Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 70

HANDOUT

Bahasa Inggris

Kode : KK252132
Jurusan : Seni Drama Tari dan Musik
Program Studi : Pendidikan Seni Musik
Semester : 2 (dua)

Disusun oleh :
Drs. Suharto, S.Pd, M.Hum

FAKULTAS BAHASA DAN SENI


UNIVERSITAS NEGERI SEMARANG
2012

1
Minggu Ke-1

STRUKTUR KALIMAT DALAM TEKS READING COMPREHENSION

1. Mengidentifikasi Struktur Kalimat

Secara umum struktur kalimat sederhana bahasa Inggris adalah : (Conj.)+S+P(O)+ (adv).
Unsur yang diletakkan dalam kurung bersifat pilihan.

2. Mengidentifikasi Struktur Predikat

Predikat berbentuk frasa kerja finite-yaitu frasa kerja yang dapat menggunakan tenses.
Polarity (positive, negative), dan modality. Contoh frasa kerja yang berfungsi sebagai
predikat disajikan pada nomor (a) dan (b) di bawah ini.

Perlu dicatat bahwa selain frasa kerja finite, juga terdapat frasa kerja non-finite, yang tidak
berfungsi sebagai predikat, tidak menunjukkan tenses, atau modality, misalnya :
to take taking taken
to cook cooking cooked

3. Struktur Predikat (Finite Verb)


a. 'Be' Sentence
Positive (+) Negative (-)
is, am, are, was, were is, am, are, was, were not
Has been Has not been
have have
has had

Can be Can not be


may may
must must
shall shall
could could
would would
might might

Be going to Be be not going to be


would have been would not have been
could could
might might
should should

b. 'Verb' Sentence
Positive (+) Negative (-)
take, takes, took Do, does not take
Has taken did not take
have
had have not taken
has
Is taking had
am
are is not taking

2
take, takes, took Do, does not take
Was taking am
were are

Has been taking was not taking


have were
had

Can take has not been taking


may have
must had
shall can
could may
would must
might shall not take
will
could
would
might
Be going to take be not going to take
Would have been would not have taken
could could
might might
should should

4. Passive
is taken has been being taken
am have
are had
has been taken can be taken
have may
had must
is being taken be going to be taken
am
are
could have been taken
would
should

5. Latihan
Identifikasilah predikat pada kalimat di dalam teks berikut ini.

Text 1
The music composition performed by song contains an attractive aspect. The
attractive aspect is a language. The language which consists of a sequence of words gives
new dimension in the music which can not find in the other composition, instrumental
music (Sitompul, 1997: 97) . The lyric in a song is actually non musical aspect. However,
besides gives a new unique dimension, its presence in music song are not only as an
embedded element but also as a part of the music. Many songs are created from texts or
beautiful poems which can attract listeners or readers to always enjoy it. That is why that
the those songs should express the atmosphere that conform to its lyric. Even, sometimes,
the beauty of words or sentences is smoothly reflected in its rhythm. The blend of both
elements, lyric and its music can make new dimension.

Text 2

3
American jazz is a conglomeration of sounds borrowed from such varied sources as
American and African folk music, European classical music, and Christian gospel songs.
One of the recognizable characteristics of jazz is its use of improvisation: certain parts of the
music are written out and played the same way by various performers, and other improvised
parts are related spontaneously during a performance an vary widely from performer to
performer.
The earliest of jazz was ragtime, lively songs or rags performed on the piano, and the
best-known of the ragtime performers and composers was Scott Joplin. Born in 1868 to
former slaves, Scott Joplin earned his living from a very early age playing the piano in bars
around the Mississippi. One of his regular jobs was in the Maple Leaf Club in Sedalia,
Missouri. It was there that he began writing the more than 500 compositions that he was to
produce, the most famous of which was “The Maple Leaf Rag”.

4
-II. Minggu ke-2 dan 3

STRUKTUR NOMINAL GROUP atau NOUN PHRASE


DALAM TEKS READING COMPREHENSION

1. Struktur Nominal Group

Pada struktur kalimat (Conj.) + S + P + (O)+Adv, slot S dan O biasanya diisi oleh
Nominal Group. Berikut inidalah kemungkinan susunan Nominal Group Structure.
Pre-modifier Post-Modifier
D Num E C Q
T
▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼

Article : Ordinal Adjective Noun Noun Adjective clause


the Cardinal Present Adjective Pronoun Participle phrase
a participle Gerund Infinitive phrase Past participle
Possessive : Past participle Gerund Phrase
my Noun clause Infinitive phrase
John's Adjective phrase
Cardinal number

Catatan :

^ : Diikuti oleh

T (Thing) : T (Thing) adalah unsur yang menjadi head atau inti dalam kelompok
nomina. Bentuk T dapat berupa (1) Noun (proper noun dan common noun),
misalnya : “John and Boat”, (2) Pronoun, misalnya: “he atau him”, (3) Infinitive
Phrase), misalnya : “to do atau to say”, (4) Gerund, misalnya : “swimming atau
running”, dan (5) Noun Cl. (Noun Clause), misalnya :”that se was absent
yesterday”.

C (Classifier) : C (Classifier) adalah modifier atau penjelas yang menentukan jenis


Things (types atau kinds of things). Bnetuk C biasanya berupa Noun, Adjective,
dan Gerund, misalnya :
rubber boat C^T (Noun/Noun)
gray hair C^T (Adjective/Noun)
dining table C^T (Gerund/Noun)

E (Epithet) : E (Epithet) adalah modifier atau penjelas yang bersifat mendiskripsikan


Thing melalui bentuk, ukuran, warna atau sifat. Epithet ini bisa berupa Adjective,
Present Participle, atau Past participle, misalnya :

long hair E^T (Adjective/Noun)


running water E^T (Present Participle/Noun)
stolen goods E^T (Past Participle /Noun)
N (Numeric) : N (Numeric) adalah modifier atau penjelas yang menunjukkan kuantitas
dan urutan Thing. Bentuknya bsia berupa cardinal number (jumlah) atau ordinal
number (urutan), misalnya :

two books N^T (Cardinal Participle/Noun)


the second floor N^T (Ordinal Number/Noun)

5
Numeric juga dapat berupa frasa seperti a number of, a large of amount
of, one of, etc.

D (Deictic) : D (Deictic) adalah modifier yang menunjukkan keadaan apakah Thing


yang dimaksud definite atau indefinite. Bentuknya bsia berupa article atau
possessive adjective, misalnya :
a book D^T (Indefinite Article/Noun)
the book D^T (definite Article/Noun)
my book/John's book D^T (Possessive/Noun)

Some dan any juga termasuk kedalam kategori ini.


Contoh kombinasi Pre-modifier :

The second largest dining table.


      
D N E C T

The beautiful shoulder-length wavy black hair


       
D E E C CT

Q (Qualifier) : Q (Qualifier) adalah Post-Modifier yang memberikan tambahan


informasi yang bersifat embedded ke dalam Thing. Bentuk qualifier bisa berupa
Adjective Clause, Present Participle Phrase, Past Participle Phrase, Infinitive
Phrase, Prepositional Phrase, Adjective Phrase, dan Cardinal Number, misalnya :

the boat which is painted red D^T^Q (Adjective Clause)


the boat painted red D^T^Q (Past Participle Phrase)
women wearing jeans T^Q (Noun/Present Part)
the boat in red D^T^Q (Deictic/Noun/Prep.Phrase)
boats available in the harbour T^Q (Noun/Adjective Phrase)
the boat to sell this afternoon D^T^Q (Noun/Infinitie Phrase)
Gate 2 T^N (Noun?Cardinal Number)

Contoh kombinasi antara Pre-modifier dan Post-modifier

the beautiful shoulder-length wavy black hair with red ribbon on it

Penjelasan lain tentang frasa nomina menurut Thomas Sumarno (2001) adalah :

Frasa nomina terbagi atas :

a. Frasa Nomina berunsur Kata Sifat dan Kata Benda (Adjective + Noun), Misalnya
different ideas, beautiful flowers, an important thing
b. Frasa nomina yang berunsur Kata Kerja + ed2 dengan Kata Benda (kata kerja –
ed2 + N), misalnya : written exercises, boiled water, stolen money.
c. Frasa nomina yang berunsur Kata Benda dan Preposisi (N + Prep), misalnya : the
girl in yellow, the man in front of me, the boy after her

KATA BENDA PUSAT DAN PENJELAS

Perhatikan frasa di bawah ini :

6
clean water in the glass that I drink yesterday

Kata penting dari frasa tersebut adalah WATER. Kata benda tersebut disebut kata benda
pusat atau head, atau thing (T) seperti disebut di atas. Sedangkan kata yang lain desebut
kata penjelas.

