 5 6 10
3 11 12
2
1 13

14

15

24 23 22 21
20 19 18 16
17

12

The control panel located to the right of the operator's seat contains the following components:

- front wiper/washer switch (1)

- rear wiper/washer switch (2)

- heating and air conditioning switch (3)

- heated mirror switch (4)

- lockup clutch switch (5)

- quickshift switch (6)

- floodlight switch (7)

- lighter (8)

- front floodlight switch (9)


SERV1859 - 20 - Text Reference
07/08 Operator's Station

- beacon switch (10)

- rear floodlight switch (11)

- VIMS keypad (12)

- rimpull selection switch (13)

- diagnostic connector (14)

- power receptacle (15)

- stairway access light switch (16)

- running lamp switch (17)

- ride control switch (18)

- raise/lower kickout switch (19)

- tilt kickout switch (20)

- throttle lock switch (21)

- temperature control (22)

- dual wiper switch (23)

- key start switch (24)


SERV1859 - 21 - Text Reference
07/08 Operator's Station

2 3

13

The left brake pedal (1) modulates rimpull and controls braking. When the left pedal is not
depressed, the impeller clutch torque converter produces maximum rimpull with full torque to
the wheels. In wet or slippery underfoot conditions, rimpull needs to be reduced to avoid tire
spin while loading.

The first inch of pedal travel varies rimpull from 100% down to 24% by reducing hydraulic
pressure at the impeller clutch, based on input from the pedal position sensor. The impeller
clutch is mounted to the engine side of the torque converter. When the pedal is depressed
farther, the service brakes are applied on all four wheels while rimpull remains at 24%.

The right brake pedal (2) engages the service brakes on all four wheels.

A throttle position sensor is attached to the throttle pedal (3). The throttle position sensor
provides the throttle position input signals to the Engine ECM.

NOTE: The 992K and 854K can be equipped with a compression brake. When the
optional compression brake is installed, the compression brake pedal is installed to the
left of the left brake pedal.
SERV1859 - 22 - Text Reference
07/08 Operator's Station

14

15

The optional Caterpillar Work Area Vision System (WAVS) is a closed circuit video monitoring
system using a rear vision camera. WAVS consists of a 178 mm (7 inch) LCD color display (1)
that mounts on the right pillar in the machine cab. The weatherproof camera (2) is mounted on
the radiator cowling at the rear of the machine.
SERV1859 - 23 - Text Reference
07/08 VIMS

16

VITAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (VIMS)

The 992K Wheel Loader and 854K Wheel Dozer are equipped with the Vital Information
Management System (VIMS). The VIMS is composed of modular onboard electronics which
have the ability to acquire data, perform analysis, store information, and display data. When
equipped with source code software, the VIMS Electronic Control Module (ECM) (arrow)
recognizes (through the configuration software) the machine on which it is installed and knows
which components are present.

The VIMS ECM communicates with the other machine electronic control modules (such as the
Engine ECM, the Power Train ECM, etc.).
SERV1859 - 24 - Text Reference
07/08 VIMS

1 2 3

17

4
18

The major modules that comprise the VIMS are the quad gauge module (1), the
speedometer/tachometer module (2), the message center module (3), and the keypad (4).

The VIMS uses both onboard and offboard hardware and software to display information to the
machine operator in addition to supplying information on machine systems to the dealer and to
the customer technical staff. This information will assist in minimizing downtime and
operating costs.

To successfully service machines equipped with the VIMS, the service technician needs to
become proficient in accessing the information through the keypad and message center and be
able to use a service tool (PC) to perform other required tasks.
SERV1859 - 25 - Text Reference
07/08 VIMS

VIMS is designed to alert the operator of an immediate or impending abnormal condition in


one or more of the machine systems that are being monitored. These abnormal conditions are
called "events." Two types of events are recognized and stored by VIMS. One event is called
a "data" event and alerts the operator to an abnormal machine condition (such as hydraulic oil
temperature too high). The other event is called a "maintenance" event, which alerts the
operator to a fault condition which is caused by a malfunction (fault) in one of the electronic
devices (such as a hydraulic temperature sensor being used to monitor a machine system). A
more detailed explanation of "events" will be covered later in the module.

In addition to alerting the operator of an abnormal condition, a service lamp is installed


externally on the machine to alert service or maintenance personnel that an "event" is present,
and diagnostic information regarding the event is available in VIMS.
SERV1859 - 26 - Text Reference
07/08 VIMS

19

VIMS Components

The quad gauge module contains four gauges which provide information on measured machine
parameters (such as temperature(s) and fuel level). The 992K Wheel Loader has gauges for the
engine coolant temperature, the torque converter outlet oil temperature, the implement and fan
hydraulic oil temperature, and the fuel level.

VIMS uses electronic input devices (sensors) to measure the parameter, then calculates an
output signal and sends the signal to the quad gauge module where the parameter is displayed.

The quad gauge module is configured for a specific machine (an off-highway truck or a wheel
loader) and the actual machine parameter is represented on the gauge by a graphic symbol.
SERV1859 - 27 - Text Reference
07/08 VIMS

15
10 20

5 25
X100

0 30

20

The speedometer/tachometer module displays the ground speed, the engine speed, and the
transmission gear and direction. The electronic input devices used for this information will be
discussed later.
SERV1859 - 28 - Text Reference
07/08 VIMS

Alert Data
Indicator Logger
Indicator

Gauge
Warning
AFTRCLR TEMP [110]
Universal Area
60 Deg F
Gauge

Message
Area

21

The message center module contains a Data Logger indicator, an alert indicator, a universal
gauge, a gauge warning area, and a message area.

The Data Logger indicator (series of four dots) in the upper right corner scrolls when the Data
Logger is turned on. The dots are not present when the Data Logger is stopped or when the
Data Logger is initiated with the offboard service tool (PC).

The alert indicator notifies the operator of an abnormal machine condition. The condition could
be caused by the VIMS detecting a "data" or "maintenance" event. The alert indicator receives
a signal from the main module causing the indicator to flash. The alert indicator will be
discussed in detail in the warning operation section of this presentation.

The message area shows the value for the parameter shown on the universal gauge. For sensor-
type parameters (non switch-type inputs), the gauge shows the actual value for the parameter
being measured. The gauge can also be used to observe any of the machine parameters by
entering the parameter number on the keypad and pressing the "gauge" key on the keypad. The
universal gauge allows the operator or service technician to select their "favorite" parameter or
to monitor a troublesome parameter which has not exceeded its limit.
SERV1859 - 29 - Text Reference
07/08 VIMS

LOW ENGINE OIL PRESSURE


SHUT DOWN SAFELY

Data Event
OIL PRESSURE ERROR
CALL SHOP
Maintenance Event

0745 267
03/24/04
Default Screen

22

The message area displays information regarding the condition of the machine. The display of
information is prioritized and includes data events, maintenance events, operator or service
technician requested data, and default information.

The message area provides two lines of text (twenty characters per line) to display information
to the operator or service technician. When an event (data or maintenance) occurs, information
relating to the out of specification parameter is displayed on the first line to identify the nature
of the abnormal condition. Information on the second line displays the desired operator
response to the condition.

If a maintenance event occurs, the message area will display the parameter followed by the
word ERROR. The second line will give the operator instructions regarding the condition.

If more than one event is present, the event information will be displayed according to priority.
The priority process will be discussed in the warning operation section of this module.

The message area can also display requested data such as event lists or active system events in
the Module Identification (MID), the Component Identification (CID), and the Failure Mode
Identifier (FMI) formats.
SERV1859 - 30 - Text Reference
07/08 VIMS

If no data has been requested by the operator and no event messages are active, default
information will be presented in the message area. The default information includes the time of
day, the machine service hours, and the date.

If a problem exists in either the source code or configuration software, the time of day and
service meter hours will not be displayed after start-up.
SERV1859 - 31 - Text Reference
07/08 VIMS

Indicator

OK

0 ID

ABC DEF
1 2 3

GHI JKL MNO


4 5 6

PRS TUV WXY


7 8 9

F1 F2 F3

23

The keypad allows the operator or the service technician to communicate with the VIMS by
entering numeric information. The numeric section of the keypad (keys 0 to 9) can be used to
initiate service procedures, to enter operator identification codes, to acknowledge events, and to
respond to VIMS inquiries (such as Data Logging information).

An indicator (upper right corner of keypad) flashes each time a key is pressed to inform the
operator or the service technician that the keystroke was accepted.

Eight additional keys are available for inputting information. They are:

OK: Used to complete keypad entries and to acknowledge events.

ID: Used by the operator to enter his or her identification or badge number
into the VIMS memory.

Gauge key: Used to display the value of any measured parameter. When the gauge
key is pressed, line one of the message area displays the parameter name
and parameter number, and line two displays the parameter value and
unit of measure.
SERV1859 - 32 - Text Reference
07/08 VIMS

This information is presented for one parameter at a time. To scroll


through the remaining parameters requires using the Forward and
Backward arrow keys.

A specific parameter can be displayed without using the Forward or


Backward keys by entering the number of the parameter and then
pressing the Gauge key. The requested information will remain
displayed until the OK key is pressed, which returns the message center
module to the default mode.

If an event occurs while a parameter is being displayed, the parameter


information will be overwritten with the event information.

Arrow keys: Allows the operator or service technician to scroll forward or backward
through the information shown in the message area.

F1: Allows the operator or service technician to request additional


information regarding data and maintenance events. If a data event is
displayed, pressing the F1 key will replace the information shown on line
two of the message area with the event value and units.

If a maintenance event is displayed, pressing the F1 key will replace the


information shown on line two with MID, CID, and FMI information
(example: MID 049, CID 0168, FMI 04).

F2: Allows the operator to clear the last nonstored bucket load from memory.

F3: Allows the operator to select a new loader delay code.


SERV1859 - 33 - Text Reference
07/08 VIMS

Speedometer / Keypad
Service Module
Lamp Quad Gauge Tachometer Message Center
Module Module Module OK

0 ID

Service 1
ABC
2
DEF
3

Key Start VIMS


GHI JKL MNO
4 5 6
PRS TUV WXY

Switch RS-232 3F
7
P1
8
P2
9
P3

Port

VIMS Service Tool Display


and Software Data Link
Keypad
Data Link
VIMS ECM
Engine
ECM
Electronic
Technician

Forward CAT and CAN


Horn Relay Data Links

Product Link ECM

Action Alarm

Action
Lamp Sensors
Sensors
VITAL INFORMATION
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
(VIMS) Implement ECM Power Train ECM

24

This illustration shows a block diagram of VIMS. The VIMS ECM is the "heart" of VIMS and,
as such, makes decisions based upon input signals received from various other electronic
control modules on the machine. Two 70 pin connectors on the VIMS ECM connect the
necessary harness wiring to the input and output devices. VIMS incorporates different data
links to communicate with other ECMs and offboard service tools..

The CAT and CAN Data Link are bi-directional data links that allows VIMS to communicate
with other onboard electronic controls and Caterpillar Electronic Technician (Cat ET).

The third and fourth data links are the RS-232 data links. Each RS-232 data link is separate.
One of the links has a communication port in the cab and another port mounted outside at the
rear bumper. The communication ports allow VIMS to communicate with an offboard service
tool (PC). The other RS-232 Data Link allows VIMS to communicate through two-way radio
communications with other offboard systems.

The display data link connects the various display components to the main module.
SERV1859 - 34 - Text Reference
07/08 VIMS

The main module sends an output signal to the action lamp if a Category 2 or 3 warning is
present. The module also sends a signal to the action alarm to sound an alarm if a Category 3
warning is present. The main module provides power for all the display components, and turns
a service light ON (steady) to alert maintenance personnel if an active system event is present.
The light will flash if an abuse related event is present.

The main module supplies information to all the display components (gauge cluster,
speedometer/tachometer, message center, and keypad). The display components alert the
operator to machine conditions.

VIMS also sends an output signal to the forward horn relay.


SERV1859 - 35 - Text Reference
07/08 VIMS

VITAL INFORMATION CAT / CAN Data Links


Cat ET
Engine ECM
VIMS
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (VIMS) ECM Implement ECM
SWITCH INPUT COMPONENTS Power Train ECM

J1 Connector J2 Connector

Steering Pump / Brake Pump


Case Drain Fan Pump and Motor
Filter Bypass Switch Case Drain Filter Bypass Switch

Steering Pilot Filter


Bypass Switch
Primary Steering
Pressure Switch
Steering Oil
Level Switch

Brake Low
Pressure Switch
Fan Oil Filter
Bypass Switch

Implement Pilot Oil Filter


Bypass Switch

Implement Pump Case Drain


Filter Bypass Switch

Implement Oil
Level Switch

Torque Converter Oil Filter


Bypass Switch

Transmission Oil Filter


Bypass Switch

Engine Oil
Level Switches (2)

ORS Makeup Tank


Level Switch

25

Inputs to the VIMS ECM include open or grounded switch-type inputs from switches used to
monitor machine events, a lighting sensor to inform the VIMS when the dash panel lamps are
turned ON, and a keypad input to receive information from the keypad.

This illustration shows the components that provide input signals to VIMS ECM. The input
information is received from pressure switches, temperature switches, and level switches.
VIMS uses the information to determine the condition of vital machine parameters such as filter
conditions, fluid levels, torque converter oil temperature, steering oil pressure, and brake oil
pressure.

NOTE: The switches shown in this illustration will be identified throughout the
presentation.
SERV1859 - 36 - Text Reference
07/08 VIMS

VITAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (VIMS)


SENSOR AND SENDER INPUT COMPONENTS
Cat ET
CAT / CAN Data Links Engine ECM
VIMS ECM
Implement ECM
Power Train ECM
J1 Connector J2 Connector

Implement Oil Engine Fan Pump


Temperature Sensor Pressure Sensor
Lift Cylinder Head End
Pressure Sensor Torque Converter Oil
Temperature Sensor
Ambient Air
Temperature Sensor
Fuel Level Sender
Steering Oil
Temperature Sensor

Steering Pump
Pressure Sensor

Steering Pilot Oil


Pressure Sensor

Lift Linkage
Position Sensor

Front Axle Oil


Temperature Sensor

Rear Axle Oil


Temperature Sensor

Implement Pilot Oil


Pressure Sensor

Right Implement
Pump Pressure Sensor

26

VIMS uses sensors to provide information on the various measured parameters. The sensors
used by VIMS are either pulse width modulation or frequency type. VIMS uses the sensor
information to determine the condition of vital machine parameters such as air and oil
temperature, oil pressure, and lift linkage position.

VIMS also receives an input signal from the fuel level sender.

NOTE: The sensors shown in this illustration will be identified throughout the
presentation.
SERV1859 - 37 - Text Reference
07/08 VIMS

WARNING OPERATION
Category 1
Category 2
Category 3

27

Warning Operation

VIMS monitors designated machine systems and notifies the operator of immediate or
impending problems. The warning categories of VIMS are the same as those used with the
Caterpillar Monitoring System. The inputs and internal operation of the controls differ, but the
outputs of the system remain unchanged.

The operator receives the following types of warning:

Warning Category 1 - Alert indicator flashes. No immediate action required by the operator.
(Requires servicing by the end of the shift.)

Warning Category 2 - Alert indicator flashes and the action lamp flashes. Machine operation
should be changed or maintenance performed.

Warning Category 2S - Alert indicator flashes, action lamp flashes, and action alarm sounds
continuously. Machine operation should be changed immediately.

Warning Category 3 - Alert indicator flashes, action lamp flashes, and action alarm sounds
intermittently. Operator should perform an immediate, safe engine shutdown.
SERV1859 - 38 - Text Reference
07/08 VIMS

VIMS triggers the warning operation when a data or maintenance event occurs. The abnormal
condition is sensed by the VIMS ECM where the appropriate warning category is determined
and relayed to the operator through the alert indicator (flashing), the action lamp (flashing), or
the action alarm (sounding).

Warning inputs are provided by switches and sensors. In some cases, more than one input is
needed to trigger a specific warning category. VIMS identifies the warning category displayed
according to active events. If more than one event is active, each event will be scrolled on the
message area in five second intervals. If a Category 3 (most severe) event is active, Category 1
or 2 events cannot be scrolled.

Although the VIMS warning categories are the same as those used on other systems (Electronic
Monitoring System and Caterpillar Monitoring System), some changes have been made in the
area of operator awareness. VIMS documents when the operator acknowledges the fault.
When a Category 1 or 2 event becomes active, the operator can acknowledge the event by
pressing the OK key on the keypad. Depending on the nature of the event, the warning
category may be cancelled for a specific period of time. After the time interval is exceeded, the
warning category will again be displayed. Category 3 events cannot be cancelled by the
operator.
SERV1859 - 39 - Text Reference
07/08 VIMS

DATA EVENTS

VOLTAGE TOO LOW


SHUT DOWN SAFELY

Using Universal Gauge


as Service Tool
VOLTAGE [140]
22.5 VOLTS

28

Data Events

Data events indicate that the machine is operating outside of normal limits. A data event may
occur because a specific parameter detects an abnormal condition. An example of a data event
could be low hydraulic oil level or low fuel level.

The message area provides two lines (twenty characters per line) to display information to the
operator or service technician. When a data event occurs, a message is displayed on the first
line to identify the type of abnormal condition. The second line indicates the required operator
action.

In this illustration, the operator is alerted to a Category 3 warning. The alert indicator and
action lamp will flash and the action alarm will sound intermittently. The message center
directs the operator to shut the machine down safely.

VIMS detected a critically low system voltage (less than 23.0 Volts). Continued machine
operation with low system voltage could possibly cause the electronic controls installed on the
machine to shut down.
SERV1859 - 40 - Text Reference
07/08 VIMS

The service technician can easily investigate the data event using the universal gauge as a
service tool. Entering the parameter number of 140 and pressing the Gauge key on the keypad
will display the parameter name and number on the first line and the parameter value and units
on the second line, as shown in this illustration.

When a data event occurs and the service technician is requested to diagnose the malfunction, it
is important that all the facts concerning the reported complaint are gathered. The advanced
capabilities of VIMS allow the system to distinguish between actual problems with the machine
or its components and conditions caused by inappropriate operation (abuse). VIMS will
distinguish between the types of problems and maintain a count of occurrences in memory.

To effectively diagnose data events may require the service technician to use all available
VIMS resources. The message center and keypad may be used to display event information
such as the event statistics, the event list, and the acknowledged events. To observe the above
information, the service technician must initiate the appropriate service operation.

On VIMS, the event information can be downloaded using a service tool (PC).

It may also be necessary to use other types of stored information in solving machine
abnormalities.
SERV1859 - 41 - Text Reference
07/08 VIMS

MAINTENANCE EVENTS

OIL PRESSURE ERROR


CALL SHOP

F1 Key Pressed
OIL PRESSURE ERROR
MID036 CID0100 FMI03

29

Maintenance Events

Maintenance events reflect the self-diagnostic capabilities of VIMS. If VIMS detects an event
condition in one or more of its electronic monitoring devices (switches, sensors, etc.), a
maintenance event will be immediately displayed on the message center and the operator will
be alerted by the appropriate warning. The service technician can retrieve additional diagnostic
information on the detected fault by pressing the F1 key on the keypad or by accessing VIMS
through the use of a service tool (PC).

The message area provides two lines (twenty characters per line) to display information to the
operator or service technician. When a maintenance event occurs, information identifying a
specific parameter has "error" displayed on the first line and information giving the operator
instructions appears on the second line.

With the information displayed in the message area, additional diagnostic information can be
displayed on the second line by pressing the F1 key on the keypad.

The display will now show the MID, CID, and FMI codes for the active maintenance event, as
shown in this illustration.
SERV1859 - 42 - Text Reference
07/08 VIMS

The diagnostic codes displayed on the second line provide valuable information to the service
technician. The MID identifies which electronic control has diagnosed the event. Since VIMS
has the ability to receive maintenance event information from other controls over the CAT Data
Link, it is necessary to establish the source of the event. Each electronic control module
installed on the machine has its own unique identifier. Always refer to the appropriate service
manual for the proper MID identifier codes.

To successfully diagnose, troubleshoot, and repair VIMS malfunctions will require the service
technician to use all resources available (service manuals, wiring schematics, handouts, etc.).
Additionally, the service technician needs to be able to use the diagnostic tooling that is
available for all electronic control systems. To diagnose VIMS related faults, the service
technician needs to be totally proficient in reading and interpreting the electrical wiring
schematics and in the use of a digital multimeter.
SERV1859 - 43 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

30

C32 ACERT™ ENGINE

Shown is the C32 engine with ACERT™ Technology used in the 992K Wheel Loader and
854K Wheel Dozer.

The engine performance specifications for the 992K and 854K are:

- Serial No. Prefix: LJW


- Performance spec: 0K8226
- Gross power: 703 kW (943 hp)
- Full load rpm: 1750
- High idle rpm: 1850
- Low idle rpm: 900
- Overspeed rpm: 2050

This V-12 engine uses twin turbochargers, Air to Air AfterCooler (ATAAC), and Mechanical
Electronic Unit Injection (MEUI) for power, reliability, and fuel economy. The C32 is
compliant with U.S. EPA Tier 2 and European Union Stage II emissions regulations.
SERV1859 - 44 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

ENGINE SYSTEM DIAGRAM CAT and CAN Data Link

Engine ECM

MEUI Injectors (12)

ORS Solenoid (Attachment)

Left Bank (Odd) Engine Retarder Solenoids


Ether Aid Solenoid

Right Bank (Even) Engine Retarder Solenoids


Fan Solenoid
Outputs
Outputs
Inputs Speed Sensor No. 1 (Crank) Inputs
Speed Sensor No. 2 (Cam) Key Start Switch

Right Intake Manifold Temperature Sensor Throttle Pedal Position Sensor

Left Intake Manifold Temperature Sensor


Throttle Lock Switch
Coolant Temperature Sensor

Right Turbo Outlet Pressure Sensor Throttle Lock Set / Decel Switch
Left Turbo Outlet Pressure Sensor
Engine Oil Pressure
Throttle Lock Resume / Accel Switch
Atmospheric Pressure

Exhaust Temperature Sensors (4) Ground Level Shutdown Switch

Air Filter Restriction (Turbo Inlet) Sensor


Fuel Temp Sensor
Brake Pedal Switch
Fuel Pressure Sensor

Differential Fuel Pressure Switch Compression Brake Pedal Switch

J2 (ENGINE) CONNECTOR J1 (MACHINE) CONNECTOR

31

Engine Electronic Control System

Shown is the electronic control system component diagram for the C32 engine used in the
992K Wheel Loader and 854K Wheel Dozer. Fuel injection is controlled by the Engine
Electronic Control Module (ECM).

Many electronic signals are sent to the Engine ECM by sensors, switches, and senders. The
Engine ECM analyzes this input and sends signals to various output components such as relays
and solenoids.

For example, based on the various input signals, the Engine ECM determines when and for how
long to energize the injector solenoids. When the injector solenoids are energized determines
the timing of the engine. How long the solenoids are energized determines the engine speed.

The two interface connectors provide electrical connections from the engine to the machine
including the CAN Data Link and the Cat Data Link.

The oil level switches send input signals to the VIMS ECM. The VIMS ECM sends the engine
oil level input to the Engine ECM over the data links.
SERV1859 - 45 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

Input Components:

Crankshaft speed timing sensor - The speed timing sensor sends a fixed voltage level signal
to the Engine ECM in order to determine the engine speed, direction, and timing.

Camshaft speed timing sensor - The speed timing sensor sends a fixed voltage level signal to
the Engine ECM in order to determine the engine speed, direction, and timing.

Intake manifold air temperature sensors - These sensors supply air temperature data at the
intake manifolds to the Engine ECM. The ECM uses this information for engine derates and
logged events.

Coolant temperature sensor - This sensor is an input to the Engine ECM supplying
information on the temperature of the engine coolant. The ECM uses this information for fan
solenoid current, high coolant temperature warnings, engine derates for high coolant
temperature, or logged events.

Turbo outlet air pressure sensors - These sensors are an input to the Engine ECM to supply
information about the air pressure into the intake manifolds.

Engine oil pressure sensor - This sensor is an input to the Engine ECM to supply an
information warning for low oil pressure, engine derates for low oil pressure, or logged events.

Atmospheric pressure sensor - This sensor is an input to the Engine ECM and is used as a
reference for air filter restriction. Also, the sensor is used to supply information to the Engine
ECM during operation at high altitude.

Exhaust temperature sensors - The exhaust temperature sensors send a signal to the Engine
ECM indicating exhaust temperature.

Fuel temperature sensor - This sensor sends fuel temperature data to the Engine ECM. The
ECM uses this information for engine derates and logged events.

Fuel pressure sensor - The fuel pressure sensor sends a signal to the Engine ECM indicating
fuel pressure.

Fuel differential pressure switch - This switch relays information to the ECM that the fuel
pressure at the output of the filter base is restricted in comparison to the inlet pressure.

Key switch ON (+B) - The Key ON input to the Engine ECM enables the ECM for operation
and is recognized by any ECM on the machine.

Throttle pedal position sensor - This sensor sends the throttle position to the Engine ECM in
order to increase or decrease the fuel supply to the injectors.
SERV1859 - 46 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

Throttle lock switch - The switch relays information to the ECM to activate the throttle lock
function.

Throttle set/decel switch - The switch relays information to the ECM to set or decelerate
engine rpm.

Throttle resume/accel switch - The switch relays information to the ECM to resume or
accelerate engine rpm.

Ground level shutdown switch - This switch is an input to the Engine ECM. This input
disables fuel injection when the engine is running or at engine start-up.

Air filter restriction (turbo inlet) pressure sensor - This sensor is an input to the Engine
ECM to supply information about the air restriction before the turbocharger. The ECM uses
this information for engine derates and logged events.

Brake pedal switch - This switch in the cab sends a signal to the Engine ECM to deactivate
the throttle lock.

Compression brake pedal switch - This switch sends a signal to the Engine ECM when the
compression brake pedal is depressed to activate the compression brake function.

Output Components:

Fuel injectors - Solenoids that control the fuel delivered to the combustion chamber.

Engine brake solenoids - Solenoids that control engine oil to the compression brake pistons.

ORS Solenoid - Solenoids that meter engine oil into the fuel supply and supplies oil to the
engine oil pan.

Ether aid solenoid - On/off solenoid valve that injects ether to start the engine in cold weather.

Fan solenoid - Solenoid valve that controls the signal pressure to the fan pump to meet the
varying cooling requirements of the machine.
SERV1859 - 47 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

3
2

32

Fuel injection and some other systems are controlled by the Engine ECM (1), which is accessed
from the left side engine compartment. Other systems controlled by the Engine ECM are: the
ether injection, the demand fan, and the engine derates.

The Engine ECM has two main connectors for diagnostics. The larger 120-pin connector (2)
known as J2 connects to the engine harness. The smaller 70-pin connector (3) is identified on
schematics as J1 and connects to the machine harness.

Using the Cat ET service tool, timing calibration is performed automatically for the
speed/timing sensors. This step is performed to avoid instability and ensures that no backlash is
present in the timing gears during the calibration process. Timing calibration improves fuel
injection accuracy by correcting for any slight tolerances between the crankshaft, the timing
gears, and the timing wheel. Timing calibration is normally performed after ECM replacement,
cam or crank sensor replacement, or timing wheel replacement.

Occasionally, Caterpillar will make changes to the internal software that controls the
performance of the engine. These changes can be performed by using the WinFlash program in
Cat ET. Cat ET is used to diagnose and program the electronic controls used in machines. If
using the WinFlash program, a "flash" file must be obtained from Caterpillar and uploaded to
the ECM.
SERV1859 - 48 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

4 3

6
2 5

33

The right intake air temperature sensor (1) and left intake air temperature sensor (2) are located
on top of the engine. The intake air temperature sensors produce an analog signal that is
monitored by the Engine ECM. The ECM monitors intake air temperature for signaling the
monitoring system in the event of a problem and for derating the engine at high temperatures.

The coolant temperature sensor (3) is located on top of the engine toward, closest to the
radiator. The coolant temperature sensor is an analog sensor that is monitored by the Engine
ECM. The ECM monitors engine coolant temperature for signaling the monitoring system in
the event of a problem and for derating the engine at high temperatures. The Engine ECM also
uses the coolant temperature sensor information for cold mode functions such as timing
changes, elevated idle, cold cylinder cut-out, and ether injection.

The right turbo outlet pressure sensor (4) and left turbo outlet pressure sensor (5) are used for
calculating boost.

The atmospheric pressure sensor (6) is located on top of the engine toward the left rear side.
The atmospheric pressure sensor is an analog sensor that is monitored by the Engine ECM.
The ECM monitors atmospheric pressure for the following: altitude derate, air inlet restriction
derate, and calibration reference for other sensors.
SERV1859 - 49 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

34

The crankshaft speed/timing sensor (1) is located near the crank pulley and damper, on the right
side of the engine compartment. The crank sensor measures engine speed and timing for
control of the timing and delivery of fuel to each of the engine's cylinders. Sensing engine
speed allows engine speed governing, fuel limiting, and fuel injection timing. If the crank
speed/timing sensor fails, the cam speed/timing sensor allows for continuous operation.

The oil pressure sensor (2) is located near the air conditioning compressor on the right side of
the engine compartment. The oil pressure sensor is an analog sensor that is monitored by the
Engine ECM. When the oil pressure is too low, the Engine ECM will signal the monitoring
system to display a warning and derate the engine. The ECM will also log an event that
requires a factory password to clear.
SERV1859 - 50 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

35

The oil level switches (1) monitor the oil level in the pan with engine ON and the engine OFF.
The C32 engine can be equipped with an optional Oil Renewal System (ORS). The ORS can
increase the oil change interval and can decrease the amount of used oil in need of disposal.
The life of the engine is not shortened and the availability of the machine is increased.

The ORS meters engine oil that has been filtered into the fuel supply. The metered oil is
consumed in the engine during the normal combustion process. The Engine ECM sends an
output signal to the ORS solenoid (2) to control the oil metered. The Engine ECM controls the
amount of oil that is metered based on the actual load factor or on the fuel that is consumed by
the engine.

Whenever the old oil from the oil pan is injected into the return fuel line, new oil from a
makeup tank is added to the oil pan. Regular additions of new oil will allow the oil change
level to be extended. Reviewing the reports of the S•O•S Oil Analysis will determine when the
oil needs to be changed and if a problem has occurred.
SERV1859 - 51 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

36

The cam speed/timing sensor (arrow) is located on the right side of the engine in the rear of the
timing gear housing behind the primary fuel filter. The cam sensor is used as a back-up for the
crank speed/timing sensor. If the cam speed/timing sensor fails, the crank speed/timing sensor
allows for continuous operation.
SERV1859 - 52 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

LOSS OF ENGINE SPEED/TIMING SIGNAL

- Engine will start and run with one speed/timing sensor signal

- Engine will NOT start or run without at least one


speed/timing sensor signal

- If crank sensor fails during engine operation:


- Slight change in engine performance

- If crank sensor signal is not present at engine start-up:


- Engine starts normally

- If cam sensor fails during engine operation:


- No noticeable change in engine performance

- If cam sensor signal is not present at engine start-up:


- Engine will start with crank sensor signal, but may
take longer to start and run rough for a few seconds

37

The engine will start and run when only one sensor signal is present from either the crank or
cam sensor. During engine operation, if both speed/timing sensors fail, the Engine ECM will
stop fuel injection and the engine will shut down. During start-up, the loss of both sensors will
prevent the engine from starting.

If the engine is running and the signal from the crank speed/timing sensor is lost, a slight
change in engine performance will be noticed when the Engine ECM performs the changeover
to the cam speed/timing sensor. If the signal from the crank speed/timing sensor is not present
during start-up, the engine will start normally.

Loss of the cam speed/timing sensor during engine operation will not result in any noticeable
change in engine performance. However, if the signal from the cam speed/timing sensor is not
present during start-up, the engine may require a slightly longer period of time to start and may
run rough for a few seconds until the ECM determines the proper firing order by using only the
crank engine speed/timing sensor.
SERV1859 - 53 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

The teeth configuration in the crankshaft timing wheel are not the same as the camshaft timing
wheel. The camshaft timing wheel includes 37 timing teeth with 36 of the teeth spaced equally
at 10° apart. One tooth is spaced 5° apart from the other teeth.

There are only 35 teeth on the crankshaft gear spaced equally at 10° apart. Two of the teeth are
spaced at 20° apart, which creates a "gap" in the gear teeth.

When the Engine ECM uses the cam speed sensor to determine timing for engine starting, the
ECM knows exactly what cylinder is at TDC. The following cylinders are at TDC at the same
time (one cylinder bank only):
- Cylinder No. 1 (compression stroke) and No. 6 (exhaust stroke)
- Cylinder No. 2 (compression stroke) and No. 5 (exhaust stroke)
- Cylinder No. 3 (compression stroke) and No. 4 (exhaust stroke)

When the Engine ECM uses the crank speed sensor to determine timing for engine starting, the
ECM does not know which of the two cylinders is at TDC. As an example, the Engine ECM
will attempt to fire Cylinder No. 1 and check if there is any increase in the engine rpm. If there
is no increase in rpm, the ECM determines that the TDC timing position at that firing moment
is Cylinder No. 6. This action may result in a longer engine start time.
SERV1859 - 54 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

38

Located behind the right pedal, the throttle position sensor (arrow) provides the desired throttle
position to the Engine ECM. If the Engine ECM detects a fault in the throttle position sensor,
the throttle lock switch in the cab can be used to increase the engine speed.

