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3 просмотров15 страницComportamiento anisotropico del suelo

Mar 22, 2019

Experimental Measurements of the Global Anisotropic Elastic Behaviour

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Comportamiento anisotropico del suelo

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3 просмотров15 страницExperimental Measurements of the Global Anisotropic Elastic Behaviour

Comportamiento anisotropico del suelo

© All Rights Reserved

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00042]

of dry Hostun sand during triaxial tests, and effect of sample

preparation

A . E Z AO U I a n d H . D I B E N E D E T TO

Experimental measurements have been carried out with a Des mesures expérimentales ont été effectuées a l’aide

new, accurate, triaxial device (Triaxial StaDy) to deter- d’un nouveau dispositif triaxial de précision (Triaxial

mine the quasi-elastic properties of dry Hostun sand. The StaDy) afin de déterminer les propriétés quasi-élastiques

experimental investigations consist in successively apply- d’un sable d’Hostun. Les investigations expérimentales

ing very small axial cyclic static loadings (strain single- consistent en l’application successives, a différents niveaux

amplitude cycle, åsa 10–5 m/m) and four types of wave, de contrainte-déformation, de chargements cycliques qua-

generated by piezoelectric sensors (compressive and shear si-statiques de très faibles amplitudes (cycle d’amplitude

waves in the axial and radial directions), at different simple : åsa 1025 m/m), et de quatre types d’onde émises

levels of the stress–strain curve. The use of both static par des capteurs piézoélectriques (ondes de compression et

and dynamic results allows for an entire description of de cisaillement se propageant dans les directions axiales et

the anisotropic elastic compliance tensor at a given radiales). L’utilisation couplée des résultats statiques et

stress–strain state to be made. The evolutions of this dynamiques permet, pour un niveau de contrainte et de

tensor during triaxial loading and unloading are pre- déformation donnée, la description complète du tenseur

sented. The isotropic and deviatoric triaxial stress paths élastique. Sont ensuite présentées les évolutions de ce

considered underline the effects of inherent and induced tenseur au cours des chemins de charge et de décharge

anisotropy respectively. The different methods used to set triaxiale. Les chemins triaxiaux de contraintes isotropes et

the sample involve clearly different kinds of anisotropic déviatoires considérés mettent en évidence respectivement

elastic behaviour, which are probably indicators of differ- les effets de l’anisotropie inhérente et induite. Les

ent granular structure organisations. différentes méthodes utilisées pour la réalisation des

échantillons induisent clairement différents types de com-

KEYWORDS: anisotropy; elastic behaviour; sand; triaxial test; portement anisotrope élastique, indicateurs probables de

wave propagation différentes organisations de la structure granulaire.

Granular materials present complex mechanical behaviour, to perform reliable experiments in the small-strain domain.

including for example stress–strain dependence, large irrever- These studies have shown the existence of a quasi-elastic

sibility, non-linearity and time dependence. They are also domain for geomaterials. Nowadays, this phenomenon is

affected by anisotropic effects. This last phenomenon is due well accepted, and the very small-strain properties can be

to the shape of the particles (if they are non-spherical) and to studied within the framework of elastic theory.

the spatial distributions of interparticle contacts. The first In this context, a new, accurate triaxial device, called a

experimental investigations consisted in highlighting the dif- ‘triaxial StaDy’, has been developed at the Ecole Nationale

ferent responses in terms of stress–strain curves for large des Travaux Publics de l’Etat (ENTPE). It permits investiga-

deformation when loadings in different directions were car- tion of this small strain level, corresponding to the quasi-

ried out (Tatsuoka, 1988; Biarez & Hicher, 1994). Since elastic domain response. This experiment associates four

1990, investigations have been performed on sand, gravel and independent wave propagations (two compressive and two

glass beads to show directly the influence of granular packing shear waves), as well as two independent quasi-static meas-

through quasi-elastic properties, which are observed in the urements. The proposed analysis, which combines dynamic

small-strain domain (up to some 106 m/m) (e.g. Hardin & and quasi-static measurements, permits determination of the

Blandford, 1989; Charif, 1991; Ibrahim & Kagawa, 1991; Di whole anisotropic elastic compliance rheological tensor. This

Benedetto, 1997; Di Benedetto et al., 2001; Kuwano & approach is relatively new; it does not need any change in

Jardine, 2002; Pham Van Bang, 2004; Duttine et al., 2007). the confining pressure, which can remain constant during the

The improvement of laboratory testing systems (Tatsuoka test. This aspect is important, because changes of confining

& Shibuya, 1991; Tatsuoka & Kohata, 1995), such as local pressure may cause difficulties in measurements of radial

strain measurements, the use of high-precision sensors [LDT strain, owing to the effects of membrane deformation and

(Goto et al., 1991) or non-contact sensors] and more penetration.

recently the wide spread of non-destructive wave propagation The experimental programme is performed on dry Hostun

measurements (Viggiani & Atkinson, 1995a, 1995b; Brignoli sand (see below). The experiments in the triaxial ‘StaDy’

et al., 1996; Belloti et al., 1996; Kuwano et al., 1999; device consist in applying isotropic consolidation followed

by conventional triaxial loading, including large cycles of

compression or extension, up to some percent in terms of

Manuscript received 3 April 2007; revised manuscript accepted 8

axial strain. During these stress paths (consolidation and

January 2009. Published online ahead of print 30 March 2009. deviatoric periods) investigations have been carried out at

Discussion on this article is welcomed by the editor. different stress–strain levels (called investigation points) in

Département Génie Civil et Bâtiment, Ecole Nationale des order to determine the elastic tensor. The experimental

Travaux Publics de l’Etat (ENTPE), France. results, including wave propagation and small static cycles

621

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622 EZAOUI & DI BENEDETTO

(sa 105 m/m) are presented later. The procedure permits glued at three points (positioned at 1208) on the specimen

all the terms of the elastic compliance tensor during the (Fig. 1(b)). The supports of the displacement sensors are

consolidation and deviatoric stress periods to be obtained. moved from outside the cell by micrometric screws. This

These stress paths illustrate the effect of stress–strain condi- allows the axial sensors to remain always inside their meas-

tions (shearing) and fabrication methods (isotropic consoli- uring range (1 mm). Two radial displacement sensors (non-

dation) on the elastic tensor, in order to elucidate the role of contact type, 1 mm range) are fixed on movable supports

stress and strain in the mechanism of induced anisotropy, and aimed at sheets of aluminium paper placed in contact

and to quantify the level of initial anisotropy. The classical with sand, on the inner side of the neoprene membrane

hypoelastic framework, which does not consider the strain (0.4 mm thick). The mobility of radial sensors is ensured by

tensor as history parameters, can be improved, based on micromotors controlled from outside the cell.

recent experimental results highlighted and supplemented in A total of seven sensors are used (six identical non-

this paper. contact displacement transducers and one load cell) for local

The originality of the proposed experimental procedure and static accurate measurements. The signals provided by

lies in the combination of information from three different all these sensors are filtered by a four-order low-pass

types of loading: small axial cycles, P-waves and S-waves. analogue filter with cut-off frequency fixed at 7 Hz. The

The results highlight both initial and induced anisotropy. accuracy of axial and radial strain measurements during

The effects of the preparation methods (pluviation, tamping cycles is estimated at less than 106 m/m for axial strain

and vibration) in reconstituting the sample are also dis- and at 0.3 kPa for the axial deviator stress.

cussed. The axial loading system consists of an electromechanical

testing machine, controlled by closed-loop feedback

schemes. The system imposes a loading rate in either stress-

ACCURATE TRIAXIAL DEVICE ‘TRIAXIAL StaDy’ or strain-controlled modes. Air pressure applied in the cell

Static testing system and/or vacuum inside the sample is used for lateral stress.