Clean WATER in the glass that I drink yesterday

Makna keseluruhan : Air bersih yang ada di gelas yang saya minum kemarin

2. Latihan

Tunjukkan S dan O pada kalimat dalam teks berikut ini. Kemudian artikanlah dengan cara
menerjemahkannya.

Text
Several months ago, there was an interesting discussion on this list of the meaning of syncopation in
music and dance that I would like to revisit. Merriam-Webster defines syncopation as "a temporary
displacement of the regular metrical accent in music caused typically by stressing the weak beat." (I
think most definitions would also add "or not stressing the accented beat.") It seems to me that most
dancers use the word syncopation to refer to *any* subdivision of a beat by the steps of either or
both dancers, and I would like to ask the list if this definition fits the dictionary definition. For
example, consider walking one step per beat to a song in 4/4 time: 1, 2,3, 4, left, right, left, right, etc.
Now, add a double-time step on the "and" between the third and fourth steps: 1, 2, 3-and-4 (e.g., left,
right, left-together, left). At first glance, this seems to fit the definition above, since the step on the
"and" falls between beats 3 and 4, which are normally accented by steps, and the "and" in normally
not accented by a step.
However, a musician that I posed this to said this was not a true syncopation. The
argument went something like this. In nearly all 4/4 music, the odd beats 1 and the 3 are naturally
accented more strongly than the even beats 2 and the 4. To be a true syncopation, the accent has to
come on the weak beats, namely, 2 and/or 4. Now, the argument continues, when you subdivide a
beat, the accenting of the odd beats 1 and 3 seems to get carried through to the 1st and 3rd
subdivisions of the beat (perhaps for reasons rooted in the psychology of how the brain processes
music). Consider breaking each beat of the measure into quarters, sometimes represented this way:
1-y-and-a-2-y-and-a-3-y-and-a-4-y-and-a Just as the 1 and 3 are normally more accented than the 2
and 4, the "and" (like 3) is normally more accented than the "y" or "a." So, a double step on the
"and" is not a syncopation because it falls on a normally accented subdivision of the beat. According
to this definition, the extra step would have to be on the "y" or "a" to be a true syncopation. Also
according to this definition, a heavily accented step on 2 or 4 would be a syncopation, even without
extra steps added.
Can anyone shed some light on this?

(Evan Wallace)
Seattle

7
Minggu ke 4 - 5
KOHESI DALAM TEKS READING COMPREHENSIONS

1. KOHESI*
Grammatikal
Kohesi
Leksikal

Item referensi (John/he)


Gramatikal Substitusi (John works, and so does she)
Elipsis (is he John? Yes)
Konjungsi Internal
Eksternal
Repetisi (rose/rose)
Sinonimi (poisonous/toxic)
Leksikal Antonimi (happy/sad)
Hiponimi (Super-sub : mammal/cow
Co-hiponimi (caw/tiger/elephant)
Meronimi (Part-whole :rose/root)
Co-meronimi (root/leaves)

2. Konjungsi :
a. Internal: - Addittion : In addition'
Moreover
Furthermore, etc.

- Sequence First, Second, Third, ...


Firstly, Secondly, Thirdly, ... Finally
Next
Then

- Opposite/Different idea However


But
Nevertheless
In contrast
On the other hand
Meanwhile
- Cause and Effect Therefore
As a result
Consequently
As a consequence
Thus, etc.

b. Ekseternal : - Addition : . . . and . . .


not only ... but also ...
both ... and ...
not only ... but ... as well

- Alternative or

8
- Opposite/Different ideas but
while
whereas

- Sequence : and then


then
- Cause and Effect : so that
so (such) ...that

- Condition : if
unless

- Concession : although
even though
though

3. Kohesi dalam Teks

A passage contains a number of sentences. There are relations between the sentences in a
passage. This part studies three types of relation between sentences in a passage: reference,
logical connection and logical structure of paragraphs in a passage.

Read this passage about deserts, and try to find the relations between the sentences in your
own way.
Desert are region with very little rainfall. Only a few plants and animals can adapt to
the dry conditions found there. Not all deserts have the same type of surface. Some are
covered in sand, which is blown by the wind of to form dunes. Others have a surface of
stones or rocks.

3.1 Reference
In a set of statements, some of the words in one sentence are often repeated in other
sentences. In passages, we try not to repeat words very often. we can refer back to words
used in other sentences. This relation is called reference.

Now study this short passage and notice the use of reference. This use of reference is shown
in the diagram.

Deserts are very dry regions. They have very little rainfall. Few plants live there.
Some specialized animals do. Some deserts have a surface of sand. The sand often forms
dunes. These are created by the wind. Others have stone or rocks.

Deserts
Deserts are very dry regions.

They have very little rainfall.

Few plants live there. Some specialized animals do

Some deserts have a surface of sand. The sand often

Form dunes These are created by the wind.

Other have stone or rocks.

9
Draw a similar diagram to show the use of reference in the following passage.

Bedaya dance is also sacred in Puro Mangkunagaran. Bedaya Anglir Mendhung is


the most sacred Bedaya dance, created by Sri Mangkoenagaran I, assisted by Kyai Gunasuta
and Kyai Kidang Wulung.
Anglir Mendhung means something which looks like a cloud. It is depicting his feeling
when he had to fight against his own father-in-law, Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono I. The
dancers are 7 girls in a holy state. For the execution of this dance, a strict ritual must be
performed, before and during the performance.
In fact, the gamelan music of this dance is based on gamelan music of Ketawang, the
creation of Queen Kencanasari, the Goddess of the South Sea, Kanjeng Ratu Kidul. All
dancers have to purify themselves by fasting for several days. They have to request
permission and blessing from Sri Mangkoenagoro I, in front of his grave, to be able to
perform Anglir Mendhung at their best. May God the Almighty protect them during the
performance.
Sometimes a writer refers back not only to a single word but to a group of words or a whole
sentence. This passage shows the use of reference to refer back to groups of words.
Temperatures in the desert are very high during the day. At night they are very low.
There can be a difference of 50oC between the two (i.e temperatures at night and during the
day). This differences (i.e the differences between the two) break the stones and rocks into
pieces. These (i.e the pieces of stones and rocks) are blown away by the wind. This action of
the wind (i.e the action of blowing away the pieces) steps soil from forming. Without soil
many plants cannot grow.
Read the following passage. The underlined words refer back to certain parts of the passage.
decide what parts of the passage these words refer back to.
Wind is the movement of air over the earth's surface. This movement is related to air
pressure. Near the earth's surface the pressure is greater at the poles than at the equator.
Away from the surface it is lower at the poles. Because of these pressure differences there is
a constant blow of air. This is the main cause of wind. winds are also deflected by the
rotation of the earth. This deflection is called the Coriolis force.