The throttle position sensor receives a regulated 8.0 ± 0.5 Volts from the Engine ECM. The
throttle position sensor output signal is a Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signal that varies with
throttle position and is expressed as a percentage between 0 and 100%.

To check the output signal of the throttle position sensor, connect a multimeter between Pins B
and C of the throttle position sensor connector. Set the meter to read "Duty Cycle." The duty
cycle output of the throttle position sensor should be:
- Low Idle: 16 ± 6%
- High Idle: 85 ± 4%
SERV1859 - 55 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

4
1

39

If the machine is equipped with an ether start system, the Engine ECM will automatically inject
ether from the ether solenoid valve (1) and ether cylinder during cranking. The ether solenoid
is located inside the right engine compartment.

The ether injection system has two cycles: pre-ether injection and post-ether injection. The
pre-ether injection cycle will inject ether during engine starting. Once the engine has reached
low idle, ether will be injected for 1 second. The temperature of the engine coolant or right
intake manifold air temperature and the atmospheric pressure will determine when ether is
injected. The atmospheric pressures and temperature at which ether is injected are:
- 50 kPa (7 psi) and a temperature of 18° C (64° F)
- 75 kPa (10 psi) and a temperature of 9° C (48° F)
- 100 kPa (14.5 psi) and a temperature of 0° C (32° F)

After the pre-ether injection cycle has completed, the post-ether injection cycle begins. The
post-ether injection cycle is based on engine coolant temperature. The amount of ether injected
will be the following:
- At -23° C (-9° F) ether will be injected for 40 seconds
- At -9° C (16° F) ether will be injected for 20 seconds
- At 0° C (32° F) ether will be injected for 1 second

Cat ET can be connected to the machine to enable or disable the ether injection system.

Also shown above is the engine compartment light (2), the light switch (3), and the air cleaner
housing (4).
SERV1859 - 56 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

40

The fan solenoid (1) is controlled by the Engine ECM and is mounted to a bracket above the
pump drive. The fan solenoid is a proportional solenoid valve that controls the signal pressure
to the fan pump to meet the varying cooling requirements of the machine.

The pressure tap (2) located next to the fan solenoid is used for checking fan pump signal
pressure.
SERV1859 - 57 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

41

The ground level shutdown switch (1) is located in the service center at the rear bumper on the
left side of the machine. The ground level shutdown switch is an input to the Engine ECM.
The ground level shutdown switch input disables fuel injection when the engine is running or at
engine start-up.

The service port switch (2) is used to provide power to the machine electrical system from the
ground. However, the engine cannot be started from the service port switch.

The transmission lockout switch (3) and the engine lockout switch (4) are used to disable the
engine and transmission, if necessary, for service procedures. The transmission lockout switch
sends a signal to the Power Train ECM, which neutralizes the transmission. The engine lockout
switch de-energizes the start relay, which will not allow the engine to start.

Also located in the rear bumper service center are the:

- stairway access light switch (5)

- VIMS service port (6)

- diagnostic service port (7)


SERV1859 - 58 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

42

43

The throttle lock switch (1) sends an input signal to the Engine ECM to activate the throttle
lock function.

The throttle set/decel switch (2) sends an input signal to the Engine ECM to set or decelerate
engine rpm.

The throttle lock resume/accel switch (3) sends an input signal to the Engine ECM to resume or
accelerate engine rpm.
SERV1859 - 59 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

HIGH COOLANT TEMPERATURE DERATE


120

100

80
% Derate

60

40

20

0
C 110 111 111.5 112 112.5 113 113.5 114 114.5
F 230 232 233 234 235 235.5 236.5 237 238
Coolant Temperature
Level 1 Warning Level 2 Warning / Derates

44

Engine Derates

The coolant temperature sensor measures the temperature of the coolant and initiate warning
levels and derates.

When the temperature of the coolant exceeds 110° C (230° F), the Engine ECM will initiate a
Level 1 Warning.

When the temperature of the coolant exceeds 111° C (231° F), the Engine ECM will initiate a
Level 2 Warning. At 111° C (231° F) the Engine ECM will initiate a 25% derate. Refer to the
illustration for the remainder of the high engine coolant temperature derate. At 100% derate,
the engine available power will be approximately 50%.
SERV1859 - 60 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

C11-C32 ENGINE INTAKE MANIFOLD TEMPERATURE DERATE


21

18

15

12
% Derate

0
C 82 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93
F 180 187 189 190 192 194 196 198 199

Intake Manifold Temperature


Level 1 Warning Level 2 Warning / Derates

45

The intake manifold air temperature sensor measures the temperature of the air that is flowing
to the intake manifold. The sensor is used to initiate warning levels and engine derates.

After the engine is running for at least 3 minutes and if the intake manifold air temperature goes
above 82° C (180° F), the Engine ECM will initiate a Level 1 Warning.

After the engine is running for at least 3 minutes and if the intake manifold air temperature goes
above 86° C (187° F), the Engine ECM will initiate a Level 2 Warning. With the Level 2
Warning, the Engine ECM signals the engine to initiate a 3% derate. This derate has a 20%
upper limit.
SERV1859 - 61 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

ENGINE EXHAUST MANIFOLD TEMPERATURE DERATE

70

60

50

40
% Derate

30

20

10

0
C 730 750 755 760 765 770 775 780 785
F 1346 1382 1391 1400 1409 1418 1427 1436 1445
Exhaust Manifold Temperature
Level 1 Warning Level 2 Warning / Derates

46

The exhaust temperature sensors measure the temperature of the exhaust air flowing out of the
exhaust manifolds. The sensors are used to initiate warning levels and engine derates.

After the engine is running for over 4 minutes and if the exhaust manifold air temperature goes
above 730° C (1346° F), the Engine ECM will initiate a Level 1 Warning.

After the engine is running for over 4 minutes and if the exhaust manifold air temperature goes
above 750° C (1382° F), the Engine ECM will initiate a Level 2 Warning. With the Level 2
Warning, the Engine ECM signals the engine to initiate a derate. This derate has a 75% upper
limit.
SERV1859 - 62 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

psi kPa LOW OIL PRESSURE


26.0 180

23.0 160

20.0 140

17.0 120
Oil Pressure

15.0 100

12.0 80
35% Derate
9.0 60

6.0 40

3.0 20

0 0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2340
Engine rpm
kPa Warning Level 1 kPa Shutdown Level 3

47

This illustration shows a graph with the two different warning levels for low oil pressure and
the low oil pressure derate.

When the oil pressure is below the blue line (154 kPa @ 1600 rpm) (22 psi @ 1600 rpm), the
Engine ECM will enable the low oil pressure Level 1 Warning. Change machine operation or
perform maintenance to the system in the event of a warning.

When the oil pressure is below the red line (104 kPa @ 1600 rpm)(15 psi @ 1600 rpm), the
Engine ECM will enable the low oil pressure Level 3 Warning. The operator should
immediately perform a safe engine shutdown in the event of a Level 3 warning.

Also, with the Level 3 Warning the Engine ECM initiates a 35% engine derate.

If the signal between the Engine ECM and the oil pressure sensor is lost or disabled, the Engine
ECM will initiate a Level 1 Warning.
SERV1859 - 63 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

AIR INLET RESTRICTION DERATE


16

14

12

10
% Derate

0
kPa 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
psi 0 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.7 2.0 2.3
Air Restriction Difference
Level 1 Warning Level 2 Warning / Derates

48

The air inlet restriction is the pressure difference between the turbo inlet pressure sensor and the
atmospheric sensor. The turbo inlet pressure sensor measures the air inlet pressure at the
turbocharger compressor housing.

As the air restriction increases, the pressure difference will increase. If the engine has been
running for over 4 minutes and the air inlet restriction is 7.5 kPa (30 in. of water) for 30
seconds, the Engine ECM will initiate a Level 1 Warning. If the air restriction increases to 9.0
kPa (36 in. of water) for 30 seconds, then a Level 2 Warning will occur and the engine will
enter the air inlet restriction derate.

When the pressure difference between the turbo inlet pressure sensor and the atmospheric
sensor reach a difference of 10.0 kPa (40 in. of water), the Engine ECM will derate the engine
approximately 2%. The Engine ECM will then derate the engine 2% more for every 1 kPa
(2 in. of water) difference up to 10%.

If the signal between the Engine ECM and the turbo inlet pressure sensor is lost or disabled, the
Engine ECM will initiate a Level 2 Warning.

NOTE: This air inlet restriction derate is a latching derate. The derate will remain
active until the machine is shut down.
SERV1859 - 64 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

FUEL TEMPERATURE DERATE


30

25

20
% Derate

15

10

0
C 89.8 90.0 90.2 90.4 90.6 90.8 91.0 91.2 91.4 91.6 91.8 92.0 92.2
F 193.6 194.0 194.4 194.7 195.0 195.4 195.8 196.2 196.5 196.9 197.2 197.6 198.0

Fuel Temperature
Level 1 Warning Level 2 Warning / Derates

49

This illustration shows the graph for the warning and the derates map for the fuel temperature.
When the fuel temperature exceeds 90° C (194° F), the Engine ECM will activate a Level 1
Warning. When the fuel temperature increases to 91.0° C (196° F) a Level 2 Warning will be
initiated by the Engine ECM. At the same time, the engine will derate to 12.5%. If the fuel
temperature exceeds 92° C (198° F), the engine will be derated to 25%.

If the signal between the Engine ECM and the fuel temperature sensor is lost or disabled, the
Engine ECM will derate the engine to 12.5%.
SERV1859 - 65 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

FUEL FILTER RESTRICTION DERATE


FUEL TEMP ABOVE 30 C (86 F)
AND FUEL PRESSURE ABOVE 138 kPa (20 psi)
60

50

40
% Derate

30

20

10

0
0 3 min 1 hr 2 hr 3 hr 4 hr 5 hr 6hr
Time
Level 1 Warning Level 2 Warning / Derates

50

When the differential pressure switch recognizes a fuel pressure of 138 kPa (20 psi) for 1 hour,
the Engine ECM will initiate a Level 1 Warning.

When the differential pressure switch recognizes 138 kPa (20 psi) across the filter for 4 hours,
the Engine ECM will initiate a Level 2 Warning. With the Level 2 Warning initiated, a 35 %
derate is applied to the engine.

This feature will be disabled when the fuel temperature is below 30° C (86° F).
SERV1859 - 66 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

6
5

3
1

51

Cooling System

The jacket water cooling system on the 992K and 854K use a Next Generation Modular
Radiator (NGMR) cores. The NGMR (1) is a two-pass flow design, replacing the AMOCS
radiator cores used in the "G" series. Being modular, individual cores may be removed for
service while the radiator remains in place.

The aftercooler cooling system is an ATAAC system, using an air-to-air design to replace the
previous separate circuit coolant design. The ATAAC cores (2) are located in front of the
radiator. Intake air is cooled after being compressed by the turbocharger before being routed to
the intake manifold.

Also visible in this illustration are the hydraulic oil cooler (3), the axle oil coolers (4), the
steering oil cooler (5), the AC condenser (6), and the fuel cooler (7).
SERV1859 - 67 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

52

COOLING SYSTEM FLOW


Thermostat
Housing
Radiator

Engine Block

Bypass
Tube
53
ATAAC

Engine Oil Cooler

Power Train Oil Cooler


Water Pump

Jacket water coolant flows from the water pump through the engine oil cooler (1) and the
transmission oil cooler (2) to both sides of the engine cylinder block. Coolant flows through
the engine block to the cylinder heads. From the cylinder heads, the coolant flows to the two
temperature regulators and, based on coolant temperature, either flows to the radiator (if hot) or
through the bypass tube to the water pump (if cold) to recirculate until the engine reaches
operating temperature.

The thermostats are located in the thermostat housing at the top of the bypass tube.
SERV1859 - 68 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

ENGINE OIL SYSTEM

Engine
Block

Engine Bypass
Oil Filters Valve
Engine
Oil Cooler

Engine
Oil Pump

54

Lubrication System

The engine oil pump draws oil from the oil pan through a screen.

Oil flows from the pump through an engine oil cooler bypass valve to the engine oil cooler.
The bypass valve for the engine oil cooler permits oil flow to the system during cold starts
when the oil is thick or if the cooler is plugged.

Oil flows from the engine oil cooler to the oil filters. The oil flows through the filters and
enters the engine cylinder block to clean, cool, and lubricate the internal components and the
turbochargers.
SERV1859 - 69 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

3
4
7 9
5
8

55

Fuel System

Fuel is pulled from the tank through the primary fuel filter by the fuel transfer pump. The
primary fuel filter (1) and secondary fuel filter (2) are located inside the left engine
compartment door. The primary filter has a fuel/water separator that mounts directly below the
filter element. Periodically open the valve (3) under the separator bowl and drain any water
into an approved container.

After changing fuel filters, a switch located inside the door (4) activates the electric fuel
priming pump to refill the fuel lines and filters with fuel. The pump only works with the
engine start switch in the OFF position. Switch the priming pump ON and allow the pump to
run for several seconds. Repeat the priming procedure if the engine fails to start or misfires.

Also shown in this illustration is the engine compartment light switch (5), engine oil filters (6),
engine oil fill tube (7), engine oil dipstick (8), and air filter restriction indicator (9).
SERV1859 - 70 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

56

The fuel transfer pump (1) is located at the top rear of the engine. The fuel transfer pump
contains a bypass valve to protect the fuel system components from excessive pressure. The
bypass valve setting is higher than the setting of the fuel pressure regulator. Fuel flows from
the transfer pump to the secondary fuel filter located on the right side of the engine.

Fuel flows from the fuel filter base to the MEUI fuel injectors. Return fuel from the injectors
flows through the fuel pressure regulator (2) before returning to the fuel tank. Fuel pressure is
controlled by the fuel pressure regulator.

Fuel pressure should be between 420 and 840 kPa (61 and 122 psi) at full load rpm.
SERV1859 - 71 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

2 3
1

57

The differential fuel pressure switch (1) is located in the top of the secondary fuel filter housing
on the right side of the engine. This switch will indicate a restriction in the fuel filter. A
warning will be sent by the Engine ECM to the monitoring system.

The fuel pressure sensor (2) is located in the top of the secondary fuel filter housing, directly
behind the differential pressure switch. This sensor is used to monitor fuel pressure.

The engine fuel temperature sensor (3) is located in the top of the secondary fuel filter housing,
behind the other two sensors. The Engine ECM uses the fuel temperature measurement to
make corrections to the fuel rate and maintain power regardless of fuel temperature (within
certain parameters). This feature is called "Fuel Temperature Compensation."
SERV1859 - 72 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

LOW PRESSURE FUEL SYSTEM

Fuel Cooler

Fuel
Priming
Pump
Fuel
Primary Pressure
Fuel Regulator
Filter Cylinder
Head
Fuel Tank Fuel
Transfer
Pump

Cylinder
Secondary Head
Fuel Filter

58

Fuel is pulled from the tank through the primary fuel filter by the fuel transfer pump. Fuel
flows from the transfer pump to the secondary fuel filter.

Fuel flows from the secondary fuel filter base through the fuel injectors in the cylinder heads.
Return fuel from the injectors flows through the fuel pressure regulator before returning to the
tank.

The electric fuel priming pump is used to fill the filters after they are changed.
SERV1859 - 73 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

59

60

Air Intake and Exhaust System

Shown are the air intake system components. Check the air filter restriction indicator (1). If
the yellow piston is in the red zone, the air filters are restricted and must be serviced.

Two filter elements are installed in the filter housings (2). The large element is the primary
element and the small element is the secondary element.
SERV1859 - 74 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

Air intake system tips:

- The primary element can be cleaned a maximum of six times.

- Never clean the secondary element for reuse. Always replace the secondary element.

- Air filter restriction causes black exhaust smoke and low power.

There is a turbocharger inlet pressure sensor (3) located above the air filter restriction indicator.
The Engine ECM uses the turbocharger inlet pressure sensor in combination with the
atmospheric pressure sensor to determine air filter restriction.

The ECM provides the input signal to the monitoring system, which informs the operator of the
air filter restriction. As the air restriction increases, the pressure difference will increase. If the
engine has been running for over 4 minutes and the air inlet restriction is 7.5 kPa (30 in. of
water) for 30 seconds, the Engine ECM will initiate a Level 1 Warning. If the air restriction
increases to 9.0 kPa (36 in. of water) for 30 seconds or the turbo inlet pressure sensor fails,
then a Level 2 Warning will occur and the engine will enter the air inlet restriction derate.

When the pressure difference between the turbo inlet pressure sensor and the atmospheric
sensor reach a difference of 10.0 kPa (40 in. of water), the Engine ECM will derate the engine
approximately 2%. The Engine ECM will then derate the engine 2% more for every 1 kPa
(2 in. of water) difference up to 10%.
SERV1859 - 75 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

1 2

4
3

61

The C32 engine is equipped with two turbochargers, one on each side of the engine. Each
turbocharger is driven by the exhaust gas from the cylinders which enters the turbine side (1) of
the turbocharger from the exhaust manifold. The exhaust gas flows through the turbocharger,
spinning the turbine wheel, then exits to the exhaust piping and muffler.

The clean air from the filters enters the compressor side (2) of the turbocharger where it is
compressed by the spinning turbine and picks up heat. The compressed air from the
turbocharger then flows out the top of the turbocharger to the aftercooler. After the air is
cooled by the aftercooler, the air flows to the cylinders and combines with the fuel for
combustion.

The turbo wastegate actuator (3) controls the exhaust gas sent to the turbo. The actuator
diaphragm and connecting rod mechanically open and close the wastegate to control the amount
of exhaust gas sent to the turbine wheel.

Two exhaust temperature sensors (4) are located in each exhaust manifold. The exhaust
temperature sensors send a signal to the Engine ECM indicating exhaust temperature.

When the engine runs at low idle, the temperature of an exhaust manifold port can indicate the
condition of a fuel injection nozzle. A low temperature indicates that no fuel is flowing to the
cylinder. An inoperative fuel injection nozzle or a problem with the fuel injection pump could
cause this low temperature.

A very high temperature can indicate that too much fuel is flowing to the cylinder. A
malfunctioning fuel injection nozzle, plugged air filters, or a restriction in the turbochargers or
the muffler could cause this very high temperature.
SERV1859 - 76 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

62

The compressed air from the turbochargers is sent through the Air to Air After Coolers
(ATAAC) (arrows) mounted in front of the radiator. Outside air passes through the ATAAC and
the radiator to cool both the intake air and the engine coolant. The cooled, compressed air exits
the aftercoolers and is sent to the intake manifolds.
SERV1859 - 77 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

From Air Mufflers


Filters

AIR INDUCTION
AND ATAAC
EXHAUST SYSTEM

From Air
Filters

63

This schematic shows the flow through the air induction and exhaust system.

The turbochargers are driven by the exhaust gas from the cylinders which enters the turbine
side of the turbochargers. The exhaust gas flows through the turbochargers, the exhaust piping,
and the mufflers.

The clean air from the filters enters the compressor side of the turbochargers. The compressed
air from the turbochargers flows to the ATAAC. After the air is cooled by the ATAAC, the air
flows to the cylinders and combines with the fuel for combustion.
SERV1859 - 78 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

64

Engine Compression Brake

The 992K Wheel Loader and 854K Wheel Dozer can be equipped with the optional engine
compression brake. The compression brake provides higher downhill travel speeds and reduces
brake wear. The compression brake uses a master/slave hydraulic actuation system to open
exhaust valves on the compression stroke which releases pressurized air and creates a net
braking force at the flywheel.

The compression brake assembly, as shown in this illustration, controls two cylinders. The
compression brake assembly is mounted to the rocker arm shaft supports below the engine
valve covers. The compression brake is pressurized with engine oil from the rocker arm shaft
and uses a solenoid valve to control oil flow in the brake housing.

The compression brake is activated by a signal from the Engine ECM to the solenoid valve (1).
As the fuel injector rocker arm pushes up on the master piston (2), the corresponding slave
piston (3) is pressurized to push down on the exhaust valve bridge, decompressing the cylinder
and preventing the normal power stroke.

On the C32 engine, up to six brake assemblies are used. The control circuit for the
compression brake permits the operation of either two, four, or all six of the compression brake
assemblies which provides progressive braking capabilities with the retarding effect of four,
eight, or all 12 of the engine cylinders.

Compression brake system service consists of only periodic valve lash checks.
SERV1859 - 79 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

ENGINE COMPRESSION BRAKE HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT


COMPRESSION BRAKE OFF

Slave Piston
Check Valve

To Slave Piston and


Master Cylinder Master
Exhaust Valve Piston
Compression Rocker Arm
Brake
Solenoid
Valve Fuel Injector
Rocker Arm
Rocker Arm
Shaft Oil
Passage

Engine Oil
Pump Exhaust
Valve

65

This illustration shows the oil flow in the C32 engine compression brake. Oil from the engine
oil pump flows through the rocker arm shaft oil passage. The compression brake solenoid
valve controls the oil flow in the compression brake hydraulic circuit.

When the Engine ECM energizes the solenoid, oil flows through the check valves to the slave
pistons and the master pistons.

Oil pressure overcomes spring force and the master piston moves down and contacts the fuel
injector rocker arm. The master piston will follow the movement of the fuel injector rocker
arm. As the fuel injector rocker arm moves up the master piston moves up and causes the oil to
close the check valve.

With the check valve closed, oil pressure increases in the compression brake hydraulic circuit
and the slave piston is forced down. The slave piston makes contact with the exhaust valve
rocker arm and causes the exhaust valve to open. As the exhaust valve opens, the engine
cylinder pressure is relieved through the open exhaust valve, which creates a net braking force
at the flywheel.
SERV1859 - 80 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

When the fuel injector rocker arm moves down, the master piston moves down and the
hydraulic pressure decreases. The exhaust valves are returned to the closed position by the
exhaust rocker arm. The check valve opens and relieves the oil pressure.

When the Engine ECM de-energizes the compression brake solenoid, oil is drained from the
slave and master pistons to the tank. The exhaust valves close and the slave piston returns to
the starting position.
SERV1859 - 81 - Text Reference
07/08 Engine

ENGINE COMPRESSION BRAKE SCHEMATIC

Left Bank Valve Cover Engine ECM


Entry Connector P2/J2
Compression Compression Compression 10 J700-BR 5 Compression Brake Med / Hi
Brake Brake Brake 11 J701-GN 3 Compression Brake Low / Hi
Solenoid Solenoid Solenoid 12 K739-BU 14 Compression Brake Return
1 and 3 9 and 11 5 and 7
Right Bank Valve Cover
Entry Connector
Compression Compression Compression 10 K737-BR 8 Compression Brake Med / Hi
Brake Brake Brake 11 K738-GN 1 Compression Brake Low / Hi
Solenoid Solenoid Solenoid 12 K739-BU
10 and 12 2 and 4 6 and 8

Compression Brake
Switch
P1/J1
998-BR 5 Digital Senor Return
Y756-GY 49 Engine Retarder Sw NC
Y757-BU 54 Engine Retarder Sw NO

66

This illustration shows the wiring and components of the engine compression brake. The
compression brake switch allows the operator to switch between automatic mode and manual
mode. The Engine ECM provides MEDIUM braking level. When the ECM commands a
MEDIUM braking level, four solenoids (two on each valve bank) will activate the compression
brake for eight cylinders (1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, and 12).

In the automatic mode, with the compression brake configuration status ENABLED, the
compression brake will be activated when the engine speed is above the auto trip point of
2000 rpm. The brake will be activated until the engine speed is reduced to 1750 rpm. If the
compression brake pedal is depressed while automatic mode is active, the compression brake
mode will switch to manual mode and the compression brake will remain activated to the
manual trip point.

In manual mode, the compression brake will not be activated until the engine speed is above the
manual trip point of 1500 rpm. The brake will be activated until the engine speed is reduced to
1400 rpm. If the compression brake pedal is depressed the compression brake mode will be
switched from manual mode to automatic mode.

The transmission must be in 2nd or 3rd speed and the lockup clutch engaged to activate the
compression brake. The compression brake will not be activated in 1st speed or if the coolant
temperature is below 68° C (154° F).
SERV1859 - 82 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

POWER TRAIN COMPONENTS


Impeller Clutch Upper Input
Engine Torque Converter Drive Shaft Transfer Gear Transmission

Rear Rear Output Front Front


Final Drive Drive Shaft Transfer Gear Drive Shaft Final Drive

67

POWER TRAIN

This illustration shows the power flow through the 992K/854K power train. Power from the
diesel engine is sent from the flywheel to the impeller clutch torque converter. The output yoke
of the impeller clutch torque converter is bolted to the upper drive shaft. The upper drive shaft
is bolted to the yoke of the input transfer gear box. The input transfer gear is splined to the
transmission input shaft. The transmission output shaft is splined to the output transfer gear.
The output transfer gear transmits power from the transmission to the front drive shaft and the
rear drive shaft.

Power flows through the front drive shaft and its respective pinion, bevel gear, differential and
axles to the front final drives, and similarly through the rear drive shaft to the rear final drives.
SERV1859 - 83 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

POWER TRAIN Cat ET

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM Power Train


ECM
CAT/CAN Data Links Engine ECM
Implement ECM
INPUT COMPONENTS VIMS ECM
J1 Connector J2 Connector

STIC STIC
Upshift, Downshift Forward, Neutral,
Reverse

Key Start Switch


Reduced Rimpull
Selection Switch
Quickshift Switch
Ride Control
Lockup Clutch On / Off Switch
Enable Switch
Parking Brake
Transmission Limit Switch
Input Speed Sensor
Transmission
Transmission Output Lockout Switch
Speed Sensor 1 and 2
Torque Converter
Autolube Pedal Position Sensor
Level Sensor
Parking Brake
Pressure Switch
Transmission (STIC)
Lock Switch Impeller Clutch
Pressure Sensor
HVAC Autolube EEF Grease
Blower Switch Pressure Sensor
Engine Speed Autolube NEEF Grease
Tach Signal Pressure Sensor

Location Code 2 Front Axle Brake


(Ground) Pressure Sensor

Rear Axle Brake


Location Code Pressure Sensor
Enable (GND)
Transmission
Temperature Sensor

Heated Mirror
Switch
AC Low
Pressure Switch

68

Power Train Electrical System


This diagram of the Power Train Electrical System shows the components which provide input
signals to the Power Train ECM.

The CAN and Cat data links connect the Power Train ECM, to the Engine ECM, the Implement
ECM, VIMS ECM, and to Cat ET.

The input components to the ECM are:

STIC: Combines control of the vehicle steering system and the transmission shifting system in
a single input device. The STIC lever contains upshift and downshift switches which provide
upshift and downshift signals to the ECM. The STIC lever also contains the F/N/R switch
which provides transmission directional signals to the ECM.

Key start switch: Provides a signal to the ECM when the operator wants to start the engine.
The STIC directional switch must be in the NEUTRAL position before the ECM will permit
engine starting.
SERV1859 - 84 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

Reduced rimpull selection switch: This rotary switch sends a signal to the Power Train ECM
which determines the maximum rimpull torque.

Ride control switch: The ride control switch has three positions: AUTO, OFF, and SERVICE.
When in the AUTO position, the ride control is enabled when the appropriate conditions are
met. When in the OFF position, the ride control system is disabled. When in the
SERVICE position, the ride control system is enabled at all time and should be used to service
the ride control system.

Parking brake limit switch: When in the ON position, signals the Power Train ECM that the
operator has engaged the machine parking brake.

Quickshift switch: When in the ON position, enables the quickshift feature during a
FORWARD FIRST to a REVERSE shift.

Lockup clutch enable switch: When in the ON position, enables the lockup clutch, if
equipped, to ENGAGE when the machine operating conditions are correct.

Transmission lockout switch: When in the LOCK position, causes the Power Train ECM to
shift the transmission to NEUTRAL. This switch is located in the rear bumper service center.

Transmission lock switch: When in the LOCK position, causes the Power Train ECM to shift
the transmission to NEUTRAL. This switch is located at the base of the STIC lever.

Torque converter pedal position sensor: Signals the position of the torque converter pedal to
the Power Train ECM. The Power Train ECM uses the position information to vary torque to
the drive train through the impeller clutch. The actual value of torque reduction is determined
by a combination of different input signals.

Transmission input speed sensor: Provides a signal the Power Train ECM uses to determine
the output speed of the torque converter.

Transmission output speed sensors 1 and 2: These sensors measure the transmission output
speed in the range of 25 to 3000 rpm. By looking at the difference in phase in between these 2
sensors, machine speed and direction is determined.

Park brake pressure switch: This switch monitors the park brake hydraulic pressure and the
Power Train ECM determines when pressure is applied.

Impeller clutch pressure sensor: Sends a signal to the Power Train ECM indicating impeller
clutch pressure.

Autolube pressure sensors: These sensors monitor the grease pressure in the autolube system.

Autolube reservoir level sensor: This switch monitors the grease level in the autolube
reservoir.

AC low pressure switch: Sends a signal to the Power Train ECM indicating AC status.
SERV1859 - 85 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

Heated mirror switch: Sends a signal to the Power Train ECM to activate the heated mirror
relay.

HVAC blower speed switch: Sends a signal to the Power Train ECM to activate the HVAC
blower.

Transmission temperature sensor: Sends a signal to the Power Train ECM indicating
transmission oil temperature.

Engine speed: The Power Train ECM receives the engine speed over the CAN Data Link
from the Engine ECM.

Location code enable (grounded): The location code enable is a grounded input signal to the
Power Train ECM that enables the location code detection feature to become active. J1-32 pin
on the Power Train ECM connector is connected.

Location code 2 (grounded): The location code pin number 2 is a grounded input signal that
establishes the ECM is dedicated to the power train operation. J1-27 pin on the Power Train
ECM connector is connected.

Front and rear axle brake pressure sensors: Send a signal to the Power Train ECM
indicating service brake pressure for the front and rear axles.
SERV1859 - 86 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

POWER TRAIN Cat ET


Power Train CAT / CAN Data Links Engine ECM
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM ECM Implement ECM
OUTPUT COMPONENTS VIMS ECM
J1 Connector J2 Connector

Clutch 1 Starter Relay


Reverse Solenoid
Reduced Rimpull
Clutch 2
Indicator Lamp
Forward Solenoid
Ride Control
Clutch 3 Solenoid
3rd Gear Solenoid
Axle Oil Cooler
Clutch 4 Solenoid
2nd Gear Solenoid
AC Compressor Clutch
Clutch 5
1st Gear Solenoid Transmission Lockout
Indicator Lamp
Impeller Clutch
Solenoid Heated Mirror Relay

Lockup Clutch
Solenoid

Autolube
Solenoid

Back-up Alarm Relay

Quickshift
Indicator Lamp

69

This diagram of the power train electrical system shows the components that receive output
signals from the Power Train ECM.

Based on the input signals, the ECM energizes the appropriate transmission control valve
solenoids for speed and directional clutch engagement. The ECM also energizes the additional
solenoids, relays, and indicator lamps as shown in this illustration.

The output components which receive signals from the Power Train ECM are:

Starter relay: The Power Train ECM energizes the starter relay when the appropriate
conditions to start the machine have been met.

Clutch solenoids: The solenoids control pilot oil flow to the speed and directional control
spools.

Ride control solenoid: The Power Train ECM energizes the ride control solenoid (attachment
on 992K) when the proper machine conditions have been met.
SERV1859 - 87 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

Impeller clutch solenoid: The Power Train ECM energizes the impeller clutch solenoid with
different levels of current to control hydraulic pressure to the impeller clutch.

Lockup clutch solenoid: The Power Train ECM energizes the lockup clutch solenoid to
ENGAGE the lockup clutch (attachment on 992K) when the correct machine conditions have
been met.

Back-up alarm relay: The Power Train ECM energizes the back-up alarm relay, which
activates the back-up alarm when the operator selects the REVERSE direction with the STIC.

Autolube solenoid: The Power Train ECM energizes the autolube solenoid to send grease to
the bearings on the machine.

Heated mirror relay: The Power Train ECM energizes the heated mirror relay which transfers
power to the heated mirror.

Transmission lockout indicator lamp: The Power Train ECM illuminates the transmission
lockout indicator lamp when the transmission switch lever is activated.

quickshift indicator lamp: The Power Train ECM illuminates the quickshift indicator lamp
when the quickshift switch is activated.

Reduced rimpull indicator lamp: The Power Train ECM illuminates the reduced rimpull
indicator lamp when the reduced rimpull switch is activated.

Axle oil cooler solenoid: The Power Train ECM energizes the axle oil cooler solenoid with
different levels of current to control hydraulic pressure to the axle oil cooler motor.

AC compressor clutch: The Power Train ECM energizes the clutch to activate the air
conditioning compressor.
SERV1859 - 88 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

70

The Power Train ECM (arrow) is located below the deck plate on the right front side of the
machine platform.