The apparatus used in the present work is a triaxial The recording of pressure data is ensured by a pressure

prototype recently developed at ENTPE (Fig. 1). It permits transducer. The accuracy of the pressure transducer is esti-

the application of accurate static and dynamic loadings mated at 0.3 kPa.

(Pham Van Bang & Di Benedetto, 2003; Pham Van Bang,

2004; Ezaoui & Di Benedetto, 2006; Ezaoui et al., 2006).

This triaxial device has internal tie bars. A 10 kN load cell Dynamic testing system

is placed inside the pressure cell. The sample is cylindrical, The dynamic testing system consists of five pairs of

with diameter 7 cm and height 14 cm. piezoelectric transducers developed at ISMES (Bergamo,

Two displacement-measuring systems were designed in Italy): three pairs for horizontal propagation and two pairs

order to obtain local measurements of axial and radial for vertical propagation. These two last pairs of transducers

displacements in the central part of the sample. Four axial ((a) and (b) in Fig. 3) are embedded in the pedestals (one

displacement sensors (non-contact type, 1 mm range) are bender element and one compressive transducer in each

fixed on mobile supports and aimed at four aluminium pedestal) (Fig. 2). The bender elements ((b) in Fig. 3) are

targets. These targets are fixed on suspended rings that are used to generate a wave, horizontally polarised, propagating

Vertical non-contact

Sample of Hostun sand displacement sensors

without pedestals (⫻4)

Axial target

(⫻4)

Horizontal

piezoelectric

element (⫻2)

Waves ‘Pr’

Horizontal

piezoelectric

element (⫻2)

Waves ‘Srz’

Rings: support of

axial targets Horizontal

non-contact

displacement

sensors (⫻2)

z

θ

Horizontal

piezoelectric

r element (⫻2)

Waves ‘Srθ’

Local fixation point (2 ⫻ 3)

(a) (b)

Fig. 1. (a) The instrumented sample; (b) schematic view of static and horizontal dynamic measurement systems

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GLOBAL ANISOTROPIC ELASTIC BEHAVIOUR OF DRY HOSTUN SAND 623

Compressive element Porous stone Metallic plate

(in contact with sand)

17 mm 20 mm

Direction

of vibration

11 mm

Bender element

Bender element

Fig. 2. Piezoelectric elements located in the top and bottom cap (glued on plate)

(a)

in the vertical direction (Fig. 3). This dynamic shear mode

gives the wave propagation velocity V Szr (where S indicates

shear mode, z the direction of propagation and r the direc- Membrane

tion of polarisation). These elements have the following Sand

dimensions: height ¼ 2 mm, width ¼ 10 mm and thickness

¼ 1.3 mm. The compressive transducers ((a) in Fig. 3)

generate a compressive wave, vertically polarised, propagat- Metallic plate

ing in the vertical direction. This compressive mode gives (in contact with sand)

the wave propagation velocity V Pz (where P indicates com-

11 mm

pressive mode, and z the direction of propagation). These

transducers, with dimensions thickness ¼ 2 mm and dia-

meter ¼ 8 mm, have a cylindrical shape (for more technical

details of these bender elements and compressive transducers Bender element

(glued on metallic plate)

see Brignoli et al., 1996).

The three pairs of piezoelectric transducers used for

horizontal wave propagation ((c), (d) and (e) in Fig. 3) are

all identical; they are placed along the membrane in order to

generate shear or compressive radial waves (Fioravante & 20 mm

Capoferri, 2001). These arrangements are shown in Figs 1 (b)

and 3. Each transducer is glued onto a metallic plate, which

fits and touches the lateral surface of the specimen. This Fig. 4. (a) Picture and (b) schematic view of horizontal

metallic interface plate (Fig. 4) is placed between the soil transducer system (bender plus interface plate) used to measure

and the membrane. The connection between the interface horizontal shear wave velocities (FBE)

plate and the transducer is ensured by a small hole, 2 mm 3

5 mm, cut in the membrane. The transducer is glued directly transmit the impulse from the transducers into the soil by

to the interface plate through this hole. The interface plates, friction or compression (Fig. 4). The shear mode is produced

whose dimensions are 10 mm width, 17 mm height and by transducers, called frictional bender elements (FBE),

0.1 mm thickness, avoid disturbance of the sample, and glued perpendicularly to the interface plate ((c) and (e) in

(c) Frictional

bender

element

(FBE)

Wave Srz

Wave Pr

(d) Pulsate

bender

element

(PBE)

(a) Wave Srθ

Compressive (b)

piezoelectric Bender

element element

z z

θ (e) Frictional

bender θ

element

(FBE)

r r

Fig. 3. Schematic views of vertical (left) and horizontal (right) dynamic loading systems

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624 EZAOUI & DI BENEDETTO

Fig. 3). Two kinds of shear wave, propagating along the

radial direction, are generated: one is horizontally polarised

and the other is vertically polarised (Fig. 3). These dynamic

shear modes give the wave propagation velocities, denoted

V SrŁ and V Srz (where S indicates shear mode, r the direction

of propagation and z or Ł the direction of polarisation). The

compressive mode is produced by transducer called a pulsate

bender element (PBE), glued longitudinally to the interface

plate ((d) in Fig. 3). The PBE generates compressive waves,

horizontally polarised, propagating in the horizontal direc-

tion. This dynamic compressive mode gives the wave propa-

gation velocity, denoted V Pr (where P indicates the shear

mode, and r the direction of propagation).

The piezoelectric transducers are used within a dynamic

testing chain. The first element of this chain is a function

generator, which produces the excitation signal. The gener-

300 µm

ated signal is a single sine wave, with amplitude of 20 V

(a)

peak to peak, and frequencies ranging from 5 to 25 kHz

(depending on the sensor). The single sine wave is repeated

at a frequency of 10 Hz. After crossing the sample, the Sieving method

100

waves activate the corresponding receiver, whose signal is

amplified (for the compressive transducers embedded into

the pedestals, the amplification is applied just before the 80

transmitter sensor). The recording is carried out by an

Percent finer: %

oscilloscope with sampling rate of 106 samples per second. 60

An average is made of 256 impulses. During this experi-

mental campaign, two or three different frequencies are used

for each kind of wave, in order to improve determination of 40

the corresponding wave travel time. This method avoids

errors due to near-field effects, compressive wave perturba- 20

tions, or the influence of the principal mode of vibration

(Viggiani & Atkinson, 1995a). This point is discussed later.