3.2 Logical Connection


There are often logical relations between statements in a passage. The logical relations are
expressed by connecting words. These connecting words connect the sentences together
and show the logical relations between them. One logical relation is addition. For example,

A cactus does not need very much water

ADDITION

In addition, it is well adapted to high temperatures.

Another logical relation is sequence. For example,


Changes in temperature break rocks into pieces.

SEQUENCE

Then the wind blows the pieces away

A third logical relation is contrast. For example,

Temperatures in deserts are extremely high during the day.

10
CONTRAST

However at night they are often very low.

A fourth logical relation is consequence. For example,

There is very little rainfall in deserts.

CONSEQUENCE

Therefore few plants can live there.

This activity practices the use of logical connection (words like in addition, then, however,
and therefore). Here are four pairs of sentences :
1. Cactus plants do not need much water. They can grow in deserts.
2. There is no water on the surface of deserts. There is water underground.
3. The temperature is very high during the day. It becomes cold at night.
4. Deserts have little plant life. They have little animal life.

Identify the logical relation between the two sentences in each pair. Then connect the two
sentences together by using logical connector.

3.3 Logical Structure in Paragraph


a passage a writer organizes information in a logical way. The paragraphs in a passage have
a logical structure.

Study this short paragraph :


The hot deserts in the world have several characteristics in common. They all have an
annual rainfall of less than ten inches. There also great differences between day and night
temperatures. In addition, they are inhabited by plants and animals which have adapted to
the lack water.
LOGICAL STRUCTURE
The hot deserts in the world Introduces and identifies a Nature of list =
have several characteristics in list characteristics of deserts
common.
They all have an annual Specifies item 1 Item1 = rainfall less than 10
rainfall of less than ten inches inches
There are also great Specifies item 2 Item 2 = differences between
differences between day and day and night temperatures
night temperatures. Specifies
item 2
In addition, they are inhabited Specifies item 3 Item 3 = presence of animals
by plants and animals which and plants which have
have adapted to the lack of adapted to lack of water
water

4. Latihan
4.1 Read the following passage and answer the reference questions that follow each
one.

Text 1

11
George Luca's Star Wars changed the direction of American film with some of the most
ingenious special effects contrived for movies of its time. Twenty-two months were spent on
the special effects, including the six months needed to design the equipment and the more
than 1,000 storyboards for the effects
5 sequences.
A special computerized camera, called a Dykstarflex, was designed to give the illusion of
real screen movement. This system, controlled by the camera operator, enabled him or her to
pan, tilt, and track around the model, always keeping it in focus. The breakthrough was the
camera's ability to repeat the identical
10 movements from the shot to shot; thus the effects sequences could be built like
a music track; layer upon, layer. The illusion was complete: none of the spaceships in Star
Wars ever moved-only the camera did.
15 On the rebel blocked runner artists built a tiny cockpit, all done to scale. The
miniaturized laser canons were fully motorized to swivel and tilt by remote control. The
light sabers were four-sided blades coated with reflective aluminum, attached to a small
motor. When rotated, they created a flashing light later enhanced by animation.

1. The word “some” in line 1 refers to


(A) American film
(B) Direction
(C ) Movies
(D) Special effects
2. In line 2, the word “contrived” could be best replaced with which of the following ?
(A) Discovered
(B) Created
(C) Performed
(D) Utilized
3. In line 7 “this system” refers to
(A) the creation of an illusion
(B) screen movement
(C) panning and tilting around a model
(D) a special computerized
4. The word “it” in line 8 refers to
(A) model
(B) camera
(C ) focus
(D) system
5. The word “they” in line 18 refers to
(A) miniaturized laser cannons
(B) artists
(C )four-sided blades
(D) seventy-five models

4.2 Read each passage and guess the logical relation of the paragraph to preceding or
following paragraph

Text 2

The most conservative sect of the Mennonite Church is the Old Order Amish, with 33,000
members living mainly today in the states of Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Indiana. Their
lifestyle reflects their belief in the doctrines of separation from the world and simplicity of
life. The Amish have steadfastly rejected the societal changes that have occurred in the
previous three hundred years, preferring instead to remain securely rooted in a seventeenth-
century lifestyle. They live without radios, televisions, telephones, electric lights, and cars;

12
they dress in plainly styled and colored old-fashioned clothes; and they farm their lands with
horses and tools rather than modern farm equipment. They have a highly communal form of
living, with barn raisings and quilting bees as common place activities.

6. The paragraph preceding this passage most probably discusses


(A) other more liberal sects of Mennonites
(B) where Mennonites
(C) the communal Amish lifestyle
(D)the most conservative Mennonites

Text 3
The extinction of many species of bird has undoubtedly been hastened by modern man;
since 1600 it has been estimated that approximately 100 bird species have become extinct
over the world. In North America, the first species known to be annihilated was the great
auk, a flightless bird that served as an easy source of food and bait for Atlantic fishermen
through the beginning of the nineteenth century.
Short after the great auk's extinction, two other North American species, the Carolina
parakeet and the passenger pigeon, began dwindling noticeably in numbers. The last
Carolina parakeet and the last passenger pigeon i captivity both died in September 1914. In
addition to these extinct species, several others such as the bald eagle, the peregrine falcon,
and the Californian condor are today recognized as endangered; steps are being taken to
prevent their extinction.

7. The paragraph following this passage most probably discusses


(A) what is being done to save endangered birds
(B) what the bald eagle symbolizes to Americans
(C) how several bird species became endangered
(D)other extinct species

4.3 Garis bawahi dan sebutkan jenis penanda kohesi yang terdapat pada bacaan di
bawah ini, kemudian terjemahkan bacaan tersebut ke dalam Bahasa Indonesia.

Text 4
The jazz music sensation began to rub off on other parts of the world, which encourages the
experimentation of melding their familiar sounds with the essence of Jazz. In Europe’s
country in the Region of France came the Quintette Du Hot Club de France who was
responsible for making of the early “Gypsy Jazz”.

The Belgian guitarist Django Reinhardt created gypsy jazz by mixing the style of French
Musette which was used in the dance halls, eastern European Folk known as Jazz
Manouche, and American swing of the 1930’s. The sound was developed by instruments
from the string familiy which are a steel string guitar, violin, and an upright bass. The
atmosphere of the Jazz music is seductive with sudden unpredictable twists, and accelerating
rhythms. The French artist Bireli Lagrene plays this unique music with old elements of the
past.

Another style of Jazz music that allowed the musicians to express themselves freely was the
invention of Avant-Garde or free Jazz music. Both of these styles stemmed from the Bebop
era, yet produced a relaxed form of harmonic and rhythmic music in the 1940’s and 1950’s.
the musicians John Coltrane, Dewey Redman, Charles Mingus, Sun Ra, Sam Rivers, Ornette
Coleman and many more were the creators of the free Jazz Music. Between the 1960’s and
1970’s the Latin musicians created the Afro-Cuban and Brazillian Jazz Music styles after
Bebop musicians Dizzy Gillespie and Billy Taylor cultivated it.

13
Gillespie and Taylor was influenced by the music of Cuban and Puerto Rican musicians
Chico O’farrill, Tito Puente, Chano Pozo, Xavier Cugat, Mario Bauza and Arturo Sandoval.
Jazz music expressed in a Latin interpretation was termed Bossa Nova with origins in
Samba music which is a mixture of Jazz, classical and pop music from the 20th century.
Bossa is a moderate sounds of music with Classical harmonic structure from Europe, Samba
polyrhythm’s from Brazil and cool music. The tempo of such a work is about 120 beats per
minute. The instruments used in this particular sound is nylon stringed guitar, piano, high
hat tap of eighths, tapping on the rim of the drum like Sade’s “Sweetest Taboo”,and a
vocalist. The sound produced is a new relaxing sound where the acoustic sound of guitar
can lull one to sleep with it’s easy melodic line.

