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Ezaoui, A. & Benedetto, H. Di (2009). Géotechnique 59, No. 7, 621–635 [doi: 10.1680/geot.7.


Experimental measurements of the global anisotropic elastic behaviour

of dry Hostun sand during triaxial tests, and effect of sample
A . E Z AO U I  a n d H . D I B E N E D E T TO

Experimental measurements have been carried out with a Des mesures expérimentales ont été effectuées a l’aide
new, accurate, triaxial device (Triaxial StaDy) to deter- d’un nouveau dispositif triaxial de précision (Triaxial
mine the quasi-elastic properties of dry Hostun sand. The StaDy) afin de déterminer les propriétés quasi-élastiques
experimental investigations consist in successively apply- d’un sable d’Hostun. Les investigations expérimentales
ing very small axial cyclic static loadings (strain single- consistent en l’application successives, a différents niveaux
amplitude cycle, åsa  10–5 m/m) and four types of wave, de contrainte-déformation, de chargements cycliques qua-
generated by piezoelectric sensors (compressive and shear si-statiques de très faibles amplitudes (cycle d’amplitude
waves in the axial and radial directions), at different simple : åsa 1025 m/m), et de quatre types d’onde émises
levels of the stress–strain curve. The use of both static par des capteurs piézoélectriques (ondes de compression et
and dynamic results allows for an entire description of de cisaillement se propageant dans les directions axiales et
the anisotropic elastic compliance tensor at a given radiales). L’utilisation couplée des résultats statiques et
stress–strain state to be made. The evolutions of this dynamiques permet, pour un niveau de contrainte et de
tensor during triaxial loading and unloading are pre- déformation donnée, la description complète du tenseur
sented. The isotropic and deviatoric triaxial stress paths élastique. Sont ensuite présentées les évolutions de ce
considered underline the effects of inherent and induced tenseur au cours des chemins de charge et de décharge
anisotropy respectively. The different methods used to set triaxiale. Les chemins triaxiaux de contraintes isotropes et
the sample involve clearly different kinds of anisotropic déviatoires considérés mettent en évidence respectivement
elastic behaviour, which are probably indicators of differ- les effets de l’anisotropie inhérente et induite. Les
ent granular structure organisations. différentes méthodes utilisées pour la réalisation des
échantillons induisent clairement différents types de com-
KEYWORDS: anisotropy; elastic behaviour; sand; triaxial test; portement anisotrope élastique, indicateurs probables de
wave propagation différentes organisations de la structure granulaire.

INTRODUCTION Yamashita et al., 2003; Di Benedetto et al., 2005), allow us

Granular materials present complex mechanical behaviour, to perform reliable experiments in the small-strain domain.
including for example stress–strain dependence, large irrever- These studies have shown the existence of a quasi-elastic
sibility, non-linearity and time dependence. They are also domain for geomaterials. Nowadays, this phenomenon is
affected by anisotropic effects. This last phenomenon is due well accepted, and the very small-strain properties can be
to the shape of the particles (if they are non-spherical) and to studied within the framework of elastic theory.
the spatial distributions of interparticle contacts. The first In this context, a new, accurate triaxial device, called a
experimental investigations consisted in highlighting the dif- ‘triaxial StaDy’, has been developed at the Ecole Nationale
ferent responses in terms of stress–strain curves for large des Travaux Publics de l’Etat (ENTPE). It permits investiga-
deformation when loadings in different directions were car- tion of this small strain level, corresponding to the quasi-
ried out (Tatsuoka, 1988; Biarez & Hicher, 1994). Since elastic domain response. This experiment associates four
1990, investigations have been performed on sand, gravel and independent wave propagations (two compressive and two
glass beads to show directly the influence of granular packing shear waves), as well as two independent quasi-static meas-
through quasi-elastic properties, which are observed in the urements. The proposed analysis, which combines dynamic
small-strain domain (up to some 106 m/m) (e.g. Hardin & and quasi-static measurements, permits determination of the
Blandford, 1989; Charif, 1991; Ibrahim & Kagawa, 1991; Di whole anisotropic elastic compliance rheological tensor. This
Benedetto, 1997; Di Benedetto et al., 2001; Kuwano & approach is relatively new; it does not need any change in
Jardine, 2002; Pham Van Bang, 2004; Duttine et al., 2007). the confining pressure, which can remain constant during the
The improvement of laboratory testing systems (Tatsuoka test. This aspect is important, because changes of confining
& Shibuya, 1991; Tatsuoka & Kohata, 1995), such as local pressure may cause difficulties in measurements of radial
strain measurements, the use of high-precision sensors [LDT strain, owing to the effects of membrane deformation and
(Goto et al., 1991) or non-contact sensors] and more penetration.
recently the wide spread of non-destructive wave propagation The experimental programme is performed on dry Hostun
measurements (Viggiani & Atkinson, 1995a, 1995b; Brignoli sand (see below). The experiments in the triaxial ‘StaDy’
et al., 1996; Belloti et al., 1996; Kuwano et al., 1999; device consist in applying isotropic consolidation followed
by conventional triaxial loading, including large cycles of
compression or extension, up to some percent in terms of
Manuscript received 3 April 2007; revised manuscript accepted 8
axial strain. During these stress paths (consolidation and
January 2009. Published online ahead of print 30 March 2009. deviatoric periods) investigations have been carried out at
Discussion on this article is welcomed by the editor. different stress–strain levels (called investigation points) in
 Département Génie Civil et Bâtiment, Ecole Nationale des order to determine the elastic tensor. The experimental
Travaux Publics de l’Etat (ENTPE), France. results, including wave propagation and small static cycles