0

1 0·1

MATERIAL AND PROCEDURES

Diameter of grains: mm

The tested material is air-dried, poorly graded sand called

(b)

Hostun sand, from its original location in France. This sand

is quartz dominated. Grading curves and grading character- Fig. 5. (a) View of particles of Hostun sand; (b) particle size

istics are reported in Fig. 5 and Table 1. Fig. 5 presents the distribution obtained by sieving method

size distribution of particles obtained by the classical sieving

method (Fig. 5(b)) and typical particles viewed under an

optical microscope (Fig. 5(a)). Fig. 5(a) shows the sub- Table 1. Index properties of tested Hostun sand: sieving method

angular shape of the particles of Hostun sand.

In order to investigate the influence of sample preparation, Property Value

three methods are considered in the present study: (a) simple

air pluviation; (b) vibration; and (c) tamping. For the three Specific gravity, rs 2.65

Size, D10 : mm 0.26

fabrication methods, the mould is filled in seven layers by

Size, D30 : mm 0.32

air pluviation. For each layer, the drop height of sand is kept Size, D60 : mm 0.37

constant (close to zero) to achieve uniform density in the Uniformity coefficient, Cu 1.42

specimens. Curvature coefficient, Cc † 1.06

For each layer of sand, the subsequent step depends on Maximum void ratio, emax ‡ 0.648

the chosen fabrication method, as follows. Minimum void ratio, emin ‡ 1.041

(a) For the simple pluviation method, nothing is applied Dx defined by x% passing particle size.

after the sand pluviation. Rather loose samples are thus Coefficient of uniformity C ¼ D /D .

u 60 10

created. † Coefficient of curvature Cc ¼ (D30 )2 /(D10 D60 ).

(b) For the vibration method, small blows are applied on ‡ From Flavigny et al. (1990).

the mould. This method leads to rather dense samples.

(c) For the tamping method, the layer is vertically

compacted using a small cylindrical weight. A rather

After fabrication, and application of vacuum inside the

dense arrangement of the particles is also involved in

specimen up to 25 kPa, the mould is removed and the

this procedure.

sample is fully instrumented. It is then isotropically consoli-

These preparation methods are classical, and are widely used dated from 25 kPa to 400 kPa. During this consolidation

in geotechnical laboratories. The granular arrangements ob- period, and during the subsequent deviatoric loading paths,

tained (see Table 2) correspond, respectively, to rather loose various investigations in the small-strain domain, sum-

samples with initial void ratios e0 (after fabrication at an marised below, are performed.

initial depression of 25 kPa) close to 0.81 (relative density For each of the three fabrication methods used, one

Dr ¼ 58%), and rather dense samples with e0 close to 0.74 triaxial extension and one triaxial compression test with

(Dr ¼ 79%). loading and unloading stress paths are considered in this

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GLOBAL ANISOTROPIC ELASTIC BEHAVIOUR OF DRY HOSTUN SAND 625

Table 2. Test characteristics

stress, q pressure: kPa method investigation points

TE_H400.80p Dry Hostun sand 400 Pluviation 0.80 9

TC_H400.73p+v Dry Hostun sand + 400 Vibration 0.732 10

TE_H400.74p+v Dry Hostun sand 400 Vibration 0.743 8

TC_H400.74p+t Dry Hostun sand + 400 Tamping 0.735 8

TE_H400.73p+t Dry Hostun sand 400 Tamping 0.726 10

TC, triaxial compression test; TE, triaxial extension test; H, Hostun sand; 400, confining pressure in kPa; .xx, void ratio e ¼ 0.xx at initial

0

state (25 kPa); p, for pluviation fabrication method; p+v, vibration method; p+t, tamping method.

paper. The characteristics of the six tests performed are Benedetto (2006). Creep is imposed to reach a ‘stable’

summarised in Table 2. stress–strain state, where the strain level varies very little

Loading paths for the two types of test (triaxial compres- with time, which means that the viscous effects become

sion and triaxial extension) are illustrated schematically in negligible. From this state, the elastic properties are more

Fig. 6. At different stress levels (investigation points) during easily determined.

the isotropic consolidation period and deviatoric stress paths, Despite different fabrication methods, the two dense sam-

small-strain investigations are performed in the quasi-static ples present very similar global behaviours for triaxial

and dynamic modes. Four steps are repeated successively, as compression (TC) tests in the different axes (Figs 7(a) to

follows. 7(d)). The third sample, obtained by pluviation, presents the

characteristics of a looser sample, with a more contractive

(a) The sample is loaded or unloaded at constant stress rate

volumetric response and lower stress ratio R (R ¼ z / r )

until an investigation point is reached. Some investiga-

than the two dense samples. For triaxial extension (TE) tests,

tion points are indicated in Fig. 6 (numbered from 0 to

a higher contractive volumetric response and a smaller

8 or 10).

deviator stress (absolute value) are obtained, as expected for

(b) A creep period is imposed (between 2 and 3 h).

the rather loose sample. The two dense samples present

(c) P- and S-waves are emitted, and recorded in the vertical

similar curves in extension tests in the axes ( z , q), but

and horizontal directions.

reveal some differences in terms of volumetric response.

(d ) Small, axial, quasi-static cycles are applied. The cycles

Other extension tests, which are not presented in this paper,

are strain-controlled, and the axial single-strain ampli-

also show this slight difference in terms of volumetric

tude z s a (half peak-to-peak value) is about 105 m/m.

evolution. This is not explained, but may be due to fabrica-

The three fabrication methods involve different global tion differences.

stress–strain behaviours. The results are plotted in Fig. 7: For TC tests, it can be checked that the transition between

(a) deviator stress q against axial strain z ; (b) deviator the contractive domain (at the beginning of the test) and the

stress q against mean pressure p; (c) volumetric strain vol dilative domain (for larger strain), which corresponds to the

against axial strain z ; and (d) volumetric strain vol horizontal tangent of the curve of volume variation against

against mean pressure p. The creep effects, as observed in axial strain (@vol /@ z ¼ 0) is obtained at a constant stress

Figs 7(a) and 7(d), show that a viscous effect does exist ratio for the three specimens (Figs 7(a) and 7(d)). This stress

for dry sand. Analysis of the viscous behaviour is outside ratio (Rc ) corresponds to the characteristic state as intro-

the scope of this paper: for more information the reader is duced by Kirkpatrick (1961) and developed by Luong (1978,

referred to Di Benedetto et al. (2002, 2003) and Di 1980). The calculated average value of the characteristic

Triaxial

q: kPa

Investigation point

q: kPa

and wave propagations

7

Creep periods

7

6

Isotropic

consolidation 8 8

6

5

9 5 9

Triaxial

1 2 3 4 compression test

10 4 10

0 8 400 8 0

0 p: kPa 0 εz: %

5 7 5

7

Triaxial

6 6 extension test

Triaxial

extension test

(a) (b)