Joao Gilberto and Antonio Carlos Jobim became popular in the sixties with this style of
music. The influence of Jazz music returned to the place of its origins in the religious music
known as Urban Cotemporary Gospel from the spirituals music. Much of spiritual music
sung by southern slaves in the past has a haunting dark and mournful sound during the 1800
and 1900’s. The churches know as the sanctified or holy churches took more happier
approach by encouraging member to sing speak their personal testimonies as they celebrated
with song and dance.

The sanctified artist Arizona Dranes who was a travelling pastor made recordings that would
fit in many musical categories such as blues, and boogie-woogie with the use of Jazz
instruments. At the time the Jazz instruments used with religious themed music were
percussion and brass instruments.

Minggu Ke-6
READING FOR INFERENCE AND ADDITIONAL READING SKILLS
14
A. Inference Questions
Inference questions are perhaps the most difficult question to answer the Reading
Comprehension section. The answers to these questions are not directly stated in the passage
but are understood, or implied. The following are examples of inference questions :
 Which of the following can be inferred about ...?
 Which of the following can be inferred from passage ?
 From the passage it can be inferred that ...
 The author implies that ...
 The passage suggest that ...
 It is most probable that ...

To answer inference question, decide what logical conclusion follows from the facts stated
in the passage. These ideas may be what author believes to be true but has not stated in the
passage.

Example :
Lie detectors are properly called emotion detector, for their aim is to measure bodily
changes that contradict what a person says.

What can be inferred from the sentence ?


 Lie detectors record a person's emotions.
 Emotions can contradict what person says.

What cannot be inferred from the sentence ?


 People always say what they are felling. (Bodily changes can contradict what a person
says).
 Lie detectors cause changes in emotions. (no Lie detectors measure or record bodily
changes).

Example :
Although “lie detectors” are being used by governments, police departments, and
business that all want guaranteed ways of detecting the truth, the results are not always
accurate. Lie detectors are properly called emotion detectors, for their aim is to measure
bodily changes that contradict what a person says. The polygraph machine records changes
in heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, and electrical activity of the skin (galvanic skin
response, or GSR). In the first part of polygraph test, you are electronically connected to the
machine and asked a few neutral questions (“What is your name?” “Where do you live?”).
our physical reactions serve as the standard (baseline) for evaluating what comes next. Then
you are asked a few critical questions among the neutral ones (“When did you rob the
bank?”). The assumption is that if you are guilty, your body will reveal the truth, even if you
try to deny it. Your heart rate, respiration, and GSR will change abruptly as you respond to
the incriminating questions.
That is the theory; but psychologists have found that lie detectors are simply not
reliable. Since most physical changes are the same across emotions, machines cannot tell
whether you are feeling guilty, angry, nervous, thrilled or revved up from an exciting day.
Innocent people may be tense and nervous about the whole procedure. They may be react
physiologically to a certain word (“bank”) not because the robbed it, but because they
recently bounced a check. In either case lie without flinching, and other learn to beat the
machine by tensing muscles or thinking about an exciting experience during neutral
questions.

Question
1. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage ?
(A) Lie detectors are very reliable

15
(B) Innocent people are never found guilty.
(C )Psychologists never argue about anything
(D) Most people cannot control their bodily reactions.

Answer
Answer (A) is incorrect because the second paragraph stats that psychologists find lie
detectors to be unreliable. Answer (B) is also because the passage states that the lie detectors
may record innocent people as lying in response to a question, not because they are guilty
but because they are nervous. Therefore, innocent people may be found guilty. Answer (D)
is also incorrect, because although psychologists may agree on the unreliability of lie
detectors, we do not know whether they agree on other issues. Therefore, this cannot be
inferred. Answer (D) is the best answer. Although we know that some practiced liars can
control their bodily reactions, in general, we can infer that most people cannot control their
bodily reactions such as breathing rate, hear rate, blood pressure, and the electrical activity
of the skin.

Question
2. From the passage it can be inferred that
(A) Emotions are all the same
(B) Psychologists would not want the detectors used to prove someone's guilt.
(C )Neutral questions reveal the truth.
(D) Psychologists are unreliable

Answer
Answer (A) cannot be inferred. The passage states that physical changes are the same across
all emotions, but the does not mean that emotions are all the same. Answer (C ) also cannot
be inferred since the passage states that some practiced liars can beat the machine. Answer
(D) cannot be inferred since the passage states that psychologists find the detectors
unreliable; there is no indication in the passage that psychologists are unreliable. The best
answer is (B) since it can be inferred that psychologists would not to use lie detectors to
prove someone's guilt, because they consider them to be unreliable.

Strategies
 Go beyond the information stated in the passage
 Draw a conclusion or reason out what is implied-that is, what the author of the
passage means or believes to be true but has not stated in the passage.
 Remember that the answer to the question will not be stated in words in the passage.
 Beware of answer choices that go beyond what can logically infer from the passage.
wrong answer choices that go beyond what you can logically infer from the passage.
Wrong answer choices will often be too exaggerated or overstated to be precisely
correct.

B. Additional Reading Skill Questions


 Questions on Context
There are different types of context questions depending on the particular field of the
reading passage.

a. The questions may regard the kind of publication in which the passage may be found.
Examples :
 The passage would most likely be found in a textbook on which of following subjects
?
 The passage would most likely be found in ... .

b. The questions may regard the audience for the passage.


Examples :

16
 The passage was probably written by a specialist in ...
 The passage was written most likely by an expert in ...

c. The question may regard the audience for the passage.


Examples :
 For whom has the author probably written the passage ?
 The audience the author had in mind when writing this passage was most likely a
group of ...
 The information in this passage would most likely be of interest to ...
d. The question may be about the class for which the passage would be assigned.
Examples :
 For what course would the passage probably be assigned ?

 Questions on Tone and Attitude


a. These question ask you about the author's feeling when he or she wrote the
passage.
Examples :
 The tone of the passage could best be described as ...
 What tone does the author take in writing this passage ?

b. In this passage, the author may take a strong position for or against something. The
following are examples of strong positive and negative tones.
Examples :
 The work, a true masterpiece, was written in a day. (positive)
 In her brilliant career as architect, she was renowned not only for the quality of her
work but also for the amount of work she produced. (positive)
 This system is extravagant of land use and not suitable for many areas if the world.
(negative)
 These experiments are not only shocking but also a waste of time and money.
(negative)

c. Attitude question are similar to questions on tone. You must determine the
author's opinion or position the subject.
Examples :
 The author's attitude toward ... could best be described as ...
 What is the author's attitude toward ...?
 The author's opinion of ... could best be described as one of ...
 How would the author probably feel about ...?
 How would the writer probably feel about ...?

Here are some examples of tone or attitude answers :


POSITIVE NEGATIVE NEUTRAL
humorous disbelieving scientific
supportive depressing objective
favorable unfavorable impersonal

d. In other attitude questions, you may be asked what you think the author's
opinion of four statements would be.
Examples :
 The author of the passage would most likely agree with which of the following ?
 Which of the following recommendations would the author most likely support ?

 Questions on Main Purpose


Questions on main purpose ask why the author wrote the passage. These questions
appear in place of main idea questions and are the first questions after the passage.

17
Examples :
 What is the author's main purpose in the passage ?
 The author's purpose in writing is to ...
 Why did the author write the passage ?

The answers to these questions begin with infinitives such as :


to discuss to tell how
to mention to distinguish
to persuade to illustrate
to summarize to advise
to compare to criticize
to describe to explain

 Question on Drawing Conclusions


Question on drawing conclusions are similar to inference questions. These questions ask
you to infer from the facts or ideas presented in the passage.
Examples :
 It can be concluded from the passage that ...
 The passage supports which of the following conclusions ?
 Which of the following conclusions about ... is supported by the passage ?
 Which of the following conclusions about ... can be drawn from the passage?