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(sa  105 m/m) are presented later. The procedure permits glued at three points (positioned at 1208) on the specimen
all the terms of the elastic compliance tensor during the (Fig. 1(b)). The supports of the displacement sensors are
consolidation and deviatoric stress periods to be obtained. moved from outside the cell by micrometric screws. This
These stress paths illustrate the effect of stress–strain condi- allows the axial sensors to remain always inside their meas-
tions (shearing) and fabrication methods (isotropic consoli- uring range (1 mm). Two radial displacement sensors (non-
dation) on the elastic tensor, in order to elucidate the role of contact type, 1 mm range) are fixed on movable supports
stress and strain in the mechanism of induced anisotropy, and aimed at sheets of aluminium paper placed in contact
and to quantify the level of initial anisotropy. The classical with sand, on the inner side of the neoprene membrane
hypoelastic framework, which does not consider the strain (0.4 mm thick). The mobility of radial sensors is ensured by
tensor as history parameters, can be improved, based on micromotors controlled from outside the cell.
recent experimental results highlighted and supplemented in A total of seven sensors are used (six identical non-
this paper. contact displacement transducers and one load cell) for local
The originality of the proposed experimental procedure and static accurate measurements. The signals provided by
lies in the combination of information from three different all these sensors are filtered by a four-order low-pass
types of loading: small axial cycles, P-waves and S-waves. analogue filter with cut-off frequency fixed at 7 Hz. The
The results highlight both initial and induced anisotropy. accuracy of axial and radial strain measurements during
The effects of the preparation methods (pluviation, tamping cycles is estimated at less than 106 m/m for axial strain
and vibration) in reconstituting the sample are also dis- and at 0.3 kPa for the axial deviator stress.
cussed. The axial loading system consists of an electromechanical
testing machine, controlled by closed-loop feedback
schemes. The system imposes a loading rate in either stress-
ACCURATE TRIAXIAL DEVICE ‘TRIAXIAL StaDy’ or strain-controlled modes. Air pressure applied in the cell
Static testing system and/or vacuum inside the sample is used for lateral stress.
The apparatus used in the present work is a triaxial The recording of pressure data is ensured by a pressure
prototype recently developed at ENTPE (Fig. 1). It permits transducer. The accuracy of the pressure transducer is esti-
the application of accurate static and dynamic loadings mated at 0.3 kPa.
(Pham Van Bang & Di Benedetto, 2003; Pham Van Bang,
2004; Ezaoui & Di Benedetto, 2006; Ezaoui et al., 2006).
This triaxial device has internal tie bars. A 10 kN load cell Dynamic testing system
is placed inside the pressure cell. The sample is cylindrical, The dynamic testing system consists of five pairs of
with diameter 7 cm and height 14 cm. piezoelectric transducers developed at ISMES (Bergamo,
Two displacement-measuring systems were designed in Italy): three pairs for horizontal propagation and two pairs
order to obtain local measurements of axial and radial for vertical propagation. These two last pairs of transducers
displacements in the central part of the sample. Four axial ((a) and (b) in Fig. 3) are embedded in the pedestals (one
displacement sensors (non-contact type, 1 mm range) are bender element and one compressive transducer in each
fixed on mobile supports and aimed at four aluminium pedestal) (Fig. 2). The bender elements ((b) in Fig. 3) are
targets. These targets are fixed on suspended rings that are used to generate a wave, horizontally polarised, propagating

Vertical non-contact
Sample of Hostun sand displacement sensors
without pedestals (⫻4)

Axial target
element (⫻2)
Waves ‘Pr’

element (⫻2)
Waves ‘Srz’

Rings: support of
axial targets Horizontal
sensors (⫻2)

r element (⫻2)
Waves ‘Srθ’
Local fixation point (2 ⫻ 3)
(a) (b)

Fig. 1. (a) The instrumented sample; (b) schematic view of static and horizontal dynamic measurement systems

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Compressive element Porous stone Metallic plate
(in contact with sand)

17 mm 20 mm
of vibration

11 mm

Bender element
Bender element
Fig. 2. Piezoelectric elements located in the top and bottom cap (glued on plate)

in the vertical direction (Fig. 3). This dynamic shear mode
gives the wave propagation velocity V Szr (where S indicates
shear mode, z the direction of propagation and r the direc- Membrane
tion of polarisation). These elements have the following Sand
dimensions: height ¼ 2 mm, width ¼ 10 mm and thickness
¼ 1.3 mm. The compressive transducers ((a) in Fig. 3)
generate a compressive wave, vertically polarised, propagat- Metallic plate
ing in the vertical direction. This compressive mode gives (in contact with sand)
the wave propagation velocity V Pz (where P indicates com-

11 mm
pressive mode, and z the direction of propagation). These
transducers, with dimensions thickness ¼ 2 mm and dia-
meter ¼ 8 mm, have a cylindrical shape (for more technical
details of these bender elements and compressive transducers Bender element
(glued on metallic plate)
see Brignoli et al., 1996).
The three pairs of piezoelectric transducers used for
horizontal wave propagation ((c), (d) and (e) in Fig. 3) are
all identical; they are placed along the membrane in order to
generate shear or compressive radial waves (Fioravante & 20 mm
Capoferri, 2001). These arrangements are shown in Figs 1 (b)
and 3. Each transducer is glued onto a metallic plate, which
fits and touches the lateral surface of the specimen. This Fig. 4. (a) Picture and (b) schematic view of horizontal
metallic interface plate (Fig. 4) is placed between the soil transducer system (bender plus interface plate) used to measure
and the membrane. The connection between the interface horizontal shear wave velocities (FBE)
plate and the transducer is ensured by a small hole, 2 mm 3
5 mm, cut in the membrane. The transducer is glued directly transmit the impulse from the transducers into the soil by
to the interface plate through this hole. The interface plates, friction or compression (Fig. 4). The shear mode is produced
whose dimensions are 10 mm width, 17 mm height and by transducers, called frictional bender elements (FBE),
0.1 mm thickness, avoid disturbance of the sample, and glued perpendicularly to the interface plate ((c) and (e) in

(c) Frictional

Wave Srz

Wave Pz Wave Szr

Wave Pr
(d) Pulsate
(a) Wave Srθ
Compressive (b)
piezoelectric Bender
element element

z z
θ (e) Frictional
bender θ
r r

Fig. 3. Schematic views of vertical (left) and horizontal (right) dynamic loading systems

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Fig. 3). Two kinds of shear wave, propagating along the
radial direction, are generated: one is horizontally polarised
and the other is vertically polarised (Fig. 3). These dynamic
shear modes give the wave propagation velocities, denoted
V SrŁ and V Srz (where S indicates shear mode, r the direction
of propagation and z or Ł the direction of polarisation). The
compressive mode is produced by transducer called a pulsate
bender element (PBE), glued longitudinally to the interface
plate ((d) in Fig. 3). The PBE generates compressive waves,
horizontally polarised, propagating in the horizontal direc-
tion. This dynamic compressive mode gives the wave propa-
gation velocity, denoted V Pr (where P indicates the shear
mode, and r the direction of propagation).
The piezoelectric transducers are used within a dynamic
testing chain. The first element of this chain is a function
generator, which produces the excitation signal. The gener-
300 µm
ated signal is a single sine wave, with amplitude of 20 V
peak to peak, and frequencies ranging from 5 to 25 kHz
(depending on the sensor). The single sine wave is repeated
at a frequency of 10 Hz. After crossing the sample, the Sieving method
waves activate the corresponding receiver, whose signal is
amplified (for the compressive transducers embedded into
the pedestals, the amplification is applied just before the 80
transmitter sensor). The recording is carried out by an
Percent finer: %
oscilloscope with sampling rate of 106 samples per second. 60
An average is made of 256 impulses. During this experi-
mental campaign, two or three different frequencies are used
for each kind of wave, in order to improve determination of 40
the corresponding wave travel time. This method avoids
errors due to near-field effects, compressive wave perturba- 20
tions, or the influence of the principal mode of vibration
(Viggiani & Atkinson, 1995a). This point is discussed later.