Fig. 6. Schematic representation of (a) stress and (b) stress–strain paths plotted as deviator stress q against mean pressure p

and against axial strain å z , applied during triaxial extension (TE) and triaxial compression (TC) tests. Numbers 1 to 8 and 1

to 10 indicate investigation points for TE and TC tests respectively

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626 EZAOUI & DI BENEDETTO

1600 1600

TC/TE: simple pluviation

TC/TE: vibration

Example of

TC/TE: tamping

1200 investigation 1200

point

Example of Characteristic state

800 creep period 800 (TC tests)

q: kPa

q: kPa

Characteristic states

(TC tests)

400 400

0 0

⫺400 ⫺400

⫺0·02 ⫺0·01 0 0·01 0·02 0·03 200 400 600 800 1000

εz: m/m p: kPa

(a) (b)

Characteristic state

states

(TC tests)

0·005 0·005

0 0

Example of

Example of

εvol: m/m

Example of

εvol: m/m

creep period investigation

⫺0·005 point ⫺0·005

point

⫺0·010 ⫺0·010

TC/TE: vibration

TC/TE: tamping

⫺0·020 ⫺0·020

⫺0·02 ⫺0·01 0 0·01 0·02 0·03 200 400 600 800 1000

εz: m/m p: kPa

(c) (d)

Fig. 7. Global stress and strain curves: (a) deviator stress q against axial strain å z ; (b) deviator stress q against mean

pressure p; c volumetric strain åvol against axial strain å z ; (d) volumetric strain åvol against mean pressure p. Triaxial tests:

TC_H400.82p, TE_H400.80p, TC_H400.73p+v, TE_H400.74p+v, TC_H400.74p+t, TE_H400.73p+t

friction angle is about 318, which is expected for Hostun pressure. The slopes of the linear fitting of the cycles on

sand (Mokham, 1983). the axes ˜z , ˜r (Fig. 8(b)) directly give Poisson’s ratios

rz . This ratio is rather constant during the isotropic

consolidation (Fig. 8(b)).

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS IN THE SMALL-STRAIN

DOMAIN

The investigations in the small-strain domain consist in Dynamic measurements

applying small, axial, quasi-static cyclic loadings at different The ‘flying’ time of four independent waves generated by

stress levels and measuring wave propagation velocities the system presented previously (Fig. 3) is measured. Exam-

through the sample (an example of an investigation point is ples of typical recorded signals are presented in Fig. 9. The

given in Fig. 7). four signals in Figs 9(a)–(d) correspond to records of vertical

compressive waves (Pz ), vertical shear waves (Szr ), horizontal

compressive waves (Pr ) and horizontal shear waves (S rŁ )

Static measurements respectively (test TE_H400.73p+t). Dynamic measurements

Examples of small, quasi-static axial cyclic loadings (the provide the velocity of each type of wave, deduced from the

radial stress is held constant) obtained during the isotropic corresponding travel distance and travel time (t p or t s ), as

consolidation period from 100 kPa to 400 kPa are presented indicated in Fig. 9. The determination of this travel time

in Fig. 8 for test TE_H400.74p+t. The single amplitude of depends on the type of waves considered. For the compres-

the axial strain ( z s a ) is about 105 m/m. In this range, the sive waves (vertical, Fig. 9(a), or horizontal, Fig. 9(c)), which

sand can be considered as quasi-elastic or elastic, as shown are the fastest, the arrival time coincides with the first

in previous studies (e.g. Tatsuoka & Shibuya, 1991; deflection of the signal. The travel time decreases with the

Sauzéat, 2003; Duttine, 2005). The stress–strain loops confining pressure, indicating that the stiffness is increasing,

plotted in Fig. 8 on the axes z , q confirm this hypothesis. which is a classical result, already shown in Fig. 8(a).

The areas of the cycles are very small, indicating small The shear waves are slower, and it is more difficult to

damping (Di Benedetto, 1997; Duttine, 2005). The data of determine the arrival time. As already pointed out by various

Fig. 8 allow us to identify Young’s modulus in the vertical authors (e.g. Viggiani & Atkinson, 1995a; Brignoli et al.,

direction (Ez ) and Poisson’s ratio in the direction rz ( rz ). 1996; Jovicic et al., 1996; Modoni et al., 2000), the shear

The slopes of the linear fitting of the cycles on the axes wave propagation signal is modified, owing to near-field

˜ z , ˜q (Fig. 8(a)) give the Young’s moduli Ez directly. effects. The typical waveform, with a large deflection before

This modulus increases significantly with the confining the arrival of the shear wave signal (caused by the near-field

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GLOBAL ANISOTROPIC ELASTIC BEHAVIOUR OF DRY HOSTUN SAND 627

Isotropic stress state: 100 kPa 411

360 waves is presented in the next section. These velocities are

8 Isotropic stress state: 200 kPa

Isotropic stress state: 300 kPa 302

then linked to the mechanical behaviour of the soil using a

Isotropic stress state: 400 kPa transverse isotropic assumption described subsequently.

6 Linear fit

217

PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING ELASTIC TENSOR M

∆q: kPa

Transverse isotropic elastic behaviour is assumed. In the

Ez: MPa small-strain domain (sa 105 m/m) this assumption is an

2

appropriate approximation for triaxial test conditions. Then

the elastic compliance tensor M, taken as symmetrical,

0 linking the strain increment ˜å to the stress increment ˜ó,

is written in equation (3), in terms of the sample axes (r, Ł,

0 1·0 ⫻ 10⫺5 2·0 ⫻ 10⫺5 z) (shown in Fig. 1(b), with symmetry around the vertical

∆εz: m/m axis z). The last two relations, ˜ rŁ ¼ (1 þ rr =E r )˜ rŁ and

(a) ˜ zŁ ¼ (1=2G)˜ zŁ , are obtained with the same set of

parameters as used in equation (3).

4·0 ⫻ 10⫺6 Isotropic stress state: 100 kPa The tensor M is then completely characterised by five

Isotropic stress state: 200 kPa independent elastic parameters: E r , Ez , rz , rr and G. The

Isotropic stress state: 300 kPa procedure to determine these elastic parameters, using both

Isotropic stress state: 400 kPa

2·0 ⫻ 10⫺6 Linear fit

static and dynamic experimental results, is explained in the

following sections.