The Power Train ECM makes decisions based on control program information in memory and
switch and sensor input signals.

The Power Train ECM responds to machine control decisions by sending output voltage to the
appropriate circuit which creates an action. For example, the operator selects an upshift using
the STIC. The Power Train ECM interprets the input signals from the STIC, evaluates the
current machine operating status, and energizes the appropriate clutch solenoids.

The Power Train ECM receives three different types of input signals:

1. Switch input: Provides the signal line to battery, ground, or open.


2. PWM input: Provides the signal line with a square wave of a specific frequency and a
varying positive duty cycle.
3. Speed signal: Provides the signal line with either a repeating, fixed voltage level pattern,
or a sine wave of varying level and frequency.
SERV1859 - 89 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

The Power Train ECM has three types of output drivers:

1. ON/OFF driver: Provides the output device with a signal level of +Battery voltage
(ON) or less than one Volt (OFF).
2. PWM solenoid driver: Provides the output device with a square wave of fixed
frequency and a varying positive duty cycle.
3. Controlled current output driver: The Power Train ECM will energize the solenoid
with 1.25 amps for approximately one half second and then decrease the level to 0.8
amps for the duration of the on time. The initial higher amperage gives the actuator rapid
response and the decreased level is sufficient to hold the solenoid in the correct position.
An added benefit is an increase in the life of the solenoid.
The Power Train ECM controls the transmission speed and directional clutches and the
operation of the impeller clutch and lockup clutch. The ECM interprets signals from the STIC,
torque converter pedal position sensor, lockup clutch enable switch, and current machine
operating status to determine the appropriate output signals to the systems. Different
conditions of the inputs affect the output conditions. These conditions will be discussed later.

The Power Train ECM communicates through the CAT and CAN Data Links. The Data Links
allow high speed proprietary serial communications over a twisted pair of wires and different
systems on the machine to communicate with each other.

The Power Train ECM has built-in diagnostic capabilities. As the ECM detects fault conditions
in the power train system, it logs the faults in memory and displays them on VIMS display
panel. The fault codes can also be accessed using Cat ET.
SERV1859 - 90 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

4
5 1

71
2

72

The STIC lever (1) is bolted to the seat at the front of the left armrest. The transmission
directional control switch (2) is a three position rocker switch that the operator uses to select
NEUTRAL, FORWARD, or REVERSE. The transmission speed upshift switch (3) and the
transmission speed downshift switch (4) are momentary contact switches that the operator uses
to select the desired speed.
SERV1859 - 91 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

When the operator selects REVERSE by depressing the top of the directional control switch,
the Power Train ECM energizes the reverse directional solenoid. The Power Train ECM also
activates the back-up alarm. When the operator selects FORWARD by depressing the bottom
of the directional control switch, the ECM energizes the forward directional solenoid. When
the operator selects NEUTRAL by placing the directional control switch in the center position,
the Power Train ECM de-energizes both the forward and the reverse directional solenoids.
After two seconds, the Power Train ECM energizes speed solenoid No. 3 and the transmission
is in NEUTRAL until the operator selects a different gear.

When the operator presses the upshift switch, the Power Train ECM energizes the appropriate
speed clutch solenoid to select the next higher gear, and the transmission upshifts. When the
operator presses the downshift switch, the Power Train ECM energizes the appropriate speed
clutch solenoid to select the next lower gear, and the transmission downshifts. The switch must
be released and pressed again to continue shifting.

When the steering and transmission lock lever (5) is moved to the LOCK position (shown), the
STIC is held in the center position. The transmission lock switch (not visible) signals the
Power Train ECM to shift the transmission to NEUTRAL. The transmission lock switch is
located at the base of the STIC lever.

Certain machine operating conditions will override the operator desired function of the STIC.
If the directional switch is in the FORWARD or REVERSE position when the steering and
transmission lock lever is moved to the UNLOCK position, the Power Train ECM will not shift
from NEUTRAL. The directional switch must first be moved to the NEUTRAL position, then
to the direction desired before the Power Train ECM will engage the clutches.

If the steering and transmission lock lever is in the UNLOCK position when the machine is
started, the lever must be moved to the LOCK position and then to the UNLOCK position
before the ECM will shift the transmission out of NEUTRAL.
SERV1859 - 92 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

1 2

73

The operator turns the key start switch (1) clockwise to signal the Power Train ECM to start the
engine. The key start switch supplies a signal of +Battery to the Power Train ECM. The Power
Train ECM energizes the start relay. Three conditions must be present before the Power Train
ECM will energize the start relay:

1. The transmission directional control switch is in neutral.


2. The key switch is turned to the start position.
3. The system voltage is below +32 Volts.

Ride control is an attachment which helps stabilize the machine during travel at high speeds
over rough terrain. Ride control uses accumulators in the implement lift hydraulic circuit to
dampen and absorb the forces of the bucket. Since ride control is an attachment, the attachment
code entered in VIMS must be correct.

The ride control switch (2) is a three position switch located on the right side operator console.
When the ride control enable switch is placed in the ON (top) position, the Power Train ECM
continuously energizes the ride control solenoid. This mode should only be used to service the
ride control system.

When the ride control enable switch is placed in the OFF (center) position, the Power Train
ECM de-energizes the ride control solenoid and the ride control system is turned off.
SERV1859 - 93 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

The ride control switch is placed in the AUTOMATIC position by pushing the bottom of the
switch. The Power Train ECM energizes the ride control system when ground speed exceeds
9.6 km/h (6 mph). The ECM de-energizes the ride control solenoid when the ground speed is
below 9.2 km/h (5.7 mph).

NOTE: The activation speed for the ride control system can be configured through Cat
ET. The forward activation speed and the reverse activation speed can be adjusted to
meet operator requirements.
SERV1859 - 94 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

74

When the ride control switch is in the AUTOMATIC or SERVICE position, an indicator light
(arrow) illuminates on the instrument panel. The positive lead of the ride control indicator
lamp is connected to +Battery. The ground lead is connected to the ride control switch. When
the ride control switch is placed in the AUTOMATIC or SERVICE position, the ride control
switch allows current to flow and the lamp is illuminated.

Several fault conditions will prevent the Power Train ECM from turning on the ride control
system regardless of the switch position. If the Power Train ECM detects a transmission output
speed high or transmission output speed low fault, it will not energize the ride control solenoid.
Also, if the Power Train ECM detects a fault in the ride control solenoid circuit of short to
battery, short to ground, or open circuit, the Power Train ECM will not energize the ride control
solenoid.
SERV1859 - 95 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

75

The Power Train ECM determines direction and ground speed by the signals received from the
transmission output speed sensors (arrows) located on the lower left side of the transmission
case.
SERV1859 - 96 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

3
2 4
5
1

76

77

The Power Train ECM provides maximum rimpull when the torque converter pedal is fully
released by keeping the impeller clutch fully engaged and the rimpull selection switch (1) in
position (2). If the torque converter pedal is used to modulate the impeller clutch, the rimpull
selection switch must be in position (2).

To select reduced rimpull, move the rimpull selection switch to the desired position. The
rimpull selection switch signals the Power Train ECM to monitor the reduced rimpull selection
switch to determine the rimpull setting with the torque converter pedal fully released. This
condition occurs only when the machine is in FIRST GEAR. If the machine is not in FIRST
GEAR, the rimpull will stay at maximum.
SERV1859 - 97 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

The desired maximum rimpull setting will be active when the torque converter pedal is fully
released, and the machine is in FIRST GEAR. The Power Train ECM reduces rimpull by
increasing the current to the impeller clutch solenoid, which reduces the hydraulic pressure to
the impeller clutch and allows slippage between the impeller and the torque converter housing.
By additionally decreasing the impeller clutch pressure, the impeller will slip more resulting in
lower torque to the power train. The resulting additional engine torque can be used for the
implements.

Depressing the torque converter pedal will further reduce rimpull from the selected percentage.
The rimpull that is commanded by the fully released pedal will equal the reduced rimpull that is
selected on the rimpull selection switch. When a lower rimpull is selected, pedal travel will
result in a more gradual decrease in rimpull.

The reduced rimpull selection switch has four positions. Each position corresponds to a
maximum allowable percentage of maximum rimpull. The default values for each position are:

- 100% Rimpull (2)


- 90% Rimpull (3)
- 80% Rimpull (4)
- 70% Rimpull (5)

When the rimpull is reduced, using the rimpull selection switch, the Power Train ECM sends a
signal to the reduced rimpull indicator lamp (6) on the left side of the dash.

NOTE: Only positions (3), (4), and (5) are configurable.


SERV1859 - 98 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

78

The Power Train ECM monitors the position of the torque converter pedal (1) with the torque
converter pedal position sensor (2). As the operator depresses the pedal, the Power Train ECM
increases the current to the impeller clutch solenoid and reduces the hydraulic pressure to the
impeller clutch. The rimpull will decrease with pedal travel from the maximum setting to the
minimum setting. When the operator releases the left pedal, the rimpull will return to the
maximum percentage as set by the rimpull selector switch.

If the machine is not in FIRST GEAR, the impeller clutch pressure will remain at the maximum
level until the transmission is shifted into FIRST GEAR.

NOTE: An increase in current to the impeller clutch solenoid from the ECM results in
a decrease in pressure to the impeller clutch.
SERV1859 - 99 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

79

The transmission input speed sensor (arrow) is located on the input transfer gears of the
transmission. The Power Train ECM receives a signal from the sensor to determine torque
converter output speed.
SERV1859 - 100 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

80

The parking brake is spring engaged and hydraulically released.

The operator engages the parking brake by pulling the park brake control (arrow) in the cab.
The control in the cab is connected to the park brake valve by a push-pull cable. Pulling the
control releases the hydraulic pressure in the parking brake.

The operator releases the parking brake by pushing the park brake control. Pushing the control
IN allows oil to flow through the parking brake valve to the parking brake. As the pressure
increases, the parking brake is released.
SERV1859 - 101 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

2
4
1

81

The parking brake limit switch (1) is mounted near the park brake valve on top of the frame
below the left rear of the cab. The limit switch actuator (2) connected to the
park brake valve (3) moves past the switch like a cam and causes the switch to change state
based on the position of the park brake control in the cab.

The park brake pressure switch (4) is mounted on the park brake valve (3) and provides a signal
the Power Train ECM uses to determine if the park brake pressure is low (brake engaged) or
high (brake released).

If the transmission is in FIRST SPEED FORWARD or FIRST SPEED REVERSE and the
parking brake is ENGAGED, the Power Train ECM shifts the transmission to NEUTRAL. If
the transmission is in a speed other than FIRST SPEED FORWARD or FIRST SPEED
REVERSE and the parking brake is ENGAGED, the transmission remains in gear. The VIMS
gives a Category 3 Warning to alert the operator of a potentially unsafe condition.

NOTE: FIRST SPEED FORWARD or REVERSE may be obtained during a parking


brake hydraulic failure by holding the parking brake control knob IN and then shifting
into FIRST SPEED FORWARD or REVERSE. This feature allows the machine to move
by driving through the parking brake and is intended for emergency use only.
SERV1859 - 102 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

82

83

The quickshift switch (1) is located on the console on the right side of the cab. The quickshift
switch reduces the number of shifts an operator has to make during a normal cycle. When the
quickshift switch is activated, the quickshift indicator light (2) is illuminated.

When operating in FIRST SPEED FORWARD and the quickshift switch is in the ON position
(shown), shifting the directional control switch to REVERSE causes the Power Train ECM to
shift the transmission to SECOND SPEED REVERSE automatically. When the directional
control switch is shifted from REVERSE to FORWARD, the ECM shifts the transmission to
SECOND SPEED FORWARD, the same as normal operation. The quickshift switch will only
affect a shift from FIRST SPEED FORWARD to REVERSE.
SERV1859 - 103 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

When shifting from a reverse speed other than FIRST SPEED REVERSE, the operator must
use the directional control switch and the downshift switch to shift the transmission to FIRST
SPEED FORWARD.

The quickshift feature does not affect REVERSE to FORWARD shifts.


SERV1859 - 104 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

2
3

84

The lockup clutch enable switch (1) is located on the console on the right side of the cab.
When the switch is in the ON (closed) position (shown) and the proper conditions have been
met, the Power Train ECM will engage the lockup clutch to improve the efficiency of the
power train.

NOTE: The lockup clutch is an attachment on the 992K.

During normal operation, the Power Train ECM will energize the torque converter lockup
clutch solenoid based on the following conditions:

1. Lockup clutch enable switch state: ON (closed).


2. Torque converter output speed: When the torque converter output speed is greater than
1400 rpm.
3. Time in gear: The transmission must be in the present speed and direction for at least
two seconds.
4. Time since lockup clutch solenoid was de-energized: At least four seconds must have
passed since the ECM de-energized the lockup clutch solenoid.
5. Torque converter and right brake pedal status: Both pedals must be fully released.
SERV1859 - 105 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

During normal operation, the following conditions will cause the Power Train ECM to
de-energize the torque converter lockup clutch solenoid valve and release the lockup clutch:

1. Lockup clutch enable switch: OFF (open).


2. Torque converter output speed: When the torque converter output speed is less than
1250 rpm.
3. A shift is made.
4. Torque converter and right brake pedal status: If either pedal is depressed.
5. Transmission is in 1F.

NOTE: To prevent engine overspeed, the ECM will not engage the lockup clutch when
the torque converter output speed is higher than 2250 rpm. If the lockup clutch is
already engaged when the torque converter output speed reaches 2250 rpm, the ECM
allows the lockup clutch to remain engaged.

During lockup clutch engagement, the impeller clutch pressure is maintained at the
system pressure 2275 ± 207 kPa (330 ± 30 psi).

The HVAC fan speed switch (2) and the heated mirror switch (3) also provide input signals to
the Power Train ECM.
SERV1859 - 106 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

85

The air conditioning low pressure switch (1) and air conditioning high pressure switch (2) are
located at the rear of the air conditioning compressor (3). The AC low pressure switch sends a
signal to the Power Train ECM indicating low pressure and the AC high pressure switch sends
a signal to the ECM indicating high pressure.

The Power Train ECM also sends an output signal to control the AC compressor
clutch (not visible) located on the front of the AC compressor.
SERV1859 - 107 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

1
3

4
2
5

86

The lockup clutch solenoid valve (1) and the impeller clutch solenoid valve (2) are mounted on
the left side of the torque converter housing. A cover plate is mounted on the torque converter
housing in place of the lockup clutch valve on machines not equipped with a lockup clutch.

NOTE: The lockup clutch is an attachment for the 992K.

The ECM energizes the lockup clutch solenoid to allow oil to flow through the lockup clutch
valve to the lockup clutch. The pressure increases in the lockup clutch, causing it to engage
and the machine operates in DIRECT DRIVE.

The lockup clutch solenoid is a proportional solenoid and is energized by a modulated signal
from the Power Train ECM. The Power Train ECM varies the amount of current to control the
amount of oil flow through the lockup clutch valve to the lockup clutch.

NOTE: An increase in current to the lockup clutch solenoid from the ECM results in an
increase in pressure to the lockup clutch.

The Power Train ECM monitors the status of the impeller clutch solenoid and can determine
certain faults that may affect operation of the impeller clutch. These faults include: a short to
+Battery, a short to ground, or an open circuit.

When the Power Train ECM detects a fault in the impeller clutch solenoid circuit, a fault will
be displayed on the VIMS display panel.
SERV1859 - 108 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

When a fault is detected, controlled throttle shifting is used. When a directional shift is made
above 1400 rpm, the Power Train ECM will request a desired engine speed of 1400 rpm from
the Engine ECM for the duration of the shift. This feature helps decrease the energies absorbed
in the transmission.

The torque converter pedal position sensor and the impeller clutch solenoid must be calibrated
to ensure proper operation.

Also shown are the lockup clutch pressure tap (3), the impeller clutch pressure tap (4), and the
impeller clutch pressure sensor (5).
SERV1859 - 109 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

3
5

87

The Power Train ECM shifts the transmission by energizing the solenoid valves that are located
in the transmission control valve group on top of the transmission.

Two solenoid valves are used to control REVERSE (1) or FORWARD (2) directional shifts and
three solenoid valves are used to control speed shifts: FIRST (3), SECOND (4), and
THIRD (5).

The solenoid valves are two position, three-way solenoid valves. The solenoid valves are
normally open to drain. When energized, the solenoid valve spool moves to direct pressure oil
to one end of the transmission control valve spool. The transmission control valve spool then
directs oil to the appropriate clutch.
SERV1859 - 110 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

3 2

4
1

88

The Power Train ECM also sends output signals to the following relays located below the deck
plate on the right side of the machine platform:

- Start relay (1)

- Back-up alarm relay (2)

- Heated mirror relay (3)

Also located on the right front side of the machine platform is the main relay (4).
SERV1859 - 111 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

POWER TRAIN SCHEMATIC


Priority
Valve

Transmission
Control Valve

T/C Trans
LUC Solenoid IC Solenoid Filter Filter

Lockup Impeller Transmission


Clutch Clutch
Pump
Torque
Converter

Input Output
T/C Outlet
Transfer Gear Transfer Gear
Relief Valve

Cooler

89

Power Train Hydraulic System


This schematic shows the components and the oil flow in the power train hydraulic system. Oil
from the sump (located in the bottom of the transmission output transfer case) flows to a
two-section gear pump.
Oil from the rear section of the pump flows through the transmission filter to the priority valve.
From the priority valve, oil flows to the impeller clutch (IC) solenoid and to the optional lockup
clutch (LUC) solenoid. When a shift is made, the priority valve prevents oil pressure to the
impeller clutch solenoid and the lockup clutch solenoid from dropping below
2205 kPa (320 psi).

When the impeller clutch solenoid is energized, oil flow to the impeller clutch is stopped. The
impeller clutch releases allowing the impeller to slip. When the lockup clutch solenoid is
energized, oil flow pressurizes the lockup clutch and places the converter in DIRECT DRIVE.
SERV1859 - 112 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

When the priority valve opens, oil flows to the transmission control valve. The transmission
control valve controls transmission clutch engagement, provides modulation and sequencing of
the directional and speed clutches, and limits the maximum clutch pressure. From the
transmission control valve, the remainder of the oil is sent to the torque converter inlet.

Oil from the front section of the pump flows through the torque converter filter and joins with
the oil from the transmission control valve. The combined oil flows through the torque
converter inlet to the torque converter. Oil pressure in the torque converter is maintained by
the torque converter outlet relief valve. An orifice in the outlet relief valve permits some
lubrication oil to flow to the transmission at all times. From the outlet relief valve, oil is sent
through the oil cooler to the transmission lubrication circuits.
SERV1859 - 113 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

1 4

90

The power train pump (1) is a two-section gear pump mounted on the left side of the torque
converter. The pump is driven by a pump drive gear in the torque converter.

Oil from the reservoir in the output transfer gear case enters the power train pump through the
suction line (2). Supply oil from the rear section of the pump flows through the hose (3) and
through the transmission filter to the priority valve, to the impeller clutch solenoid valve, and to
the lockup clutch solenoid valve. Oil from the front section of the pump flows through the
hose (4) and through the torque converter filter to the torque converter.
SERV1859 - 114 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

2
1
4 5

8 7

3
6

91

The transmission oil filter (1) and the torque converter oil filter (2) are bolted to the inside of
the machine frame (left side) below the platform rear service door.

Also shown are the transmission oil filter bypass pressure switch (3), the torque converter oil
filter bypass pressure switch (4), the transmission fluid sampling valve (5), the torque converter
fluid sampling valve (6), the transmission supply oil pressure tap (7), and the torque converter
supply oil pressure tap (8).

The transmission and torque converter bypass switches send a signal to the VIMS ECM when a
filter is plugged.
SERV1859 - 115 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

92

The priority valve (1) is located on the upper right side (left side of the machine) of the torque
converter and pump drive case. When the engine is running, the priority valve maintains a
minimum of 2205 kPa (320 psi) oil pressure to the lockup clutch and impeller clutch solenoid
valves.

Power train pump oil pressure can be checked at the pressure tap (2) located on the priority
valve.

Also shown is the impeller clutch solenoid valve (3).


SERV1859 - 116 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

5
3

2 7
1

93

The transmission hydraulic control valve group (1) is bolted to the top of the transmission
planetary clutch group. Shown are five clutch solenoids (2), the P3 pressure tap (3), the
solenoid electrical harness (4), the P1 pressure tap (5), the P2 pressure tap (6), and the plug (7)
for the load piston.
SERV1859 - 117 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

To Torque Converter
TRANSMISSION From Power Train Pump
HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE

From No. 2 Modulation


Solenoid Valve Relief Valve

First And Third Speed


Converter Inlet Selector Spool
Ratio Valve

Load Piston
Directional
Selector Spool

Pressure
Differential Valve From No. 5
Solenoid Valve
From No. 1
Solenoid Valve

From No. 4
Solenoid Valve

Second Speed
Selector Spool

94

Also included in the transmission hydraulic controls are:

Modulation relief valve: Limits the maximum clutch pressure.

First and third speed selection spool: Directs oil flow to the No. 5 and No. 3 clutches.

Load piston: Works with the modulation relief valve to control the rate of pressure increase in
the clutches.

Second speed selector spool: Directs oil flow to the No. 4 clutch.

Pressure differential valve: Controls speed and directional clutch sequencing.

Directional selection spool: Directs oil to the FORWARD and REVERSE directional clutches.

Converter inlet ratio valve: Limits the pressure to the torque converter.
SERV1859 - 118 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

1
2

95

The torque converter outlet relief valve (1) is bolted to the left side of the torque converter
(facing the engine flywheel). The torque converter outlet relief valve limits the pressure in the
torque converter. Torque converter outlet oil pressure can be checked at the pressure tap (2) on
the outlet valve.

The torque converter temperature sensor (3) sends a signal to the VIMS ECM indicating torque
converter oil temperature.
SERV1859 - 119 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

Turbine

Stator IMPELLER CLUTCH


Lockup Clutch TORQUE CONVERTER
Piston

Impeller Clutch
Piston

Housing

Lockup Clutch Impeller Clutch


Discs and Plates Discs and Plates

Impeller

96

Shown is a sectional view of the torque converter. The major components include the rotating
housing, the impeller, the turbine, the stator, the impeller clutch, and the lockup clutch.

In the torque converter, the rotating housing (red) is splined to the engine flywheel (not
shown)and is driven by the flywheel. The impeller (pink) connects to the rotating housing
through the impeller clutch discs and plates (yellow). The clutch discs are splined to the
impeller and the clutch plates are splined to the rotating housing. When the impeller clutch
modulating valve (not shown) is de-energized, oil flows to the impeller clutch oil pressure port
through the impeller clutch oil pressure port. The force of the oil on the impeller clutch piston
engages the discs and plates. When the impeller clutch is engaged, the impeller rotates with the
housing.

The turbine (blue) and the output drive shaft (blue) are fastened together.

When the impeller clutch modulating valve is energized, the oil pressure at the impeller clutch
oil pressure port is reduced to the dump pressure. The dump pressure will be maintained in
order to eliminate refilling the clutch. This improves the response time of the impeller clutch.
The force on the impeller clutch piston is at a minimum. The engagement between the impeller
clutch discs and plates will develop the minimum amount of torque. The engagement between
the housing and the impeller will slip.
SERV1859 - 120 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

As the current to the impeller clutch modulating valve decreases, the oil pressure at the
impeller clutch oil pressure port increases. As that pressure increases, force at the impeller
clutch will increase and the allowable slippage is reduced.

The carrier (green) and the stator (green) are assembled together. This torque converter is not
equipped with a free wheel stator.

The turbine is splined to the output shaft. In TORQUE CONVERTER DRIVE, the force that
rotates the output drive shaft is developed by the oil pressure that is directed to the torque
converter inlet oil pressure port.

In DIRECT DRIVE, the lockup clutch connects the turbine (blue) to the housing (red). The
lockup clutch discs are splined to the turbine and the lockup clutch plates (yellow) are splined
to the housing (red). When the lockup clutch modulating valve is energized, the oil is directed
through the output drive shaft from the lockup clutch oil pressure port. The force that is
developed by the oil pressure will engage the lockup clutch. The housing, turbine, impeller,
and the output drive shaft rotate as a unit at engine rpm.
SERV1859 - 121 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

IMPELLER CLUTCH Test Port

SOLENOID VALVE Valve


Spring Ball Orifice Spool Spring

Impeller Clutch
Solenoid De-energized

Armature
Solenoid From
Assembly
Pump
To Impeller
Clutch

Test Port

Valve
Spring Ball Orifice Spool Spring

Impeller Clutch
Solenoid Energized

Armature
Solenoid From
Assembly
Pump
To Impeller
Clutch

97

Shown is a sectional view of the impeller clutch solenoid valve.

When the impeller clutch solenoid is DE-ENERGIZED, the spring moves the pin assembly
against the ball. The ball blocks the pump flow through the orifice to drain. The oil pressure
increases at the left end of the valve spool and moves the valve spool to the right against the
spring. The valve spool blocks the passage between the impeller clutch and drain and opens the
passage between the impeller clutch and the pump. Pump oil flows past the valve spool to the
impeller clutch.

When the impeller clutch solenoid is ENERGIZED, the solenoid moves the pin assembly
against the spring and away from the ball. Pump oil flows through the center of the valve
spool, through the orifice and past the ball to drain. The valve spring moves the valve spool to
the left. The valve spool blocks the passage between the impeller clutch and the pump and
opens the passage between the impeller clutch and drain. Pump flow to the impeller clutch is
blocked. The oil in the impeller clutch flows past the valve spool to drain.
SERV1859 - 122 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

LOCKUP CLUTCH/ Test Port

TRANSMISSION CLUTCH
Valve
SOLENOID VALVE Ball Orifice Spool Spring

Solenoid De-energized

Solenoid Pin From


Pump
To
Clutch

Test Port

Valve
Ball Orifice Spool Spring

Solenoid Energized

Solenoid Pin From


Pump
To
Clutch

98

Shown is a sectional view of the lockup clutch solenoid valve.

When the lockup clutch solenoid is DE-ENERGIZED, the force that held the pin assembly
against the ball is removed. The pump oil flows through the orifice and past the ball to drain.
The spring moves the valve spool to the left. The valve spool opens the passage between the
lockup clutch and drain and blocks the passage between the lockup clutch and the pump. Pump
flow to the lockup clutch is blocked. The oil in the lockup clutch flows past the valve spool to
drain.

When the lockup clutch solenoid is ENERGIZED, the solenoid moves the pin assembly against
the ball. The ball blocks pump oil flow through the orifice to drain. The oil pressure increases
at the left end of the valve spool and moves the valve spool to the right against the spring. The
valve spool blocks the passage between the lockup clutch and drain and opens the passage
between the lockup clutch and the pump. Pump oil flows past the valve spool to the lockup
clutch.
SERV1859 - 123 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

2
3 1

99

The power train oil cooler (1) is bolted to the engine on the left side of the machine. Engine
coolant flows through tubes inside the cooler.

Power train oil from the torque converter enters the cooler through the oil inlet (2), flows
around the coolant tubes, and out through the oil outlet (3). The heat from the power train oil
flows through the walls of the coolant tubes to the engine coolant. The engine coolant is then
cooled by the engine cooling system.

Also shown is the engine oil cooler (4).


SERV1859 - 124 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

POWER TRAIN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


NEUTRAL

2 3

Priority Impeller Clutch


Valve Solenoid Valve
1 5 4

Lockup Clutch
Solenoid Valve

Torque Torque
3 Transmission Converter Converter
2 Filter Outlet
Filter
5 Relief
1 Valve
Torque
Converter
4
Pump

Transmission
Control Valve
Cooler To
Sump Transmission

100

Power Train Hydraulic Schematics


In this schematic, the engine is running and the transmission is in NEUTRAL.

When the operator moves the directional switch to the NEUTRAL position, the ECM energizes
the No. 3 clutch solenoid and the impeller clutch solenoid. The ECM also de-energizes the
lockup clutch solenoid.

Flow from the power train pump is sent through the transmission filter to the priority valve, to
the impeller clutch solenoid valve, and to the lockup clutch solenoid valve. The priority valve
maintains a minimum oil pressure to the impeller clutch solenoid valve and the lockup clutch
solenoid valve during transmission shifts.

When the power train pump supply pressure increases above the priority valve setting, the
priority valve opens and sends oil flow to the manifold for clutch solenoid valves No. 2 and 3,
the manifold for clutch solenoid valves No. 1, 5, and 4, and the inlet passage for the selector
and pressure control valves.

The oil at the clutch solenoid valve manifolds become the pilot oil for the transmission speed
and directional selector spools.
SERV1859 - 125 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

When the No. 3 clutch solenoid is ENERGIZED, the No. 3 clutch solenoid valve sends pilot oil
to one end of the selector spool for speed clutches No. 3 and 5. The pilot oil pressure
overcomes the force of the selector valve spring and moves the spool from its center position.
Oil from the inlet passage flows through the orifice, past the selector spool for speed clutches
No. 3 and 5, and into the No. 3 speed clutch.

When directional solenoids No. 1 and 2 are DE-ENERGIZED, pilot oil is blocked at the
directional solenoid valves. The directional clutch selector spool spring centers the valve. Oil
flow from the differential valve to the directional clutches is blocked.

When the oil requirements of the selector and pressure control valve have been satisfied, the
remaining power train pump oil flows to the torque converter.

Flow from the power train pump is sent to the torque converter filter. Oil flows from the filter
and joins with the oil from the selector and pressure control valve. The combined oil flows to
the torque converter. Flow continues through the torque converter to the torque converter
outlet relief valve. The torque converter outlet relief valve maintains the pressure in the torque
converter. From the outlet relief valve, flow continues through the cooler to the transmission
lubrication circuit.

When the transmission is in NEUTRAL, the ECM de-energizes the optional lockup clutch
solenoid. When the lockup clutch solenoid is de-energized, the lockup clutch solenoid valve
closes. The closed valve blocks pump flow to the lockup clutch and allows the lockup clutch
oil to flow to the tank. The lockup clutch releases and disconnects the turbine from the rotating
housing. No power is transmitted through the turbine from the housing.

NOTE: Operation of the modulating relief valve, the torque converter inlet ratio valve,
and the pressure differential valve is the same as explained in STMG 421 "966D Wheel
Loader Part 2-- Power Train" (Form SESV1421). (SESV1421 is not available for
ordering from the media system. SESV1421 material is available on the Machine
Legacy DVDs SERV1000 or the Dealer Learning Management System (DLMS).
SERV1859 - 126 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

POWER TRAIN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


FIRST SPEED FORWARD
TORQUE CONVERTER DRIVE

2 3

Priority Impeller Clutch


Valve Solenoid Valve
1 5 4

Lockup Clutch
Solenoid Valve

Torque
Torque Converter
3 Transmission Converter
2 Outlet
Filter Filter
5 Relief
Valve
1
Torque
Converter
4
Pump

Transmission
Control Valve
Cooler To
Sump Transmission

101

When the transmission is shifted to FIRST SPEED FORWARD, the ECM energizes clutch
solenoids No. 2 and 5. The ECM also de-energizes the impeller clutch solenoid and the lockup
clutch solenoid.

When the ECM energizes the No. 2 clutch solenoid, the No. 2 clutch solenoid valve sends pilot
oil to one end of the directional clutch selector spool for directional clutches No. 1 and 2. Oil
pressure overcomes the force of the selector valve spring and moves the spool from its center
position. Directional clutch oil flows from the pressure differential valve, past the directional
clutch selector spool, and into the FORWARD directional clutch (No. 2).

When the ECM energizes the No. 5 solenoid, the No. 5 clutch solenoid valve sends pilot oil to
one end of the selector spool for speed clutches No. 3 and 5. The pilot oil pressure overcomes
the force of the selector valve spring and moves the spool from its center position. Oil from the
inlet passage flows through the orifice, past the selector spool for speed clutches No. 3 and 5,
and into the No. 5 speed clutch.
SERV1859 - 127 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

When the impeller clutch solenoid de-energizes, the impeller clutch solenoid valve fully opens.
Power train pump oil flows through the fully open valve and pressurizes the impeller clutch.
The impeller clutch locks the torque converter impeller to the torque converter rotating
housing. The torque converter housing is splined to the engine flywheel. The impeller and
torque converter housing rotate with the engine flywheel.
SERV1859 - 128 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

POWER TRAIN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


SECOND SPEED FORWARD
SPEED SHIFT

2 3

Priority Impeller Clutch


Valve Solenoid Valve
1 5 4

Lockup Clutch
Solenoid Valve

Torque Torque
3 Transmission Converter Converter
2 Outlet
Filter Filter
5 Relief
1 Valve
Torque
Converter
4
Pump

Transmission
Control Valve
Cooler To
Sump Transmission

102

When the operator shifts from FIRST SPEED FORWARD to SECOND SPEED FORWARD
(speed shift), the ECM de-energizes the No. 5 clutch solenoid, and energizes the No. 4 clutch
solenoid. The ECM also continues to de-energize the impeller clutch solenoid and the lockup
clutch solenoid.