1 0·1
Diameter of grains: mm
The tested material is air-dried, poorly graded sand called
Hostun sand, from its original location in France. This sand
is quartz dominated. Grading curves and grading character- Fig. 5. (a) View of particles of Hostun sand; (b) particle size
istics are reported in Fig. 5 and Table 1. Fig. 5 presents the distribution obtained by sieving method
size distribution of particles obtained by the classical sieving
method (Fig. 5(b)) and typical particles viewed under an
optical microscope (Fig. 5(a)). Fig. 5(a) shows the sub- Table 1. Index properties of tested Hostun sand: sieving method
angular shape of the particles of Hostun sand.
In order to investigate the influence of sample preparation, Property Value
three methods are considered in the present study: (a) simple
air pluviation; (b) vibration; and (c) tamping. For the three Specific gravity, rs 2.65
Size, D10 : mm 0.26
fabrication methods, the mould is filled in seven layers by
Size, D30 : mm 0.32
air pluviation. For each layer, the drop height of sand is kept Size, D60 : mm 0.37
constant (close to zero) to achieve uniform density in the Uniformity coefficient, Cu  1.42
specimens. Curvature coefficient, Cc † 1.06
For each layer of sand, the subsequent step depends on Maximum void ratio, emax ‡ 0.648
the chosen fabrication method, as follows. Minimum void ratio, emin ‡ 1.041
(a) For the simple pluviation method, nothing is applied Dx defined by x% passing particle size.
after the sand pluviation. Rather loose samples are thus  Coefficient of uniformity C ¼ D /D .
u 60 10
created. † Coefficient of curvature Cc ¼ (D30 )2 /(D10 D60 ).
(b) For the vibration method, small blows are applied on ‡ From Flavigny et al. (1990).
the mould. This method leads to rather dense samples.
(c) For the tamping method, the layer is vertically
compacted using a small cylindrical weight. A rather
After fabrication, and application of vacuum inside the
dense arrangement of the particles is also involved in
specimen up to 25 kPa, the mould is removed and the
this procedure.
sample is fully instrumented. It is then isotropically consoli-
These preparation methods are classical, and are widely used dated from 25 kPa to 400 kPa. During this consolidation
in geotechnical laboratories. The granular arrangements ob- period, and during the subsequent deviatoric loading paths,
tained (see Table 2) correspond, respectively, to rather loose various investigations in the small-strain domain, sum-
samples with initial void ratios e0 (after fabrication at an marised below, are performed.
initial depression of 25 kPa) close to 0.81 (relative density For each of the three fabrication methods used, one
Dr ¼ 58%), and rather dense samples with e0 close to 0.74 triaxial extension and one triaxial compression test with
(Dr ¼ 79%). loading and unloading stress paths are considered in this

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Table 2. Test characteristics

Name of test Material Sign of deviator Confining Fabrication e0 Number of

stress, q pressure: kPa method investigation points

TC_H400.82p Dry Hostun sand + 400 Pluviation 0.819 11

TE_H400.80p Dry Hostun sand  400 Pluviation 0.80 9
TC_H400.73p+v Dry Hostun sand + 400 Vibration 0.732 10
TE_H400.74p+v Dry Hostun sand  400 Vibration 0.743 8
TC_H400.74p+t Dry Hostun sand + 400 Tamping 0.735 8
TE_H400.73p+t Dry Hostun sand  400 Tamping 0.726 10
 TC, triaxial compression test; TE, triaxial extension test; H, Hostun sand; 400, confining pressure in kPa; .xx, void ratio e ¼ 0.xx at initial
state (25 kPa); p, for pluviation fabrication method; p+v, vibration method; p+t, tamping method.

paper. The characteristics of the six tests performed are Benedetto (2006). Creep is imposed to reach a ‘stable’
summarised in Table 2. stress–strain state, where the strain level varies very little
Loading paths for the two types of test (triaxial compres- with time, which means that the viscous effects become
sion and triaxial extension) are illustrated schematically in negligible. From this state, the elastic properties are more
Fig. 6. At different stress levels (investigation points) during easily determined.
the isotropic consolidation period and deviatoric stress paths, Despite different fabrication methods, the two dense sam-
small-strain investigations are performed in the quasi-static ples present very similar global behaviours for triaxial
and dynamic modes. Four steps are repeated successively, as compression (TC) tests in the different axes (Figs 7(a) to
follows. 7(d)). The third sample, obtained by pluviation, presents the
characteristics of a looser sample, with a more contractive
(a) The sample is loaded or unloaded at constant stress rate
volumetric response and lower stress ratio R (R ¼ z / r )
until an investigation point is reached. Some investiga-
than the two dense samples. For triaxial extension (TE) tests,
tion points are indicated in Fig. 6 (numbered from 0 to
a higher contractive volumetric response and a smaller
8 or 10).
deviator stress (absolute value) are obtained, as expected for
(b) A creep period is imposed (between 2 and 3 h).
the rather loose sample. The two dense samples present
(c) P- and S-waves are emitted, and recorded in the vertical
similar curves in extension tests in the axes ( z , q), but
and horizontal directions.
reveal some differences in terms of volumetric response.
(d ) Small, axial, quasi-static cycles are applied. The cycles
Other extension tests, which are not presented in this paper,
are strain-controlled, and the axial single-strain ampli-
also show this slight difference in terms of volumetric
tude  z s a (half peak-to-peak value) is about 105 m/m.
evolution. This is not explained, but may be due to fabrica-
The three fabrication methods involve different global tion differences.
stress–strain behaviours. The results are plotted in Fig. 7: For TC tests, it can be checked that the transition between
(a) deviator stress q against axial strain z ; (b) deviator the contractive domain (at the beginning of the test) and the
stress q against mean pressure p; (c) volumetric strain vol dilative domain (for larger strain), which corresponds to the
against axial strain z ; and (d) volumetric strain vol horizontal tangent of the curve of volume variation against
against mean pressure p. The creep effects, as observed in axial strain (@vol /@ z ¼ 0) is obtained at a constant stress
Figs 7(a) and 7(d), show that a viscous effect does exist ratio for the three specimens (Figs 7(a) and 7(d)). This stress
for dry sand. Analysis of the viscous behaviour is outside ratio (Rc ) corresponds to the characteristic state as intro-
the scope of this paper: for more information the reader is duced by Kirkpatrick (1961) and developed by Luong (1978,
referred to Di Benedetto et al. (2002, 2003) and Di 1980). The calculated average value of the characteristic

q: kPa

Investigation point
q: kPa

compression test Small quasi-static cycles (εsa ⬍ 10⫺5 m/m)

and wave propagations

Creep periods
consolidation 8 8

9 5 9
1 2 3 4 compression test
10 4 10
0 8 400 8 0
0 p: kPa 0 εz: %
5 7 5
6 6 extension test
extension test
(a) (b)

Fig. 6. Schematic representation of (a) stress and (b) stress–strain paths plotted as deviator stress q against mean pressure p
and against axial strain å z , applied during triaxial extension (TE) and triaxial compression (TC) tests. Numbers 1 to 8 and 1
to 10 indicate investigation points for TE and TC tests respectively