 Questions on Organization
Organization questions ask you about the general organization of the passage or of a
particular paragraph.
Examples :
 Which of the following describes the organization of the passage ?
 Which of the following statements best describes the organization of the first
paragraph ?
Here are some examples of the answer to such questions :
 Persuasive language is used against ...
 A general concept is defined, and examples are given.
 The author describes ...
 Several generalizations are presented, from which various conclusions are drawn.
 The views of two researchers are described and contrasted.
 A specific case is given to describe a general principle.

Sample Reading Passage

Although “lie detectors” are being used by governments, police departments, and
business that all want guaranteed way of detecting the truth, the results are not always
accurate. Lie detector are properly called emotion detectors, for their aim is to measure
bodily changes that contradict what a person says. Th e polygraph machine records changes
in heart rate, breathing, blood pressure, and the electrical activity of the skin (galvanic skin
response, or GSR). In the first part of the polygraph test, you are electronically connected to
the machine and asked a few neutral questions (“what is your name?” “ Where do you
live?”). Your physical reactions serve as the standards (baseline) for evaluating what comes
next. Then you are asked a few critical questions among the neutral ones (“when did you rob
the bank?”). The assumption is that if you are guilty, your body will reveal the truth, even if
you try to deny it. Your heart rate, respiration, and GSR will change abruptly as you respond
to the incriminating questions.
That is the theory; but the psychologists have found that lie detectors are simply not
reliable.. Since most physical changes are the same across emotions, machines cannot tell
whether you are feeling guilty, angry, nervous about the whole procedure. They may be
react physiologically to a certain word (“bank”)not because the robbed it, but because they

18
recently bounced a check. In either case the machine will record a “lie”. The reverse mistake
is also common. Some practiced liars can lie without flinching, and other learn to beat the
machine by tensing muscles or thinking about an exciting experience during neutral
questions.

Question
1. It can be concluded from the passage that a polygraph test
(A) is the best way to determine a person's guilt
(B) can read a person's thoughts
(C )is the only evidence needed in a court of law
(D) works in principle but not in practice

Answer
Answer (A) is not correct because the polygraph is not reliable according to psychologists;
therefore, it cannot be the best way to determine a person’s guilt. Answer (B) is also
incorrect because the polygraph only record physical reactions. Answer (C ) is not correct
since the passage doe not imply that this world be the only evidence needed in a court of
law. The best answer is (D) since this is another way of saying that the theory of the
polygraph is good but, because it is not reliable, in practice it does not work.

Question
2. This passage was probably written by a specialist in
(A) sociology
(B) anthropology
(C )mind reading
(D)criminal psychology

Answer
Answer (A) is not correct because a sociologist studies human behavior in groups and does
not study the human mind and its related bodily reactions. Answer (B) is also incorrect
because an anthropologist studies different human races and their habits and beliefs. Answer
(C ) is incorrect because a specialist in ind reading will use parapsychology and will not
believe in what psychologists have to say. The best answer is (D) since the polygraph
supports the opinion of psychologists on the subject of being found guilty or innocent of
committing a crime.

Question
3. The author would most probably agree with which of the following statements ?
(A) Polygraphs have no place in our society
(B) Physical reactions are not connected to thoughts.
(C )Machines are no match for psychologists.
(D) Polygraph tests should not be used as the sole evidence of guilt

Answer
Answer (A) is not correct; although the author does not think that polygraphs are reliable,
this statement would be overwhelmingly disapproving and an exaggeration of the author's
feeling. Answer (B) is also not correct since the author dose not deny this statement, but
only indicates how physical reactions may not be reliably determined by the polygraph.
Answer (C ) is also incorrect. Machines could be any machines, including computers. This is
an exaggerated statement. The best answer is (D) since this statement supports the author's
opinion that polygraph tests are unreliable, but it does not exaggerate by ruling out other
evidence of guilt.

Question
4. Which of following statements best describes the organization of the last paragraph ?

19
(A) Several generalizations are made from which several conclusions are
drawn.
(B) A general concept is defined and examples are given.
(C) Suggestion for the use of lie detectors are given.
(D) Persuasive language is used to argue against a popular idea.

Answer
Answer (A) is not correct since no generalizations are made. Anwer (B) is not correct
because no concept is given or defined. Answer (C ) is also not correct since suggestions for
the use of lie detectors are not given. Answer (D) is the best answer since persuasive
language is used to argue against the popular ide of suing lie detectors.
Question
5. Why did the author write the passage ?
(A) To illustrate how a lie detector works
(B) To explain how innocent people are found guilty
(C )To criticize the use of the lie detector
(D) To propose ways of using a lie detector

Answer
Answer (A) is not correct. The author illustrates how a lie detector works only in the first
paragraph, but only i order to make the main point later. Answer (B) is not correct. Although
the second paragraph mention that innocent people might be mistakenly found guilty, the
passage is about lie detectors. Answer (D) is also not correct. No mention is made of ways
of using a lie detectors. Answer (C ) is the best answer since the author first describes how a
lie detector works and then describes how it is unreliable, and in this way criticizes its use.

Strategies

 Questions on drawing a conclusion are similar to inference questions. To answer


these questions, remember to draw a conclusion from the information given in the
passage.
 Purpose questions are combination of inference questions and main idea questions
asking you why the author wrote the passage. Again, to answer these questions, draw
a conclusion from the whole passage to find the author's purpose i writing it.
 When answering tone or attitude questions, remember that tone and attitude are
implied in a passage and not stated explicitly. When answering tone questions look
for words that are neutral, positive, or negative. Beware of answer choices that are
strong emotional words. Some questions on attitude refer to passage in which the
author takes a position for or against a point. In such cases, beware of answer choices
that overstate or exaggerate the author's attitude.

Minggu ke 8
TEXT STRUCTURE AND MEANING FROM CONTEXT

20
1. Getting Main Ideas from Text Structure and Context

Read the following text, and while you are skimming for the main ideas, try to find out the
discourse markers that show the contrast between the methods of education in the East and
those in the West.

Methods of Education :
East Versus West

A A teacher from a western country recently visited an elementary school in an Asian


country. In one class , she watched sixty young children as they learned to draw a cat. The
class teacher draw a big circle on the black board, and sixty young children copied it on their
papers. The teacher drew a smaller circle on top of the first and then put two triangles on top
of it. The children drew in the same way. The lesson continued until there were sixty-one
identical cats in the classroom. Each student's cat looked exactly like the one on the board.
B The visiting teacher watched the lesson and was surprised. The teaching methods
were very different from the way of teaching in her own country. A children's art lesson in
her own country produced a room full of unique pictures, each one completely different
from the others. Why ? What causes this difference in educational methods ? In a classroom
in any country, the instructor teaches more than at or history or language. He or she also
teaches culture (the ideas and beliefs of that society). Each educational system is a mirror
that reflects the culture of the society.
C In a society such as the United States or Canada, which has many national, religious,
and cultural differences, people highly value individualism-the differences among people.
Teachers place a lot of importance on the qualities that make each student special. The
educational systems in these countries show these values. Students do not memorize
information. Instead, they work individually and find answers themselves. There is often
discussion in the classroom. At an early age, students learn to form their own ideas and
opinions.
D In most Asian societies, by contrast, the people have the same language, history, and
culture. Perhaps for this reason, the educational system in much of the Orient reflects
society belief in group goals and purposes rather than . Children in China, Japan, and Korea
often work together and help one another on assignments. In the classroom, the teaching
methods are often very formal. The teacher lectures, and the students listen. There is not
much discussion. Instead , the students recite rules or information that they have memorized.
E There are advantages and disadvantages to both of these systems of education. For
example. One advantage to the system in Japan is that students there learn much more math
and science than American students learn by the end of high school. They also study more
hours each day and more day each year than North Americans do. The system is difficult,
but it prepares students for a society that values discipline and self-control. There is,
however, a disadvantage. Memorization is an important learning method in Japanese
21
schools, yet many students say that after an exam, they forget of the information that they
have memorized.
The advantage of the educational system in North America, on the other hand, is that
students learn to think for themselves. The system prepares them for a society that values
creative ideas. There is, however, a disadvantage. When students graduate from high school,
they haven't memorized as many basic and facts as students in other countries have.