When de-energized, the No. 5 clutch solenoid valve blocks the pilot oil flow and sends the pilot
oil at the end of the selector spool for speed clutches No. 3 and 5 to drain.

When energized, the No. 4 clutch solenoid valve sends pilot oil to the end of the selector spool
for speed clutch No. 4. The pilot oil pressure overcomes the force of the selector valve spring
and moves the spool from its center position.

Oil from the inlet passage flows through the orifice, past the selector spool for speed clutches
No. 3 and 5, past the selector spool for speed clutches No. 4, and into the No. 4 speed clutch.
SERV1859 - 129 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

The empty No. 4 clutch causes the P1 and P2 pressures to decrease to less than 375 kPa
(55 psi). The decrease in P1 oil pressure allows the differential valve spring to move the
differential valve up. When the differential valve moves up, the differential valve opens a
passage for oil in the differential valve spring chamber and the load piston cavity to flow to
drain.

The transmission control valve then repeats the fill and modulation cycle. During a speed shift,
the ECM maintains maximum pressure in the impeller clutch. The transmission directional
clutch picks up the load after a shift.
SERV1859 - 130 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

POWER TRAIN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


SECOND SPEED REVERSE
DIRECTIONAL SHIFT

2 3

Priority Impeller Clutch


Valve Solenoid Valve
1 5 4

Lockup Clutch
Solenoid Valve

Torque Torque
3 Transmission Converter Converter
2 Outlet
Filter Filter
5 Relief
1 Valve
Torque
Converter
4
Pump

Transmission
Control Valve
Cooler To
Sump Transmission

103

When the operator shifts from FIRST SPEED FORWARD to SECOND SPEED REVERSE
(directional shift), the ECM de-energizes clutch solenoids No. 2 and 5 and energizes clutch
solenoids No. 1 and 4. The ECM also energizes the impeller clutch solenoid and de-energizes
the lockup clutch solenoid.

When the ECM de-energizes the No. 2 clutch solenoid, the No. 2 clutch solenoid valve blocks
the pilot oil flow and sends the pilot oil at the end of the selector spool to drain. The force of
the selector valve spring moves the spool to its center position. When the selector spool moves
to the center position, oil in the No. 2 clutch flows to drain.

When the ECM energizes the No.1 clutch solenoid, the No. 1 clutch solenoid valve sends pilot
oil to one end of the directional clutch selector spool for directional clutches No. 1 and 2. The
oil pressure overcomes the force of the selector valve spring and moves the spool from its
center position. Directional clutch oil flows from the pressure differential valve, past the
directional clutch selector spool, and into the REVERSE directional clutch (No. 1).
SERV1859 - 131 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

When the ECM de-energizes the No. 5 clutch solenoid, the No. 5 clutch solenoid valve blocks
the pilot oil flow and sends the pilot oil at the end of the selector spool for speed clutches No. 3
and 5 to drain. The oil pressure overcomes the force of the selector valve spring and moves the
spool from its center position. When the selector spool moves to the center position, oil in the
No. 5 clutch flows to drain.

When the ECM energizes the No. 4 clutch solenoid, the No. 4 clutch solenoid valve sends pilot
oil to one end of the speed clutch selector spool for speed clutch No. 4. The oil pressure
overcomes the force of the selector valve spring and moves the spool from its center position.
Oil from the inlet passage flows through the orifice, past the selector spool for speed clutches
No. 3 and 5, past the selector spool for speed clutches No. 4, and into the No. 4 speed clutch.

As the empty No. 1 and 4 clutches fill, they cause the P1 and P2 pressures to decrease to less
than 375 kPa (55 psi) momentarily. The momentary decrease in P1 oil pressure allows the
differential valve spring to move the differential valve up. When the differential valve moves
up, the differential valve opens a passage for oil in the differential valve spring chamber and
the load piston cavity to flow to drain.

The transmission control valve then repeats the fill and modulation cycle.

During a directional shift, the ECM reduces the pressure in the impeller clutch allowing the
impeller clutch to slip. The ECM monitors the torque converter output speed sensor and the
transmission output speed sensor to determine when the transmission clutches are engaged.
When the transmission clutches are engaged, the ECM engages the impeller clutch in the
torque converter. The torque converter picks up the load after a directional shift.
SERV1859 - 132 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

POWER TRAIN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


SECOND SPEED REVERSE
DIRECT DRIVE

2 3

Priority
Impeller Clutch
Valve
1 5 4 Solenoid Valve

Lockup Clutch
Solenoid Valve

Torque Torque
3 Transmission Converter Converter
2 Outlet
Filter Filter
5 Relief
1 Valve
Torque
Converter
4
Pump

Transmission
Control Valve
Cooler To
Sump Transmission

104

When the machine is operating in TORQUE CONVERTER DRIVE, five conditions must be
present before the ECM will energize the lockup clutch solenoid and shift the torque converter
to DIRECT DRIVE.

1. The lockup clutch enable switch is in the ON position.


2. The torque converter output speed is above 1400 rpm.
3. The machine has been in the present speed and direction for more than two seconds.
4. Neither brake pedal is depressed.
5. The lockup clutch has been released by the ECM for at least four seconds.

When the lockup clutch solenoid is energized, the lockup clutch solenoid valve opens. The
power train pump oil flows past the lockup clutch solenoid valve and fills the lockup clutch.
The lockup clutch engages and connects the turbine to the rotating housing.

In DIRECT DRIVE, both the impeller clutch and the lockup clutch are engaged. The torque
converter rotating housing, the impeller, and the turbine turn as a unit. The stator, which is
mounted on a freewheel assembly, is driven by the force of the oil in the housing and will
freewheel at approximately the same rpm.
SERV1859 - 133 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

POWER TRAIN TORQUE STRATEGY CONTROL CIRCUIT

Power Train Engine


ECM ECM

Data Link To
Injectors

Throttle Pedal
Transmission
Position Sensor
Output Speed
Sensors

Implement
Lift Pump
Implement
Linkage Pressure
ECM
Position Sensors
Sensor

105

Torque Strategy Circuit

Torque strategy is another feature of the Power Train ECM. The purpose of this feature is to
control the torque delivered through the power train while digging to allow more available
torque to the implement pumps. By controlling engine speed, the Power Train ECM is able to
manage the loads on the power train, extending power train life while maintaining digging
performance.

By decreasing the engine speed, the amount of torque that is delivered to the power train
through the torque converter is reduced. Since the implement pump drives are connected
directly to the engine, maximum torque is delivered to the pumps when the engine speed
decreases. This feature results in a net gain of available torque for the pumps.

Torque strategy is automatically enabled when the Power Train ECM determines machine
conditions are appropriate for digging. The conditions are:

1. Transmission in FIRST SPEED FORWARD.


2. Bucket below horizontal.
3. Ground speed is less than 2.7 km/h (1.7 mph).
SERV1859 - 134 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

When torque strategy is initiated, the Power Train ECM uses internal data and information
communicated over the CAT Data Link from the Implement ECM and the Engine ECM to
determine the torque strategy parameters.

The Implement ECM signals hydraulic pressure from the implement pumps to help determine
implement needs and operator demands and the lift linkage position as part of the digging
status. The Power Train ECM uses the transmission output speed sensor to determine ground
speed. The Power Train ECM also evaluates reduced rimpull status and torque converter pedal
position. The Engine ECM provides the engine rpm signal.

When torque strategy is activated, the Power Train ECM sends a Transmission Requested
Engine Speed Limit to the Engine ECM over the CAT Data Link. The Transmission Requested
Engine Speed Limit will vary between 1400 and 2500 rpm. The actual value varies based on
the engine speed, torque converter output speed, implement pump pressures, torque converter
pedal position, and rimpull status.

When torque strategy is inactive, the Power Train ECM sends a transmission requested engine
speed limit of 2500 rpm to the Engine ECM. The Engine ECM high idle of 1850 rpm does not
allow the engine to exceed 1850 rpm.

Two different engine stall speeds can be measured during a torque converter stall check. One
stall speed (1620 rpm) will be measured when torque strategy is active and another
(1715 rpm) will be measured when torque strategy is inactive.

When torque strategy is active:

- An increase in the implement pump pressures will lower the transmission requested
engine speed limit.
- A reduction in the desired rimpull with the reduced rimpull selector switch or the torque
converter pedal will increase the transmission requested engine speed limit.

When torque strategy is enabled, any of the following conditions will cause torque strategy to
be disabled:

- Machine speed greater than 3.2 km/h (2.0 mph).


- Transmission not in FIRST SPEED FORWARD.
- Bucket above horizontal.

NOTE: Caterpillar Electronic Technician (ET) is very useful in determining the torque
strategy status. After the connection is made, group 5 (under the Power Train ECM
groups) has already been configured with some of the important parameters for viewing
torque strategy status.
SERV1859 - 135 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

992K WHEEL LOADER


TORQUE CURVES FOR POWER TRAIN TORQUE STRATEGY
Torque Absorbed by
Torque Converter

Torque Available
for Pumps
Torque

Engine Torque
Output

1400 1620 1715


Engine rpm

106

The above illustration is a graphical representation of the Power Train Torque Strategy on the
992K Wheel Loader for the purpose of discussion. The vertical axis is torque and the
horizontal axis is engine rpm. The blue curve represents engine output torque which peaks at
1400 rpm. The red line represents the torque absorbed by the torque converter, which intersects
engine torque output at the single stall speed of 1715 rpm.

In the first stage of Power Train Torque Strategy the Power Train ECM sends a transmission
requested engine speed of 1620 rpm to the Engine ECM. This decreases the amount of torque
absorbed by the torque converter and the rest of the power train components.

As the implement pump pressures increases to 4500 psi the Power Train ECM sends the
minimum transmission requested engine speed of 1400 rpm to the Engine ECM. This further
widens the gap between engine output torque and torque absorbed by the torque converter. The
torque that is not absorbed by the torque converter is available for the implement pumps, which
are driven by the engine.
SERV1859 - 136 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

2 6
3 4

5
10
1 107

8 2
6

108
9

Automatic Lubrication System

The automatic lubrication system (autolube) provides grease flow to lubrication points on the
992K Wheel Loader and 854K Wheel Dozer. Autolube is controlled and monitored by the
Power Train ECM. Changes to the Autolube system include an additional pressure sensor,
redesigned injectors, and a new grease level sensor.

The autolube reservoir (1) is located on the platform, behind and to the right of the cab. The
components mounted on the autolube reservoir include the autolube solenoid valve (2), the
pressure reducing valve (3), the flow control valve (4), the autolube pump (5), the vent
valve (6), the safety unloader valve (7), the autolube reservoir level switch (8), the autolube
pressure gauge (9), and the autolube pump pressure sensor (10).
SERV1859 - 137 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

The autolube system uses oil from the fan pump to operate the autolube pump. The autolube
solenoid valve controls the flow of oil to the pump.

The autolube level sender sends a signal to the Power Train ECM indicating the autolube
reservoir grease level. If the machine is equipped with the service center, once the autolube
tank is full a green light is illuminated. The autolube level percentage can also be displayed in
the VIMS.
SERV1859 - 138 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

109

There are two autolube pressure sensors. The NEEF autolube pressure sensor (arrow) is located
on the NEEF, above and to the left of the implement control valve. The NEEF autolube
pressure sensor monitors the pressure of the autolube grease downstream of the autolube pump.

The pump autolube pressure is located on the autolube pump (as shown in the previous
illustration) and monitors the pressure of the autolube grease at the autolube pump. Both
sensors send a signal to the Power Train ECM.

The ECM will end the automatic lube mode when the pressure reaches the minimum autolube
pressure configuration.

After the Power Train ECM energizes the autolube solenoid, if the grease pressure does not
increase above the injector activation pressure (default 2500 psi) for at least 10 seconds, the
Power Train ECM activates an "Autolube Pressure Low" warning.

If the maximum operating pressure (3500 psi) was reached at the pump before the downstream
pressure reached the minimum autolube pressure configuration an "Abnormal Machine Auto
Lube System Operation" warning will be activated by the ECM. This warning indicates there is
an excessive pressure drop in the system that is preventing the downstream injectors from
reaching the required pressure.

Probable causes of the injectors not reaching the required pressure are the pump running too
fast or the grease is too thick for the operating temperature.
SERV1859 - 139 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

NOTE: The injection activation pressure setting and the time between injection cycles
are configurable using Cat ET. The default setting for the injection activation pressure
setting is 2500 psi, and can be adjusted to meet operating conditions. The default
setting for the time between injection cycles is 15 minutes, and can be adjusted to meet
operating conditions.
SERV1859 - 140 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

110

The adjustment volume (per turn) has increased on the autolube injectors (arrow). There is a
weep hole on the side of the injectors that leaks if the injector is worn, which indicates injector
replacement is necessary.
SERV1859 - 141 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

AUTO LUBE SYSTEM


OFF CYCLE

Autolube
Pump
Pressure
Flow Control
Reducing Valve
Valve

Autolube
Solenoid Valve

To Fan
Motor Check Autolube
Valve Reservoir
To Fan
Solenoid
Vent Valve

Safety Unloader
Fan Pump Valve

Injectors

111

When the autolube system is OFF, the autolube solenoid valve is de-energized. The fan pump
oil is blocked at the autolube solenoid valve and the autolube pump is not providing lubricant
flow to the system.
SERV1859 - 142 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

AUTOLUBE SYSTEM
ON CYCLE
Autolube
Pump
Pressure
Reducing Valve Flow Control
Valve

Autolube
Solenoid Valve

To Fan
Motor Check Autolube
Valve Reservoir
To Fan
Solenoid
Vent Valve

Fan Pump Safety Unloader


Valve

Injectors

112

After the engine is started, the Power Train ECM waits two minutes before energizing the
autolube solenoid valve. The timer allows the solenoid to remain energized for up to 120
seconds. If the autolube grease pressure reaches the injector activation pressure and maintains
that pressure for 10 seconds, the Power Train ECM de-energizes the autolube solenoid valve.
Every 15 minutes thereafter, the Power Train ECM energizes the solenoid.

This process continues until one of the following conditions occur: the engine stops running,
the implement lockout switch is in the ON position, engine is at an elevated idle, engine is
below 1100 rpm, or if the machine speed is greater than 14 km/h (9 mph).

When the autolube solenoid valve is energized, the fan pump oil flows through the autolube
solenoid valve, the pressure reducing valve, and the flow control valve to the autolube and to
the vent valve. The vent valve shifts down to allow the grease to flow to the injectors. The
autolube pump draws grease from the autolube reservoir and the grease flows through the check
valve, the vent valve, and to the injectors.

The safety unloader valve protects the autolube grease system from damage due to excessive
grease pressures. If the autolube grease pressure reaches 4000 psi, the safety unloader valve
will vent the grease to atmosphere.
SERV1859 - 143 - Text Reference
07/08 Power Train

AUTOLUBE SYSTEM
INSTANT SOLENOID VALVE DE-ENERGIZES

Autolube
Pump
Pressure
Reducing Valve Flow Control
Valve

Autolube
Solenoid Valve

To Fan
Motor Check Autolube
Valve Reservoir
To Fan
Solenoid
Vent Valve

Fan Pump Safety Unloader


Valve

Injectors

113

Immediately after the Power Train ECM de-energizes the autolube solenoid valve, the grease
pressure on the bottom of the vent valve shifts the vent valve up. The pressurized grease flows
through the vent valve to the autolube reservoir.
SERV1859 - 144 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

992K ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC IMPLEMENT SYSTEM


Pilot Implement Electronic Pilot Control Tilt
Relief Valve Control Module Lever Module Regeneration
Valve
Implement
Hydraulic Pilot
Pumps Pump Main Control Tilt
Valve Assembly Cylinder

Hydraulic
Tank Lift Linkage Lift Tilt Linkage
Position Sensor Cylinder Position Sensor

Electronic System Main Hydraulic System


Pilot Hydraulic System Common to Both Systems

114

992K ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC IMPLEMENT SYSTEM

Shown are the major components of the 992K electro-hydraulic implement system. The
electro-hydraulic implement system is pilot operated. The pilot system controls the functions of
the main control valve. The pilot system consists of the electronic system and the pilot
hydraulic system.

The electronic system components (yellow) are the pilot control lever module, the Implement
Electronic Control Module (ECM), the pump solenoid valves, the tilt linkage position sensor,
and the lift linkage position sensor.

Electronic system components not shown are the tilt lever position sensor, the lift lever position
sensor, the bucket kickout detent solenoid, the lift kickout detent solenoid, the lower kickout
detent solenoid, the implement kickout set switches, the implement lockout switch, the pilot
on/off solenoid valve, and the pilot hydraulic actuator solenoids.

The pilot hydraulic system (orange) consists of the pilot pump, the manual lower valve, the
pilot relief valve, the pilot accumulator, the pilot on/off valve (part of the main control valve
assembly), and the pilot hydraulic actuators (part of the main control valve assembly).
SERV1859 - 145 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

The 992K main hydraulic system (red) consists of two variable pumps, two pump relief valves
(part of the main control valve assembly), two pump solenoid valves, the main control valve
assembly, the dual tilt relief valve, the float solenoid valves, the tilt regeneration valve, the two
lift cylinders, and the tilt cylinder.

The hydraulic tank (green) is common to both hydraulic systems.


SERV1859 - 146 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

IMPLEMENT ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM


Cat ET
CAT / CAN Data Links Engine ECM
Implement ECM
Power Train ECM
VIMS ECM
Input Components Output Components
Lift Lever
Pilot On/Off Solenoid
Position Sensor
Tilt Lever Left Pump Solenoid
Position Sensor
Right Pump Solenoid
Implement
Lockout Switch
Tilt Regeneration Solenoid
Raise / Lower
Kickout Switch Tilt Dual Relief Solenoid
Rack
Kickout Switch Left Float Solenoid Valve
Lift Linkage
Position Sensor Right Float Solenoid Valve
Tilt Linkage
Position Sensor Tilt Back Solenoids (2)

Implement Pilot Tilt Dump Solenoids (2)


Pressure Sensor

Right Implement Lift Lower Solenoids (2)


Pressure Sensor
Lift Raise Solenoids (2)
Left Implement
Pressure Sensor
Lift Lower Kickout Detent Coil
Location Code 4
(Ground)
Lift Raise Kickout Detent Coil
Location Code
Enable (GND) Tilt Back Kickout Detent Coil

115

Implement Electronic Control System


Shown is a block diagram of the Implement Electronic Control System.

The Implement Electronic Control Module (ECM) receives input signals from the various
sensors and switches. The Implement ECM processes the input signals, makes decisions, and
provides a corresponding output signal to the solenoid valves and kickout solenoids. The
Implement ECM also communicates with other electronic control systems through the data link.

The Implement Electronic Control System consists of the following components:


Lift lever position sensor: Signals the Implement ECM the position of the lift control lever.

Tilt lever position sensor: Signals the Implement ECM the position of the tilt control lever.

Implement lockout switch: Signals the Implement ECM that the operator wants the pilot
system disabled.

Raise/lower and rack kickout switches: Used to set the bucket tilt, lift raise, and lift lower
kickout positions.

Lift linkage position sensor: Signals the Implement ECM the position of the lift arm relative
to the machine.
SERV1859 - 147 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

Tilt linkage position sensor: Signals the Implement ECM the position of the bucket relative
to the lift arm.

Implement pilot pressure sensor: Sends a signal to the Implement ECM indicating
implement system pilot pressure.

Right and left implement pump pressure sensors: Send a signal to the Implement ECM
indicating right and left implement pump pressure.

Pilot on/off solenoid: Controls the pilot on/off solenoid valve. The on/off solenoid valve
enables or disables the pilot hydraulic system.

Left and right pump solenoids: Controls the pump swashplate angle. The pump solenoid
valve directs pilot oil to the pump actuator.

Tilt regeneration solenoid: Controls the tilt cylinder regeneration function by draining pilot
oil from the tilt regeneration valve.

Tilt dual relief solenoid: Controls the dual tilt relief function by directing pilot oil to the dual
tilt relief valve.

Left and right float valve solenoids: When the FLOAT function is activated, the float
solenoids direct the cylinder oil to the tank.

Tilt back solenoids: Control the tilt back actuators. The tilt back actuators direct pilot oil
from the tilt back end of the main control valve spool to the tank.

Tilt dump solenoids: Control the tilt dump actuators. The tilt dump actuators direct pilot oil
from the tilt dump end of the main control valve spool to the tank.

Lift lower solenoids: Control the lift lower actuators. The lift lower actuators direct pilot oil
from the lift lower end of the main control valve spool to the tank.

Lift raise solenoids: Control the lift raise actuators. The lift raise actuators direct pilot oil
from the lift raise end of the main control valve spool to the tank.

Lift lower kickout detent solenoid: Holds the lift lever in the LOWER position.

Lift raise kickout detent solenoid: Holds the lift lever in the RAISE position.

Tilt back kickout detent solenoid: Holds the tilt lever in the TILT BACK position.

Location code enable (grounded): The location code enable is a grounded input signal to the
Implement ECM that enables the location code detection feature to become active. J1-32 pin
on the Implement ECM connector is connected.

Location code 4 (grounded): The location code pin number 4 is a grounded input signal that
establishes the ECM is dedicated to the implment operation. J1-28 pin on the Implement ECM
connector is connected.
SERV1859 - 148 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

3 4
2
5

116
1

7
6

8 10

11

117
9

12

These illustrations show the implement pod components:

- horn (1) - resume/accelerate switch (7)


- tilt control lever (2) - tilt lever position sensor (8)
- lift control lever (3) - tilt back detent coil (9)
- set/decelerate switch (4) - raise detent coil (10)
-payload control system store switch (5) - lift lever position sensor (11)
- hydraulic lockout switch (6) - lower detent coil (12)
SERV1859 - 149 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

2
1

118

The raise and lower kickout switch (1) is located on the right side panel. Depress the top of the
switch to set the RAISE kickout. Depress the bottom of the switch to set the LOWER kickout.

When setting the RAISE kickout, raise the lift arm to the desired position. Return the lift lever
to the HOLD position. Depress the top of the kickout switch for approximately one second and
release.

When setting the LOWER kickout, lower the lift arm to the desired position. Return the lift
lever to the HOLD position. Depress the bottom of the kickout switch for approximately one
second and release.

The bucket kickout switch (2) is also located on the right side panel. Depress the top of the
switch to set the TILT kickout.

When setting the bucket TILT kickout, move the bucket to the desired position. Return the tilt
lever to the HOLD position. Depress the top of the kickout set switch for approximately one
second and release.
SERV1859 - 150 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

119

120

The lift linkage position sensor (1) is bolted to the right side of the front frame near the A pin.
The lift linkage position sensor constantly monitors the position of the lift linkage and sends the
lift linkage position information to the Implement ECM.

The tilt linkage position sensor (2) is bolted to the right side of the lift arm near the tilt linkage
pin. The tilt linkage position sensor constantly monitors the position of the tilt linkage and
sends the tilt linkage position information to the Implement ECM.

When the operator moves the lift lever or the tilt lever, the Implement ECM analyzes the signal
from the respective lever position sensor, the signal from the lift linkage position sensor, and
the signal from the tilt linkage position sensor. The Implement ECM then sends a proportional
signal to the respective control valve solenoid.
SERV1859 - 151 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

2
3

121

The Implement ECM (1) is located below the platform on the right side of the cab.

Also shown are the Power Train ECM (2) and the VIMS ECM (3).
SERV1859 - 152 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

6
1 7
2

122

This illustration shows the front of the implement control valve. The pilot hydraulic actuator
solenoids visible are:

- left tilt back solenoid (1)


- right tilt back solenoid (2)
- left lift lower solenoid (3)
- right lift lower solenoid (4)

The pilot hydraulic actuator solenoids control the movement of the valves for each circuit.

When the operator moves a control lever, the control lever sensor sends a pulse width
modulated (PWM) signal to the Implement ECM. The Implement ECM analyzes the signals
from the control lever sensor, the lift linkage position sensor, and the tilt linkage position
sensor. The Implement ECM then sends a proportional current to ENERGIZE the respective
pilot hydraulic actuator solenoid.

Also shown are the pressure reducing valve (5), the left pump relief valve (6), and the right
pump relief valve (7).
SERV1859 - 153 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

123

The pilot on/off solenoid valve (arrow) is located in the front of the main control valve.

When the pilot on/off solenoid is DE-ENERGIZED, pilot oil is blocked at the pilot on/off
solenoid valve.

When the pilot on/off solenoid is ENERGIZED, pilot oil flows to the pilot hydraulic actuators.
SERV1859 - 154 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

124

125

The left float valve solenoid (1) and the right float valve solenoid (2) are located on the right
side of the front frame.

When the FLOAT function is activated, the Implement ECM energizes the float solenoids,
which direct the lift cylinder head end oil to the tank.

The float solenoids are also used during engine starting. The float solenoids are energized
while the engine is cranking to reduce the load on the engine. Once the engine has reached low
idle, the solenoids are de-energized.
SERV1859 - 155 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

126

The tilt dual relief solenoid (1) is located on the right side of the front frame. The tilt dual
relief solenoid is controlled by the Implement ECM. The solenoid controls the dual tilt relief
function by directing pilot oil to the dual tilt relief valve.

The dual tilt pressure can be checked at the pressure tap (2) on the dual tilt valve manifold.
SERV1859 - 156 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

127

The tilt regeneration valve (1) is located on top of the tilt cylinder. The tilt regeneration
solenoid (2) controls the tilt cylinder regeneration function by draining the pilot oil from the tilt
regeneration valve.
SERV1859 - 157 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

2
1

128

3 4
129

The left pump solenoid valve (1) and the right pump solenoid valve (2) receive current from the
Implement ECM. The solenoid valves control oil flow to the left and right pump actuators to
control the pump output oil flow.

The right pump pressure sensor (3) and left pump pressure sensor (4) send a signal to the
Implement ECM indicating pump output pressure.
SERV1859 - 158 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

130

The implement pilot pressure sensor (1) sends a signal to the Implement ECM indicating pilot
system pressure. The sensor is attached to the pilot relief valve (2) on the right frame rail near
the transmission.
SERV1859 - 159 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

992K POSITIVE FLOW CONTROL

Pump
Lift Cylinder

Pilot Oil
Implement Valve

Lift and Tilt


Control Lever
Position Implement ECM
Tilt Cylinder
Sensors

Control Lever Position Signals


Implement Valve
Pump Current

Valve Solenoid Current


Lift Cylinder
Linkage Position Sensor Signals
Pump
Pilot Oil

Implement Pump Supply Oil


Linkage
Cylinder Travel

131

992K Positive Flow Control

The implement hydraulic system is now equipped with two implement pumps supplying oil to
the implement valve. When the lift and tilt control levers are in the HOLD position, the two
implement pumps supply oil to the implement valve at low pressure standby.

The electrohydraulic system is now controlled by Positive Flow Control (PFC). With PFC, the
Implement ECM receives the following information: engine speed, pump pressure, lift cylinder
velocity, lift valve commands, tilt cylinder velocity, tilt valve commands, and hydraulic oil
temperature. The ECM interprets the data, and sends a pump displacement signal to the pump
control in the Implement ECM. The pump control takes this data, compares the data with the
actual engine speed, pump calibration table, the pump current rate limit and the output driver
processer to send a proportional current to the individual solenoid valves in the pump control
valves. The implement pumps upstroke when there is a demand for more supply oil in the
system and destroke when the demand is reduced.
SERV1859 - 160 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

Tilt
ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC Cylinder

IMPLEMENT SYSTEM Left Right


Lift Cylinder
Lift Lift
PILOT SYSTEM COMPONENTS Cylinder Cylinder Pressure Sensor

Bucket Tilt Dual


Kickout Relief Valve
Set Switch Tilt
Implement Raise / Lower Shuttle Regeneration
Lockout Kickout Set Switch Valve Valve
Switch
Hydraulic
Actuator
Tilt Linkage Pressure
Position Sensor Reducing
Valve

Implement Implement
Control Control
Electronic Valve Valve
Control
Module Lift Linkage
Position Sensor Pilot
On / Off
Valve

Bucket Raise Lower


Kickout Kickout Kickout Relief Float Valve Float Valve
Detent Detent Detent Valve
Solenoid Solenoid Solenoid Pump
Pump Pilot Pressure
Tilt Lift Relief Pilot Relief
Pressure Sensor
Lever Lever Valve Accumulator Valve
Sensor
Sensor Sensor
Pilot Right
Pressure Pump Bypass Right
Left Switch Implement
Implement Sensor Solenoid
Valve Pump
Pump Left
Pump
Solenoid Manual
Valve Lower
Pump Case Valve
Drain Filter
Pilot Pump Case
Pump Drain Filter
Bypass
Switch

132

The pilot hydraulic system components (orange) are the tank, the pilot pump, the pilot relief
valve, the pilot on/off valve, the check valves, the manual lower valve, the pressure reducing
valve, the pilot accumulator, and the hydraulic actuators. The hydraulic actuators are located on
the implement control valves.
SERV1859 - 161 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

8 5 6

1 133
3 2

134

The implement hydraulic tank (1) is located on the right side of the machine. The tank has a
fill cap (2) for filling and adding oil and a breaker/relief valve (3) that protects the tank from
excessive pressure and/or vacuum.

The tank also has three screens for return oil, an ecology-type drain valve, and a sight glass (4)
for checking the oil level.
SERV1859 - 162 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

Also located near the hydraulic tank are the following components:

- key start switch circuit breaker (5)


- alternator circuit breaker (6)
- main circuit breaker (7)
- fuses (8)
SERV1859 - 163 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

135

The implement pilot pump (1) is a gear-type pump mounted on the front of the right implement
variable piston pump (2). Pilot pump supply oil flows through the implement pilot filter to the
pilot hydraulic system.
SERV1859 - 164 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

6
3

136

This view shows the implement pilot oil filter (1). Supply oil from the pilot pump flows
through the oil filter inlet hose (2), the pilot filter, and the oil filter outlet hose (3), to the pilot
relief valve (4).

The oil filter bypass switch (5) alerts the VIMS when oil is bypassing the filter. An S•O•S
tap (6) is also located on the filter inlet hose.
SERV1859 - 165 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

3 4 5

137

The pilot relief valve (1) is located on the right frame rail near the transmission. Pilot oil from
the pilot filter flows through the inlet hose (2) to the pilot relief valve. The pilot relief valve
limits the pilot oil pressure to 3500 kPa (508 psi). Pilot pressure oil also flows through the inlet
hose to the:

- pilot on/off solenoid valve


- pilot accumulator
- variable pump solenoid valves
- ride control valve
- tilt dual relief valve
- manual lower valve
- tilt regeneration valve

Pilot relief valve return oil flows through the return hose (3) to the tank.

The pilot pressure sensor (4) supplies pilot oil pressure information to the Implement ECM.

Pilot oil pressure can be checked at the pressure tap (5) on the pilot manifold.
SERV1859 - 166 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

138

The manual lower valve (1) is located on the pressure tap plate (2) at the articulation joint on
the right side of the front frame. The manual lower valve is used to lower the implement when
the engine and the machine electrical system are inoperable. The manual lower valve sends oil
from the pressure reducing valve to the hydraulic tank, allowing the implement lift cylinders to
retract.
SERV1859 - 167 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

139

The pilot accumulator (1) is on the right side of the rear frame next to the right implement
pump (2). The pilot accumulator stores hydraulic oil to maintain a stable oil flow for the pilot
system.
SERV1859 - 168 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

4
4
3

140

The pilot hydraulic actuators (1) control pilot oil flow from the ends of the main control valve
spools to the tank.

Also shown are the lift rod end line relief valve (2), the tilt head end line relief valve (3), and
the main relief valves (4).
SERV1859 - 169 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

PILOT HYDRAULIC ACTUATOR


HOLD

Stabilizing Tank Oil Pilot Oil Centering Snap Tank Oil


Spring Port Port Springs Ring Port

Left Pilot Feedback Spring Spool Pilot Oil Right


Actuator Spool Spring Retainer Port Actuator
Solenoid Solenoid

141

In the HOLD position, both solenoids for the pilot hydraulic actuators are de-energized. When
both solenoids are de-energized, the pilot spools direct pilot oil to the ends of the main spool.
The pilot pressure at each end of the main spool and the force of the centering springs keep the
main spool centered in the control valve.

The centering springs and retainers help stabilize the movement of the main spool. The
stabilizing springs dampen the movement of the pilot spools by holding the pilot spools in
contact with the feedback springs.
SERV1859 - 170 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

PILOT HYDRAULIC ACTUATOR


LEFT SOLENOID ENERGIZED

Stabilizing Tank Oil Pilot Oil Centering Snap Tank Oil


Spring Port Port Springs Ring Port

Left Pilot Feedback Spring Spool Pilot Oil Right


Actuator Spool Spring Retainer Port Actuator
Solenoid Solenoid

142

When the left actuator solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves the pilot spool to the right.
The pilot spool directs the pilot oil on the left side of the main spool to tank. This decreases the
pilot oil pressure at the left end of the main spool.