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1600 1600
TC/TE: simple pluviation
TC/TE: vibration
Example of
TC/TE: tamping
1200 investigation 1200
Example of Characteristic state
800 creep period 800 (TC tests)

q: kPa
q: kPa

Characteristic states
(TC tests)
400 400

0 0

⫺400 ⫺400
⫺0·02 ⫺0·01 0 0·01 0·02 0·03 200 400 600 800 1000
εz: m/m p: kPa
(a) (b)

0·010 Characteristic 0·010

Characteristic state
(TC tests)
0·005 0·005

0 0
Example of
Example of

εvol: m/m
Example of
εvol: m/m

Example of creep period investigation

creep period investigation
⫺0·005 point ⫺0·005

⫺0·010 ⫺0·010

⫺0·015 TC/TE: simple pluviation ⫺0·015

TC/TE: vibration
TC/TE: tamping
⫺0·020 ⫺0·020
⫺0·02 ⫺0·01 0 0·01 0·02 0·03 200 400 600 800 1000
εz: m/m p: kPa
(c) (d)

Fig. 7. Global stress and strain curves: (a) deviator stress q against axial strain å z ; (b) deviator stress q against mean
pressure p; c volumetric strain åvol against axial strain å z ; (d) volumetric strain åvol against mean pressure p. Triaxial tests:
TC_H400.82p, TE_H400.80p, TC_H400.73p+v, TE_H400.74p+v, TC_H400.74p+t, TE_H400.73p+t

friction angle is about 318, which is expected for Hostun pressure. The slopes of the linear fitting of the cycles on
sand (Mokham, 1983). the axes ˜z , ˜r (Fig. 8(b)) directly give Poisson’s ratios
rz . This ratio is rather constant during the isotropic
consolidation (Fig. 8(b)).
The investigations in the small-strain domain consist in Dynamic measurements
applying small, axial, quasi-static cyclic loadings at different The ‘flying’ time of four independent waves generated by
stress levels and measuring wave propagation velocities the system presented previously (Fig. 3) is measured. Exam-
through the sample (an example of an investigation point is ples of typical recorded signals are presented in Fig. 9. The
given in Fig. 7). four signals in Figs 9(a)–(d) correspond to records of vertical
compressive waves (Pz ), vertical shear waves (Szr ), horizontal
compressive waves (Pr ) and horizontal shear waves (S rŁ )
Static measurements respectively (test TE_H400.73p+t). Dynamic measurements
Examples of small, quasi-static axial cyclic loadings (the provide the velocity of each type of wave, deduced from the
radial stress is held constant) obtained during the isotropic corresponding travel distance and travel time (t p or t s ), as
consolidation period from 100 kPa to 400 kPa are presented indicated in Fig. 9. The determination of this travel time
in Fig. 8 for test TE_H400.74p+t. The single amplitude of depends on the type of waves considered. For the compres-
the axial strain ( z s a ) is about 105 m/m. In this range, the sive waves (vertical, Fig. 9(a), or horizontal, Fig. 9(c)), which
sand can be considered as quasi-elastic or elastic, as shown are the fastest, the arrival time coincides with the first
in previous studies (e.g. Tatsuoka & Shibuya, 1991; deflection of the signal. The travel time decreases with the
Sauzéat, 2003; Duttine, 2005). The stress–strain loops confining pressure, indicating that the stiffness is increasing,
plotted in Fig. 8 on the axes  z , q confirm this hypothesis. which is a classical result, already shown in Fig. 8(a).
The areas of the cycles are very small, indicating small The shear waves are slower, and it is more difficult to
damping (Di Benedetto, 1997; Duttine, 2005). The data of determine the arrival time. As already pointed out by various
Fig. 8 allow us to identify Young’s modulus in the vertical authors (e.g. Viggiani & Atkinson, 1995a; Brignoli et al.,
direction (Ez ) and Poisson’s ratio in the direction rz ( rz ). 1996; Jovicic et al., 1996; Modoni et al., 2000), the shear
The slopes of the linear fitting of the cycles on the axes wave propagation signal is modified, owing to near-field
˜ z , ˜q (Fig. 8(a)) give the Young’s moduli Ez directly. effects. The typical waveform, with a large deflection before
This modulus increases significantly with the confining the arrival of the shear wave signal (caused by the near-field

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Isotropic stress state: 100 kPa 411
360 waves is presented in the next section. These velocities are
8 Isotropic stress state: 200 kPa
Isotropic stress state: 300 kPa 302
then linked to the mechanical behaviour of the soil using a
Isotropic stress state: 400 kPa transverse isotropic assumption described subsequently.
6 Linear fit
∆q: kPa

4 Incremental isotropic transverse behaviour

Transverse isotropic elastic behaviour is assumed. In the
Ez: MPa small-strain domain (sa  105 m/m) this assumption is an
appropriate approximation for triaxial test conditions. Then
the elastic compliance tensor M, taken as symmetrical,
0 linking the strain increment ˜å to the stress increment ˜ó,
is written in equation (3), in terms of the sample axes (r, Ł,
0 1·0 ⫻ 10⫺5 2·0 ⫻ 10⫺5 z) (shown in Fig. 1(b), with symmetry around the vertical
∆εz: m/m axis z). The last two relations, ˜ rŁ ¼ (1 þ  rr =E r )˜ rŁ and
(a) ˜ zŁ ¼ (1=2G)˜ zŁ , are obtained with the same set of
parameters as used in equation (3).
4·0 ⫻ 10⫺6 Isotropic stress state: 100 kPa The tensor M is then completely characterised by five
Isotropic stress state: 200 kPa independent elastic parameters: E r , Ez ,  rz ,  rr and G. The
Isotropic stress state: 300 kPa procedure to determine these elastic parameters, using both
Isotropic stress state: 400 kPa
2·0 ⫻ 10⫺6 Linear fit
static and dynamic experimental results, is explained in the
following sections.
0 1
˜ r
∆εr: m/m