1.1 Getting the Main Ideas

Answer the questions according to the reading selection. Which statements apply to which
system of education? Write W (western) or A (Asian) on the lines. Don't think look back at
the reading.
A
1. _____ The teacher draws pictures that the children copy exactly.
2. _____ Each child draws a different picture; the teacher helps individuals.
3. _____ The society values individualism highly.
W
4. _____ Students have to find information themselves, and there is a lot of
discussion.
5. _____ Most of people in the country have the same language, history, and
culture.
6. _____ Students listen to the teacher and memorize information and rules.
7. _____ The system prepares students for a society that values discipline.

1.2 Guessing Meaning From Context


You do not need to look up the meaning of all new words in a dictionary. You can
guess the meanings of many new words from the context-the other words in the sentence
and the other sentences in the paragraph.

Sometimes a sentence gives a definition of a new vocabulary item or information about it.
This information may be in parentheses ( ) after a dash (-), or after a comma (,).
Example : There were sixty one identical cats in the classroom, each one exactly alike the
one on the board. (What does identical mean? It means “exactly alike”).

A. Find the meanings of the underlined words in the sentences. Write them on the lines.
1. A children's art lesson produced a room full of unique pictures, each one completely
different from the others.
Completely different
2. The instructor also teaches the culture (the ideas and beliefs of society).
_________________________________________________________
3. People highly value individualism-the differences among people.
_________________________________________________________
4. Most Asian societies value discipline, or self-control.

22
_________________________________________________________

Sometimes the meaning or a clue to the meaning of a new vocabulary item is in another
sentence or sentence part.

Example : A teacher from Western country recently visited an elementary schools in an


Asia country. In one class, she watched sixty young children. (What is an elementary
school? It's a school for young children).

B. Write the meaning of the underlined words on the lines.

1. The teacher drew a big circle on the blackboard, and the children copied it. Then she
drew a smaller circle, and the class drew it the same way
______________________________________________________
2. The teaching methods were very different from the way teaching in her own country.
______________________________________________________
3. Students memorize information; they learn and remember basic rules and facts.
______________________________________________________
4. They work individually and find answers themselves.
______________________________________________________
5. Each educational system is a mirror that reflects the values of the society. In the
orient, it shows society's belief in group goals rather than individualism.
______________________________________________________
6. People in Western culture value individualism highly. Teachers place a lot of
importance on the qualities that make each personal special.

C. Read the selection at the beginning of the chapter again carefully. Try to guess the
meanings of new words from the context. Use your dictionary only when absolutely
necessary.

Check your answers in the “Getting Main Ideas” section, which follows the reading
selection. Correct your errors.

Minggu Ke- 9
EXAMPLE OF TOEFL READING COMPREHENSION TEST

Section 3 :
Reading Comprehension
23
50 QUESTIONS 55 MINUTES

Directions : in this section you will read several passages. Each one is followed by a number
of questions about it. For questions 1-50, you are to choose the one best answer, (A), (B), (C
), or D, to each question. Then, on your answer sheet, find the number of the question and
fill in the space that corresponds to the letter of the answer you have chosen.

Answer all questions about the information in a passage on the basis of what is stated or
implied in that passage.

Question 1-10
Throughout history, the search for salt has played an important role in society.
Where there was no salt near, it was brought from great distances. Thus, salt became one of
the most important articles of early trade. Records show that in areas of scarcity, salt was
traded ounce for ounce for gold. Romeo's major highway was called Via Salaria that is, the
5 Salt Road. Along that road, Roman soldiers transported salt crystals from the salt flats at
Ostia up the Tiber River. In return, they received a salarium or salary, which was literally
money paid to soldiers to buy salt. The old saying “worth their salt”, which means to be
valuable, derives from the custom of payment during the Empire. The caravan trade of the
Sahara was also primarily an exchange of goods for salt. Among ancient peoples there, to
10 eat salt with another person was an act of friendship. Slaves were often purchased with salt.
Salt was so important in the Middle Age that governments retained salt trade as a monopoly,
or levied taxes on its purchase. By then, people's social rank was demonstrated by where
they sat at the table above or below the salt.
15 Even today, in some remote regions of the world, salt is a luxury item. In fact, in a
few isolated areas of Southeas Asia and Africa, cakes made of salt are still used for money.

1. What does the passage mainly discuss ?


(A) The old saying “worth their salt”
(B) The Roman Empire
(C )Salt
(D) Ancient trade
2. The word “scarcity” in line 4 could best be replaced by
(A) influence
(B) deprivation
(C )demand
(D) progress

3. What was the rate of exchange for salt and gold in areas where salt was a scarce
commodity ?
(A) One to one
(B) One to two
(C )One to ten
(D) One to sixteen

4. According to the passage, where were salt flats located ?


(A) Rome
(B) Tiber
(C )Ostia
(D) Salaria

5. What does the Latin word salarium mean ?


(A) Salt
(B) Salary
(C )Soldiers

24
(D) The Salt road

6. If a man is “worth his salt”, he is


(A) a soldier
(B) a thirsty person
(C )a valuable employee
(D) a highly paid worker

7. The word “retained” in line 12 could best be replaced by which of the following ?
(A) reserved
(B) transferred
(C ) denied
(D) designated

8. Who enjoyed a monopoly on the sale of salt ?


(A) Soldiers of the Roman Empire
(B) Traders in Sahara
(C )Governments in the Middle Ages
(D) People of high social rank

9. The word “then” in line 13 refers to


(A) ancient times
(B) the Roman Empire
(C ) the Middle Ages
(D) early modern times

10. The word “remote” in line 15 is closest in meaning to


(A) distant
(B) prosperous
(C )traditional
(D) irresistible

Question 11-20
Smallpox was the first widespread disease to be eliminated by human intervention.
In May 1966, the world Health Organization (WHO) , an agency of the United Nations, was
authorized to initiate a global campaign to eradicate smallpox. The goal was to eliminate the
disease in one decade. At the time, the disease posed a serious threat to people in more than
5 thirty nations. Because similar projects for malaria and yellow fever after the initial
organization of the campaign, no cases were reported in the field.
The strategy was not only to provide mass vaccination but also to isolate patients
10 with active smallpox in order to contain the spread of the disease and to break the chain of
human transmission. Rewards for reporting smallpox assisted in motivating the public to aid
health workers. One by one, each smallpox victim was sought out, removed from contact
with other and treated. At the same time, the entire village where the victim had lived was
vaccinated.
15 By April 1978, WHO officials announced that they had isolated the last known case
of the disease, but health workers continued to search for new cases for two additional years
to be completely sure. In May 1980, a formal statement was made to the global community.
Today smallpox is no longer a threat to humanity. Routine vaccinations have been stopped
worldwide.

11. Which of the following is the best title for the passage ?
(A) The World Health Organization
(B) The Eradication of Smallpox
(C )Smallpox Vaccinations
(D) Infectious Diseases

25
12. The word “threat” in line 5 could best be replaced by
(A) debate
(B) humiliation
(C) risk
(D) bother

13. What was the goal of the campaign against smallpox ?


(A) To decrease the spread of smallpox worldwide
(B) To eliminate smallpox worldwide in ten years.
(C )To provide mass vaccinations against smallpox worldwide
(D) To initiate worldwide projects for smallpox, malaria, and yellow fever at the same
time.