The right actuator solenoid is de-energized. When the solenoid is de-energized, the feedback
spring holds the pilot spool to the right. The pilot spool directs pilot oil to the right end of the
main spool. The pilot oil pressure at the right end of the main spool moves the main spool to
the left. As the main spool moves to the left toward the left pilot spool, the centering springs
and the feedback spring are compressed.
SERV1859 - 171 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

PILOT HYDRAULIC ACTUATOR


LEFT ACTUATOR BALANCED

Stabilizing Tank Oil Pilot Oil Centering Snap Tank Oil


Spring Port Port Springs Ring Port

Left Pilot Feedback Spring Spool Pilot Oil Right


Actuator Spool Spring Retainer Port Actuator
Solenoid Solenoid

143

When the left actuator solenoid is energized, the main spool moves to the left which
compresses the centering springs and the feedback spring. The force of the feedback spring is
equal to the force of the actuator solenoid and the stabilizing spring. When the pilot spool
moves far enough to the left, the pilot oil port and the tank oil port are blocked. When the oil
in the actuator is blocked the main spool stops moving. The main spool will stay in this
balanced position until the current to the actuator solenoid changes.

If the operator moves the implement control lever further in the same direction, the Implement
ECM will increase the current to the actuator solenoid. The increase of current increases the
force on the pilot spool. The pilot spool will move to the right which opens the tank oil port.
The decreased oil pressure inside the left actuator will allow the main spool to move further to
the left due to the pilot oil pressure on the right end of the main spool. As the main spool
moves to the left the feedback spring will be compressed more and the feedback sequence
begins again.

If the operator moves the implement control lever toward the centered position, the Implement
ECM will decrease the current to the actuator solenoid. The decrease of current decreases the
force on the pilot spool. The pilot spool will move to the left which opens the pilot oil port and
blocks the tank oil port.
SERV1859 - 172 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

The combined force of the pilot oil and the compressed centering springs on the left side of the
main spool will move the main spool to the right. This will decrease the flow of oil to the
implements. The force on the pilot spool from the feedback spring decreases as the main spool
moves to the right. As the main spool moves to the right the force of the feedback spring
continues to decrease. The pilot spool continues to move to the right until the pilot oil port and
the tank oil port are blocked. When the force of the feedback spring equals the combined force
of the stabilizing spring and the actuator solenoid, the spools will be balanced. The spools will
remain balanced until the current to the actuator solenoid increases or decreases.
SERV1859 - 173 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

Tilt
ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC Cylinder

IMPLEMENT SYSTEM Left Right


Lift Cylinder
Lift Lift
MAIN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM COMPONENTS Cylinder Cylinder Pressure Sensor

Bucket Tilt Dual


Kickout Relief Valve
Set Switch Tilt
Implement Raise / Lower Shuttle Regeneration
Lockout Kickout Set Switch Valve Valve
Switch
Hydraulic
Actuator
Tilt Linkage Pressure
Position Sensor Reducing
Valve

Implement Implement
Control Control
Electronic Valve Valve
Control
Module Lift Linkage
Position Sensor Pilot
On / Off
Valve

Bucket Raise Lower


Kickout Kickout Kickout Relief Float Valve Float Valve
Detent Detent Detent Valve
Solenoid Solenoid Solenoid Pump
Pump Pilot Pressure
Tilt Lift Relief Pilot Relief
Pressure Sensor
Lever Lever Valve Accumulator Valve
Sensor
Sensor Sensor
Pilot Right
Pressure Pump Bypass Right
Left Switch Implement
Implement Sensor Solenoid
Valve Pump
Pump Left
Pump
Solenoid Manual
Valve Lower
Pump Case Valve
Drain Filter
Pilot Pump Case
Pump Drain Filter
Bypass
Switch

144

Main Hydraulic System


The 992K main hydraulic system (red) consists of two variable pumps, two pump solenoid
valves, two main relief valves (part of the main control valve assembly), the main control valve
assembly, the dual tilt relief valve, the tilt regeneration valve, the two lift cylinders, and the tilt
cylinder.
SERV1859 - 174 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

3
1 1

2
4

145

The main hydraulic system contains two variable displacement piston-type pumps (1). The
variable displacement pumps supply oil flow to the implement control valves.

Also shown in this illustration are the implement pilot pump (2), the steering pump (3), and the
steering pilot pump (4).
SERV1859 - 175 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

3 3

1 2

146

The implement pumps case drain filter (1) and the fan pump/fan motor case drain filter (2) are
located on the right side of the rear frame by the implement pumps. The case drain filters
remove contaminants from the case drain oil before the oil enters the implement hydraulic tank.

The case drain oil filters each contain a bypass switch (3) that sends a signal to the VIMS ECM
if the filter is plugged.
SERV1859 - 176 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

1 2
1 8 4
2
3
3
9 7
4 11
6

6
5 10 9 7 5

13 8
7
12

16
15

14

147

The implement control valve is located in the front frame below the boom. The following
components are contained in the implement control valve:

- left pump relief valve (1) - lift cylinder head end relief valve (9)
- right pump relief valve (2) - lift cylinder rod end relief valve (10)
- rack left solenoid (3) - pressure reducing valve (11)
- rack right solenoid (4) - dump right solenoid (12)
- lower left solenoid (5) - dump left solenoid (13)
- lower right solenoid (6) - raise right solenoid (14)
- tilt cylinder head end relief valve (7) - raise left solenoid (15)
- tilt cylinder rod end relief valve (8) - pilot on/off valve (16)
SERV1859 - 177 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

148

When an implement is activated, oil from the implement control valve is directed to the lift
cylinders (1) and/or tilt cylinder (2).
SERV1859 - 178 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

VARIABLE IMPLEMENT PUMP


MAXIMUM DISPLACEMENT

Coil
Assembly

Impeller

Pin

Piston Assembly Armature

Detail A
Barrel Assembly

Swashplate

Solenoid Valve

Stabilizing
Spring Pin

A
Large
Actuator

Spring
Small Control Case
Spring Actuator Spool Drain

149

Implement Pump Operation


This illustration shows the variable displacement implement pump with the coil assembly at
maximum current and the swashplate at maximum displacement.

The implement pump is a variable displacement piston pump that supplies hydraulic oil to the
implement system.

The impeller pump produces enough flow to lubricate the pump and provide instant reaction for
upstroking.

Pump output oil flows to the implement hydraulic system and to the small actuator through a
port within the pump housing. The combination of oil pressure and the spring at the end of the
small actuator provide the force that shifts the actuator to the right to upstroke the pump. Also,
the spring will assist in upstroking the pump at low discharge pressure.

The pump solenoid valve directs pilot oil to the large end of the actuator to control the pump
swashplate angle. When the solenoid is energized by the Implement ECM, pilot oil flows to
drain and the pump upstrokes due to the the combination of pump output oil pressure and the
spring at the end of the small actuator.
SERV1859 - 179 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

When the solenoid is de-energized by the Implement ECM, the solenoid pin moves the control
spool to the left and pilot oil flows to the large pump actuator. The control spool also
compresses the spring inside the large actuator. The pilot oil pressure and the spring force
move the large actuator to the left and the pump destrokes.
SERV1859 - 180 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

PUMP AND PUMP CONTROL VALVE


Pressure LOW PRESSURE STANDBY
Sensor
To Implement Control Valve

Orifice

Solenoid
Valve
From
Swashplate
Tank Control
Lever Arm Actuator Spool From Implement
Impeller
Pilot Pump
Pump

Implement Pump

Case Pump Case Pump Case


Drain Air Bleed Drain Filter

To
Tank

150

When the implement pump is at low pressure standby, the Implement ECM sends a
proportional amount of current to the solenoid valve. The Implement ECM determines the
amount of current required to produce low pressure standby using the input signals from the
pump pressure sensor and the implement pump calibration data.

In the minimum displacement position, the Implement ECM sends a minimum current to the
pump solenoid valve. The solenoid valve directs pilot oil flow to the large end of the actuator.

The spring force and the pilot pressure on the large end of the actuator work against the pump
output oil and spring force on the small end of the actuator.

The actuator moves to the left rotating the swashplate to the required angle needed to produce
low pressure standby. Minimum oil flow is directed to the implement control valve.
SERV1859 - 181 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

PUMP AND PUMP CONTROL VALVE


Pressure CONSTANT FLOW
Sensor
To Implement Control Valve

Orifice

Solenoid
Valve
From
Swashplate
Tank Control
Lever Arm Actuator Spool From Implement
Impeller
Pilot Pump
Pump

Implement Pump

Case Pump Case Pump Case


Drain Air Bleed Drain Filter

To
Tank

151

When the flow demands of the implement system have been met, the implement pump moves
to a constant displacement position. The Implement ECM determines the amount of current
required to maintain the pump swashplate using the input signals from the pump pressure
sensor, lift and tilt linkage sensors, lift and tilt lever position sensor, and pump calibration data.

In a constant displacement position, the Implement ECM sends current to the pump solenoid
valve. The solenoid valve meters the pilot oil to the large end of the actuator to maintain the
swashplate position.

The pump output oil and spring force on the small end of the actuator work against the spring
force and the pilot pressure on the large end of the actuator. The actuator shifts to the right and
the swashplate moves to the desired angle. The oil flow is directed to the implement control
valve.
SERV1859 - 182 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

PUMP AND PUMP CONTROL VALVE


MAXIMUM DISPLACEMENT
Pressure
Sensor
To Implement Control Valve

Orifice

Solenoid
Valve
From
Swashplate
Tank Control
Lever Arm Actuator
Impeller Main Spool From Implement
Pump Pump Pilot Pump

Case Pump Case Pump Case


Drain Air Bleed Drain Filter

To
Tank

152

When the implement system requires additional oil flow, the implement pump moves to the
maximum displacement position. The Implement ECM determines the amount of current
required to upstroke the pump using the input signals from the pump pressure sensor, lift and
tilt linkage sensors, lift and tilt lever position sensor, and pump calibration data.

In the maximum displacement position, the Implement ECM sends a maximum current to the
pump solenoid valve. The solenoid valve blocks pilot oil flow from the large end of the
actuator and also drains the oil from the actuator.

The pump output oil and spring force on the small end of the actuator work against the spring
force and the pilot pressure on the large end of the actuator. The actuator shifts to the right and
the swashplate rotates to the maximum angle. Maximum oil flow is directed to the implement
control valve.
SERV1859 - 183 - Text Reference
07/08

TILT CONTROL VALVE


HOLD

Head End Rod End


Load
Check
Valve

Line Relief
Line Relief
Makeup Valve
Valve

Dump
Tilt Back Pilot Hydraulic
Pilot Hydraulic Actuator
Actuator Supply
Passage Pilot Oil
Pilot Oil Tilt Tank Passage to Internal Tank Chamber
Chamber Spool Port Next Valve Passage Port

153

Implement Control Valve Operation


In the HOLD position, pilot oil pressure is present at both ends of the control valve tilt spool.
The pilot oil and the centering springs keep the lift spool in the centered position. The control
valve lift spool blocks oil flow to the tilt cylinder, and oil from the tilt cylinder is blocked by
the tilt spool. The oil is trapped and the cylinder will remain in the HOLD position.

Oil from the implement pump enters the supply passage, flows around the tilt spool, and flows
to the lift spool.

The flow of oil through the lift control valve is similar to the flow of oil through the tilt control
valve. However, the tilt control valve has priority over the lift control valve.

The head end and rod end line relief valves limit the oil pressure in the head end and rod end of
the tilt cylinder.
SERV1859 - 184 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

TILT CONTROL VALVE


DUMP

Head End Rod End


Load
Check
Valve

Line Relief
Line Relief
Makeup Valve
Valve

Dump
Tilt Back Pilot Hydraulic
Pilot Hydraulic Actuator
Actuator Supply
Passage Pilot Oil
Pilot Oil Tilt Tank Passage to Internal Tank Chamber
Chamber Spool Port Next Valve Passage Port

154

When the operator moves the implement control lever to the DUMP position, the tilt lever
position sensor sends a PWM signal to the Implement ECM. Then the Implement ECM sends
current that energizes the dump pilot hydraulic actuator solenoid.

The solenoid moves the spool for the pilot hydraulic actuator and the pilot oil at the right end of
the tilt spool is drained to the tank. The pilot oil pressure on the left end of the tilt spool moves
the tilt spool right to the DUMP position.

The tilt spool directs oil from the implement pump to the load check valve. Oil flows through
the load check valve and through the tilt spool to the head end of the tilt cylinder. The tilt spool
also opens the tank passages to allow the oil from the rod end of the tilt cylinder to return to the
tank.
SERV1859 - 185 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

LIFT CONTROL VALVE


HOLD
Head End
Rod End
Load
Check
Valve

Line Relief Line Relief


Valve Makeup Valve

Raise
Lower
Pilot Hydraulic
Pilot Hydraulic
Actuator
Actuator Pilot Oil Supply
Chamber Passage
Tank Internal Tank Lift Pilot Oil
Port Passage Port Spool Chamber

155

In the HOLD position, pilot oil pressure is present at both ends of the control valve lift spool.
The pilot oil and the centering springs keep the lift spool in the centered position. The control
valve lift spool blocks oil flow to the lift cylinders, and oil from the lift cylinders is blocked by
the lift spool. The oil is trapped and the cylinders will remain in the HOLD position.

Oil from the implement pump enters the supply passage, flows around the lift spool, and flows
to the tank.

The head end and rod end line relief valves limit the oil pressure in the head end and rod end of
the lift cylinders.
SERV1859 - 186 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

LIFT CONTROL VALVE


LOWER

Head End Rod End


Load
Check
Valve

Line Relief Line Relief


Valve Makeup Valve

Raise
Lower Pilot Actuator
Pilot Control Solenoid
Actuator Pilot Oil
Supply
Chamber
Tank Internal Passage Tank Lift Pilot Oil
Port Passage Port Spool Chamber

156

When the operator moves the implement control lever to the LOWER position, the lift lever
position sensor sends a PWM signal to the Implement ECM. Then the Implement ECM sends
current that energizes the lower pilot control actuator solenoid.

The solenoid moves the spool for the pilot hydraulic actuator and the pilot oil at the left end of
the lift spool is drained to the tank. The pilot oil pressure on the right end of the lift spool
moves the lift spool left to the LOWER position.

The lift spool directs oil from the implement pump to the load check valve. Oil flows through
the load check valve and through the lift spool to the rod end of the lift cylinders. The lift
spool also opens the tank passages to allow the oil from the head end of the lift cylinders to
return to the tank.
SERV1859 - 187 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

A B C D E F G H I
Tilt Regeneration Valve
Tilt
Fan Pump Cylinder Right
Pressure Lift
Tilt Cylinder Lift
Lift Tilt Head End Cylinder
Left Lift
Head End Rod End Relief Valve Pressure
Lift Rod End Cylinder
Relief Relief Sensor
Relief Valve Valve Valve Tilt Rod End
Relief Valve

Pressure
Reducing
Valve

Actuator Tilt Dual


Rackback Rackback
Lower Solenoids Lower Relief Valve
Ride Control
Accumulators

Actuator
Solenoids
Pilot Ride
On / Off Control
Valve Solenoid
Lift Actuator Tilt Tilt Actuator Lift
Valve Solenoids Valve Valve Solenoids Valve
Ride Control Balance
Valve Group Valve

Manual Lower
Valve
Dump Dump
Raise Raise

Float
Valves
Pilot
Relief Valve 992K IMPLEMENT
Pilot HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Accumulator
Implement Pump
HOLD
Pilot
Pressure Pressure Sensors
Sensor
Left Right
Implement Implement
Pump Pump
Pilot Hydraulic
Filter Oil Temp
Sensor

Hydraulic
Oil Level
Switch

Pilot
Pump

157

Implement Hydraulic System Operation


This schematic shows the oil flow in the implement pilot system and the implement hydraulic
system when the engine is running and the control valves are in the HOLD position.

In the pilot system, the pilot pump pulls oil from the tank and sends oil flow through the pilot
oil filter to the following locations as previously described:

- pilot relief valve


- pilot accumulator
- variable pump solenoid valves
- ride control valve (if equipped)
- tilt dual relief valve
- manual lower valve
- tilt regeneration valve
- pilot ON/OFF valve
SERV1859 - 188 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

The pilot relief valve limits the pilot system pressure to 3500 ± 150 kPa (508 ± 22 psi).

The pilot on/off valve solenoid is controlled by the implement lockout switch through the
Implement ECM. When the implement lockout switch is in the OFF position, the Implement
ECM de-energizes the pilot on/off solenoid valve. Pilot oil is then blocked at the pilot on/off
solenoid valve. When the implement lockout switch is in the ON position, the Implement ECM
energizes the pilot on/off solenoid valve. Pilot oil flows past the pilot on/off solenoid valve to
the pilot hydraulic actuator on each end of the control valve spools.

The implement pumps pull oil from the tank and send oil flow to the main control valve. Oil
flows to the main relief valves, to the tilt control valve spools, and to the lift control valve
spools.

When the main control valve spools are in the HOLD position, oil flows through the
open-center tilt control valves and through an orifice in the lift control valves to the tank.

Implement system pressure is controlled at a maximum of 31000 ± 700 kPa (4496 ± 102 psi)
by the main relief valves.

In the HOLD position, oil flow to and from the cylinders is blocked by the control valve
spools.
SERV1859 - 189 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

A B C D E F G H I
Tilt Regeneration Valve
Tilt
Fan Pump Cylinder Right
Pressure Lift
Tilt Cylinder Lift
Lift Tilt Head End Cylinder
Left Lift
Head End Rod End Relief Valve Pressure
Lift Rod End Cylinder
Relief Relief Sensor
Relief Valve Valve Valve Tilt Rod End
Relief Valve

Dead Engine
Lower
Pressure
Reducing
Valve

Actuator Tilt Dual


Lower Solenoids Rackback Rackback Lower Relief Valve
Ride Control
Accumulators

Actuator
Solenoids
Pilot Ride
On / Off Control
Valve Solenoid
Lift Actuator Tilt Tilt Actuator Lift
Valve Solenoids Valve Valve Solenoids Valve
Ride Control Balance
Valve Group Valve

Manual Lower
Valve
Dump Dump
Raise Raise

Float
Valves
Pilot
Relief Valve 992K IMPLEMENT
Pilot HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Accumulator
Implement Pump
TILT BACK
Pilot
Pressure Pressure Sensors
Sensor
Left Right
Implement Implement
Pump Pump
Pilot Hydraulic
Filter Oil Temp
Sensor

Hydraulic
Oil Level
Switch

Pilot
Pump

158

When the tilt lever is moved to the TILT BACK position, the tilt lever position sensor sends a
PWM signal to the Implement ECM. The Implement ECM analyzes the input signals from the
tilt lever position sensor and the tilt linkage position sensor. The Implement ECM then sends
current to energize the tilt back hydraulic actuator solenoid valves in the implement control
valve. The Implement ECM's electrical output is proportional to the input signals from the tilt
lever position sensor and the tilt linkage position sensor.

The tilt back hydraulic actuator valves send pilot oil to the tank and decreases the oil pressure at
the top end of the tilt control valve spools. The pilot oil pressure at the rack back end of the tilt
control valve spools moves the control valve spools up to the TILT BACK position.

The tilt spools direct oil from the implement pump through the load check valve to the rod end
of the tilt cylinder. The tilt cylinder retracts. The tilt spool also opens a passage for oil in the
head end of the tilt cylinder to return to the tank.
SERV1859 - 190 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

When energized by the Implement ECM, the dual tilt relief solenoid valve directs pilot oil from
the spring chamber of the tilt cylinder rod end line relief valve to tank. With the pilot oil sent
to the tank, the line relief valve setting is decreased.

When the dual tilt relief solenoid valve is de-energized by the Implement ECM, the valve
directs pilot oil to the spring chamber of the tilt cylinder rod end line relief valve. The pilot oil
increases the line relief valve setting.
SERV1859 - 191 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

A B C D E F G H I
Tilt Regeneration Valve
Tilt
Fan Pump Cylinder Right
Pressure Lift
Tilt Cylinder Lift
Lift Tilt Head End Cylinder
Left Lift
Head End Rod End Relief Valve Pressure
Lift Rod End Cylinder
Relief Relief Sensor
Relief Valve Valve Valve Tilt Rod End
Relief Valve

Dead Engine
Lower
Pressure
Reducing
Valve

Actuator Tilt Dual


Rackback
Lower Solenoids Rackback Lower Relief Valve
Ride Control
Accumulators

Actuator
Solenoids
Pilot Ride
On / Off Control
Valve Solenoid
Lift Actuator Tilt Tilt Actuator Lift
Valve Solenoids Valve Valve Solenoids Valve
Ride Control Balance
Valve Group Valve

Manual Lower
Valve
Dump Dump
Raise Raise

Float
Valves
Pilot
Relief Valve 992K IMPLEMENT
Pilot HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Accumulator
Implement Pump
DUMP WITH REGENERATION
Pilot
Pressure Pressure Sensors
Sensor
Left Right
Implement Implement
Pump Pump
Pilot Hydraulic
Filter Oil Temp
Sensor

Hydraulic
Oil Level
Switch

Pilot
Pump

159

When the tilt lever is moved to the DUMP position, the tilt lever position sensor sends a PWM
signal to the Implement ECM. The Implement ECM analyzes the input signals from the tilt
lever position sensor and the tilt linkage position sensor. The Implement ECM then sends
current to energize the regeneration solenoid valve and the dump hydraulic actuator solenoid
valves in the implement control valve. The Implement ECM's electrical output is proportional
to the input signals from the tilt lever position sensor and the tilt linkage position sensor.

The regeneration solenoid valve will be energized before the dump pilot hydraulic actuators
valves. The regeneration valve performs two functions:

- Allows for finer movement control during a SLOW DUMP operation.


- Prevents cylinder cavitation during a FAST DUMP operation.

With the tilt regeneration solenoid energized, pilot oil on the left end of the tilt regeneration
valve is directed to the tank. Pilot oil pressure on the right end of the tilt regeneration valve
moves the valve to the left and tilt cylinder rod end oil unseats the check valve. When the
check valve unseats, the rod end oil is added to the head end oil of the tilt cylinder.
SERV1859 - 192 - Text Reference
07/08

The dump pilot hydraulic actuator valves send pilot oil to the tank and decreases the oil
pressure at the lower end of the tilt control valve spools. The pilot oil pressure at the dump end
of the tilt control valve spools moves the control valve spools down to the DUMP position.

The tilt spools direct oil from the implement pump through the load check valve to the head
end of the tilt cylinder. The tilt cylinder extends. The tilt spool also opens a passage for oil in
the rod end of the tilt cylinder to return to the tank.
SERV1859 - 193 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

TILT REGENERATION VALVE Tilt Cylinder


Rod End
DE-ENERGIZED

Regeneration
Spool Tank
Solenoid
Spool

Pilot
Pump

Solenoid

Pilot
Pump

Tilt Cylinder
Head End

160

This illustration shows the tilt regeneration valve with the tilt regeneration solenoid
de-energized. Pilot pump oil flows to the left end of the regeneration spool and to the solenoid
valve. When the solenoid is de-energized, pilot pump oil is also directed to the right end of the
regeneration spool. Spring force and the pilot oil at the right end of the regeneration spool
move the spool to the left. Oil from the tilt cylinder rod end is blocked from flowing to the tilt
cylinder head end.
SERV1859 - 194 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

TILT REGENERATION VALVE Tilt Cylinder


Rod End
ENERGIZED

Regeneration
Spool Tank
Solenoid
Spool

Pilot
Pump

Solenoid

Pilot
Pump

Tilt Cylinder
Head End

161

This illustration shows the tilt regeneration valve with the tilt regeneration solenoid energized.
Pilot pump oil flows to the left end of the spool and to the solenoid valve. When the solenoid
is energized, pilot pump oil is blocked at the solenoid spool. Pilot oil at the left end of the
regeneration spool overcomes the spring force at the right end of the regeneration spool and the
regeneration spool moves to the right.

When the Implement ECM determines the tilt cylinder movement is excessive, the solenoid is
energized. Return oil from the tilt cylinder rod end flows though the regeneration spool and the
check valve to combine with the pump flow to the head end of the tilt cylinder. The combined
flow prevents the tilt cylinder voiding during machine operation.

If the pressure in the head end of the tilt cylinder is greater that the pressure in the rod end, the
check valve will not open. In this example, regeneration will not occur.
SERV1859 - 195 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

A B C D E F G H I
Tilt Regeneration Valve
Tilt
Fan Pump Cylinder Right
Pressure Lift
Tilt Cylinder Lift
Lift Tilt Head End Cylinder
Left Lift
Head End Rod End Relief Valve Pressure
Lift Rod End Cylinder
Relief Relief Sensor
Relief Valve Valve Valve Tilt Rod End
Relief Valve

Pressure
Reducing
Valve

Actuator Tilt Dual


Lower Solenoids Rackback Rackback Lower Relief Valve
Ride Control
Accumulators

Actuator
Solenoids
Pilot Ride
On / Off Control
Valve Solenoid
Lift Actuator Tilt Tilt Actuator Lift
Valve Solenoids Valve Valve Solenoids Valve
Ride Control Balance
Valve Group Valve

Manual Lower
Valve
Dump Dump
Raise Raise

Float
Valves
Pilot
Relief Valve 992K IMPLEMENT
Pilot HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Accumulator
Implement Pump
RAISE
Pilot
Pressure Pressure Sensors
Sensor
Left Right
Implement Implement
Pump Pump
Pilot Hydraulic
Filter Oil Temp
Sensor

Hydraulic
Oil Level
Switch

Pilot
Pump

162

When the lift lever is moved to the RAISE position, the lift lever position sensor sends a PWM
signal to the Implement ECM. The Implement ECM analyzes the input signals from the lift
lever position sensor and the lift linkage position sensor. The Implement ECM then sends
current to energize the raise hydraulic actuator solenoid valves in the implement control valve.
The Implement ECM's electrical output is proportional to the input signals from the lift lever
position sensor and the lift linkage position sensor.

The raise hydraulic actuator valves send pilot oil to the tank and decrease the oil pressure at the
lower end of the lift control valve spools. The pilot oil pressure at the raise end of the lift
control valve spools moves the control valve spools down to the RAISE position.

The lift spools direct oil from the implement pump through the load check valve to the head
end of the lift cylinders. The lift cylinders raise. The lift spool also opens a passage for oil in
the rod end of the lift cylinders to return to the tank.
SERV1859 - 196 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

If the machine is equipped with the optional ride control system, the pressure in the head end of
the lift cylinders increases during the RAISE function. As the oil pressure increases, the oil
pressure on the left end of the balance valve will force the balance valve to shift to the left.
Supply oil flows through the check valve, through the balance valve to the ride control
accumulators, charging the accumulators. When the accumulators are fully charged
accumulator oil pressure closes the check valve.

With ride control not enabled, the ride control solenoid valve is de-energized. Oil flow
between the head end of the lift cylinders and the accumulators is blocked. The oil from the
rod end of the lift cylinders flows around the lift spool to the hydraulic tank.
SERV1859 - 197 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

A B C D E F G H I
Tilt Regeneration Valve
Tilt
Fan Pump Cylinder Right
Pressure Lift
Tilt Cylinder Lift
Lift Tilt Head End Cylinder
Left Lift
Head End Rod End Relief Valve Pressure
Lift Rod End Cylinder
Relief Relief Sensor
Relief Valve Valve Valve Tilt Rod End
Relief Valve

Dead Engine
Lower
Pressure
Reducing
Valve

Actuator Tilt Dual


Lower Solenoids Rackback Rackback Relief Valve
Lower
Ride Control
Accumulators

Actuator
Solenoids
Pilot Ride
On / Off Control
Valve Solenoid
Lift Actuator Tilt Tilt Actuator Lift
Valve Solenoids Valve Valve Solenoids Valve
Ride Control Balance
Valve Group Valve

Manual Lower
Valve
Dump Dump
Raise Raise

Float
Valves
Pilot
Relief Valve 992K IMPLEMENT
Pilot HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Accumulator
Implement Pump
LOWER
Pilot
Pressure Pressure Sensors
Sensor
Left Right
Implement Implement
Pump Pump
Pilot Hydraulic
Filter Oil Temp
Sensor

Hydraulic
Oil Level
Switch

Pilot
Pump

163

When the lift lever is moved to the LOWER position, the lift lever position sensor sends a
PWM signal to the Implement ECM. The Implement ECM analyzes the input signals from the
lift lever position sensor and the lift linkage position sensor. The Implement ECM then sends
current to energize the lower hydraulic actuator solenoid valves in the implement control valve.
The Implement ECM's electrical output is proportional to the input signals from the lift lever
position sensor and the lift linkage position sensor.

The lower hydraulic actuator valves send pilot oil to the tank and decrease the oil pressure at
the top end of the lift control valve spools. The pilot oil pressure at the lower end of the lift
control valve spools moves the control valve spools up to the LOWER position.

The lift spools direct oil from the implement pump through the load check valve to the rod end
of the lift cylinders. The lift cylinders lower. The lift spool also opens a passage for oil in the
head end of the lift cylinders to return to the tank.
SERV1859 - 198 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

If the machine is equipped with the optional ride control system, the pressure in the head end of
the lift cylinders decrease during the LOWER function. As the oil pressure decreases, the oil
pressure on the right end of the balance valve will force the balance valve to shift to the right.
Oil flows through the balance valve and to tank. When the pressure in the accumulators is
equal to the pressure in the head end of the lift cylinders, the balance valve will block the
accumulator oil from the tank. The balance valve will continue to balance the pressure in the
accumulators with the pressure in the head end of the lift cylinders.

With ride control not enabled, the ride control solenoid valve is de-energized. Oil flow
between the head end of the lift cylinders and the accumulators is blocked.
SERV1859 - 199 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

A B C D E F G H I
Tilt Regeneration Valve
Tilt
Fan Pump Cylinder Right
Pressure Lift
Tilt Cylinder Lift
Lift Tilt Head End Cylinder
Left Lift
Head End Rod End Relief Valve Pressure
Lift Rod End Cylinder
Relief Relief Sensor
Relief Valve Valve Valve Tilt Rod End
Relief Valve

Pressure
Reducing
Valve

Actuator Tilt Dual


Lower Solenoids Rackback Rackback Lower Relief Valve
Ride Control
Accumulators

Actuator
Solenoids
Pilot Ride
On / Off Control
Valve Solenoid
Lift Actuator Tilt Tilt Actuator Lift
Valve Solenoids Valve Valve Solenoids Valve
Ride Control Balance
Valve Group Valve

Manual Lower
Valve
Dump Dump
Raise Raise

Float
Valves
Pilot
Relief Valve 992K IMPLEMENT
Pilot HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Accumulator
Implement Pump
FLOAT
Pilot
Pressure Pressure Sensors
Sensor
Left Right
Implement Implement
Pump Pump
Pilot Hydraulic
Filter Oil Temp
Sensor

Hydraulic
Oil Level
Switch

Pilot
Pump

164

To enter the FLOAT position, the wheel loader bucket must be below the lower kickout
position. When the lift lever is moved to the FLOAT position, the movement of the lift control
spools are the same as when the lift control lever is in the LOWER position. However, the
Implement ECM also energizes the float solenoid valves and the electromagnetic float detent
coil, which holds the lift lever in the FLOAT position. When the float solenoid valves are
energized, the oil is drained from the float valve.

The small orifice in the float valves cause a restriction to the implement pump oil when filling
the cavity behind the float valves. With oil flowing from behind the float check valves faster
than oil flows in, the pressure difference between the oil around the float check valves and the
oil behind the float check valves becomes high enough to lift the float check valve off its seat.
The oil from the implement pump flows past the float valve to the tank.

The oil in the rod end of the lift cylinders is now open to tank and the bucket follows the
contour of the ground in the FLOAT position.
SERV1859 - 200 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

A B C D E F G H I
Tilt Regeneration Valve
Tilt
Fan Pump Cylinder Right
Pressure Lift
Tilt Cylinder Lift
Lift Tilt Head End Cylinder
Left Lift
Head End Rod End Relief Valve Pressure
Lift Rod End Cylinder
Relief Relief Sensor
Relief Valve Valve Valve Tilt Rod End
Relief Valve

Pressure
Reducing
Valve

Actuator Tilt Dual


LOWER Solenoids RACKBACK RACKBACK Relief Valve
LOWER
Ride Control
Accumulators

Actuator
Solenoids
Pilot Ride
ON / OFF Control
Valve Solenoid
Lift Actuator Tilt Tilt Actuator Lift
Valve Solenoids Valve Valve Solenoids Valve
Ride Control Balance
Valve Group Valve

Manual Lower
Valve
DUMP DUMP
RAISE RAISE

Float
Valves
Pilot
Relief Valve 992K IMPLEMENT
Pilot HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Accumulator
Implement Pump
LOWER ENGINE OFF
Pilot
Pressure Pressure Sensors
Sensor
Left Right
Implement Implement
Pump Pump
Pilot Hydraulic
Filter Oil Temp
Sensor

Hydraulic
Oil Level
Switch

Pilot
Pump

165

When the bucket is being LOWERED with the ENGINE OFF the weight of the implement
creates a high pressure in the head end of the lift cylinders. The high lift cylinder pressure oil
flows through the shuttle valve to the pressure reducing valve.