0 B C
B ˜ C
B r C
νrz ⬃ 0·2 ˜å ¼ M:˜ó ) B B
B ˜ z C
⫺2·0 ⫻ 10 ⫺6 @ A
2:˜ rz
0 1
1  rr  rz
⫺4·0 ⫻ 10⫺6 0
⫺1·0 ⫻ 10⫺5 0 1·0 ⫻ 10⫺5 B Er Er Ez C0 1 (3)
∆εz: m/m B C ˜ r
(b) B  rr 1  rz CB C
B 0 C B ˜ C
B Er E E C B r C
B r z CB C
Fig. 8. Examples of very small, quasi-static axial cyclic loadings ¼B C:B
during isotropic consolidation period (test TE_H400.74p+t): B  rz  rz 1 C B ˜ z C C
0 C@ A
(a) ˜q against ˜å z ; (b) ˜å r against ˜å z B E Ez Ez p ffiffiffi
B z C
B C 2:˜ rz
@ 1 A
0 0 0
effect), can be observed in Fig. 9(d). This perturbation 2G
seems to be linked to the number N, defined by
N¼ (1) Interpretation of dynamic results
º Interpretation of the dynamic results is based on the
where D is the travel distance, equal for horizontally propa- theory of plane wave propagation through an elastic con-
gating waves to the diameter of the specimen (7 cm), and º tinuum medium. In terms of the notation introduced above,
is the wavelength. The effective travel length is the shortest the following equations can be written for vertical (direction
distance between the elements (Viggiani & Atkinson, z) (equations (4) and (5)) and horizontal (direction r)
1995a). The wavelength is calculated from (equations (6) and (7)) propagation of plane waves in a
VS semi-infinite transverse isotropic elastic material
º¼ (2) 2 
f out  P 2 Edyn
z dyn
rr 1
r V z ¼  dyn  (4)
where VS is the velocity of the shear wave being considered,  rr  1 Edyn 2 dyn
z þ 2 rz E r
and fout is the predominant output frequency. When consider-  2
ing an input frequency of 5 kHz, N for the radial shear wave r V Szr ¼ Gdyn rz (5)
is close to 1 (the predominant output frequency fout is close  2 2rz Edyn dyn
r  Ez
to 4 kHz, as determined by fast Fourier transform). This r V Pr ¼ Edyn
r   dyn 2
small value of N can explain the typical waveform observed 2rr  1 E z þ 2 rz 1 þ dyn
dyn dyn
rr E r
in Fig. 9(d). Increasing the input frequency implies higher  2 Edyn
values for N, which means the influence of near-field effects r V SrŁ ¼  r dyn  (7)
is reduced. This is why different input frequencies (from 5 2 1 þ  rr
to 20 kHz) have been used for each investigation point, in
order to improve the determination of arrival time. Taking For reasons of clarity, the five parameters E r , Ez ,  rz ,  rr
the phenomenon of the near-field effect into account, the and G (equation (3)) are denoted in equations (4) to (7) by
r , E z ,  rz ,  rr and G rz . These two sets of parameters
chosen arrival time coincides with the top or bottom of the Edyn dyn dyn dyn

first large deflection of the recorded signal (Figs 9(b) and are the same if the considered hypotheses are valid. The
9(d)). The same procedure has been applied for radial and superscript ‘dyn’ merely indicates that the elastic parameters
axial shear waves. are inferred from dynamic loadings.
The evolution of the velocities of compressive and shear Values of wave velocities during isotropic consolidation

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Wave Pz — isotropic stress state: 100 kPa Wave Szr — isotropic stress state: 100 kPa
Wave Pz — isotropic stress state: 200 kPa Wave Szr — isotropic stress state: 200 kPa
0·015 0·015 Wave Szr — isotropic stress state: 300 kPa
Wave Pz — isotropic stress state: 300 kPa
Wave Pz — isotropic stress state: 400 kPa Wave Szr — isotropic stress state: 400 kPa
0·010 0·010 t Szr
t Pz t⫽0
0·005 t Pz 0·005 t Szr

Signal: V
Signal: V

t Pz t Szr
0 0
t Pz t Szr
⫺0·005 ⫺0·005

⫺0·010 ⫺0·010
Pz: input frequency ⫽ 20 kHz Szr: input frequency ⫽ 10 kHz

⫺0·015 ⫺0·015
0 100 200 300 400 0 200 400 600 800
Time: µs Time: µs
(a) (b)

Wave Pr — isotropic stress state: 100 kPa Wave Srθ — isotropic stress state: 100 kPa
Wave Pr — isotropic stress state: 200 kPa Wave Srθ — isotropic stress state: 200 kPa
0·0050 Wave Pr — isotropic stress state: 300 kPa Wave Srθ — isotropic stress state: 300 kPa
Wave Pr — isotropic stress state: 400 kPa Wave Srθ — isotropic stress state: 400 kPa
t Pr 0·005 t Sr θ
t⫽0 t⫽0
t Pr t Sr θ
Signal: V
Signal: V

0 0
t Pr t Sr θ

t Pr t Sr θ
Pr: input frequency ⫽ 20 kHz Srθ: input frequency ⫽ 5 kHz

0 100 200 0 200 400
Time: µs Time: µs
(c) (d)

Fig. 9. Recorded signals and wave arrival times t indicated by arrows, during isotropic consolidation period, for waves propagating
vertically and horizontally (test TE_H400.73p+t). Travel time t is obtained using differing input frequencies

are presented in Fig. 10 for the tests under consideration. the increment ˜z (˜ rs a ¼ 0), which gives directly the
Figs 10(a), 10(b) and 10(c) show the velocities of vertical elastic parameters Estat
z and stat
rz (equations (8) and (9))
and radial compressive and shear waves for the three shown in Figs 8(a) and 8(b).
fabrication methods used, simple pluviation, vibration and
tamping, respectively. Good repeatability of the velocity ˜ z
z ¼ (8)
measurements can be inferred from Fig. 10. In each figure, ˜ z
good agreement can be seen for the wave velocities obtained ˜ r
during the isotropic consolidation stress paths of the TC and stat ¼ (9)
˜ z
TE tests, which are identical. The data presented in Fig. 10
also make it possible to distinguish some differences among For reasons of clarity, these two statically determined elastic
the three fabrication methods. For example, in Figs 10(a) parameters are denoted by Estat and stat
z rz . They are equal to
and 10(b) (pluviation and vibration respectively), the fastest the parameters Ez and  rz (equation (3)). The superscript
wave is the horizontal compressive wave, whereas it is the ‘stat’ merely indicates that they are obtained from static
vertical compressive wave in Fig. 10(c) (tamping). The loadings, which do not require any assumptions. They are
anisotropic behaviour observed in Fig. 10 and the differences used hereafter as reference data, introduced to solve the set
among the fabrication methods are analysed subsequently, in of equations (4) to (7) obtained from dynamic analysis.
terms of elastic moduli.
The experimental set of dynamic wave measurements (V Pz ,
V Pr , V Szr , V SrŁ ) associated with equations (4) to (7) is not Resolution of the system (equations (4) to (7))
sufficient to determine the five unknown parameters of the To solve the system made up of equations (4) to (7), the
elastic tensor (equation (3)). Resolution of the system six known sets of experimental data (static and dynamic are
requires more data, which are provided by the static meas- combined) have been used, as follows.
(a) For each investigation point, the system of equations
(4) to (7) is solved by modifying the value of dynrr
Interpretation of quasi-static investigations (from 0.00 to 0.5).
The quasi-static cyclic loadings consist in applying small (b) For each value of dynrr , the two parameters of the
z ,  rz ) are compared with the
dynamic solutions (Edyn dyn
vertical stress cycles of single amplitude ˜z s a . Considering
the elastic behaviour hypothesis, ˜z s a can be assimilated to static measurements (E z , stat
rz ).