14. According to the passage, what was the strategy used to eliminate the spread of
smallpox ?
(A) Vaccinations of entire villages
(B) Treatment of individual victims
(C ) isolation of victims and mass vaccinations
(D) Extensive reporting of outbreaks

15. The word “isolated” in line 15 is closest in meaning to


(A) restored
(B) separated
(C )attended
(D) located

16. How was the public motivated to help the health workers ?
(A) By educating them
(B) By rewarding them for reporting cases
(C ) By isolating them from others
(D) By giving them vaccinations

17. The word “they” in line 15 refers to


(A) health workers
(B) officials
(C ) victims
(D) cases

18. Which statement does NOT refer to smallpox ?


(A) Previous project had failed
(B) People are no longer vaccinated for it
(C )The World Health Organization mounted a worldwide campaign to eradicate the
disease
(D) It was a serious threat.

19. It can be inferred that


(A) no new cases of smallpox have been reported this year
(B) malaria and yellow fever have been eliminated
(C )smallpox victims no longer die when they contract the disease
(D) smallpox is not transmitted from one person to another
20. When was the formal announcement made that smallpox had been eradicated ?
(A) 1966
(B) 1976
(C ) 1978
(D) 1980

26
Question 21-30
The nuclear family, consisting of a mother, father, and their children, may be more
an American ideal than American reality. Of course, the so-called traditional American
family was always more varied than we had been led to believe, reflecting the very different
racial, ethnic, class, and religious customs among different American groups, but today
5 diversity is even more obvious.
The most recent government statistic reveal that only about one third of all current
American families fit the traditional mold of two parents and their children, and another
third consists of married couples who either have no children or have none still living at
home. Of the final one third, about 20 percent of the total number of American household
10 are single people, usually women over sixty-five years of age. A small percentage, about 3
percent of the otal, consists of unmarried people who choose to live together, and the rest,
about 7 percent, are single parents, with at least one child.
There are several reasons for the growing number of single-parent households. First,
15 the number of births to unmarried women has increased dramatically. In addition, a
substantial number of adults become single parents as a result of divorce. Finally, a small
percentage of death result in single parents families. Today, these varied family types are
typical, and therefore normal.
Addition, close friends have become a more important part of family life than ever
20 before. The vast majority of Americans claims that they regard of family although they are
not related. A view of family that only accepts the traditional nuclear arrangement not only
ignores the reality of modern American family life, but also undervalues the familial bonds
created in alternative family arrangements. Apparently, many Americans are achieving
25 supportive relationships in family forms other than the traditional one.

21. With what topic is the passage mainly concerned ?


(A) The traditional American family
(B) The nuclear American family
(C )The current American family
(D)The ideal family

22. The author implies that


(A) there have always been a wide variety of family arrangements in United States
(B) racial, ethnic, and religious groups have preserved the traditional family structure
(C )the ideal American family is the best structure
(D) fewer married couples are having children

23. The word “current” in line 7 could best be replaced by which of the following
(A) typical
(B) present
(C )perfect
(D) traditional

24. According to the passage, married couples whose children have grown or who have no
children represent
(A) 33 13 percent of households
(B) 20 percent of households
(C )7 percent of households
(D) 3 percent of households

25. The word “none” in line 9 refers to


(A) parents
(B) children
(C )couples

27
(D) families

26. How many single people were identified in they survey ?


(A) One third of the total surveyed
(B) One fourth of the total surveyed
(C )One fifth of the total surveyed
(D) Less than one tenth of the total surveyed

27. Who generally constitutes a one-person household ?


(A) A single man in his twenties
(B) A elderly man
(C )A single woman in her late sixties
(D) A divorced woman

28. The phrase “the rest” in line 12 could best be replaced by


(A) those easily forgotten
(B) those remaining
(C )a small number
(D) a significant group

29. Where in the passage does the author refer to the value of close friends ?
(A) Lines 6-8
(B) Lines 10-12
(C )Lines 15-17
(D) Lines 19-24

30. The word “undervalues” in line 23 is closest in meaning to


(A) does not appreciate
(B) does not know about
(C )does not include
(D) does not understand

Question 31-40

Noise, commonly defined as unwanted sound, is another environmental pollutant.


Particularly in congested urban areas, the noise produced a by product of our advancing
technology causes physical and psychological harm, and detracts from the quality of life for
those who are exposed to it.
5 Unlike the eye, the ear had no lid; therefore noise penetrates without protection.
Loud noises instinctively signal danger to any organism with a hearing mechanism,
including human beings. In response, heartbeat and respiration accelerate, blood vessels
constrict, the skin pales, and muscle tense. In fact, there is a general increase in functioning
brought about by the flow of adrenaline release in in response to fear, and some of these
10 responses persist even longer than the noise, occasionally as long as thirty minutes after the
sound has ceased.
Because noise is unavoidable in a complex, industrial society, we are constantly
responding in the same ways that we would respond to danger. Recently, researches have
concluded that noise and our response may be much more than an annoyance. It may be
15 serious threat to physical and psychological health and well being, causing damage not only
to the ear and brain but also to the heart and stomach. We have long know that hearing loss
is America's number one nonfatal heart problem, but now we are learning that some of us
with heart disease and ulcers may be victims of noise as well. In addition, the psychic effect
of noise is very important. Nervousness, irritability, tension, and anxiety increase, affecting
the quality of rest during sleep, and the efficiency of activities during waking hours.
20

28
31. What is the author's main point ?
(A) Noise may pose a serious threat to our physical and psychological health
(B) Loud noises signal danger
(C )Hearing loss is America's number one nonfatal health problem
(D) The ear is not like the eye

32. What is the author's definition of noise ?


(A) Unwanted sound
(B) A byproduct of technology
(C )Physical and psychological harm
(D) Congestion

33. What was probably the topic of the paragraph that preceded this passage ?
(A) Environmental pollutants
(B) Urban areas
(C )Technology
(D) Disease

34. The word “congested” in line 2 could best be replaced by


(A) hazardous
(B) polluted
(C )crowded
(D) rushed

35. It can be inferred this passage that the eye


(A) respond to fear
(B) enjoys greater protection than the ear.
(C )increases functions
(D) is damaged by noise

36. According to the passage, people respond toloud noises in the same way that they
respond to
(A) annoyance
(B) danger
(C )damage
(D) disease

37. The word “accelerate” in line 8 is closest in meaning to


(A) decline
(B) interrupt
(C ) increase
(D )cease

38. The word “it” in line 4 refers to


(A) noise
(B) harm
(C )life
(D) technology

39. According to the author, which of the following is true ?


(A) Noise not a serious problem
(B) Noise is America's number one problem
(C )Noise is unavoidable problem in an industrial society.
(D) Noise is a complex problem

29
40. The phrase “as well” in line 19 is closest in meaning to which of the
following
(A) after all
(B) also
(C ) instead
(D) regardless

Question 41-50

Very few in modern world obtain their food supply by hunting and gathering in the
natural environment surrounding their homes. This method of harvesting from nature's
provision is the oldest known subsistence strategy, and has been practiced for at least the last
2 million years. It was, indeed, the only way to obtain food until rudimentary farming and
the domestication of animals was introduced about 10,000 years ago.
Because hunter-gatherers have fared poorly in comparison with their agricultural
cousins, their numbers have dwindled, and they have been forced to live in marginal
environment such as deserts, forests, or artic wastelands. In higher latitudes, the shorter
growing season has restricted the availability of plant life. Such conditions have caused a
greater dependence o hunting and, along the coasts and waterways, on fishing. The
abundance of vegetation in the lower latitudes of the tropics, on the other hands, has
provided a greater opportunity for gathering a variety of plants. In short, the environmental
differences have restricted the diet and have limited possibilities for the development of
subsistence societies.
Contemporary hunter-gatherers may help us understand our prehistoric ancestors. we
know observation of modern hunter-gatherers in both Africa and Alaska that a society based
on hunting and gathering must be very mobile. While the entire community camps in a
central location, a smaller party harvests the food within a reasonable distance from the
camp. When the food in the area is exhausted, the community moves on to exploit another
site. We also notice a seasonal migration pattern evolving for most hunter-gatherers, along
with a strict division of labor between the sexes. This pattern of behavior may be similar to
those practiced by mankind during the Paleolithic Period.