The pressure reducing valve decreases the lift cylinder oil pressure to approximately
1580 kPa (230 psi). The reduced pressure oil flows past the check valve to the pilot on/off
solenoid valve and becomes the oil supply for the pilot system.

When the on/off solenoid valve is de-energized, pilot oil is blocked at the on/off solenoid valve.
When the on/off solenoid valve is energized (as shown), pilot oil flows through the on/off
solenoid valve and pressurizes the pilot solenoid valves.

When the lift control lever is moved to the LOWER position, the Implement ECM operation is
the same as when the engine is running. The lift control spool directs oil in the head end of the
lift cylinders to the tank. Tank oil flows through the rod end makeup valves into the rod end of
the lift cylinders and prevents cylinder cavitation.
SERV1859 - 201 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

If the machine loses electrical power, the pilot on/off solenoid will be de-energized and oil from
the head end of the lift cylinders will not flow to the pilot solenoid valves. The manual lower
valve must be used to lower the implements. When the manual lower valve is opened, oil from
the head end of the lift cylinders is directed to the tank and the implements will lower.
SERV1859 - 202 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

2
4

166

Ride Control System


The optional ride control system dampens the ride during machine travel. When the top of the
ride control switch (1) in the cab is pressed, a signal is sent to the Transmission/Chassis ECM,
which enables the ride control AUTO mode. The ride control system will automatically turn
ON if ground speed exceeds 9.7 km/h (6 mph) while traveling forward. The ride control
system will automatically turn OFF if ground speed is less than 9.7 km/h (6 mph).

If the bottom of the ride control switch is pressed, the ride control system is in SERVICE mode
and ride control is active at all times. The SERVICE mode is used only for machine servicing.
The ride control valve (2) is located near the articulation hitch.

The ride control solenoid (3) controls the oil flow between the head end of the lift cylinders and
the ride control accumulators (4) and the oil flow between the rod end of the lift cylinders and
the tank.

The ride control accumulators are located at the rear of the front frame The ride control
accumulators act as shock absorbers to dampen the ride during machine travel.
SERV1859 - 203 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

A B C D E F G H I
Tilt Regeneration Valve
Tilt
Fan Pump Cylinder Right
Pressure Lift
Tilt Cylinder Lift
Lift Tilt Head End Cylinder
Left Lift
Head End Rod End Relief Valve Pressure
Lift Rod End Cylinder
Relief Relief Sensor
Relief Valve Valve Valve Tilt Rod End
Relief Valve

Pressure
Reducing
Valve

Actuator Tilt Dual


Lower Solenoids Rackback Rackback Lower Relief Valve
Ride Control
Accumulators

Actuator
Solenoids
Pilot Ride
ON / OFF Control
Valve Solenoid
Lift Actuator Tilt Tilt Actuator Lift
Valve Solenoids Valve Valve Solenoids Valve
Ride Control Balance
Valve Group Valve

Manual Lower
Valve
DUMP DUMP
RAISE RAISE

Float
Valves
Pilot
Relief Valve 992K IMPLEMENT
Pilot HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
Accumulator
Implement Pump
RIDE CONTROL ACTIVATED
Pilot
Pressure Pressure Sensors
Sensor
Left Right
Implement Implement
Pump Pump
Pilot Hydraulic
Filter Oil Temp
Sensor

Hydraulic
Oil Level
Switch

Pilot
Pump

167

This schematic shows the hydraulic flow when the ride control solenoid valve is energized.
The ride control solenoid valve is controlled by the Power Train ECM. The ride control switch
(not shown) allows the operator to select between the ride control ON, the ride control OFF,
and the ride control AUTO positions. When the ride control switch is in the ON position, the
Power Train ECM continually energizes the ride control solenoid valve.

When the ride control switch is in the AUTO position, the Power Train ECM energizes the ride
control solenoid when the machine ground speed is above 9.7 km/hr (6 mph) and will
de-energize the ride control solenoid when the ground speed is below 9.7 km/hr (6 mph).

When the Power Train ECM energizes the ride control solenoid valve, pilot pressure at the
diverter valve flows to the tank. The spring shifts the diverter valve to connect the head end of
the lift cylinders with the accumulators and the rod end of the lift cylinders to tank. A floating
piston in the accumulators separates the oil from the nitrogen gas. Since nitrogen gas is
compressible, the gas functions as a spring.
SERV1859 - 204 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

Any downward force on the lift arms is transferred through the oil at the head end of the lift
cylinders to the accumulators. The pressure of the oil is transmitted to the accumulator piston,
which compresses the nitrogen gas. Compressing the nitrogen gas absorbs the pressure spike
and the oil displacement caused by the downward force on the lift arms. This operation results
in less ground induced shocks on structures and components, reduced tire flexing and a greater
payload retention.

When the lift arms are raised, the balance valve moves in the direction needed to equalize the
pressures on each end of the balance spool. During the balancing operation, when the pressure
on the right end of the balance spool is lowest, the spool shifts right and the implement pump
supplies oil flow to equalize the pressure on both ends of the spool. During the balancing
operation, when the pressure at the left end of the balance spool is lowest, the spool shifts left
and the oil pressure in the accumulator flows to tank until the pressures on both ends of the
spool are equal.

At a ground speed below the ECM configured value of 9.7 km/h (6 mph), the ride control
solenoid valve is de-energized. The de-energized solenoid blocks the oil flow to the tank from
the rod end of the lift cylinders and the lift cylinder head end oil from flowing to the
accumulator.

NOTE: The forward activation speed and reverse activation speed for the ride control
system can be configured for the desired operating conditions.
SERV1859 - 205 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

IMPLEMENT CONTROL STRATEGY


Programmable Lift and Tilt Kickouts
Rack Inversion
Dump Inversion
Full Dump Lift Angle Control (FDLAC)
Full Rack Angle Control (FRAC)
Rackback Force Limiting
Lower Feather Catch
Float
Lift Snubbing

168

The 992K Wheel Loader implement control strategy consists of the following features:

Programmable Lift and Tilt Kickouts: Allows the operator to program the lift kickout, the
lower kickout, and the tilt kickout from the cab.

Rack Inversion: The solenoid command is limited when the linkage is close to contacting the
tilt back or dump stops, or bottoming out the cylinder.

Dump Inversion: The solenoid command is reduced when the tilt cylinder is close to full
retraction and a full dump command is sent to the ECM. The reduced command prevents
excessive machine movement when the bucket is dumped. The command will increase to the
full dump command as the linkage travels downward.

Full Dump Lift Angle Control (FDLAC): The lift solenoid command is limited when the
bucket is close to contacting the dump stops or bottoming out the cylinder.

Full Rack Angle Control (FRAC): During lifting, the Implement ECM automatically adjusts
the bucket angle in the dump direction when the boom is slightly above horizontal to prevent
spillage and maintain a level bucket.
SERV1859 - 206 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

Rackback Force Limiting: The tilt dual relief valve is energized to reduced the amount of
force generated when the bucket is close to contacting the rackback stops.

Lower Feather Catch: Brings the linkage to a smooth stop when a lower command is
abruptly stopped.

Float: Occurs when the boom is below the lower kickout and the lever is moved into lower
detent. (used for dozing and cleanup).

Lift Snubbing: The solenoid command is limited when the linkage is close to bottoming out
the lift cylinders.

NOTE: When the boom is at the maximum lift position and the lift lever is moved to
hold and back to raise, lift snubbing is cancelled resulting in main relief pressure in the
head end of the lift cylinders. This procedure can be used for checking main relief
pressure and implement stall conditions. The implement hydraulic service mode
eliminates snubbing.
SERV1859 - 207 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

IMPLEMENT SYSTEM CALIBRATIONS


Lever Position Sensors
Linkage Position Sensors
Implement Pump Solenoids
Implement Valve Solenoids

169

Implement System Calibrations


Implement system calibrations consists of lift and tilt lever sensor calibrations, lift and tilt
linkage sensor calibrations, implement pump solenoid calibrations, and implement valve
solenoid calibrations.

Calibrations should be performed in the order listed in this illustration.

The sensor calibrations determine the minimum and maximum sensor duty cycles associated
with the respective minimum and maximum linkage and lever angles.

A sensor calibration must be performed for any of the following reasons:

- Sensor replaced
- ECM replaced
- Required by a diagnostic code
SERV1859 - 208 - Text Reference
07/08 992K Implement Sys

The implement pump solenoid calibration determine the current required to move the pump
swashplate. The pressure sensors are used by the Implement ECM to determine the minimum
and maximum swashplate angles. By using the pressure sensor, the ECM eliminates the
deadband in the pump resulting in maximum pump performance.

The implement valve solenoid calibration determines the current required to initiate movement
of the pilot valve spool to allow oil flow and to initiate movement of the main control spool.
The main spool shifts until pressure increases enough to initiate the movement of the
implement in a desired direction.

When the operator moves the implement lever during normal operation, the Implement ECM
begins energizing the corresponding solenoid with the calibrated current level. Using the
calibrated current level to initiate movement results in consistent implement movement and
helps to eliminate the deadband (free travel) in the implement control levers.
SERV1859 - 209 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

854K IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


HOLD
Lift and Tilt Pilot Valves
Pilot On / Off Solenoid

Remote
Test Taps

Dual Tilt Valve


Dozer Control Valve

Tilt Cylinders

Manual Valve

Pilot
Relief Valve Tilt Lift Cylinders
Case Drain Lift Pump
Pilot Oil Filter Pump
Filter

Pilot
Pump

170

854K IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

This illustration shows the 854K pilot operated implement hydraulic system. The pilot system
controls the functions of the dozer control valve and the dual tilt valve.

The implement hydraulic system is a continuous flow design that permits minimum pressure in
the system when the implement control valves are not activated.

The pilot pump supplies oil through the pilot filter to the dual tilt valve and the pilot on/off
solenoid. When the pilot solenoid is energized by the pilot lockout switch in the cab, pilot oil
flows to the lift and tilt pilot control valves.

The lift pump supplies oil to the lift spool in the dozer valve. The tilt pump supplies oil to the
tilt spool in the dozer valve.

The dozer lift spool has four positions: RAISE, HOLD, LOWER, and FLOAT. Only the
FLOAT position has a detent. The blade tilt spool has three positions: TILT RIGHT, HOLD,
and TILT LEFT. None of the blade tilt positions have a detent.
SERV1859 - 210 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

The dual tilt valve provides the dozer tilt circuit with three different modes of operation:
DUAL TILT, SINGLE TILT, and BLADE PITCH. The dual tilt valve is activated by pilot oil
and contains a spring centered, hydraulically actuated spool valve and an electrically actuated
solenoid valve.

The manual lower valve directs oil from the head end of the lift cylinders to the tank, which
allows the lift cylinders to retract and the blade to raise. The manual valve will also direct oil
from the rod end of the lift cylinders to the tank, which allows the lift cylinders to extend and
the blade to lower.
SERV1859 - 211 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

171

Pilot System

The implement pilot pump (arrow) is mounted to the pump drive. Pilot pump supply oil flows
through the implement pilot filter to the pilot relief valve, the pilot on/off valve, the dual tilt
valve, and the pilot control valves.
SERV1859 - 212 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

1
172
3

173

The pilot oil filter (1) and the pilot relief valve (2) are located on the left frame rail near the
transmission. Pilot pump oil flows through the implement pilot oil filter to the pilot relief
valve, the pilot on/off valve, the dual tilt valve, and the pilot control valves.

The pilot relief valve limits the pilot oil pressure to 2400 ± 150 kPa (350 ± 22 psi).

The pilot oil filter bypass switch (3) alerts the VIMS when oil is bypassing the filter.
SERV1859 - 213 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

174

2
1

1
175

2 3

The dual tilt control valve (1) is located near the dozer control valve (2) in the front frame.

Oil from the pilot pump flows to the dual tilt control valve solenoid (3). The solenoid valve
directs pilot oil to the ends of the dual tilt valve spool. The dual tilt valve spool directs oil from
the tilt spool to the tilt cylinders.
SERV1859 - 214 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

176

The pilot on/off solenoid valve (arrow) is located on the cab floor to the right of the seat. The
pilot on/off solenoid is activated by the hydraulic lockout switch in the cab.

When the pilot on/off solenoid is DE-ENERGIZED, pilot oil is blocked at the pilot on/off
solenoid valve.

When the pilot on/off solenoid is ENERGIZED, pilot oil flows to the lift and tilt pilot valves in
the cab.
SERV1859 - 215 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

177
1

2 1

178

4 3

The pilot control valves (not visible) are located at the base of the joystick (1) that controls the
dozer lift and dozer tilt functions. Moving the joystick back and forth controls the lift functions
and moving the joystick from side to side controls the tilt functions.

The lift pilot valve has four positions: RAISE, HOLD, LOWER, and FLOAT. Only the
FLOAT position has a detent. The tilt pilot valve has three positions: TILT RIGHT, HOLD,
and TILT LEFT. None of the tilt valve positions have a detent.

The lift pilot valve directs pilot oil to the ends of the lift spool and the tilt pilot valve directs
pilot oil to the ends of the tilt spool. The pilot oil controls the lift and tilt spool position in the
dozer control valve.
SERV1859 - 216 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

The tilt selection switch (2) enables the dual tilt operation of the blade. Pressing the bottom of
the tilt switch switch will disable the dual tilt operation. Single tilt is the default mode of
operation for the blade. Blade movement is slower in single tilt mode and there is less
movement and less downward force. Blade movement is faster in dual tilt operation and there
is more movement and more downward force.

A trigger switch (3) on the front of the control lever allows the blade tip to tilt forward and
backward. To tilt the blade tip, press the trigger switch when the joystick is moved to the left
or to the right.

The hydraulic lockout switch (4) activates the pilot on/off solenoid. Pressing the front of the
hydraulic lockout switch energizes the solenoid, which allows pilot oil to flow to the lift and tilt
pilot valves. Pressing the back of the hydraulic lockout switch de-energizes the solenoid,
which blocks pilot oil from flowing to the lift and tilt pilot valves.
SERV1859 - 217 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

1 2
3

3
6

179

Main Hydraulic System

The main hydraulic system contains two gear pumps. The large pump (1) provides oil flow to
the lift spool and the small pump (2) provides oil flow to the tilt spool.

When an implement is activated, oil from the dozer control valve (3) is directed to the lift
cylinders (4) and/or tilt cylinders (5). The top right illustration shows the dozer control valve
from the right side of the machine. The bottom left illustration shows the dozer control valve
from the left side of the machine.

Also located near the dozer control valve is the dual tilt valve (6).
SERV1859 - 218 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

8 5 6

1 180
3 2

181

The implement hydraulic tank (1) is located on the right side of the machine. The tank has a
fill cap (2) for filling and adding oil and a breaker/relief valve (3) that protects the tank from
excessive pressure and/or vacuum.

The tank also has three screens for return oil, an ecology-type drain valve, and a sight glass (4)
for checking the oil level.
SERV1859 - 219 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

Also near the hydraulic tank are the following components:

- key start switch circuit breaker (5)


- alternator circuit breaker (6)
- main circuit breaker (7)
- fuses (8)
SERV1859 - 220 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

182

The manual lower valve (arrow) is located at the articulation joint on the right side of the front
frame. The manual lower valve directs oil from the head end of the lift cylinders to the tank,
which allows the lift cylinders to retract and the blade to raise. The manual valve can also
direct oil from the rod end of the lift cylinders to the tank, which allows the lift cylinders to
extend and the blade to lower.
SERV1859 - 221 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

3
3

2
1

183

Shown is the implement pumps case drain filter (1) and the fan pump/fan motor case drain
filter (2) located on the frame rail above the implement pumps. The case drain filters remove
contaminants from the case drain oil before the oil enters the implement hydraulic tank.

The case drain oil filters each contain a bypass switch (3) that sends a signal to the VIMS ECM
if the filter is plugged.
SERV1859 - 222 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

1 2

6
3

4 5

184

Dozer Control Valve

This illustration shows the following hydraulic line locations on the dozer control valve:

- to/from lift cylinder head end (1)

- to/from lift cylinder rod end (2)

- lift pump supply (3)

- to/from dual tilt valve (4)

- tilt pump supply (5)

- to/from tilt cylinder (6)


SERV1859 - 223 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

4
2

185

This illustration shows the valve spool locations on the dozer control valve:

- lift spool (1)

- lift dump valve (2)

- tilt spool (3)

- tilt dump valve (4)


SERV1859 - 224 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

Shuttle Lift Cylinder Lift Lift Cylinder From


From Lift Valve Spool Rod End Lift Pump
Pilot Valve Head End From Lift
Pilot Valve

Lift Load
Check Valve
Lift
Relief Valve
From Tilt
Pilot Valve
Tilt Cylinder From Tilt Tilt Cylinder A A
Head End Tilt Pump Spool Rod End

Tilt Cylinder From Tilt Tilt Cylinder From Tilt Tilt Relief
Head End Tilt Pump Spool Rod End Pilot Valve Valve
From Lift Dump
Tilt Pilot Valve
Tilt Load Valve
Check Valve

DOZER CONTROL VALVE


HOLD
Tilt Tilt Relief
Dump Valve Valve

SECTION A-A

186

This illustration shows a sectional view of the dozer control valve.

The lift and tilt spools are operated by pilot pressure oil that acts on the ends of the spools. In
the HOLD position, the centering springs keep the lift spool and the tilt spool in the centered
position. Oil from the lift pump flows to the lift load check valve and the lift dump valve. Oil
from the tilt pump flows to the tilt load check valve and through the tilt spool to combine with
lift pump oil flow when the tilt spool is in the HOLD position.

The lift and tilt spools block oil flow to the lift and tilt cylinders. The oil is trapped between
the spools and the load check valves, which causes the cylinders to remain in the HOLD
position.

The dump valve spring force plus the tank oil pressure on the bottom of the dump valve provide
a flow restriction. When the oil pressure at the top of the dump valve increases above the
spring force plus the tank oil pressure, the dump valve will open and permit the combined flow
from the lift and tilt pumps to return directly to the tank. With both spools in the HOLD
position, the dump valve provides a constant low system pressure which is available for instant
implement response or for "feathering" action of the controls when activated by the operator.
SERV1859 - 225 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

When the lift circuit pressure increases to 22675 ± 690 kPa (3290 ± 100 psi), the lift relief
valve will open and drain the lift dump valve spring chamber. The lift dump valve opens and
directs oil to the tank, which limits the pressure in the lift circuit.

When the tilt circuit pressure increases to 24560 ± 690 kPa (3560 ± 100 psi), the tilt relief
valve will open and drain the tilt dump valve spring chamber. The tilt dump valve opens and
directs oil to the tank, which limits the pressure in the tilt circuit.

The shuttle valve directs oil from the highest pressure circuit (rod end or head end of the lift
cylinders) to the spring chamber of the lift dump valve.
SERV1859 - 226 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

Shuttle Lift Cylinder Lift Lift Cylinder From


From Lift Valve Spool Rod End Lift Pump
Pilot Valve Head End From Lift
Pilot Valve

Lift Load
Check Valve
Lift
Relief Valve
From Tilt
Pilot Valve
Tilt Cylinder From Tilt Tilt Cylinder A A
Head End Tilt Pump Spool Rod End

Tilt Cylinder From Tilt Tilt Cylinder From Tilt Tilt Relief
Head End Tilt Pump Spool Rod End Pilot Valve Valve
From Lift Dump
Tilt Pilot Valve
Tilt Load Valve
Check Valve

DOZER CONTROL VALVE


RAISE
Tilt Tilt Relief
Dump Valve Valve

SECTION A-A

187

This illustration shows the dozer control valve in the RAISE position. When the joystick is
moved to the RAISE position, the lift pilot valve directs pilot oil to the right end of the lift
spool. Pilot oil pressure moves the lift spool to the left. The lift pump oil opens the lift load
check valve and the lift spool directs oil to the rod end of the lift cylinders. The lift spool also
directs oil from the head end of the lift cylinders to the tank.

The lift spool also directs oil to the shuttle valve. The shuttle valve operates similarly to a
check valve. With the lift spool in the RAISE position, the shuttle valve allows oil to flow to
the spring chamber of the lift dump valve. At this point, the dump valve is converted to a pilot
operated relief valve. During blade raise and lower, system pressure can increase because the
pressure in the spring chamber plus the force of the spring will keep the dump valve closed
until the relief valve opens.

When the lift circuit pressure increases to 22675 ± 690 kPa (3290 ± 100 psi), the relief valve
will move to the right and open the spring chamber of the dump valve to drain. Lift circuit
pressure can then move the dump valve to the right and open a passage to the tank. This
operation prevents lift circuit pressure from increasing above
22675 ± 690 kPa (3290 ± 100 psi).
SERV1859 - 227 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

An additional condition can exist during dozer operation which is referred to as "feathering the
blade." If the operator moves the control lever a small distance to gradually raise the blade, oil
flow to the cylinders flows through the throttling slots in the lift spool. Flow through the
throttling slots can create the same effect as an orifice by restricting the flow of oil to the lift
cylinder and to the spring chamber of the dump valve. This restriction to flow causes a
pressure difference between the oil in the center chamber of the valve body (lift circuit
pressure) and the oil in the spring chamber of the dump valve (cylinder pressure). If the
pressure difference is greater than the spring force, the dump valve will open and permit some
of the pump flow to return to the tank.

With the lift spool in the RAISE position, the load check valve is used to prevent reverse oil
flow from the cylinders which can cause "cylinder drift."
SERV1859 - 228 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

Shuttle Lift Cylinder Lift Lift Cylinder From


From Lift Pilot Valve Spool Rod End Lift Pump
Valve Head End From Lift
Pilot Valve

Lift Load
Check Valve
Lift
Relief Valve
From Tilt
Pilot Valve
Tilt Cylinder From Tilt Tilt Cylinder A A
Head End Tilt Pump Spool Rod End

Tilt Cylinder From Tilt Tilt Cylinder From Tilt Tilt Relief
Head End Tilt Pump Spool Rod End Pilot Valve Valve
From Lift Dump
Tilt Pilot Valve
Tilt Load Valve
Check Valve

DOZER CONTROL VALVE


TILT RIGHT
Tilt Tilt Relief
Dump Valve Valve

SECTION A-A

188

This illustration shows the dozer control valve in the TILT RIGHT position. When the joystick
is moved to the TILT RIGHT position, the tilt pilot valve directs pilot oil to the left end of the
tilt spool. Pilot oil pressure moves the lift spool to the right. The tilt pump oil opens the tilt
load check valve and oil is allowed to flow to the tilt spool and the tilt dump valve. The tilt
spool directs oil to the head end of the left tilt cylinder. The tilt spool also directs oil from the
head end of the right tilt cylinder to tank.

With the tilt spool in the TILT RIGHT position, oil flow from the tilt pump does not combine
with oil flow from the large pump. Because the tilt pump oil flow does not combine with the
lift pump oil flow, the lift dump valve does not control the tilt circuit pressure. The tilt relief
valve is used to limit the tilt circuit pressure. When the tilt cylinder pressure increases to
24560 ± 690 kPa (3560 ± 100 psi), the tilt relief valve opens and drains the spring chamber of
the tilt dump valve. The tilt dump valve opens, which limits the tilt circuit pressure.
SERV1859 - 229 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

Lift Pilot Valve Tilt Pilot Valve


854K IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
HOLD
Pilot On / Off
Solenoid

Remote Test Taps

Tilt
Spool Relief Dual Tilt Valve
Valve Bypass Valve
Dozer Solenoid
Control
Valve
Lift Tilt Dump S2 S1
Dump Valve
Valve

Spool
Lift Spool
Tilt Cylinders

Relief Bypass Valve


Valve
Shuttle Valve

Manual Valve
Tilt Circuit
Pilot Pressure Sensor
Relief Valve Tilt Lift Cylinders
Lift Pump
Pilot Pump
Filter Case Drain
Oil Filter
Hydraulic Oil
Level Switch

Pilot
Pump
Hydraulic Oil
Temperature Sensor

189

Lift Circuit Operation


This schematic shows the oil flow in the implement pilot system and the implement hydraulic
system when the engine is running and the control valves are in the HOLD position.

In the pilot system, the pilot pump pulls oil from the tank and sends oil flow through the pilot
oil filter to the pilot relief valve, the pilot on/off valve, and the dual tilt valve as previously
described.

The pilot relief valve limits the pilot system pressure to 2400 ± 150 kPa (350 ± 22 psi).

The pilot on/off valve solenoid is controlled by the hydraulic lockout switch in the cab. When
the lockout switch is in the OFF position, the pilot on/off solenoid valve is de-energized and
pilot oil is blocked at the pilot on/off solenoid valve. When the implement lockout switch is in
the ON position, the pilot on/off solenoid valve is energized and pilot oil flows past the pilot
on/off solenoid valve to the lift and tilt pilot valve spools.
SERV1859 - 230 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

In the HOLD position, the pilot valve spools block pilot oil from flowing to the lift and tilt
valve spools and the centering springs keep the lift spool and the tilt spool in the centered
position. Pilot oil is also blocked at the dual tilt solenoid valve.

The lift and tilt pumps pull oil from the tank through the case drain filter and send oil flow to
the dozer control valve. The lift spool is a closed-center spool and the tilt spool is an
open-center spool. In the dozer control valve, oil from the lift pump flows to the load check
valve and the lift dump valve. Oil from the tilt pump flows to the load check valve and
through the tilt spool to combine with lift pump oil flow.

With both spools in the HOLD position, pump oil is blocked from flowing to the lift and tilt
cylinders and the load check valves will not open.

The dump valve spring force plus the tank oil pressure on the bottom of the dump valve
provide a flow restriction. When the oil pressure at the top of the dump valve increases above
the spring force plus the tank oil pressure, the dump valve will open and permit the combined
flow from the lift and tilt pumps to return directly to the tank. With both spools in the HOLD
position, the dump valve provides a constant low system pressure which is available for instant
implement response or for "feathering" action of the controls when activated by the operator.

Both the tilt and lift circuits have a load check valve and a relief valve. The lift circuit has
makeup valves for both the rod end and head end of the lift cylinders.

Each lift and tilt cylinder contains a bypass valve. The bypass valves allow the completion of
the lift and tilt operation. When one of the cylinders reaches the end of its travel, the oil flows
through the bypass valve to continue filling the other cylinder.
SERV1859 - 231 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

Lift Pilot Valve Tilt Pilot Valve


854K IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
RAISE

Pilot On / Off Solenoid

Remote Test Taps

Tilt Spool Relief Dual Tilt Valve


Valve Dozer Bypass Valve
Control Solenoid
Valve

Lift Tilt Dump S2 S1


Dump Valve
Valve

Spool
Lift Spool
Tilt Cylinders

Relief Bypass Valve


Valve
Shuttle Valve

Manual Valve
Tilt Circuit
Pilot Pressure Sensor
Relief Valve Tilt Lift Cylinders
Lift Pump
Pilot Pump
Filter Case Drain
Oil Filter
Hydraulic Oil
Level Switch

Pilot
Pump
Hydraulic Oil
Temperature Sensor

190

When the joystick is moved to the RAISE position, the lift pilot valve directs pilot oil to the left
end of the lift spool. The pilot oil pressure moves the lift spool left to the RAISE position. The
lift spool directs pump oil to the rod end of the lift cylinders to retract the lift cylinders and
raise the blade.

The lift spool also opens a passage for oil in the head end of the lift cylinders to return to the
tank.

The lift spool also directs oil to the left end of the shuttle valve and the shuttle valve directs oil
to the spring chamber of the lift dump valve. The dump valve now operates as a pilot operated
relief valve. During blade raise and lower functions, lift circuit pressure can increase because
the pressure in the spring chamber plus the force of the spring will keep the dump valve closed
until the relief setting of the pilot valve is reached. When the lift circuit pressure increases to
22675 ± 690 kPa (3290 ± 100 psi), the relief valve will open and oil in the dump valve spring
chamber flows to the tank. Lift circuit oil pressure moves the dump valve down and oil flows
to the tank.
SERV1859 - 232 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

Lift Pilot Valve Tilt Pilot Valve


854K IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
LOWER

Pilot On / Off Solenoid

Remote Test Taps

Tilt Spool Relief Dual Tilt Valve


Valve Bypass Valve
Dozer Solenoid
Control
Valve
Lift Tilt Dump S2 S1
Dump Valve
Valve

Spool
Lift Spool
Tilt Cylinders

Relief Bypass Valve


Valve
Shuttle Valve

Manual Valve
Tilt Circuit
Pilot Pressure Sensor
Relief Valve Tilt Lift Cylinders
Lift Pump
Pilot Pump
Filter Case Drain
Oil Filter
Hydraulic Oil
Level Switch

Pilot
Pump
Hydraulic Oil
Temperature Sensor

191

When the joystick is moved to the LOWER position, the lift pilot valve directs pilot oil to the
right end of the lift spool. The pilot oil pressure moves the lift spool left to the LOWER
position. The lift spool directs pump oil to the head end of the lift cylinders to extend the lift
cylinders and lower the blade.

The lift spool also opens a passage for oil in the rod end of the lift cylinders to return to the
tank.

The lift spool also directs oil to the left end of the shuttle valve and the shuttle valve directs oil
to the spring chamber of the lift dump valve. The dump valve now operates as a pilot operated
relief valve as previously discussed.
SERV1859 - 233 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

Lift Pilot Valve Tilt Pilot Valve


854K IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
FLOAT

Pilot On / Off Solenoid

Remote Test Taps

Tilt Spool Relief Dual Tilt Valve


Valve Bypass Valve
Dozer Solenoid
Control
Valve
Lift Tilt Dump S2 S1
Dump Valve
Valve

Spool
Lift Spool
Tilt Cylinders

Relief Bypass Valve


Valve
Shuttle Valve

Manual Valve
Tilt Circuit
Pilot Pressure Sensor
Relief Valve Tilt Lift Cylinders
Lift Pump
Pilot Pump
Filter Case Drain
Oil Filter
Hydraulic Oil
Level Switch

Pilot
Pump
Hydraulic Oil
Temperature Sensor

192

When the joystick is moved to the FLOAT (detent) position, the lift pilot valve directs pilot oil
to the right end of the lift spool. The pilot oil pressure moves the lift spool left to the FLOAT
position.

In the FLOAT position, oil from the head end and rod end of the lift cylinders is open to the
tank. The weight of the blade lowers the blade.

When an outside force moves the blade up, the oil pressure in the rod end of the lift cylinders
decreases as the rods retract. Oil pressure in the rod end circuit is less than the oil pressure in
the head end circuit. The higher pressure in the head end circuit opens a makeup valve to fill
the rod end circuit to prevent cavitation.
SERV1859 - 234 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

Lift Pilot Valve Tilt Pilot Valve


854K IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
LOWER ENGINE OFF

Pilot On / Off Solenoid

Remote Test Taps

Tilt Spool Relief Dual Tilt Valve


Valve Bypass Valve
Dozer Solenoid
Control
Valve
Lift Tilt Dump S2 S1
Dump Valve
Valve

Spool
Lift Spool
Tilt Cylinders

Relief Bypass Valve


Valve
Shuttle Valve

Manual
Tilt Circuit
Pilot Lower Valve
Pressure Sensor
Relief Valve Tilt Lift Cylinders
Lift Pump
Pilot Pump
Filter Case Drain
Oil Filter
Hydraulic Oil
Level Switch

Pilot
Pump
Hydraulic Oil
Temperature Sensor

193

When the engine won't run or the pilot or lift pump fails, the manual lower valve must be used
to lower the blade. When the blade is being lowered with the ENGINE OFF, the weight of the
blade creates a high pressure in the rod end of the lift cylinders. The high lift cylinder pressure
oil flows through the shuttle valve to the manual lower valve. When the manual lower valve is
opened, oil from the rod end of the lift cylinders is directed to the tank and the blade will lower.
SERV1859 - 235 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

DUAL TILT VALVE

Pilot Pump Solenoid

S1
S2

Tilt
Spool

Spool Tilt Cylinders

194

Tilt Circuit Operation


In the tilt circuit, the dual tilt valve is used to provide three different modes of operation:
DUAL TILT, SINGLE TILT, and BLADE PITCH. The dual tilt valve is activated by pilot oil
pressure. The dual tilt valve contains a spring centered, hydraulically actuated spool valve and
an electrically actuated solenoid valve.

The solenoid valve contains two coils (S1 and S2) and has three different positions. When both
solenoids are de-energized, the tilt circuit operates in the DUAL TILT mode (shown in this
illustration). When the bottom of the tilt selection switch on the right console is pressed, the
S2 coil in the solenoid is energized and the tilt circuit operates in the SINGLE TILT mode.
When the trigger switch on the joystick is depressed, the system energizes the S1 coil in the
solenoid and the tilt circuit operates in the BLADE PITCH mode.
SERV1859 - 236 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

Lift Pilot Valve Tilt Pilot Valve


854K IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
DUAL TILT RIGHT

Pilot On / Off Solenoid

Remote Test Taps

Tilt Spool Relief Dual Tilt Valve


Valve Bypass Valve
Dozer Solenoid
Control
Valve
Lift Tilt Dump S2 S1
Dump Valve
Valve

Spool
Lift Spool
Tilt Cylinders

Relief Bypass Valve


Valve
Shuttle Valve

Manual Valve
Tilt Circuit
Pilot Pressure Sensor
Relief Valve Tilt Lift Cylinders
Lift Pump
Pilot Pump
Filter Case Drain
Oil Filter
Hydraulic Oil
Level Switch

Pilot
Pump
Hydraulic Oil
Temperature Sensor

195

When the joystick is moved right to the TILT RIGHT position and the tilt selection switch is in
the DUAL TILT mode, the tilt pilot valve directs pilot oil to the right end of the tilt spool. The
pilot oil pressure moves the tilt spool left to the TILT RIGHT position. The tilt spool directs tilt
pump oil to the head end of the left tilt cylinder. The left tilt cylinder extends.