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takes into account the better accuracy in obtaining Young’s
modulus values. (The relative accuracy for the axial Young
modulus can be estimated at 5–7% for the Triaxial StaDy,
whereas the relative accuracy for Poisson’s ratio is estimated
at 20–22%. The ratio between these values is 3, which
Wave velocity: m/s

explains the chosen factor.)
The elastic parameters (Edyn z ,  rz ) obtained for the six

tests (including isotropic consolidation) after resolution of

Tests: TE_H400·80p/TC_H400·819p
the system (equations (4) to (7)) are plotted in Fig. 11
V Pz
200 against the corresponding static elastic parameters (Estat z ,
V Pr stat
rz ). Fig. 11 shows good agreement between the static and
V Szr dynamic results in terms of Young’s vertical moduli (Fig.
V Srθ 11(a)) and Poisson’s ratios (Fig. 11(b)). Little dispersion can
be seen in Fig. 11, and the coefficients of correlation be-
0 100 200 300 400 tween the static and dynamic results are very close to 1. The
σz ⫽ σr: kPa relevant agreement between the different types of measure-
(a) ment (static and dynamic) for the two elastic parameters
considered (Ez and  rz ) partially validate the adopted proce-
600 dure. Evolution of the full set of elastic components (Edyn r ,
z ,  rz ,  rr , G rz ) during isotropic and deviatoric stress
Edyn dyn dyn

paths is presented in the next section.

Wave velocity: m/s

Figure 12 presents the evolutions of Young’s moduli E r
Tests: TE_H400·743p⫹v/TC_H400·732p⫹v and Ez , as well as shear modulus G, during isotropic
200 V Pz
V Pr 1000
Experimental data (54 points)
V Szr Linear fit (R2 ⫽ 0·99)
V Srθ 800
0 100 200 300 400
σz ⫽ σr: kPa
z : MPa

E dyn

400 y ⫽ 1·00x

Wave velocity: m/s

400 0
0 200 400 600 800 1000
E stat
z : MPa
Tests: TE_H400·726p⫹t/TC_H400·735p⫹t
200 V Pz
Experimental data (54 points) ⫾15%
V Pr
Linear fit (R2 ⫽ 0·97)
V Szr
V Srθ 0·3
0 100 200 300 400
σz ⫽ σr: kPa
ν dyn


y ⫽ 1·01x
Fig. 10. Evolutions of compressive and shear wave velocities for
vertical and horizontal propagation during isotropic consolida-
tion: (a) simple pluviation; (b) vibration; (c) tamping 0·1

To compare the static and dynamic results the

following error function  (equation (10)) is proposed. 0
When this function is a minimum, the value of dyn rr is
0 0·1 0·2 0·3 0·4
chosen and the corresponding dynamic elastic para- ν stat
meters are maintained. (b)
 dyn   dyn !
 dyn dyn   E z  Estat   rz  stat  Fig. 11. Comparison between the dynamic and static elastic
 E z ,  rz ¼ 3 z þ
rz  =4 (10)

Ez  rz
stat parameters, (a) Young’s modulus Ez and (b) Poisson’s ratio
í zr , obtained after resolution of equations (4) to (7) and data
from quasi-static measurements (all data from tests
The weighting factor 3, applied to the relative difference TC_H400.82p, TE_H400.80p, TC_H400.73p+v, TE_H400.74p+v,
between the two Young’s moduli (static and dynamic values), TC_H400.74p+t, TE_H400.73p+t)

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450 200
E dyn
400 Linear fit
E dyn
350 Linear fit 150

300 Initial anisotropy

E dyn: MPa

Gdyn: MPa
250 Slope ⫽ 0·44 100 Slope ⫽ 0·22
Slope ⫽ 0·45

Isotropic stress state Isotropic stress state

150 TC_H400·82p/TE_H400·80p TC_H400·82p/TE_H400·80p
50 100 500 10 000 100 000
σz ⫽ σr: kPa σz ⫽ σr: kPa
(a) (b)

E dyn
z Gdyn
450 E dyn
Linear fit
Linear fit
E dyn: MPa

Gdyn: MPa
350 Initial anisotropy

Slope ⫽ 0·22
300 Slope ⫽ 0·45
Slope ⫽ 0·43 100

250 Isotropic stress state Isotropic stress state

TC_H400·73p⫹v/TE_H400·74p⫹v TC_H400·73p⫹v/TE_H400·74p⫹v

100 200 300 400 500 10 000 100 000

σz ⫽ σr: kPa σz ⫽ σr: kPa
(c) (d)

450 200
E dyn
z Gdyn
Linear fit
400 E dyn
Linear fit
350 150
E dyn: MPa

Gdyn: MPa

Initial anisotropy
Slope ⫽ 0·44 Slope ⫽ 0·22

250 100
Slope ⫽ 0·43

Isotropic stress state Isotropic stress state

TC_H400·74p⫹t/TE_H400·73p⫹t TC_H400·74p⫹t/TE_H400·73p⫹t
100 200 300 400 500 10 000 100 000
σz ⫽ σr: kPa σz ⫽ σr: kPa
(e) (f)

Fig. 12. Evolution of Young’s moduli Ez and Er and shear modulus G during isotropic consolidation for: (a), (b) simple
pluviation; (c), (d) vibration; (e), (f) tamping

consolidation for the three fabrication methods used. Fig. 13 (r or z), fabrication method, or initial void ratio. This slope
presents the evolution of Poisson’s ratios  rr and  rz during is close to 0.44 for E r and Ez (Figs 12(a), 12(c) and 12(e)),
isotropic consolidation. For both Fig. 12 and Fig. 13 the data and equal to 0.44/2 ¼ 0.22 for G (Figs 10(b), 10(d) and
from the two tests (TC and TE), which follow the same 10(f)). Figs 12(a), 12(c) and 12(e) also show that the three
isotropic consolidation stress path, are presented. Little fabrication methods involve initial anisotropy, which can be
dispersion could be noted for Young’s moduli, or even for characterised by the ratio Ez /E r presented in Table 3.
Poisson’s ratios, obtained during the consolidation period of The method used to prepare the specimen seems to affect
the two tests (TC and TE). The results show a good the aggregate organisation (distribution of interparticle con-
repeatability of the tests. tacts), which is the source of the anisotropic behaviour
The stress level dependence of each modulus is clearly (taking into account the rather spherical shape of the parti-
shown in Fig. 12. The slope of the linear fit (logarithmic cles, as mentioned before). Vertical Young’s moduli (Ez ) are
scale) is reasonably constant for Young’s moduli (E) and slightly lower than radial Young’s moduli (E r ) (by about
shear moduli (G), independently of the direction considered 10%) for the simple pluviation and vibration methods. These

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ν dyn
results are in accordance with those obtained previously on
triaxial apparatus equipped with bender elements (Chaudary
ν dyn
rr et al., 2004) and on hollow cylinder apparatus (Anhdan &
0·3 Koseki, 2005). The experiments from these authors show
higher values of radial Young’s modulus for isotropic stress
paths in Toyoura sand (poorly graded and sub-angular parti-
cles, D50 ¼ 0.19 mm). In these studies, the differences be-