0 1

˜ r

∆εr: m/m

0 B C

B ˜ C

B r C

νrz ⬃ 0·2 ˜å ¼ M:˜ó ) B B

C

C

B ˜ z C

⫺2·0 ⫻ 10 ⫺6 @ A

pﬃﬃﬃ

2:˜ rz

0 1

1 rr rz

⫺4·0 ⫻ 10⫺6 0

⫺1·0 ⫻ 10⫺5 0 1·0 ⫻ 10⫺5 B Er Er Ez C0 1 (3)

∆εz: m/m B C ˜ r

B C

(b) B rr 1 rz CB C

B 0 C B ˜ C

B Er E E C B r C

B r z CB C

Fig. 8. Examples of very small, quasi-static axial cyclic loadings ¼B C:B

during isotropic consolidation period (test TE_H400.74p+t): B rz rz 1 C B ˜ z C C

B C

0 C@ A

(a) ˜q against ˜å z ; (b) ˜å r against ˜å z B E Ez Ez p ﬃﬃﬃ

B z C

B C 2:˜ rz

@ 1 A

0 0 0

effect), can be observed in Fig. 9(d). This perturbation 2G

seems to be linked to the number N, defined by

D

N¼ (1) Interpretation of dynamic results

º Interpretation of the dynamic results is based on the

where D is the travel distance, equal for horizontally propa- theory of plane wave propagation through an elastic con-

gating waves to the diameter of the specimen (7 cm), and º tinuum medium. In terms of the notation introduced above,

is the wavelength. The effective travel length is the shortest the following equations can be written for vertical (direction

distance between the elements (Viggiani & Atkinson, z) (equations (4) and (5)) and horizontal (direction r)

1995a). The wavelength is calculated from (equations (6) and (7)) propagation of plane waves in a

VS semi-infinite transverse isotropic elastic material

º¼ (2) 2

f out P 2 Edyn

z dyn

rr 1

r V z ¼ dyn (4)

where VS is the velocity of the shear wave being considered, rr 1 Edyn 2 dyn

z þ 2 rz E r

and fout is the predominant output frequency. When consider- 2

ing an input frequency of 5 kHz, N for the radial shear wave r V Szr ¼ Gdyn rz (5)

is close to 1 (the predominant output frequency fout is close 2 2rz Edyn dyn

r Ez

to 4 kHz, as determined by fast Fourier transform). This r V Pr ¼ Edyn

r dyn 2

(6)

small value of N can explain the typical waveform observed 2rr 1 E z þ 2 rz 1 þ dyn

dyn dyn

rr E r

in Fig. 9(d). Increasing the input frequency implies higher 2 Edyn

values for N, which means the influence of near-field effects r V SrŁ ¼ r dyn (7)

is reduced. This is why different input frequencies (from 5 2 1 þ rr

to 20 kHz) have been used for each investigation point, in

order to improve the determination of arrival time. Taking For reasons of clarity, the five parameters E r , Ez , rz , rr

the phenomenon of the near-field effect into account, the and G (equation (3)) are denoted in equations (4) to (7) by

r , E z , rz , rr and G rz . These two sets of parameters

dyn

chosen arrival time coincides with the top or bottom of the Edyn dyn dyn dyn

first large deflection of the recorded signal (Figs 9(b) and are the same if the considered hypotheses are valid. The

9(d)). The same procedure has been applied for radial and superscript ‘dyn’ merely indicates that the elastic parameters

axial shear waves. are inferred from dynamic loadings.

The evolution of the velocities of compressive and shear Values of wave velocities during isotropic consolidation

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628 EZAOUI & DI BENEDETTO

Wave Pz — isotropic stress state: 100 kPa Wave Szr — isotropic stress state: 100 kPa

Wave Pz — isotropic stress state: 200 kPa Wave Szr — isotropic stress state: 200 kPa

0·015 0·015 Wave Szr — isotropic stress state: 300 kPa

Wave Pz — isotropic stress state: 300 kPa

Wave Pz — isotropic stress state: 400 kPa Wave Szr — isotropic stress state: 400 kPa

0·010 0·010 t Szr

t Pz t⫽0

t⫽0

0·005 t Pz 0·005 t Szr

Signal: V

Signal: V

t Pz t Szr

0 0

t Pz t Szr

⫺0·005 ⫺0·005

⫺0·010 ⫺0·010

Pz: input frequency ⫽ 20 kHz Szr: input frequency ⫽ 10 kHz

⫺0·015 ⫺0·015

0 100 200 300 400 0 200 400 600 800

Time: µs Time: µs

(a) (b)

Wave Pr — isotropic stress state: 100 kPa Wave Srθ — isotropic stress state: 100 kPa

Wave Pr — isotropic stress state: 200 kPa Wave Srθ — isotropic stress state: 200 kPa

0·0050 Wave Pr — isotropic stress state: 300 kPa Wave Srθ — isotropic stress state: 300 kPa

Wave Pr — isotropic stress state: 400 kPa Wave Srθ — isotropic stress state: 400 kPa

t Pr 0·005 t Sr θ

t⫽0 t⫽0

0·0025

t Pr t Sr θ

Signal: V

Signal: V

0 0

t Pr t Sr θ

t Pr t Sr θ

⫺0·0025

⫺0·005

Pr: input frequency ⫽ 20 kHz Srθ: input frequency ⫽ 5 kHz

⫺0·0050

0 100 200 0 200 400

Time: µs Time: µs

(c) (d)

Fig. 9. Recorded signals and wave arrival times t indicated by arrows, during isotropic consolidation period, for waves propagating

vertically and horizontally (test TE_H400.73p+t). Travel time t is obtained using differing input frequencies

are presented in Fig. 10 for the tests under consideration. the increment ˜z (˜ rs a ¼ 0), which gives directly the

Figs 10(a), 10(b) and 10(c) show the velocities of vertical elastic parameters Estat

z and stat

rz (equations (8) and (9))

and radial compressive and shear waves for the three shown in Figs 8(a) and 8(b).

fabrication methods used, simple pluviation, vibration and

tamping, respectively. Good repeatability of the velocity ˜ z

Estat

z ¼ (8)

measurements can be inferred from Fig. 10. In each figure, ˜ z

good agreement can be seen for the wave velocities obtained ˜ r

during the isotropic consolidation stress paths of the TC and stat ¼ (9)

rz

˜ z

TE tests, which are identical. The data presented in Fig. 10

also make it possible to distinguish some differences among For reasons of clarity, these two statically determined elastic

the three fabrication methods. For example, in Figs 10(a) parameters are denoted by Estat and stat

z rz . They are equal to

and 10(b) (pluviation and vibration respectively), the fastest the parameters Ez and rz (equation (3)). The superscript

wave is the horizontal compressive wave, whereas it is the ‘stat’ merely indicates that they are obtained from static

vertical compressive wave in Fig. 10(c) (tamping). The loadings, which do not require any assumptions. They are

anisotropic behaviour observed in Fig. 10 and the differences used hereafter as reference data, introduced to solve the set

among the fabrication methods are analysed subsequently, in of equations (4) to (7) obtained from dynamic analysis.

terms of elastic moduli.

The experimental set of dynamic wave measurements (V Pz ,

V Pr , V Szr , V SrŁ ) associated with equations (4) to (7) is not Resolution of the system (equations (4) to (7))

sufficient to determine the five unknown parameters of the To solve the system made up of equations (4) to (7), the

elastic tensor (equation (3)). Resolution of the system six known sets of experimental data (static and dynamic are

requires more data, which are provided by the static meas- combined) have been used, as follows.

urements.

(a) For each investigation point, the system of equations

(4) to (7) is solved by modifying the value of dynrr

Interpretation of quasi-static investigations (from 0.00 to 0.5).

The quasi-static cyclic loadings consist in applying small (b) For each value of dynrr , the two parameters of the

z , rz ) are compared with the

dynamic solutions (Edyn dyn

vertical stress cycles of single amplitude ˜z s a . Considering

the elastic behaviour hypothesis, ˜z s a can be assimilated to static measurements (E z , stat

stat

rz ).