In the DUAL TILT mode, the S1 and S2 solenoids are de-energized and pilot oil is blocked at
the dual tilt solenoid valve. The dual tilt spool is centered. When the left tilt cylinder extends,
oil from the rod end of the left tilt cylinder flows through the dual tilt spool to the rod end of
the right tilt cylinder. The right tilt cylinder retracts and the oil in the head of the right tilt
cylinder returns to tank through the tilt spool.

With the tilt spool in the TILT RIGHT position, lift pump oil flow is blocked at the tilt spool.
Oil flow from the tilt pump does not combine with oil flow from the lift pump, therefore the lift
dump valve does not control the tilt circuit pressure. The tilt relief valve is used to limit the
pressure in the tilt circuit. When the tilt cylinder pressure increases to 24560 ± 690 kPa
(3560 ± 100 psi), the tilt relief valve will open and drain the tilt dump valve spring chamber.
The tilt dump valve opens and directs oil to the tank, which limits the pressure in the tilt circuit.
SERV1859 - 237 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

With the lift spool in the HOLD position, lift pump oil is blocked from flowing to the lift
cylinders and the load check valve will not open. The oil pressure at the top of the lift dump
valve increases above the spring force plus the tank oil pressure and the lift dump valve opens.
The lift pump oil is directed to the tank.
SERV1859 - 238 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

Lift Pilot Valve Tilt Pilot Valve


854K IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
SINGLE TILT RIGHT

Pilot On / Off Solenoid

Remote Test Taps

Tilt Spool Relief Dual Tilt Valve


Valve Bypass Valve
Dozer Solenoid
Control
Valve
Lift Tilt Dump S2 S1
Dump Valve
Valve

Spool
Lift Spool
Tilt Cylinders

Relief Bypass Valve


Valve
Shuttle Valve

Manual Valve
Tilt Circuit
Pilot Pressure Sensor
Relief Valve Tilt Lift Cylinders
Lift Pump
Pilot Pump
Filter Case Drain
Oil Filter
Hydraulic Oil
Level Switch

Pilot
Pump
Hydraulic Oil
Temperature Sensor

196

When the joystick is moved right to the TILT RIGHT position and the tilt selection switch is in
the SINGLE TILT mode, the tilt pilot valve directs pilot oil to the right end of the tilt spool.
The pilot oil pressure moves the tilt spool left to the TILT RIGHT position. The tilt spool
directs tilt pump oil to the head end of the left tilt cylinder. The left tilt cylinder extends.

In the SINGLE TILT mode, the S2 solenoid is energized and the S1 solenoid is de-energized.
The dual tilt solenoid valve moves to the left and pilot oil is directed to the right end of the dual
tilt spool. Pilot oil pressure moves the dual tilt spool to the left. When the left tilt cylinder
extends, oil from the rod end of the left tilt cylinder returns to the tank through the tilt spool.

The dual tilt spool also blocks oil to and from the right tilt cylinder, which keeps it stationary.
In the SINGLE TILT mode, the right tilt cylinder functions as brace.
SERV1859 - 239 - Text Reference
07/08 854K Implement Sys

Lift Pilot Valve Tilt Pilot Valve


854K IMPLEMENT HYDRAULIC SYSTEM
BLADE PITCH FORWARD

Pilot On / Off Solenoid

Remote Test Taps

Tilt Spool Relief Dual Tilt Valve


Valve Bypass Valve
Dozer Solenoid
Control
Valve
Lift Tilt Dump S2 S1
Dump Valve
Valve

Spool
Lift Spool
Tilt Cylinders

Relief Bypass Valve


Valve
Shuttle Valve

Manual Valve
Tilt Circuit
Pilot Pressure Sensor
Relief Valve Tilt Lift Cylinders
Lift Pump
Pilot Pump
Filter Case Drain
Oil Filter
Hydraulic Oil
Level Switch

Pilot
Pump
Hydraulic Oil
Temperature Sensor

197

When the joystick is moved right to the TILT RIGHT position and the tilt selection switch is in
the BLADE PITCH mode, the tilt circuit will operate in the BLADE PITCH FORWARD
position. The tilt pilot valve directs pilot oil to the right end of the tilt spool. The pilot oil
pressure moves the tilt spool left to the TILT RIGHT position. The tilt spool directs tilt pump
oil to the head end of the left tilt cylinder. The left tilt cylinder extends.

In the BLADE PITCH mode, the S1 solenoid is energized and the S2 solenoid is de-energized.
The dual tilt solenoid valve moves to the right and pilot oil is directed to the left end of the dual
tilt spool. Pilot oil pressure moves the dual tilt spool to the right. When the left tilt cylinder
extends, oil from the rod end of the left tilt cylinder flows to the head end of the right tilt
cylinder and the right tilt cylinder extends. When both tilt cylinders extend, the blade will pitch
forward. Oil from the rod end of the right tilt cylinder flows to the tank through the tilt spool.

NOTE: The BLADE PITCH mode has priority over the SINGLE TILT mode. If the
trigger switch is depressed while the machine is operating in the SINGLE TILT mode,
the S2 coil for the single tilt is de-energized and the S1 coil for the blade pitch is
energized. This feature ensures that the BLADE PITCH can always be changed,
regardless of the toggle switch position.
SERV1859 - 240 - Text Reference
07/08 Fan System

992K FAN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


Fan Fan
Fan Hydraulic Solenoid VIMS
Motor Pump Valve ECM

Hydraulic Engine Hydraulic


Oil Cooler ECM Tank

Electronic System Hydraulic System

198

FAN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Shown are the major components of the fan hydraulic system. The fan drive system consists of
electrical components and hydraulic components.

The main electrical system components (yellow) are the Engine ECM, the fan solenoid valve,
and the VIMS ECM. The coolant temperature sensor, the right intake manifold temperature
sensor, and the hydraulic oil temperature sensor information are sent to the Engine ECM to
determine the fan speed. The Engine ECM will interpret the data and sent the appropriate
amount of current to the fan solenoid to increase/decrease the fan speed.

The main hydraulic components (red) are the hydraulic tank, fan hydraulic pump, fan motor,
and hydraulic oil cooler.
SERV1859 - 241 - Text Reference
07/08 Fan System

2
3

199

5
4

200

The fan hydraulic pump (1) is a variable displacement piston pump. The pump is mounted to
the right rear of the pump drive housing opposite the right implement pump (not visible).

Components on the fan drive pump are the fan pump pressure sensor (2), the case drain
pressure tap (3), the margin spool adjustment (4), and the compensator valve adjustment (5).
SERV1859 - 242 - Text Reference
07/08 Fan System

201

202

4 4

Oil from the fan pump flows to the fan solenoid (1), the fan pump control valve on the pump,
and to the fan motor (2).

The demand fan solenoid controls the signal oil to the pump control valve. Signal pressure can
be checked at the pressure tap (3) located at the signal line.

The fan pump supplies the oil flow to rotate the fan motor. The fan motor is located at the rear
of the machine in front of the engine radiator assembly.

Also shown are the high pressure screens (4).


SERV1859 - 243 - Text Reference
07/08 Fan System

203

204

Return oil from the fan motor flows through the hydraulic oil cooler (1) and to the fan oil filter
(2) then returning to the hydraulic tank.

The fan oil filter contains a bypass switch (3) that sends a signal to the VIMS ECM if the filter
is plugged.
SERV1859 - 244 - Text Reference
07/08 Fan System

FAN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


MAXIMUM FAN SPEED
Auto lube
Hydraulic System
Oil Screen
Cooler
Fan
Motor

Fan Oil
Filter
Auto lube System
Fan Case
Drain Filter Fan Fan Solenoid
Screen Pressure Valve
Sensor

Hydraulic Oil
Temp
Fan
Sensor
Pump

Hydraulic Oil
Level Switch
Compensator
Valve

Remote
Pressure Taps

205

Fan Drive System Schematics


When the engine is running, the fan drive pump draws oil from the hydraulic tank and sends oil
flow to the fan motor. The fan motor turns the cooling fan. Oil from the fan motor flows
through the hydraulic cooler back and fan oil filter to the implement hydraulic tank. The fan
drive pump also sends oil flow to the screen and to the demand fan solenoid valve.

The cooling fan sends air flow through the radiator, the hydraulic cooler, the steering and brake
oil cooler, the ATAAC, the axle oil cooler, the fuel cooler, and the air conditioning condenser.

The demand fan solenoid valve controls the signal oil to the pump compensator valve. When
the Engine ECM de-energizes the demand fan solenoid (as shown), the solenoid closes the
passage for signal oil flow to the tank. The signal oil flows through the two orifices to the
pump compensator valve and upstrokes the pump.

The fan will operate at a maximum speed of 800 ± 50 rpm with the following temperatures:
- Engine coolant temperature is above 92° C (198° F)
- Intake manifold air temperature is above 49° C (120° F)
- Hydraulic oil temperature is above 87° C (189° F)
SERV1859 - 245 - Text Reference
07/08 Fan System

FAN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


MINIMUM FAN SPEED
Auto lube
Hydraulic System
Oil Screen
Cooler
Fan
Motor

Fan Oil
Filter
Auto lube System
Fan Case
Drain Filter Fan Fan Solenoid
Screen Pressure Valve
Sensor

Hydraulic Oil
Temp
Fan
Sensor
Pump

Hydraulic Oil
Level Switch
Compensator
Valve

Remote
Pressure Taps

206

The Engine ECM analyzes the signals from the engine coolant temperature sensor, right intake
manifold temperature sensor, and the implement hydraulic tank temperature sensor.

When the Engine ECM energizes the fan solenoid valve, the solenoid valve opens the passage
for signal oil flow to the tank. The size of the opening is proportional to the current from the
Engine ECM.

Signal oil flows through the open passage to the tank. This condition decreases the signal
pressure at the compensator valve and destrokes the pump. Destroking the pump decreases
pump flow and decreases the fan speed. Destroking the pump also decreases the horsepower
needed to turn the pump.

The fan will operate at a minimum speed of 400 ± 50 rpm with the following temperatures:
- Engine coolant temperature is below 92° C (198° F)
- Intake manifold air temperature is below 49° C (120° F)
- Hydraulic oil temperature is below 87° C (189° F)

If a fan solenoid failure occurs, the fan goes to maximum (100%) speed.
SERV1859 - 246 - Text Reference
07/08 Fan System

FAN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


RAPID ENGINE DECELERATION
Auto lube
Hydraulic System
Oil Screen
Cooler
Fan
Motor

Fan Oil
Filter
Auto lube System
Fan Case
Drain Filter Fan Fan Solenoid
Screen Pressure Valve
Sensor

Hydraulic Oil
Temp
Fan
Sensor
Pump

Hydraulic Oil
Level Switch
Compensator
Valve

Remote
Pressure Taps

207

In this illustration, the fan motor is being driven by the cooling fan.

During normal operation, oil pressure at the fan motor inlet is higher than oil pressure at the fan
motor outlet. The higher inlet pressure seats the makeup valve.

When the engine is decelerated rapidly from HIGH IDLE, the inertia of the fan keeps the fan
drive motor turning faster than the fan drive pump can supply oil. The oil pressure at the fan
motor inlet becomes lower than the oil pressure at the fan motor outlet. The higher outlet
pressure opens the makeup valve and allows oil from the motor outlet to flow to the inlet. The
combination of oil flow through the makeup valve and the pump oil flow prevents cavitation of
the fan motor.

When pump output matches the fan speed, the motor inlet oil pressure increases above the
motor outlet oil pressure. The higher inlet pressure closes the makeup valve.
SERV1859 - 247 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

STEERING SYSTEM
COMPONENT IDENTIFICATION

Steering Steering Pilot Pilot Relief Quad Steering Pilot


Oil Cooler Pump Pump Valve Check Valve Control Valve

Neutralizer
Valves

Steering Secondary Steering and Steering


Control Valve Steering Pump Brake Tank Cylinders

Pilot System Main Steering System Common to Main and Pilot Systems

208

STEERING AND BRAKE SYSTEMS

Component Locations
Shown are the locations of the major components in the steering system.

The pilot system components (orange) shown include the axle oil cooling/pilot pump, the pilot
relief valve, quad check valve, the neutralizer valves, and the STIC control lever.

The main steering system components (red) shown consist of the steering pump, the steering
control valve and the steering cylinders.

The secondary steering pump (red) is part of the secondary steering system (if equipped).

The hydraulic tank (green) is located below the platform on the left side of the machine.
SERV1859 - 248 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

Steering
Cylinders

992K
Secondary
Steering
Diverter
STEERING SYSTEM
Valve HOLD
Crossover Steering Pump
Secondary
Relief Valve Back-up
Steering
Relief Valve
Relief
Steering Valve
Control
Valve Axle Oil
Steering Cooling Motor
Oil Cooler Diverter Diverter
Valve Solenoid
Pressure
Reducing
Valve Steering
Quad Pressure
Check Pilot
Sensor
Valve Relief
Selector and Valve
Pilot
Pressure
Secondary Pressure Axle Oil
Control Valve
Steering Pump Sensor Cooling Motor
Diverter Manifold
Steering Sequence
Pressure Valve
Neutralizer Switch
Pilot
Valves Oil
Filter

Steering
Pump

STIC
Steering
Pilot
Valve

Axle Oil
Cooling/
Pilot
Pump
Hydraulic Oil
Level Switch

209

The steering pump draws oil from the tank and sends oil to the following locations:

- steering control valve


- back-up relief valve
- secondary steering diverter valve
- selector and pressure control valve
- pressure reducing valve

The steering control valve directs oil to the steering cylinders. The steering cylinders extend
and retract to steer the machine.

The back-up relief valve limits steering system pressure as a back-up to the pump pressure
cut-off spool.

The secondary steering diverter valve directs secondary steering pump oil to the tank when the
main steering pump is providing oil flow to the steering system. The diverter valve directs
secondary steering pump oil to the steering control valve when the machine is traveling and the
main steering pump fails or the engine fails.
SERV1859 - 249 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

The selector and pressure control valve reduces steering system pressure that is monitored by
the steering pressure switch. If steering system pressure decreases to approximately
700 ± 100 kPa (100 ± 15 psi), the switch sends a signal to the VIMS, which illuminates an
indicator lamp in the cab to alert the operator.

The pressure reducing valve directs steering pump oil to the pilot circuit if a shortage of pilot
system oil occurs.

The axle oil cooling/pilot pump draws oil from the tank and sends oil to the sequence valve and
the diverter manifold. Pilot oil pressure opens the sequence valve and pilot oil flows through
the pilot oil filter to the STIC pilot valve.

When the STIC lever is moved, pilot oil is sent through the respective neutralizer valve and
dual check valves to the steering control valve.

When the engine is running and the steering system is in HOLD, pilot oil is blocked at the
STIC pilot valve. Oil from the main steering pump flows to the steering control valve. The
control valve spool blocks oil flow to the steering cylinders and no load signal is generated.
SERV1859 - 250 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

1
6
5

210

The steering pump is (1) a variable displacement, piston-type pump mounted to the pump drive
at the rear of the engine. The pump compensator valve (2) controls oil flow to the steering
system.

The pump compensator valve group consists of a flow compensator (margin) spool and a
pressure compensator spool. The flow compensator adjustment screw (3) and the pressure
compensator adjustment screw (4) can be accessed from above the pump.

The axle oil cooling/pilot pump (5) is mounted to the steering pump. The axle oil cooling/pilot
pump supplies oil flow to the axle oil cooling system and pilot oil to the steering hydraulic
system.

The steering system pressure tap (6) used for checking steering system pressure is located on
top of the steering pump.
SERV1859 - 251 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

2
3

211

The steering pump case drain filter (1) removes contaminants from the case drain oil before the
oil enters the steering hydraulic tank. The case drain oil filter contains a bypass switch (2) that
sends a signal to the VIMS ECM if the filter is plugged.

Also visible in this illustration is the steering pump pressure sensor (3). The steering pressure
sensor sends a signal to the VIMS ECM indicating steering system pressure.
SERV1859 - 252 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

212

213

The hydraulic tank is located on the left side of the machine below the platform. A sight
gauge (1) is mounted on the tank, which allows the hydraulic fluid level to be checked at
ground level.

The hydraulic oil level switch (2) and the hydraulic oil temperature sensor (3), located on the
back of the tank, are both inputs to the VIMS ECM.
SERV1859 - 253 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

214

The sequence valve (arrow) is located below the cab on the left frame rail.
SERV1859 - 254 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

215

3
216

The pilot filter (1) is mounted on a bracket above the transmission on the left side of the
machine. The pilot oil filter bypass switch (2) is mounted to the oil filter base. The bypass
switch sends a signal to the VIMS ECM indicating a restricted oil filter.

The pilot relief valve (3) is located below the pilot filter on the left frame rail. The pilot relief
valve limits pressure in the pilot system to 2400 kPa (350 psi).

The pilot pressure sensor (4) sends a signal to the VIMS ECM indicating pilot system pressure.
SERV1859 - 255 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

6 5

217

Oil from the pilot relief valve is sent through the steering oil cooler (1) and to the tank.

Other cooling system components visible in this illustration are:

- ATAAC (2)

- hydraulic oil cooler (3)

- axle oil coolers (4)

- fuel cooler (5)

- air conditioning condenser (6)


SERV1859 - 256 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

4
1

218

The STIC control lever (1) is located at the left front of the operator's seat. The STIC lever is
used to the steer the machine. Other components of the STIC lever are the transmission
directional control (2) and the transmission upshift and downshift switches (3).

The pilot control valve (not visible) is located below the STIC control lever. When the STIC
lever is moved left or right, the lever moves the respective valve spool in the pilot control
valve.

Also visible is the steering/transmission lock lever (4).


SERV1859 - 257 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

3
2

219

The pilot control valve (1) is located below the STIC control lever (2). The console cover has
been removed in this view. When the control lever is moved left or right, the control lever
moves the respective valve spool in the pilot control valve. The pilot oil flows past the pilot
control valve spools to the steering control valve.

The steering/transmission lock lever (3) is shown in the LOCKED position in this view. In the
locked position, the STIC control lever is held in the center (HOLD) position by the lock lever.
SERV1859 - 258 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

1
2 220

221

Two neutralizer valves (1) are mounted at the articulation joint on top of the rear frame. Each
neutralizer valve is actuated by an adjustable striker (2) mounted on the front frame. The right
striker is visible in this view. When the machine makes a maximum turn (either left or right),
the respective striker will contact the neutralizer valve at the end of the turn. The striker moves
the neutralizer valve and blocks pilot oil flow to the steering control valve. With the oil flow
stopped, the steering control valve centering spring centers the valve and stops the machine
from turning further.

The quad check valve (3) is located on the rear frame to the rear of the neutralizer valves. The
quad check valve dampens the movement of the steering control valve spool by restricting the
pilot oil returning from the steering valve control spool to the steer lever.
SERV1859 - 259 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

3
2 4

222

The steering control valve is located below the cab on the left frame rail. The control valve
directs steering system oil to the steering cylinders and sends signal oil through the ball
resolver to the compensator valve on the steering pump.

The back-up relief valve (1) limits the maximum steering system pressure if the high pressure
cutoff fails in the pump compensator valve. The crossover relief valve (2) limits oil pressure in
the steering cylinders due to an external force on the machine. The pressure reducing valve (3)
reduces the steering system pressure for backup pilot pressure if there is a loss of pilot oil
pressure from the axle oil cooling/pilot pump.

If the machine is equipped with the optional secondary steering system, the steering control
valve will also contain a secondary relief valve (not visible) and a diverter valve (4). The
secondary relief valve limits oil pressure in the secondary oil circuit. The diverter valve directs
oil from the secondary steering pump to the steering control valve when there is a loss of main
steering system pressure. The diverter valve sends secondary pump oil flow to the tank when
main steering system pressure is present.
SERV1859 - 260 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

223

If the machine is equipped with secondary steering, the selector and pressure control valve (1)
protects the steering system pressure switch (2) by reducing steering system pressure. If
steering system pressure decreases to approximately 700 ± 100 kPa (100 ± 15 psi), the switch
sends a signal to the VIMS to alert the operator.
SERV1859 - 261 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

224

The secondary steering pump (arrow) is splined to the front of the transmission output transfer
gear near the articulation joint. The pump is ground driven and turns when the machine is
moving.

If the primary steering pump fails or the engine stops while the machine is moving, the
secondary steering pump supplies oil to the steering system.
SERV1859 - 262 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

1 3

225

Shown is the right steering cylinder (1). The steering cylinder head end (2) is pinned to the
front frame and the rod end (3) is pinned to the rear frame.
SERV1859 - 263 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

From Steering STEERING PUMP AND


Control Valve
COMPENSATOR VALVE
Flow ENGINE OFF
Compensator
Spool
Compensator
Pressure Valve
Compensator
Spool

Pump Swashplate
Output

Minimum Angle
Large Maximum Angle Stop
Steering Actuator Stop
Pump Piston
Bias Spring

Large
Actuator Small
Piston Actuator
Small Piston
Actuator Pump
Piston From Steering Output
Control Valve

Flow Pressure
Compensator Compensator
Spool Spool

226

Steering Pump
Shown is a schematic and sectional view of the steering pump and compensator valve group.

The pump has two actuator pistons which work together to continually adjust the angle of the
swashplate. The small actuator piston, assisted by the bias spring, is used to upstroke the pump.
The large actuator piston is used to destroke the pump.

The compensator valve group consists of a flow compensator (margin) spool and a pressure
compensator (cutoff) spool. The valve group keeps the pump flow and pressure at a level
needed to fulfill the demands of the steering system.

The margin compensator spring maintains the pump supply pressure at 2100 ± 105 kPa
(305 ± 15 psi) above the signal pressure. The pressure compensator spring limits the system
pressure to 31000 ± 700 kPa (4500 ± 100 psi).

When the engine is OFF, the bias spring moves the swashplate to maximum angle.
SERV1859 - 264 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

From Steering STEERING PUMP AND


Control Valve COMPENSATOR VALVE
LOW PRESSURE STANDBY
Flow
Compensator
Spool

Pressure
Compensator
Spool
Swashplate
Pump Output
Minimum Angle
Maximum Angle Stop
Large Stop
Actuator
Steering Piston Bias Spring
Pump

Large
Small
Actuator
Actuator
Piston
Small Piston
Actuator Piston Pump
Output
From Steering Charge Pump
Control Valve

Flow
Pressure
Compensator
Compensator
Spool
Spool

227

At machine start-up, the bias spring holds the swashplate at maximum angle. When the
steering control valve is in the HOLD position, pump flow is blocked at the steering control
valve and no signal pressure is generated. As the pump produces flow, the system pressure
begins to increase. This pressure is felt at the lower end of both the flow compensator spool
and the pressure compensator spool. The flow compensator spool moves up against spring
force and permits system oil to go to the large actuator piston. The oil pressure at the large
actuator piston overcomes the combined force of the bias spring and system oil pressure at the
small actuator piston.

The large actuator piston moves the swashplate to the LOW PRESSURE STANDBY position.
In LOW PRESSURE STANDBY, the pump produces enough flow to compensate for system
leakage at sufficient pressure to provide instantaneous response when the steering control valve
is moved.
SERV1859 - 265 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

STEERING PUMP AND


From Steering
COMPENSATOR VALVE Control Valve
UPSTROKE
Flow
Compensator
Spool

Pressure
Compensator
Compensator
Valve
Spool

Pump Output

Large
Steering
Actuator
Pump
Piston

Small
Actuator
Piston

228

During a turn, signal pressure at the steering control valve increases. This increased pressure
causes the force (flow compensator valve spring plus oil pressure) at the right end of the flow
compensator spool to become greater than the pump supply pressure at the at the left end of the
spool.

The increased pressure at the right end of the flow compensator spool causes the spool to shift
left. The spool reduces or blocks pump output oil flow to the large actuator, and opens a
passage to drain. Reducing or blocking oil flow to the large actuator reduces or eliminates the
pressure acting against the large actuator piston. When the pressure in the large actuator piston
decreases, the bias spring and small actuator move the swashplate to an increased angle causing
the pump to UPSTROKE.
SERV1859 - 266 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

STEERING PUMP AND From Steering


Control Valve
COMPENSATOR VALVE
DESTROKE
Flow
Compensator
Spool

Pressure Compensator
Compensator Valve
Spool

Pump Output

Large
Steering
Actuator
Pump
Piston

Small
Actuator
Piston

229

When the load on the steering system decreases, signal oil pressure at the right end of the flow
compensator valve decreases. This decreased pressure causes the force (flow compensator
valve spring plus oil pressure) at the right end of the flow compensator spool to decrease below
the pump supply pressure at the left end of the spool. The decreased pressure at the right end
of the flow compensator spool causes the spool to shift and allows more flow to the large
actuator causing the pressure in the large actuator piston to increase. The increased pressure in
the large actuator piston overcomes the combined force of the small actuator and bias spring
and moves the swashplate to a reduced angle.

As pump flow decreases, supply pressure also decreases. When the supply pressure decreases
and equals the sum of the oil pressure at the right end of the flow compensator spool and spring
force, the flow compensator spool moves to a metering position and the system stabilizes.
SERV1859 - 267 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

STEERING PUMP AND From Steering


COMPENSATOR VALVE Control Valve

HIGH PRESSURE CUTOFF


Flow
Compensator
Spool

Pressure Compensator
Compensator Valve
Spool

Pump Output

Large
Steering
Actuator
Pump
Piston

Small
Actuator
Piston

230

The pressure compensator spool limits the maximum system pressure for any given pump
displacement. The pressure compensator spool is held in the left position during normal
operation by spring force.

When steering hydraulic system pressure is at maximum, pump supply pressure increases and
the pressure compensator spool moves right against spring force. The pressure cutoff spool
blocks oil in the large actuator piston from returning to the tank and allows supply oil to go to
the large actuator piston.

The increase in pressure allows the large actuator piston to overcome the combined force of the
small actuator piston and bias spring to destroke the pump. The pump is now at minimum flow
and system pressure is at maximum.

This feature eliminates the need for a main relief valve in the steering hydraulic system.
Maximum system pressure is adjusted by turning the pressure compensator adjustment screw.
SERV1859 - 268 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

Handle

PILOT VALVE
Cam Follower Linkage NO TURN

Left Port Plunger

Right Port Plunger


Centering Spring

Regulating Spring
Drain Passage
Return Spring

Pilot Stem Pilot Oil Passage

Shims
Left Port Right Port

231

Pilot Control Valve


The pilot control valve controls the displacement and direction of pilot oil flow to the steering
control valve. The two pilot valve assemblies work similar to other modulating pressure
reducing valves.

The two pilot valve assemblies are identical. The major components include: the plunger, the
return spring, the regulating spring, and the pilot stem. Supply oil is available from the axle oil
cooling/pilot pump to the supply passage.

When the STIC lever is in the NO TURN (centered) position, return spring force keeps the pilot
valve assemblies in the centered position and pilot oil is blocked by both pilot stems. The pilot
oil ports at the bottom of the valve assemblies are open to drain and no pilot oil is sent to the
steering control valve.
SERV1859 - 269 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

Handle
PILOT VALVE
LEFT TURN
Cam Follower Linkage

Left Port Plunger

Right Port Plunger


Centering Spring

Regulating Spring

Drain Passage Return Spring

Pilot Oil Passage


Pilot Stem

Shims
Left Port Right Port

232

When the operator moves the STIC lever to the left (as shown), the cam follower linkage
depresses the left port plunger and regulating spring. The increased force on the regulating
spring pushes the left pilot stem down and opens a passage through the pilot stem from the pilot
oil passage to the left pilot (signal) port.

The pilot stem meters the pilot oil from the supply passage to the pilot port. This metering
controls the oil flow to the steering control valve. The oil flow is determined by the force of
the regulating spring, which depends on the distance the plunger is depressed. The amount the
plunger is depressed is controlled by how far the STIC lever is moved.

As the STIC lever moves to the left, the right port plunger moves up with the linkage as the
pivot plate rotates. However, the right pilot stem remains in position. The right pilot stem
lands are open to the drain passage, providing a path for return oil from the opposite end of the
steering control valve.

When a RIGHT TURN is made, the right port plunger is depressed and the right pilot stem
meters pilot oil to the steering control valve.
SERV1859 - 270 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

STEERING CONTROL VALVE Ball


Outlet to
Hydraulic Oil
NO TURN Resolver Tank

Pressure Pump Inlet Steering Cross-


Reducing Valve Port over Relief
Valve

Pilot Oil Spool


Springs
Port

Pilot Oil Port

Tank Tank Retainer


Passage Passage

Right Turn Left Turn


Port Port

Supply Back-up Relief


Passage Valve

233

Steering Control Valve


When the STIC lever is in the NO TURN (center) position, pilot oil flow to either end of the
steering control valve spool is blocked by the pilot valve. Also, if either steering neutralizer
valve is actuated, pilot oil flow to either end of the steering control valve spool is blocked.

With no pilot oil present at the ends of the steering control valve spool, centering springs keep
the spool in the center position. As the spool returns to the center position, pilot oil present at
the end of the spool flows through an orifice to the tank.

When the spool is in the center position, supply oil from the steering pump is blocked at the
supply oil passage and no oil flows to the steering cylinders.
SERV1859 - 271 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

STEERING CONTROL VALVE Ball


Outlet to
Hydraulic Oil
LEFT TURN Resolver Tank

Pressure Pump Inlet Steering Cross-


Reducing Valve Port over Relief
Valve

Pilot Oil Spool Springs


Port

Pilot Oil Port

Tank
Tank Retainer
Passage
Passage

Right Turn Left Turn


Port Port

Supply Back-up Relief


Passage Valve

234

When the STIC lever is moved to the LEFT TURN position, pilot oil flows from the pilot
control valve to the retainer on the right end of the steering control valve spool. The pilot oil
pressure moves the spool to the left.

When the spool moves to the left, oil in the supply oil passage flows past the spool to the left
turn port. Oil flows to the head end of the right steering cylinder and to the rod end of the left
steering cylinder.

Oil from the head end of the left steering cylinder and oil from the rod end of the right steering
cylinder flows into the right turn port and to the tank. The machine articulates to the left.

When the STIC steering control lever is released, pilot oil is blocked at the pilot valve. Oil
pressure present at the right end of the steering control valve spool flows through an orifice to
the hydraulic tank. Spring force causes the spool to return to the center position.

With the STIC lever in the HOLD (center) position, the steering control valve spool blocks oil
flow to the steering cylinders, which keeps the machine in the LEFT TURN position.
SERV1859 - 272 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

If an outside force tries to turn the machine with the steering control valve spool in the center
position, oil pressure in the steering cylinders will increase. This pressure increase opens the
steering cylinder crossover relief valve.

When the steering control valve is in the RIGHT TURN position, the steering control valve
moves to the right and directs oil to the right turn port.

NOTE: If the machine is turned while moving, the machine will continue to move in
the same direction as the last selected travel position of the STIC lever. When the STIC
lever is released, the machine will not return to the STRAIGHT AHEAD travel position.

If the pilot pump fails, steering pump oil pressure is directed through the pressure
reducing valve and a pilot check valve to the pilot valve. The pressure reducing valve
reduces pump pressure to less than pilot pressure.
SERV1859 - 273 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

Steering
Cylinders

992K
Secondary
Steering
STEERING SYSTEM
Diverter GRADUAL RIGHT TURN
Valve

Crossover Steering Pump


Secondary
Relief Valve Back-up
Steering
Relief Valve
Relief
Steering Valve
Control
Valve Axle Oil
Steering Cooling Motor
Oil Cooler Diverter Diverter
Valve Solenoid
Pressure
Reducing
Valve Steering
Dual Pressure
Check Pilot
Sensor
Valves Relief
Selector and Valve
Pilot
Pressure
Secondary Pressure Axle Oil
Control Valve
Steering Pump Sensor Cooling Motor
Diverter Manifold
Steering Sequence
Pressure Valve
Neutralizer Switch
Pilot
Valves Oil
Filter

Steering
Pump

STIC
Steering
Pilot
Valve

Axle Oil
Cooling/
Pilot
Pump
Hydraulic Oil
Level Switch

235

When the operator moves the steering lever to the right, pilot oil flows through the pilot control
valve and the right neutralizer valve to the left end of the steering control spool. Pilot oil
pressure moves the steering control spool to the left. The steering control valve directs oil from
the steering pump through the check valve and the control spool orifice to the steering
cylinders. Oil flows to the rod end of the right steering cylinder and to the head end of the left
steering cylinder. The machine articulates to the RIGHT.