0·2 tween vertical and horizontal Young’s moduli measured on

samples obtained by air pluviation are respectively 28% and
20%, which is higher than the authors’ results.
0·1 Work on fabrication methods by Ibrahim & Kagawa
Isotropic stress state
(1991) and Mulilis et al. (1977), using statistical orientation
of contacts between aggregates (measured by microscope
after hardening the samples with polyester resin), underlines
0 100 200 300 400
the existence of initial anisotropy for samples of sand. It
σz ⫽ σr: kPa
shows that significant differences in the orientation of inter-
particle contact planes exist for samples prepared by pluvia-
tion, vibration and moist tamping.
0·4 Mulilis et al. (1977) obtained, for pluviation and vibra-
ν dyn
tion, a higher stiffness in directions close to the horizontal (r
ν dyn
in Figs 1 and 3). In the case of moist tamping, they show a
0·3 higher stiffness in directions close to the vertical (z in Figs 1
and 3). The same tendencies were observed by Ibrahim &
Kagawa (1991). These results are relevant to the observa-
tions from Figs 12(a), 12(c) and 12(e), which show, respec-

0·2 tively, Young’s moduli that are higher in the horizontal

direction (E r ) for pluviation and vibration, and higher in the
vertical direction (Ez ) for tamping.
It can be seen from Figs 12(a), 12(c), 12(e) and Fig. 13
respectively that the ratios Ez /E r and  rz / rr are fairly
Isotropic stress state
constant during isotropic consolidation (Table 3). The iso-
tropic consolidation period involves an increase in the stiff-
0 ness of the sample, but it does not seem to affect the
0 100 200 300 400
rearrangement of the granular structure very much.
σz ⫽ σr: kPa
Poisson’s ratios ( rr and  rz ) presented in Fig. 13 for the
three fabrication methods are fairly constant during isotropic
0·4 consolidation (cf. Fig. 8). Nevertheless, their values seem to
ν dyn
rz depend on the fabrication methods. For simple pluviation
ν dyn
and vibration, the average values obtained for  rr and  rz
are close to 0.2 and higher. For tamping, the values for  rz
are close to 0.2 but smaller, and for  rr are close to 0.1.
These considerations for Young’s moduli (Ez , E r ) and
Poisson’s ratios ( rr ,  rz ) quantify the initial anisotropy

0·2 involved in the different fabrication methods (Table 3).

Isotropic stress state
After isotropic consolidation, large triaxial extension or
compression loading cycles (up to some percent of axial
0 strain) are applied (cf. Fig. 7). The elastic parameters
0 100 200 300 400
obtained at each investigation point are presented in Figs 14
σz ⫽ σr: kPa
and 15. Evolutions of Young’s moduli Ez and E r with axial
stress z ( r ¼ const. ¼ 400 kPa) are shown in Figs 14(a),
Fig. 13. Evolution of Poisson’s ratios í rz and í rr during 14(c) and 14(e); evolutions of Poisson’s ratios  rz and  rr
isotropic consolidation for: (a) simple pluviation; (b) vibration; with axial stress are reported in Figs 14(b), 14(d) and 14(f);
(c) tamping and evolutions of shear modulus G are reported in Fig. 15.

Table 3. Quantification of anisotropy during isotropic consolidation (mean values and standard deviations)

Fabrication method Stress path Material e0 Ez /E r  rz / rr

Pluviation Isotropic Hostun sand 0.81  0.01 0.89  0.03 1.23  0.47
Vibration Isotropic Hostun sand 0.74  0.01 0.91  0.03 1.09  0.38
Tamping Isotropic Hostun sand 0.73  0.01 1.11  0.03 1.68  0.30
 Triaxial apparatus.

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700 0·4
E dyn
z ν dyn
rz ν dyn

E dyn Linear fit (ν dyn

rr ) (slope ⫽ 0)
600 r

500 Induced anisotropy
E dyn: MPa

y ⫽ 0·191

400 0·2

0·1 TE test TC test

200 Deviatoric stress state (σr ⫽ 400 kPa) Deviatoric stress state (σr ⫽ 400 kPa)
TC_H400·82p/TE_H400·80p TC_H400·82p/TE_H400·80p
TE test TC test
100 0
200 400 600 800 1000 1200 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
σz : kPa σz : kPa
(a) (b)

900 0·4
E dyn
z ν dyn ν dyn
rz rr
800 E dyn
Linear fit (ν dyn
rr ) (slope ⫽ 0)

700 0·3

E dyn: MPa

Induced anisotropy
y ⫽ 0·198
500 0·2


300 0·1

Deviatoric stress state (σr ⫽ 400 kPa) TE test TC test Deviatoric stress state (σr ⫽ 400 kPa)
TC_H400·73p⫹v/TE_H400·74p⫹v TC_H400·73p⫹v/TE_H400·74p⫹v
TE test TC test
100 0
200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
σz : kPa σz : kPa
(c) (d)

900 0·4
E dyn
z ν dyn ν dyn
rz rr
800 E dyn
r Linear fit (ν dyn
rr ) (slope ⫽ 0)

700 0·3

E dyn: MPa


500 Induced anisotropy 0·2


300 0·1 y ⫽ 0·098

Deviatoric stress state (σr ⫽ 400 kPa) Deviatoric stress state (σr ⫽ 400 kPa)
200 TE test TC test
TC_H400·74p⫹t/TE_H400·73p⫹t TC_H400·74p⫹t/TE_H400·73p⫹t
TE test TC test
100 0
200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
σz : kPa σz : kPa
(e) (f)

Fig. 14. Evolution of Young’s moduli Ez and E r and Poisson’s ratios í rz and írr , during deviatoric stress paths for: (a), (b)
simple pluviation; (c), (d) vibration; (e), (f) tamping

The evolution trends for Young’s moduli appear to be tween the stress in a given direction and the associated
independent of the fabrication method used. Young’s modulus in that direction.
From Figs 14(a), 14(c) and 14(e) it can be seen that the From Figs 14(b), 14(d) and 14(f) it can be seen that
axial Young’s modulus Ez increases strongly during compres- Poisson’s ratio  rz increases or decreases with an increase or
sion test, and decreases during the extension test, and that decrease of the axial stress respectively. Poisson’s ratio  rr
the horizontal Young’s modulus E r is fairly constant. The maintains a fairly constant value over these stress paths.
ratio Ez /E r varies from 0.5 to 2, which reveals a high level From Fig. 15 it can be seen that the shear modulus
of material anisotropy for high deviatoric values. increases or decreases strongly with an increase or decrease
Young’s modulus Ei in a direction i is related mainly to of the stress product respectively. Nevertheless, this increase
the stress i in this direction. These results are consistent (or decrease) is not as important, relatively speaking, as
with those proposed for Toyoura sand by Hoque (1996) and those observed for the axial Young modulus with axial
Hoque & Tatsuoka (1998), which highlighted the link be- stress, unlike the evolution of these two parameters over the

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during the unloading stress path (Figs 14(a), 14(c) and
14(e)). After the triaxial compression test (during the un-
loading stress path), the moduli Ez are slightly higher and
the moduli E r slightly lower than those previously deter-
200 mined during the first TC loading for the same stress state.
An opposite tendency is obtained during reloading after a
G: MPa

period of triaxial extension (TE).