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GLOBAL ANISOTROPIC ELASTIC BEHAVIOUR OF DRY HOSTUN SAND 629

600

takes into account the better accuracy in obtaining Young’s

modulus values. (The relative accuracy for the axial Young

modulus can be estimated at 5–7% for the Triaxial StaDy,

whereas the relative accuracy for Poisson’s ratio is estimated

at 20–22%. The ratio between these values is 3, which

Wave velocity: m/s

400

explains the chosen factor.)

The elastic parameters (Edyn z , rz ) obtained for the six

dyn

Tests: TE_H400·80p/TC_H400·819p

the system (equations (4) to (7)) are plotted in Fig. 11

V Pz

200 against the corresponding static elastic parameters (Estat z ,

V Pr stat

rz ). Fig. 11 shows good agreement between the static and

V Szr dynamic results in terms of Young’s vertical moduli (Fig.

V Srθ 11(a)) and Poisson’s ratios (Fig. 11(b)). Little dispersion can

0

be seen in Fig. 11, and the coefficients of correlation be-

0 100 200 300 400 tween the static and dynamic results are very close to 1. The

σz ⫽ σr: kPa relevant agreement between the different types of measure-

(a) ment (static and dynamic) for the two elastic parameters

considered (Ez and rz ) partially validate the adopted proce-

600 dure. Evolution of the full set of elastic components (Edyn r ,

z , rz , rr , G rz ) during isotropic and deviatoric stress

dyn

Edyn dyn dyn

Wave velocity: m/s

400

INITIAL ANISOTROPY AND EVOLUTION DURING

ISOTROPIC CONSOLIDATION

Figure 12 presents the evolutions of Young’s moduli E r

Tests: TE_H400·743p⫹v/TC_H400·732p⫹v and Ez , as well as shear modulus G, during isotropic

200 V Pz

V Pr 1000

Experimental data (54 points)

V Szr Linear fit (R2 ⫽ 0·99)

⫾5%

V Srθ 800

0

0 100 200 300 400

σz ⫽ σr: kPa

z : MPa

600

(b)

E dyn

400 y ⫽ 1·00x

600

200

Wave velocity: m/s

400 0

0 200 400 600 800 1000

E stat

z : MPa

(a)

Tests: TE_H400·726p⫹t/TC_H400·735p⫹t

200 V Pz

0·4

Experimental data (54 points) ⫾15%

V Pr

Linear fit (R2 ⫽ 0·97)

V Szr

V Srθ 0·3

0

0 100 200 300 400

σz ⫽ σr: kPa

ν dyn

0·2

rz

(c)

y ⫽ 1·01x

Fig. 10. Evolutions of compressive and shear wave velocities for

vertical and horizontal propagation during isotropic consolida-

tion: (a) simple pluviation; (b) vibration; (c) tamping 0·1

following error function (equation (10)) is proposed. 0

When this function is a minimum, the value of dyn rr is

0 0·1 0·2 0·3 0·4

chosen and the corresponding dynamic elastic para- ν stat

rz

meters are maintained. (b)

dyn dyn !

dyn dyn E z Estat rz stat Fig. 11. Comparison between the dynamic and static elastic

E z , rz ¼ 3 z þ

rz =4 (10)

stat

Ez rz

stat parameters, (a) Young’s modulus Ez and (b) Poisson’s ratio

í zr , obtained after resolution of equations (4) to (7) and data

from quasi-static measurements (all data from tests

The weighting factor 3, applied to the relative difference TC_H400.82p, TE_H400.80p, TC_H400.73p+v, TE_H400.74p+v,

between the two Young’s moduli (static and dynamic values), TC_H400.74p+t, TE_H400.73p+t)

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630 EZAOUI & DI BENEDETTO

450 200

E dyn

z

Gdyn

400 Linear fit

E dyn

r

350 Linear fit 150

E dyn: MPa

Gdyn: MPa

250 Slope ⫽ 0·44 100 Slope ⫽ 0·22

Slope ⫽ 0·45

200

150 TC_H400·82p/TE_H400·80p TC_H400·82p/TE_H400·80p

50

50 100 500 10 000 100 000

σz ⫽ σr: kPa σz ⫽ σr: kPa

(a) (b)

500

E dyn

z Gdyn

200

450 E dyn

r

Linear fit

Linear fit

400

150

E dyn: MPa

Gdyn: MPa

350 Initial anisotropy

Slope ⫽ 0·22

300 Slope ⫽ 0·45

Slope ⫽ 0·43 100

TC_H400·73p⫹v/TE_H400·74p⫹v TC_H400·73p⫹v/TE_H400·74p⫹v

σz ⫽ σr: kPa σz ⫽ σr: kPa

(c) (d)

450 200

E dyn

z Gdyn

Linear fit

400 E dyn

r

Linear fit

350 150

E dyn: MPa

Gdyn: MPa

Initial anisotropy

300

Slope ⫽ 0·44 Slope ⫽ 0·22

250 100

Slope ⫽ 0·43

TC_H400·74p⫹t/TE_H400·73p⫹t TC_H400·74p⫹t/TE_H400·73p⫹t

200

100 200 300 400 500 10 000 100 000

σz ⫽ σr: kPa σz ⫽ σr: kPa

(e) (f)

Fig. 12. Evolution of Young’s moduli Ez and Er and shear modulus G during isotropic consolidation for: (a), (b) simple

pluviation; (c), (d) vibration; (e), (f) tamping

consolidation for the three fabrication methods used. Fig. 13 (r or z), fabrication method, or initial void ratio. This slope

presents the evolution of Poisson’s ratios rr and rz during is close to 0.44 for E r and Ez (Figs 12(a), 12(c) and 12(e)),

isotropic consolidation. For both Fig. 12 and Fig. 13 the data and equal to 0.44/2 ¼ 0.22 for G (Figs 10(b), 10(d) and

from the two tests (TC and TE), which follow the same 10(f)). Figs 12(a), 12(c) and 12(e) also show that the three

isotropic consolidation stress path, are presented. Little fabrication methods involve initial anisotropy, which can be

dispersion could be noted for Young’s moduli, or even for characterised by the ratio Ez /E r presented in Table 3.

Poisson’s ratios, obtained during the consolidation period of The method used to prepare the specimen seems to affect

the two tests (TC and TE). The results show a good the aggregate organisation (distribution of interparticle con-

repeatability of the tests. tacts), which is the source of the anisotropic behaviour

The stress level dependence of each modulus is clearly (taking into account the rather spherical shape of the parti-

shown in Fig. 12. The slope of the linear fit (logarithmic cles, as mentioned before). Vertical Young’s moduli (Ez ) are

scale) is reasonably constant for Young’s moduli (E) and slightly lower than radial Young’s moduli (E r ) (by about

shear moduli (G), independently of the direction considered 10%) for the simple pluviation and vibration methods. These

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GLOBAL ANISOTROPIC ELASTIC BEHAVIOUR OF DRY HOSTUN SAND 631

0·4

ν dyn

rz

results are in accordance with those obtained previously on

triaxial apparatus equipped with bender elements (Chaudary

ν dyn

rr et al., 2004) and on hollow cylinder apparatus (Anhdan &

0·3 Koseki, 2005). The experiments from these authors show

higher values of radial Young’s modulus for isotropic stress

paths in Toyoura sand (poorly graded and sub-angular parti-

cles, D50 ¼ 0.19 mm). In these studies, the differences be-

νdyn

samples obtained by air pluviation are respectively 28% and

20%, which is higher than the authors’ results.