As pressure increases in the steering cylinders, an increase in signal pressure is sensed at the
pump compensator valve. This increase in signal pressure causes the pump to upstroke, which
increases pump oil flow as previously described.
SERV1859 - 274 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

Steering
Cylinders
992K
Secondary STEERING SYSTEM
Steering
Diverter SHARP RIGHT TURN
Valve

Crossover Steering Pump


Secondary
Relief Valve Back-up
Steering
Relief Valve
Relief
Steering Valve
Control
Valve Axle Oil
Steering Cooling Motor
Oil Cooler Diverter Diverter
Valve Solenoid
Pressure
Reducing
Valve Steering
Dual Pressure
Check Pilot
Sensor
Valves Relief
Selector and Valve
Pilot
Pressure
Secondary Pressure Axle Oil
Control Valve
Steering Pump Sensor Cooling Motor
Diverter Manifold
Steering Sequence
Pressure Valve
Neutralizer Switch
Pilot
Valves Oil
Filter

Steering
Pump

STIC
Steering
Pilot
Valve

Axle Oil
Cooling/
Pilot
Pump
Hydraulic Oil
Level Switch

236

When making a SHARP RIGHT TURN, the right striker (not shown) contacts the right
neutralizer valve. Oil flow from the pilot control valve to the steering control valve is blocked
by the movement of the neutralizer valve. The steering control spool returns to the center
position. Flow to the steering cylinders is blocked and the machine stops turning. The steering
pump returns to the LOW PRESSURE STANDBY condition.

The neutralizer valves prevent the machine front frame from contacting the machine rear frame
when making a SHARP RIGHT or SHARP LEFT turn.
SERV1859 - 275 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

Steering
Cylinders
992K
Secondary STEERING SYSTEM
Steering
Diverter GRADUAL RIGHT TURN
Valve
SECONDARY STEERING
Crossover Steering Pump
Secondary
Relief Valve Back-up
Steering
Relief Valve
Relief
Steering Valve
Control
Valve Axle Oil
Steering Cooling Motor
Oil Cooler Diverter Diverter
Valve Solenoid
Pressure
Reducing
Valve Steering
Dual Pressure
Check Pilot
Sensor
Valves Relief
Selector and Valve
Pilot
Pressure
Secondary Pressure Axle Oil
Control Valve
Steering Pump Sensor Cooling Motor
Diverter Manifold
Steering Sequence
Pressure Valve
Neutralizer Switch
Pilot
Valves Oil
Filter

Steering
Pump

STIC
Steering
Pilot
Valve

Axle Oil
Cooling/
Pilot
Pump
Hydraulic Oil
Level Switch

237

Shown is a schematic of the steering system with the engine off and the machine moving.

When the engine is off, no oil flows from the pilot pump and the primary steering pump. The
steering system oil is supplied by the secondary steering system. The secondary steering
system consists of the secondary pump, the secondary relief valve, the diverter valve, and the
check valve.

When the machine is moving, the output transfer gear turns the secondary pump. Secondary
pump oil flows through the diverter valve and the check valve to the steering control valve.

Secondary pump oil also flows through the pressure reducing valve and the check valve to the
pilot control valve.

When the operator moves the steer lever, secondary pump oil is used to steer the machine.

NOTE: The secondary steering pump does not produce the same amount of flow as the
main steering system pump. Secondary steering operations are reduced compared to
normal operation. Secondary steering provides a method to steer the machine to a safe
location if a failure occurs in the primary steering system or in the engine.
SERV1859 - 276 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

BRAKE SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Brake Brake Parking Brake Parking Brake Service Brake


Pump Accumulators Valve Control Pedals

Rear Service Steering and Brake Parking Manifold Service Brake Front Service
Brakes Tank Brake Valve Brakes

Service Brake Parking Brake Service and Parking Systems


Components Components Shared Components

238

BRAKE SYSTEM

Shown are the components of the brake system on the 992K Wheel Loader. Components of the
service brake system are shown in orange, components of the parking brake system are shown
in brown, and components that are common to the service brake system and the parking brake
system are shown in red.
SERV1859 - 277 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

1
2

239

The brake pump (1) is mounted to the right rear side of the pump drive (2) opposite the
implement pump (not visible). The brake pump supplies oil flow to the brake hydraulic system.

The pump compensator valve (3) controls the oil flow to the brake system.
SERV1859 - 278 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

BRAKE PUMP
LOW PRESSURE
Control Piston Spring
Pressure
Compensator Valve

Barrel

Control Piston
Passage

Outlet Passage

Drive Shaft

Inlet Passage
Piston Assembly Swashplate

240

Brake Pump Schematics


Shown in this illustration are the main components of the brake pump.

The components are:

- pressure compensator (servo valve)


- control piston
- spring
- swashplate
- piston assembly
- barrel
- drive shaft
SERV1859 - 279 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

When pressure in the brake system is less than 13790 ± 345 kPa (2000 ± 50 psi), the spring
keeps the swashplate at maximum angle. The pump piston stroke is longest and pump
displacement is maximum. A small amount of pressure oil from the outlet passage flows to the
pressure compensator. A spool in the pressure compensator blocks the flow of oil to the control
piston passage.
SERV1859 - 280 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

PUMP COMPENSATOR VALVE


LOW BRAKE SYSTEM PRESSURE HIGH BRAKE SYSTEM PRESSURE

To Control From Pump To Control From Pump


Piston Outlet Piston Outlet
Adjustment Adjustment
Bolt Bolt

Pressure Pressure
Locknut Spring Compensator Spool Locknut Spring Compensator Spool

241

This illustration shows the main components and the operation of the pressure compensator.
The components are:

- adjustment bolt
- locknut
- spring
- spool

The left illustration shows the operation of the pressure compensator when the brake system
pressure is less than 13790 ± 345 kPa (2000 ± 50 psi). Pump output oil flows around the right
land of the pressure compensator spool and into the chamber at the right end of the spool.

When the brake system pressure increases to 13790 ± 345 kPa (2000 ± 50 psi), the pressure of
the oil in the chamber is high enough to move the spool against the spring. Movement of the
spool permits oil to flow past the spool to the control piston in the pump.
SERV1859 - 281 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

BRAKE PUMP
HIGH PRESSURE
Control Piston Spring
Pressure
Compensator Valve

Barrel

Control Piston
Passage

Outlet Passage

Drive Shaft

Inlet Passage
Piston Assembly Swashplate

242

When the brake system pressure reaches 13790 ± 345 kPa (2000 ± 50 psi), oil from the
pressure compensator fills the chamber in the control piston. As the brake system pressure
increases above 13790 ± 345 kPa (2000 ± 50 psi), the oil pressure from the pressure
compensator moves the control piston against the spring. This movement decreases the angle
of the swashplate, the stroke of the pistons, and the displacement of the pump. The amount of
oil per pump revolution is decreased to the amount needed to maintain the system pressure at
13790 ± 345 kPa (2000 ± 50 psi).
SERV1859 - 282 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

2 3
1

243

The brake accumulators (1) are located next to the steering hydraulic tank (2).

When the engine is running, the accumulators supply pressurized oil to the tandem brake valve.
If the engine stops or the brake pump fails, the accumulators provide a temporary emergency
oil supply to provide braking.

The nitrogen accumulator charging valves (3) are located on top of the accumulators.
SERV1859 - 283 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

2
3

244

The inverse shuttle valve (1) is located near the brake accumulators (2). The inverse shuttle
valve directs brake pump oil to the brake accumulators (2).

The brake pressure switch (3) sends a signal to the VIMS if the brake system hydraulic oil
pressure decreases below approximately 8960 kPa (1300 psi).
SERV1859 - 284 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

245

The service brake valve (arrow) is located below the right brake pedal. The left and right brake
pedals are mechanically connected. This connection allows the service brake valve to be
actuated by either brake pedal. The brake valve directs oil to the service brakes.

The hydraulically engaged, multiple disc service brakes are located between the planetaries and
the differential at each axle. Each brake contains a piston, discs, and plates. When either brake
pedal is DEPRESSED, pressure oil moves the piston which compresses the discs against the
plates. The friction between the discs and plates causes the wheels to turn slower or to stop.
The heat from brake friction is removed by the oil in the differential housing.
SERV1859 - 285 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

SERVICE BRAKE VALVE

BRAKE PEDAL
BRAKE PEDAL
APPLIED
OFF

Piston

Upper Spool
Springs

Lower Spool
To Rear Brakes To Rear Brakes

From
Accumulator

To Front Brakes To Front Brakes

From
Accumulator

To Tank To Tank

Spring

246

When the brake pedal is RELEASED (left view), the oil passages from the accumulators to the
brakes are closed, and the passages from the brakes to the tank are opened. Oil in the rear and
front service brakes flows through the respective brake spools to the tank. Spring force at the
bottom of the lower brake spool moves the brake spools up.

When the operator depresses either brake pedal (right view), the upper spring moves the two
brake spools down. The brake spools close the passages to the tank and open the passages from
the two accumulators. The oil from the rear accumulator flows through the rear brake spool to
ENGAGE the rear service brakes and to fill the chamber between the rear brake spool and the
front brake spool. The oil from the front brake accumulator flows through the front brake spool
to ENGAGE the front service brakes and to fill the chamber at the bottom of the front spool.

The pressure at the bottom of the front brake spool and the force of the spring move the front
brake spool up against the pressure in the chamber between the rear brake spool and the front
brake spool. The pressure in the chamber between the rear brake spool and the front brake
spool moves the rear brake spool up against the force on the brake pedal.

The force at the bottom of each brake spool balances that brake spool against the force at the
top of the brake spool. Each brake spool acts as a pressure reducing valve to limit the pressure
in the brakes proportionally to the force at the top of the respective brake spool.
SERV1859 - 286 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

247

The parking brake control valve (1) is located on the right frame rail below the cab. The
parking brake control valve directs oil flow to the parking brake. When the parking brake
control in the cab is pulled out, the parking brake linkage (2) moves the spool inside the
parking brake valve. The spool blocks oil from the accumulator charging valve to the parking
brake and allows the oil in the parking brake to flow to the tank. Spring force then engages the
parking brake.

When the parking brake control is pushed in, the parking brake linkage moves the spool inside
the parking brake valve. The spool allows oil to flow to the parking brake. The oil acts against
spring force to release the parking brake.

Also shown in this view is the parking brake pressure switch. The parking brake pressure
switch (3) sends the park brake pressure status to the Power Train ECM.
SERV1859 - 287 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

4 1

3
5

248

The spring engaged, hydraulically released, multiple disc parking brake is bolted to the output
transfer gear case. The brake discs are are splined to the hub, which turns with the driveshafts.
The plates are splined to the park brake housing which is held with bolts (1) that are anchored
to the bearing cage (2).

When the parking brake is RELEASED, brake system oil acts against the the piston which
moves a plate (3) outward against spring force. With spring force removed, the discs, the hub,
and the driveshafts are allowed to rotate.

When the parking brake is ENGAGED, brake system oil in the parking brake flows to the tank.
Spring force moves the non-rotating plates against the turning discs which are splined to the
hub. The friction between the discs and plates causes the hub to stop.

If the brake pump fails or hydraulic oil flow stops, the parking brake can be manually released
to move the machine. To release the parking brake, brake release bolts (4) are installed in the
three holes (5). The bolts are tightened, which forces the plate outward against spring force.
With spring force removed, the discs, the hub, and the front drive shaft are allowed to rotate.
When not in use, the bolts are stored in the location shown in this view.
SERV1859 - 288 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

BRAKE SYSTEM
CUT-IN CYCLE
Right Brake Left Brake
Pedal Pedal
Brake Lights

Service
Brake
Valve
Inverse
Shuttle
Rear Service Valve
Rear Brake Brake
Brakes
Accumulator Pressure
Switch

Front Service
Brakes
Front Brake
Accumulator

Park Brake
Control Valve

Brake
Pump
Park Brake
Pressure
Switch Park Brake

249

Brake System Schematics


This schematic shows the brake system during the CUT-IN cycle with the service brakes
ENGAGED and the parking brake ENGAGED.

When the accumulator oil pressure decreases below 13790 ± 345 kPa (2000 ± 50 psi), the brake
pump begins to upstroke and the shuttle valve enters the CUT-IN mode. In the CUT-IN mode,
the combined force of the accumulator pressure and spring acting on each outer side of the
inverse shuttle valve is less than the high pressure in the center of the inverse shuttle valve.
The center pressure moves the two halves of the inverse shuttle valve outward. This movement
allows oil to flow from the brake pump to the accumulators.

When the brake pump is connected to the accumulators, the pressure decreases between the
inverse shuttle valve and the check valve. Pump oil flows to the accumulators until the
accumulator pressure and the pressure at the inverse shuttle valve reach the
13790 ± 345 kPa (2000 ± 50 psi) CUTOUT pressure. When the CUT-OUT pressure is reached,
the pump destrokes.
SERV1859 - 289 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

By depressing either the right or the left brake pedal, the service brakes are ENGAGED. The
movement of the brake pedal is mechanically transmitted to the service brake valve, which
permits oil to flow through the service brake valve to the rear and front service brakes.

If the machine loses power or if the hydraulic pump fails, the service brakes can still be
ENGAGED. The pressure in the accumulators permits several applications of the service
brakes to stop the machine or slow the machine enough to engage the parking brake.

When the right brake pedal is depressed the stop lamp switch is closed, which illuminates the
stop lamps on the back of the machine. Also, when the right brake pedal is depressed, the right
hand brake pedal switch signals the Engine ECM to disable the throttle lock function. The
Engine ECM sends the switch position data over the Cat Data Link to the Power Train ECM.

When the left brake pedal is depressed, a Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signal is sent from
the left brake pedal position sensor to the Power Train ECM. The ECM processes the signal
and sends an output signal to the impeller clutch solenoid, which decreases impeller clutch
pressure. As the pedal is depressed further, oil pressure to the impeller clutch continues to
decrease. When the pedal has been depressed approximately 10 degrees, a mechanical linkage
from the left brake pedal to the tandem brake valve causes the service brakes to engage.
SERV1859 - 290 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

BRAKE SYSTEM
CUT-OUT CYCLE
Right Brake Left Brake
Pedal Pedal
Brake Lights

Service
Brake
Valve
Inverse
Shuttle
Rear Service Valve
Rear Brake Brake
Brakes
Accumulator Pressure
Switch

Front Service
Brakes
Front Brake
Accumulator

Park Brake
Control Valve

Brake
Pump
Park Brake
Pressure
Switch Park Brake

250

When the pressure in the accumulators increases to the CUT-OUT pressure of


13790 ± 345 kPa (2000 ± 50 psi), the combined oil pressure and spring force on the outer ends
of the inverse shuttle valve overcome the oil pressure on the inside of the inverse shuttle valve.
The inverse shuttle valve moves and blocks the flow of oil to the accumulators. When the flow
to the accumulators is blocked, the supply pressure increases. The increased pressure causes
the brake pump compensator spool to direct oil to the pump control piston and destroke the
pump.

The check valve prevents the high pressure oil in the passages to the inverse shuttle valve from
flowing back to the brake pump.

The inverse shuttle valve will remain in the CUT-OUT mode until the pressure in one of the
accumulators decreases to the CUT-IN pressure of 13790 ± 345 kPa (2000 ± 50 psi).
SERV1859 - 291 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

BRAKE SYSTEM
PARKING BRAKE RELEASED
Right Brake Left Brake
Pedal Pedal
Brake Lights

Service
Brake
Valve
Inverse
Shuttle
Rear Service Valve
Rear Brake Brake
Brakes
Accumulator Pressure
Switch

Front Service
Brakes
Front Brake
Accumulator

Park Brake
Control Valve

Brake
Pump
Park Brake
Pressure
Switch Park Brake

251

This schematic shows the brake system with the parking brake RELEASED.

Pressure oil flows from the brake pump to the inverse shuttle valve. The inverse shuttle valve
allows oil to flow to the rear and front brake accumulators and to the tandem brake valve. Part
of the oil that is sent to the rear brake accumulator also flows to the parking brake valve.

In the RELEASED position, the pressure oil flows past the parking brake valve to the parking
brake actuator. The oil in the parking brake actuator acts against the spring force that keeps the
parking brake ENGAGED. When the pressure of the oil overcomes the force of the spring, the
parking brake is RELEASED.

During a normal application, the parking brake will remain RELEASED until the flow of oil is
blocked at the parking brake valve or the supply pressure from the brake accumulator charging
valve decreases below 6050 ± 515 kPa (875 ± 75 psi).

If supply pressure from the brake accumulator charging valve decreases below 6050 ± 515 kPa
(875 ± 75 psi), spring force in the right end of the parking brake valve will shift the valve to the
left. When the parking brake valve shifts to the left, oil in the parking brake valve is allowed to
flow to the tank and spring force engages the parking brake.
SERV1859 - 292 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

AXLE OIL COOLING


DIVERTER SOLENOID ENERGIZED
Steering Pilot System SOS
Port
Axle Oil
Thermal Filter
Bypass Valve Thermal Axle
Bypass Oil
SOS Valve Cooler
Port
Axle
Oil Cooler

Diverter Diverter Axle Oil


Valve Solenoid Filter

Axle Oil
Cooling Pump and
Motor Group

Diverter Manifold
Sequence
Valve

Axle Oil Cooling/


Pilot Pump
Case Drain

252

AXLE OIL COOLING SYSTEM

Shown is a schematic of the front and rear axle cooling systems. Each axle cooling system
cools the oil in the respective axle. The axle cooling/pilot pump provides oil to rotate the axle
oil cooling motor. The axle oil cooling motor drives the axle oil cooling pumps. The front and
rear axle cooling pumps circulate the oil through the oil coolers.

When the operator applies the service brakes, friction generates heat in the brake plates and
discs. Also, heavy loads generate heat in the differential. The cooling pumps pull the high
temperature oil from the differential case and send the oil to the oil coolers. The oil coolers
remove the heat and return the oil to the axles. The cooler oil enters the axles at each end of
the differential case.

When the oil is cold, the high resistance to flow through the cooler causes the pump pressure to
increase. When the pump pressure increases to the oil filter bypass valves open allowing cold
oil to bypass the axle oil filters.
SERV1859 - 293 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

The VIMS ECM monitors the axle oil temperature through the front and rear axle oil
temperature sensors. The bypass solenoid valve is controlled by the Power Train ECM. When
the axle oil temperature is below 30° C (86° F), the solenoid is energized by the Power Train
ECM. When ENERGIZED, the diverter solenoid valve directs oil from the axle oil
cooling/pilot pump to the right side of the diverter valve. The diverter valve moves to the left
and axle oil cooling/pilot pump oil is diverted to the steering pilot system. The axle oil cooling
motor is bypassed, which prevents oil from circulating through the axles at machine start-up.
SERV1859 - 294 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

AXLE OIL COOLING


DIVERTER SOLENOID DE-ENERGIZED
Steering Pilot System SOS
Port
Axle Oil
Thermal Filter
Axle
Bypass Valve Thermal Oil
Bypass Cooler
SOS Valve
Port
Axle
Oil Cooler

Diverter Diverter Axle Oil


Valve Solenoid Filter

Axle Oil
Cooling Pump and
Motor Group

Diverter Manifold
Sequence
Valve

Axle Oil Cooling/


Pilot Pump
Case Drain

253

When the axle oil temperature increases above 35° C (95° F) the solenoid is de-energized by
the Power Train ECM and the axle oil cooling motor drives the axle oil cooling pumps.

When the axle oil temperature is above 35° C (95° F), the axle oil flows from the axle cooling
pumps to the thermal bypass valves. When the axle oil temperature is above 35° C (95° F) but
below 60° C (140° F), spring force moves the thermal bypass valve up and the axle cooling
pump oil bypasses the axle oil coolers.

When the axle oil temperature increases above 60° C (140° F), the thermal bypass valve begins
to move down against spring force and some of the axle cooling pump oil is directed to the axle
oil coolers.

When the axle oil temperature increases above 74° C (165° F), the thermal bypass valve moves
all the way down against spring force and all of the axle cooling pump oil is directed to the axle
oil coolers.
SERV1859 - 295 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

1 2

254

The axle oil cooling motor (1) and axle oil cooling pumps (2) are located on the left frame rail
next to the transmission.
SERV1859 - 296 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

255

The diverter valve manifold (1) and diverter solenoid (2) are located on the left frame rail.
When the diverter solenoid is energized, oil from the steering pilot/axle oil cooling pump is
directed to the steering pilot system.
SERV1859 - 297 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

256

The axle oil cooler filters (1) are located at the rear of the machine. An S•O•S tap (2) is located
on each hydraulic line.
SERV1859 - 298 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

257

The thermal bypass valves (arrows) are located on top of the rear frame behind the engine.
SERV1859 - 299 - Text Reference
07/08 Steering and Brakes

258

The axle oil coolers (1) are located at the rear of the machine in front of the hydraulic oil
cooler (2).
SERV1859 - 300 - Text Reference
07/08

259

CONCLUSION

This presentation has provided information on the machine systems for the 992K Wheel Loader
and 854K Wheel Dozer. Understanding the information and features accessible using Cat ET
can make troubleshooting, diagnosis, and testing easier and more accurate. Always use the
latest Service Information to ensure that the most current specifications and test procedures are
used.
SERV1853 - 301 - Text Reference
07/08

VISUAL LIST
1. 992K model shot 37. Loss of speed/timing sensor
2. 854K model shot troubleshooting
3. Operator’s station 38. Location of throttle position sensor
4. Cab air filter 39. Location of either aid solenoid, light
5. Operator’s station display modules switch, light, and air filter
6. Action lamp and reduced rimpull, 40. Location of fan solenoid and pressure
lockup clutch, and quickshift indicators tap
7. Throttle lock and ride control indicators 41. Ground level shutdown switches and
8. Steering/Transmission Integrated service ports
Control (STIC) control 42. Location of throttle lock switch
9. 992K implement controls 43. Location of throttle set/decel switch and
10. 854K implement controls throttle resume/accel switch
11. 854K implement controls 44. High coolant temperature derate
12. Controls on right side of cab 45. Intake manifold temperature derate
13. Throttle pedal, brake pedal, and impeller 46. Exhaust manifold temperature derate
clutch pedal 47. Low oil pressure derate
14. Work Area Vision System (WAVS) 48. Air inlet restriction derate
display 49. Fuel temperature derate
15. WAVS camera 50. Fuel filter restriction derate
16. VIMS ECM location 51. Location of radiator cores and coolers
17. VIMS display modules 52. Location of engine oil cooler and power
18. VIMS keypad train oil cooler
19. Quad gauge module 53. Cooling system flow schematic
20. Speedometer/tachometer module 54. Engine oil system schematic
21. Message center module 55. Location of fuel system components and
22. Information displayed on message engine oil filters
center module 56. Fuel transfer pump and regulator
23. VIMS keypad 57. Location of differential fuel pressure
24. VIMS electronic system switch, fuel temperature sensor, and fuel
25. VIMS switch input components pressure sensor
26. VIMS sender and sensor input 58. Fuel system schematic
components 59. Location of air filter restriction indicator
27. Warning categories 60. Location of air filter elements
28. Data events 61. Location of turbocharger components
29. Maintenance events 62. Location of ATAAC
30. C32 model shot 63. Air induction and exhaust schematic
31. Engine electronic system 64. Compression brake
32. Engine ECM location 65. Compression brake circuit -
33. Location of coolant, intake temperature, compression brake off
boost, and atmospheric sensors 66. Compression brake electrical schematic
34. Location of crankshaft speed/timing 67. Power train components
sensor and oil pressure sensor 68. Power train input components
35. Location of oil level switches and ORS 69. Power train output components
solenoid 70. Power Train ECM location
36. Location of cam speed/timing sensor
SERV1853 - 302 - Text Reference
07/08

VISUAL LIST continued

71. STIC control 100. Power train hydraulic system - Neutral


72. Lockup clutch indicator 101. Power train hydraulic system - first
73. Location of key start switch and ride speed forward converter drive
control switch 102. Power train hydraulic system - second
74. Location of ride control indicator speed forward speed shift
75. Location of transmission output speed 103. Power train hydraulic system - second
sensors speed reverse directional shift
76. Location of reduced rimpull switch 104. Power train hydraulic system - second
77. Reduced rimpull indicator speed reverse direct drive
78. Impeller clutch pedal and position 105. Power train torque strategy control
sensor circuit
79. Location of transmission input speed 106. Power train torque strategy chart
sensor 107. Automatic lubrication system
80. Location of parking brake control components
81. Location of parking brake valve and 108. Automatic lubrication system
components components
82. Location of quickshift switch 109. Location of NEEF autolube pressure
83. Quickshift indicator sensor
84. Location of lockup clutch switch, HVAC 110. Adjustment location of autolube
controls, and heated mirror switch injectors
85. Location of low pressure switch and 111. Autolube system - off cycle
high pressure switch for AC system 112. Autolube system - on cycle
86. Location of lockup clutch solenoid and 113. Autolube system - instant solenoid valve
impeller clutch solenoid de-energizes
87. Location of transmission solenoids 114. Implement system components
88. Location of start, back-up, heated 115. Implement electronic system
mirror, and main power relays components
89. Power train hydraulic schematic 116. Implement pod components
90. Location of power train pump 117. Implement pod components
91. Location of power train filters 118. Location of lift and tilt kickout switches
92. Location of priority valve 119. Location of lift linkage position sensor
93. Location of transmission hydraulic 120. Location of tilt linkage position sensor
controls 121. Location of Implement ECM
94. Transmission hydraulic control valve 122. Location of implement valve solenoids
components 123. Location of pilot on/off solenoid
95. Location of torque converter outlet relief 124. Location of left float solenoid valve
valve 125. Location of right float solenoid valve
96. Torque converter components 126. Location of tilt dual relief solenoid
97. Impeller clutch solenoid valve valve
components
98. Lockup clutch solenoid valve
components
99. Location of power train oil cooler
SERV1853 - 303 - Text Reference
07/08

VISUAL LIST continued


127. Location of tilt regeneration valve 158. 992K implement hydraulic system - tilt
128. Location of implement pump solenoid back
valves 159. 992K implement hydraulic system -
129. Location of implement pressure sensors dump with regeneration
130. Location of pilot pressure sensor and 160. Tilt regeneration valve - de-energized
pilot relief valve 161. Tilt regeneration valve - energized
131. 992K Positive Flow Control (PFC) 162. 992K implement hydraulic system -
schematic raise
132. Pilot system component schematic 163. 992K implement hydraulic system -
133. Location of hydraulic tank, fuses, and lower
circuit breakers 164. 992K implement hydraulic system -
134. Location of hydraulic tank sight gauge float
135. Location of pilot pump 165. 992K implement hydraulic system -
136. Location of pilot filter lower with engine off
137. Location of pilot manifold 166. Ride control system components
138. Location of manual lower valve 167. 992K implement hydraulic system - ride
139. Location of pilot accumulator control activated
140. Location of pilot hydraulic actuators 168. Implement control strategies
141. Pilot hydraulic actuator - hold 169. Implement system calibrations
142. Pilot hydraulic actuator - left solenoid 170. 854K implement system components
energized 171. Location of pilot pump
143. Pilot hydraulic actuator - left actuator 172. Location of pilot filter
balanced 173. Location of pilot manifold
144. Main hydraulic system components 174. Location of dozer control valve and dual
schematic tilt control valve
145. Location of implement pumps 175. Location of dual tilt control valve
146. Location of case drain filters 176. Location of pilot on/off valve
147. Implement control valve location and 177. Location of implement pod components
components 178. Location of implement pod components
148. Location of lift and tilt cylinders 179. Main hydraulic system components
149. Variable implement pump - maximum 180. Location of hydraulic tank, fuses, and
displacement circuit breakers
150. Pump and pump control valve - low 181. Location of hydraulic tank sight gauge
pressure standby 182. Location of manual lower valve
151. Pump and pump control valve - constant 183. Location of case drain filters
flow 184. Dozer control valve components
152. Pump and pump control valve - 185. Dozer control valve components
maximum displacement 186. Dozer control valve - hold
153. Tilt control valve - hold 187. Dozer control valve - raise
154. Tilt control valve - dump 188. Dozer control valve - tilt right
155. Lift control valve - hold 189. 854K hydraulic system - hold
156. Lift control valve - lower 190. 854K hydraulic system - raise
157. 992K implement hydraulic system - 191. 854K hydraulic system - lower
hold
SERV1859 - 304 - Text Reference
07/08

VISUAL LIST continued


192. 854K hydraulic system - float 222. Location of steering control valve
193. 854K hydraulic system - lower engine 223. Location of selector and pressure control
off valve
194. Dual tilt valve schematic 224. Location of secondary steering pump
195. 854K hydraulic system - dual tilt right 225. Location of steering cylinders
196. 854K hydraulic system - single tilt right 226. Steering pump and compensator valve -
197. 854K hydraulic system - blade pitch engine off
forward 227. Steering pump and compensator valve -
198. Fan system components low pressure standby
199. Location of fan pump 228. Steering pump and compensator valve -
200. Location of fan pump control valve upstroke
201. Location of fan solenoid valve and 229. Steering pump and compensator valve -
pressure tap destroke
202. Location of fan motor and high pressure 230. Steering pump and compensator valve -
screens high pressure cutoff
203. Location of hydraulic oil cooler 231. Pilot valve - no turn
204. Location of fan oil filter 232. Pilot valve - left turn
205. Fan hydraulic system - solenoid de- 233. Steering control valve - no turn
energized 234. Steering control valve - left turn
206. Fan hydraulic system - solenoid 235. Steering system - gradual right turn
energized 236. Steering system - sharp right turn
207. Fan hydraulic system - rapid engine 237. Steering system - gradual right turn
deceleration secondary steering
208. Steering system components 238. Brake system components
209. Steering system - hold 239. Location of brake pump
210. Location of steering pump and pilot 240. Brake pump - low pressure
pump 241. Pump compensator valve operation
211. Location of steering pressure sensor and 242. Brake pump - high pressure
steering pump case drain filter 243. Location of brake accumulators
212. Location of steering hydraulic tank and 244. Location of inverse shuttle valve and
sight gauge brake pressure switch
213. Location of steering tank oil level 245. Location of service brake valve
switch and temperature sensor 246. Service brake valve operation
214. Location of sequence valve 247. Location of parking brake valve and
215. Location of steering pilot filter components
216. Location of steering pilot manifold 248. Location of parking brake
217. Location of steering oil cooler 249. Brake system - cut-in cycle
218. STIC control lever components 250. Brake system - cut-out cycle
219. Location of steering pilot control valve 251. Brake system - parking brake released
220. Location of neutralizer valves 252. Axle oil system components
221. Location of neutralizer valves and quad 253. Axle oil cooling - diverter solenoid de-
check valve energized
SERV1859 - 305 - Text Reference
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VISUAL LIST continued


254. Location of axle oil cooling motor and
pumps
255. Location of diverter manifold and
diverter solenoid valve
256. Location of axle oil cooler filters
257. Location of axle oil cooler thermal
bypass valves
258. Location of axle oil coolers
259. 992K model shot
SERV1859 - 306 - Text Reference
07/08

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC COLOR CODE

Black - Mechanical connection. Seal Red - High pressure oil

Dark Gray - Cutaway section Red/White Stripes - 1st pressure reduction

Light Gray - Surface color Red Crosshatch - 2nd reduction in pressure

White - Atmosphere or Pink - 3rd reduction in pressure


Air (No pressure)

Purple - Pneumatic pressure Red/Pink Stripes - Secondary source oil pressure

Yellow - Moving or activated components Orange - Pilot, charge, or Torque Converter oil

Cat Yellow - (R estricted usage) Orange / White Stripes -


Identification of components Reduced pilot, charge, or TC oil pressure
within a moving group
Orange Crosshatch - 2nd reduction in
Brown - Lubricating oil pilot, charge, or TC oil pressure.

Green - Tank, sump, or return oil Blue - Trapped oil

Green / White Stripes -


Scavenge Oil or Hydraulic Void

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC COLOR CODE

This illustration identifies the meanings of the colors used in the hydraulic schematics and
cross-sectional views shown throughout this presentation.
07/08
SERV1859

HYDRAULIC SCHEMATIC COLOR CODE

Black - Mechanical connection. Seal Red - High pressure oil

Dark Gray - Cutaway section Red/White Stripes - 1st pressure reduction

Light Gray - Surface color Red Crosshatch - 2nd reduction in pressure

White - Atmosphere or Pink - 3rd reduction in pressure


Air (No pressure)

Purple - Pneumatic pressure Red/Pink Stripes - Secondary source oil pressure


- 307 -

Yellow - Moving or activated components Orange - Pilot, charge, or Torque Converter oil

Cat Yellow - (R estricted usage) Orange / White Stripes -


Identification of components Reduced pilot, charge, or TC oil pressure
within a moving group
Orange Crosshatch - 2nd reduction in
Brown - Lubricating oil pilot, charge, or TC oil pressure.

Green - Tank, sump, or return oil Blue - Trapped oil

Green / White Stripes -


Scavenge Oil or Hydraulic Void
Text Reference