It appears that in a given direction (horizontal or vertical
150 in our case), for a given stress state, Young’s modulus is
Deviatoric stress state (σr ⫽ 400 kPa) greater or smaller if the deviatoric strain value is higher or
TC_H400·82p/TE_H400·80p smaller, respectively, in that direction. Interparticle contacts
have probably been created (erased) in that given direction.
TE test TC test These conclusions are consistent with the results obtained
8·0 ⫻ 104 1·6 ⫻ 104 2·4 ⫻ 104 3·2 ⫻ 104 4·0 ⫻ 104 4·8 ⫻ 104 for two-dimensional materials by Cambou & Michel (2001),
σz · σr: kPa which show a relative increase in the number of interparticle
(a) contacts in the direction of contraction, even if the overall
number of interparticles contacts is decreasing (which is a
result of the dilative volumetric response).
It can be deduced from these results (Fig. 14) that triaxial
shearing involves an induced anisotropy due to the current
stress state, but also due to the strain history, even if this
latter effect seems to have a smaller influence. The experi-
200 mental results obtained by the authors show that for excep-
tional stress paths (large numbers of loading cycles), the
G: MPa

stress tensor is not sufficient to describe the quasi-elastic

response of the material properly. The introduction of a new
150 parameter, such as the strain tensor, could improve the
Deviatoric stress state (σr ⫽ 400 kPa)
classical hypoelastic formulation, which needs only the stress
tensor and the void ratio as history parameters. This point is
TE test TC test discussed in Pham Van Bang (2004) and Ezaoui et al.
100 (2006).
1·60 ⫻ 105 3·20 ⫻ 105 4·80 ⫻ 105 6·40 ⫻ 105
σz · σr: kPa
Gdyn A series of drained triaxial tests have been performed on
250 poorly graded air-dried Hostun sand. A new precision triax-
ial device (the triaxial StaDy) has been used for the tests,
TE test TC test
using both static and dynamic systems. Three methods have
been considered to reconstitute the sample: pluviation, vibra-
200 tion and tamping. For each method, two types of test have
G: MPa

been performed: under triaxial compression (TC) and triaxial

extension (TE), including large numbers of unloading cycles.
Static and dynamic measurements have been evaluated care-
fully from small, quasi-static cyclic loadings and wave
Deviatoric stress state (σr ⫽ 400 kPa) propagation tests respectively. From these two types of
TC_H400·74p⫹t/TE_H400·73p⫹t measurement (static and dynamic), the proposed procedure
makes it possible to quantify the global anisotropic elastic
1·60 ⫻ 105 3·20 ⫻ 105 4·80 ⫻ 105 6·40 ⫻ 105 tensor at different chosen stress levels (investigation points)
σz · σr: kPa during shearing. The assumption of transverse anisotropic
(c) behaviour is postulated.
From these experimental tests, the following conclusions
Fig. 15. Evolution of shear modulus G during deviatoric stress may be drawn.
paths for: (a), (b) simple pluviation; (c), (d) vibration; (e), (f)
tamping (a) The evolution of elastic stiffness parameters in one
direction (vertical and radial Young’s moduli) during
the isotropic consolidation period can be correctly
isotropic stress path (same increase relatively, n ¼ 0.44; Fig. approximated by a power law of the stress value in the
12). This implies that the shear modulus seems to depend on considered direction. The power coefficient proposed
the principal stresses  r and z (the stress product of axial for Hostun sand is equal to 0.44 for Young’s moduli.
and radial stress) in fairly similar way. This observation is (b) During isotropic consolidation, the power law can also
quite relevant to Roesler (1979). That study showed a link be considered to describe evolution of the shear
between shear wave velocity (shear modulus) and the stres- modulus G rz , which could be approximated by a power
ses in the directions of propagation and polarisation of the function of the product of stresses in the r and z
wave (stress product is postulated). The effects of stress in directions. The power coefficient is equal to 0.22
the ortho-radial direction on the shear wave velocity were (¼ 0.44/2).
negligible. (c) The fabrication method clearly involves initial aniso-
In addition, for a given stress state, some differences can tropy for the sand. Whatever the considered isotropic
be noticed between the moduli determined at the same stress stress state during consolidation period is, Ez is
level during the first loading step and those determined different from E r . The granular structures obtained by

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pluviation and vibration exhibit a higher stiffness in the shear waves in laboratory specimen by means of piezoelectric
horizontal direction, whereas tamping induces higher transducers. Geotech. Test. J. 19, No. 4, 384–397.
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(d ) The ratio Ez /E r in a freshly prepared sample remains granulaires. Paris: Hermès Science Publications.
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que du béton bitumineux en petites et grandes défomations. PhD
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(e) During shearing, the evolution of Young’s modulus Ei of quasi-elastic stiffness parameters of dense Toyoura sand in
in a direction i depends mainly on a function of the hollow cylinder apparatus and triaxial apparatus with bender
stress in that direction. elements. Geotech. Test. J. 27, No. 1, 1–13.
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vary between 0.5 and 2, which shows the predominant Proc. 14th Int. Conf. Soil Mech. Found. Engng, Hamburg 4,
aspect of anisotropic behaviour for sand. 2177–2178.
(g) Differences have been observed between Young’s Di Benedetto, H. (2006). Small strain behaviour and viscous effects
on sands and sand–clay mixtures. Proceedings of the geo-
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during the unloading stress path for the same given geomaterials: modelling of strain rate effects. Soils Found. 37,
stress value. As a general rule, for the same stress No. 2, 127–138.
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strain value in the direction considered is higher or non-viscous behaviour of sand obtained from hollow cylinder
lower respectively. These differences reflect changes in tests. In Advanced laboratory stress–strain testing of geomater-
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Dr relative density (¼ (emin  e0 )/(emax  emin )) Soils Found. 47, No. 3, 457–472.
Er horizontal Young’s modulus (direction r) Ezaoui, A. & Di Benedetto H. (2006). Nouvel essai triaxial
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G shear modulus (direction rz) l’ingénieur (eds Kastner et al.), Lyon, 105–112.
p effective mean principal stress (¼ (z + 2 r )/3) Ezaoui, A., Di Benedetto, H. & Pham Van Bang, D. (2006).
q deviator stress (¼ z   r ) Anisotropic behaviour of sand in the small strain domain.
R stress ratio (¼ z / r ) Experimental measurements and modelling. Proceedings of the
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V Pz vertical compressive wave velocity Fioravante, V. & Capoferri, R. (2001). On the use of multi-
V SrŁ horizontal shear wave velocity (horizontally polarised) directional piezoelectric transducers in triaxial testing. Geotech.
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