0·1 Work on fabrication methods by Ibrahim & Kagawa

Isotropic stress state

(1991) and Mulilis et al. (1977), using statistical orientation

TC_H400·82p/TE_H400·80p

of contacts between aggregates (measured by microscope

after hardening the samples with polyester resin), underlines

0

0 100 200 300 400

the existence of initial anisotropy for samples of sand. It

σz ⫽ σr: kPa

shows that significant differences in the orientation of inter-

(a)

particle contact planes exist for samples prepared by pluvia-

tion, vibration and moist tamping.

0·4 Mulilis et al. (1977) obtained, for pluviation and vibra-

ν dyn

rz

tion, a higher stiffness in directions close to the horizontal (r

ν dyn

rr

in Figs 1 and 3). In the case of moist tamping, they show a

0·3 higher stiffness in directions close to the vertical (z in Figs 1

and 3). The same tendencies were observed by Ibrahim &

Kagawa (1991). These results are relevant to the observa-

tions from Figs 12(a), 12(c) and 12(e), which show, respec-

νdyn

direction (E r ) for pluviation and vibration, and higher in the

vertical direction (Ez ) for tamping.

It can be seen from Figs 12(a), 12(c), 12(e) and Fig. 13

0·1

respectively that the ratios Ez /E r and rz / rr are fairly

Isotropic stress state

constant during isotropic consolidation (Table 3). The iso-

TC_H400·73p⫹v/TE_H400·74p⫹v

tropic consolidation period involves an increase in the stiff-

0 ness of the sample, but it does not seem to affect the

0 100 200 300 400

rearrangement of the granular structure very much.

σz ⫽ σr: kPa

Poisson’s ratios ( rr and rz ) presented in Fig. 13 for the

(b)

three fabrication methods are fairly constant during isotropic

0·4 consolidation (cf. Fig. 8). Nevertheless, their values seem to

ν dyn

rz depend on the fabrication methods. For simple pluviation

ν dyn

and vibration, the average values obtained for rr and rz

rr

are close to 0.2 and higher. For tamping, the values for rz

0·3

are close to 0.2 but smaller, and for rr are close to 0.1.

These considerations for Young’s moduli (Ez , E r ) and

Poisson’s ratios ( rr , rz ) quantify the initial anisotropy

νdyn

0·1

INDUCED ANISOTROPY

Isotropic stress state

TC_H400·74p⫹t/TE_H400·73p⫹t

After isotropic consolidation, large triaxial extension or

compression loading cycles (up to some percent of axial

0 strain) are applied (cf. Fig. 7). The elastic parameters

0 100 200 300 400

obtained at each investigation point are presented in Figs 14

σz ⫽ σr: kPa

(c)

and 15. Evolutions of Young’s moduli Ez and E r with axial

stress z ( r ¼ const. ¼ 400 kPa) are shown in Figs 14(a),

Fig. 13. Evolution of Poisson’s ratios í rz and í rr during 14(c) and 14(e); evolutions of Poisson’s ratios rz and rr

isotropic consolidation for: (a) simple pluviation; (b) vibration; with axial stress are reported in Figs 14(b), 14(d) and 14(f);

(c) tamping and evolutions of shear modulus G are reported in Fig. 15.

Table 3. Quantification of anisotropy during isotropic consolidation (mean values and standard deviations)

Pluviation Isotropic Hostun sand 0.81 0.01 0.89 0.03 1.23 0.47

Vibration Isotropic Hostun sand 0.74 0.01 0.91 0.03 1.09 0.38

Tamping Isotropic Hostun sand 0.73 0.01 1.11 0.03 1.68 0.30

Triaxial apparatus.

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632 EZAOUI & DI BENEDETTO

700 0·4

E dyn

z ν dyn

rz ν dyn

rr

rr ) (slope ⫽ 0)

600 r

0·3

500 Induced anisotropy

E dyn: MPa

y ⫽ 0·191

νdyn

400 0·2

300

0·1 TE test TC test

200 Deviatoric stress state (σr ⫽ 400 kPa) Deviatoric stress state (σr ⫽ 400 kPa)

TC_H400·82p/TE_H400·80p TC_H400·82p/TE_H400·80p

TE test TC test

100 0

200 400 600 800 1000 1200 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400

σz : kPa σz : kPa

(a) (b)

900 0·4

E dyn

z ν dyn ν dyn

rz rr

800 E dyn

r

Linear fit (ν dyn

rr ) (slope ⫽ 0)

700 0·3

600

E dyn: MPa

Induced anisotropy

y ⫽ 0·198

νdyn

500 0·2

400

300 0·1

Deviatoric stress state (σr ⫽ 400 kPa) TE test TC test Deviatoric stress state (σr ⫽ 400 kPa)

200

TC_H400·73p⫹v/TE_H400·74p⫹v TC_H400·73p⫹v/TE_H400·74p⫹v

TE test TC test

100 0

200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600

σz : kPa σz : kPa

(c) (d)

900 0·4

E dyn

z ν dyn ν dyn

rz rr

800 E dyn

r Linear fit (ν dyn

rr ) (slope ⫽ 0)

700 0·3

600

E dyn: MPa

νdyn

400

Deviatoric stress state (σr ⫽ 400 kPa) Deviatoric stress state (σr ⫽ 400 kPa)

200 TE test TC test

TC_H400·74p⫹t/TE_H400·73p⫹t TC_H400·74p⫹t/TE_H400·73p⫹t

TE test TC test

100 0

200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600

σz : kPa σz : kPa

(e) (f)

Fig. 14. Evolution of Young’s moduli Ez and E r and Poisson’s ratios í rz and írr , during deviatoric stress paths for: (a), (b)

simple pluviation; (c), (d) vibration; (e), (f) tamping

The evolution trends for Young’s moduli appear to be tween the stress in a given direction and the associated

independent of the fabrication method used. Young’s modulus in that direction.

From Figs 14(a), 14(c) and 14(e) it can be seen that the From Figs 14(b), 14(d) and 14(f) it can be seen that

axial Young’s modulus Ez increases strongly during compres- Poisson’s ratio rz increases or decreases with an increase or

sion test, and decreases during the extension test, and that decrease of the axial stress respectively. Poisson’s ratio rr

the horizontal Young’s modulus E r is fairly constant. The maintains a fairly constant value over these stress paths.

ratio Ez /E r varies from 0.5 to 2, which reveals a high level From Fig. 15 it can be seen that the shear modulus

of material anisotropy for high deviatoric values. increases or decreases strongly with an increase or decrease

Young’s modulus Ei in a direction i is related mainly to of the stress product respectively. Nevertheless, this increase

the stress i in this direction. These results are consistent (or decrease) is not as important, relatively speaking, as

with those proposed for Toyoura sand by Hoque (1996) and those observed for the axial Young modulus with axial

Hoque & Tatsuoka (1998), which highlighted the link be- stress, unlike the evolution of these two parameters over the

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GLOBAL ANISOTROPIC ELASTIC BEHAVIOUR OF DRY HOSTUN SAND 633

250

during the unloading stress path (Figs 14(a), 14(c) and

Gdyn

14(e)). After the triaxial compression test (during the un-

loading stress path), the moduli Ez are slightly higher and

the moduli E r slightly lower than those previously deter-

200 mined during the first TC loading for the same stress state.

An opposite tendency is obtained during reloading after a

G: MPa

It appears that in a given direction (horizontal or vertical

150 in our case), for a given stress state, Young’s modulus is

Deviatoric stress state (σr ⫽ 400 kPa) greater or smaller if the deviatoric strain value is higher or

TC_H400·82p/TE_H400·80p smaller, respectively, in that direction. Interparticle contacts

have probably been created (erased) in that given direction.

TE test TC test These conclusions are consistent with the results obtained

100

8·0 ⫻ 104 1·6 ⫻ 104 2·4 ⫻ 104 3·2 ⫻ 104 4·0 ⫻ 104 4·8 ⫻ 104 for two-dimensional materials by Cambou & Michel (2001),

σz · σr: kPa which show a relative increase in the number of interparticle

(a) contacts in the direction of contraction, even if the overall

number of interparticles contacts is decreasing (which is a

result of the dilative volumetric response).

Gdyn

250

It can be deduced from these results (Fig. 14) that triaxial

shearing involves an induced anisotropy due to the current

stress state, but also due to the strain history, even if this

latter effect seems to have a smaller influence. The experi-

200 mental results obtained by the authors show that for excep-

tional stress paths (large numbers of loading cycles), the

G: MPa

response of the material properly. The introduction of a new

150 parameter, such as the strain tensor, could improve the

Deviatoric stress state (σr ⫽ 400 kPa)

classical hypoelastic formulation, which needs only the stress

TC_H400·73p⫹v/TE_H400·74p⫹v

tensor and the void ratio as history parameters. This point is

TE test TC test discussed in Pham Van Bang (2004) and Ezaoui et al.

100 (2006).

1·60 ⫻ 105 3·20 ⫻ 105 4·80 ⫻ 105 6·40 ⫻ 105

σz · σr: kPa

(b)

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Gdyn A series of drained triaxial tests have been performed on

250 poorly graded air-dried Hostun sand. A new precision triax-

ial device (the triaxial StaDy) has been used for the tests,

TE test TC test

using both static and dynamic systems. Three methods have

been considered to reconstitute the sample: pluviation, vibra-

200 tion and tamping. For each method, two types of test have

G: MPa

extension (TE), including large numbers of unloading cycles.

Static and dynamic measurements have been evaluated care-

150

fully from small, quasi-static cyclic loadings and wave

Deviatoric stress state (σr ⫽ 400 kPa) propagation tests respectively. From these two types of

TC_H400·74p⫹t/TE_H400·73p⫹t measurement (static and dynamic), the proposed procedure

100

makes it possible to quantify the global anisotropic elastic

1·60 ⫻ 105 3·20 ⫻ 105 4·80 ⫻ 105 6·40 ⫻ 105 tensor at different chosen stress levels (investigation points)

σz · σr: kPa during shearing. The assumption of transverse anisotropic

(c) behaviour is postulated.

From these experimental tests, the following conclusions

Fig. 15. Evolution of shear modulus G during deviatoric stress may be drawn.

paths for: (a), (b) simple pluviation; (c), (d) vibration; (e), (f)

tamping (a) The evolution of elastic stiffness parameters in one

direction (vertical and radial Young’s moduli) during

the isotropic consolidation period can be correctly

isotropic stress path (same increase relatively, n ¼ 0.44; Fig. approximated by a power law of the stress value in the

12). This implies that the shear modulus seems to depend on considered direction. The power coefficient proposed

the principal stresses r and z (the stress product of axial for Hostun sand is equal to 0.44 for Young’s moduli.

and radial stress) in fairly similar way. This observation is (b) During isotropic consolidation, the power law can also

quite relevant to Roesler (1979). That study showed a link be considered to describe evolution of the shear

between shear wave velocity (shear modulus) and the stres- modulus G rz , which could be approximated by a power

ses in the directions of propagation and polarisation of the function of the product of stresses in the r and z

wave (stress product is postulated). The effects of stress in directions. The power coefficient is equal to 0.22

the ortho-radial direction on the shear wave velocity were (¼ 0.44/2).

negligible. (c) The fabrication method clearly involves initial aniso-

In addition, for a given stress state, some differences can tropy for the sand. Whatever the considered isotropic

be noticed between the moduli determined at the same stress stress state during consolidation period is, Ez is

level during the first loading step and those determined different from E r . The granular structures obtained by

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634 EZAOUI & DI BENEDETTO

pluviation and vibration exhibit a higher stiffness in the shear waves in laboratory specimen by means of piezoelectric

horizontal direction, whereas tamping induces higher transducers. Geotech. Test. J. 19, No. 4, 384–397.

stiffness in the vertical direction (Table 3). Cambou, B. & Michel, J. (2001). Micromécanique des milieux

(d ) The ratio Ez /E r in a freshly prepared sample remains granulaires. Paris: Hermès Science Publications.

constant during isotropic consolidation, which may Charif, K. (1991). Contribution à l’étude du comportement mécani-

que du béton bitumineux en petites et grandes défomations. PhD

mean that the state of anisotropy is poorly affected thesis, ECP and ENTPE, Paris.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT wave propagation tests. Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Soil Mech. Geo-

All the tests presented in this paper were conducted at the tech. Engng, Osaka 1, 675–680.

Duttine, A. (2005). Comportement des sables et des mélanges

Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l’Etat (ENTPE),

sable/argile sous sollicitations statiques et dynamiques avec et

France. sans rotations d’axes. PhD thesis, INSA/ENTPE, Lyon.

Duttine, A., Di Benedetto, H., Pham Van Bang, D. & Ezaoui, A.

(2007). Anisotropic small strain elastic properties of sands and

NOTATION mixture of sand/clay measured by dynamic and static methods.

Dr relative density (¼ (emin e0 )/(emax emin )) Soils Found. 47, No. 3, 457–472.

Er horizontal Young’s modulus (direction r) Ezaoui, A. & Di Benedetto H. (2006). Nouvel essai triaxial

Ez vertical Young’s modulus (direction z) dynamique: mesure du tenseur élastique anisotrope d’un sable.

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G shear modulus (direction rz) l’ingénieur (eds Kastner et al.), Lyon, 105–112.

p effective mean principal stress (¼ (z + 2 r )/3) Ezaoui, A., Di Benedetto, H. & Pham Van Bang, D. (2006).

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R stress ratio (¼ z / r ) Experimental measurements and modelling. Proceedings of the

V Pr horizontal compressive wave velocity geotechnical symposium in Rome, Rome, Vol. 1, pp. 727–741.

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