41. Whit which of the following topics is the passage primarily concerned ?
(A) The Paleolithic period
(B) Subsistence farming
(C )Hunter-gatherers
(D) Marginal environments

42. Which is the oldest subsistence strategy ?


(A) Migrating
(B) Domesticating animals
(C )Farming
(D) Hunting and gathering

43. The word “rudimentary” in line 5 could best be replaced by


(A) crude
(B) inconsistent
(C )neglectful
(D) careless

44. When was hunting and gathering introduced ?


(A) Ten million years ago
(B) Two million years ago
(C )Ten thousand years ago

30
(D) Two thousand years ago

45. The word “dwindled” in line 8 is closest in meaning to ?


(A) disagreed
(B) decreased
(C )disappeared
(D) died

46. The phrase “such conditions” in lines 10-11 refers to ?


(A) greater dependence
(B) higher altitudes
(C )plant life
(D) shorter growing season

47. What conditions exist in lower latitudes ?


(A) Greater dependence on hunting
(B) More coasts and waterways for fishing
(C )A shorter growing season
(D) A large variety of plant life

48. How can we learn more about the hunter-gatherers pf prehistoric times ?
(A) By standing the remains of their camp sites
(B) By studying similar contemporary societies
(C )By studying the prehistoric environment
(D) By practicing hunting and gathering

49. The word “exploit” in line 21 is closest in meaning to ?


(A) use
(B) find
(C )take
(D) prepare

50. What are some characteristics of hunter-gatherers ?


(A) They are mobile, tending to migrate seasonally
(B) They share the same responsibilities equally between the sexes.
(C ) They camp in a central location when they are tired
(D) They have many social celebrations.

Minggu Ke-10

English For Specific Purposes

31
General Objective :
Students will be able to comprehend a text on ancient culture and to improve their mastery
of passive voice.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
Students will be able to :
1. comprehend the text relating to Ancient Culture
2. find the correct form of the word o different parts of speech
3. complete sentences by using appropriate words.
4. Identify the form and meaning of passive sentences in the passage
5. change active sentence into passive ones
6. arrange words and phrases into good sentences
7. combine sentences by using the relative pronoun “which”.

A. Reading Passage

BEDAYA AND SRIMPI

Bedaya and Srimpi, the Javanese dances, which are usually performed by girls, are
feudal in spirit. Both had existed before Surakarta and Yogyakarta styles came into
existence. They probably dated back to the 16th century. In official ceremonies the bedaya
dances usually carry the articles of the royal ceremony. These two dances have been
preserved both in the courts of Surakarta including Mangkunegaran, and Yogyakarta
including Pakualaman and have become the pride of both courts. It is noteworthy, however,
that there is an essential difference in style between the two dances.
The bedaya is a women's dances without a dialogue performed by nine female
dances. The background of the non-dialogue dance is a legendary event performed with such
symbolic movements that the laymen can not easily understand. Examples of famous
bedayas are the Bedaya Ketawang, Bedaya Semang, Bedaya Bedah Mediun, and Bedaya
Arjunawiwaha. The Bedaya Ketawang was created by Sultan Agung, king of Mataram in
the first of the 17th century. The Bedaya Ketawang describes the myth of the meeting
beween Sultan Agung and Ratu Rara Kidul or the Queen of the South Sea. According to a
Javanese legend, Sultan Agung, the greatest king of Mataram, united himself in a holy union
with the mythical Ratu Rara Kidul, the ruler of the South Sea. This meetinig resulted in a
close family bond between all the succeeding kings of Mataram and Ratu Rara Kidul. On
special ocasions, such as in wars, the king of Mataram might ask for the help of the invisible
army of Ratu Rara Kidul.
After Mataram kingdom was divided into Surakarta and Yogyakarta, King
Hamengku Buwana II created another bedaya dance resembling the Bedaya Ketawang
called Bedaya Semang at the end of the 18th century. Since then, however the Yogyakarta
court has no longer performed the Bedaya Ketawang.
In addition to these bedayas, there is another bedaya dance called Bedaya Bedah
Mediun, which depicts the suppression of the rebellion launched by the regent of Madiun
against the king of Mataram. Still another bedaya dance is Bedaya Arjunawiwaha picturing
the marriage between Arjuna and the nymph Supraba.
Another womens' dance of the court is the srimpi dance performed by four girls. This
dance describes a battle between two important female warriors, as the protagonists and two
others being the antagonists. There is no dialogue in this srimpi dance and the story is drawn
from the Islamic period. There is a srimpi dance which depicts a battle between two
princesses in the Menak story, i.e Princess Sirtufilaeli and Princess Sudarawerti. There is
also another srimpi dance which is performed not by four but by five girls, and describes not
a fight, but a love scene. Another Srimpi dance called Renggawati dance describes the way

32
in which Princess Renggawati catches a Meliwis Putih bird, the personification of her lover,
King Anglingdarma.
The srimpi dances are named after the gending or melody accompanying them. For
instance, Srimpi Pandelori is a dance which is accompanied by gending Pandelori.
Like in the bedaya dance, the movements in the srimpi dance are so symbolic and
refined that it is difficult for the common people to understand. The number of srimpi
dancers symbolizes are four points of compass-north, south, east, and west.
At present, neither the bedaya nor the srimpi dance is popular among the public. But,
they are still maintained especially by Surakarta and Yogyakarta choreographers.

(adapted from “Dances in Indonesia”, by Soedarsono, 1968:42-44).

Notes :
court : keraton
to depict : menggambarkan
to preserve : melestarikan
choreographers : pencipta tari

B. Comprehension Questions
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions.
1. How many female dancers are there in the bedaya dance ?
2. Who created the Bedaya Ketawang ?
3. What does the Bedaya Ketwang describe ?
4. When was the Bdaya Semang created ?
5. In what ways are bedaya and srimpi different ?
6. What is the similarity between bedaya and srimpi ?

Exercise 2. Circle T if the following statement is true, and F if it is false.


T/F 1. Bedaya and Srimpi dances existed after Surakarta and Yogyakarta styles
had come into existence.
T/F 2. The Bedaya Ketawang dance was created in the 17th century.
T/F 3. The Bedaya and srimpi dances were preserved both in the courts of
Surakarta and Yogyakarta.
T/F 4. The srimpi dance is named after the number of dancers.
T/F 5. The Yogyakarta court has performed the Bedaya Semang since the 18th
century.

C. Word Study
Exercise 1. Fill in the existing corresponding words in the following box. Number one is
done for you.

33
NO VERB NOUN ADJECTIVE ADVERB
1 Differ Difference Different Differently
2 describe .................. .................. ..................
3 ................ .................. symbolic ..................
4 move .................. .................. ..................
5 ................ .................. personal ..................
6 create .................. .................. ..................
7 decide .................. .................. ..................
8 ............... .................. present ..................

Exercise 2. Find the words in the following list, which are synonymous to the
italicized words in the sentences below.
Types choreographed describes
taken fight carried out

1. King Hamengku Buwana II created the Bedaya Semarang.


2. Bedaya and srimpi are two Javanese dances performed by girls.
3. He Bedaya Arjunawiwaha depicts the marriage between Arjuna and the nymph
Suprabha.
4. The story is drawn from the Islamic period.
5. This dance describes a battle between two important female warriors.

Exercise 3. Circle the word that does not belong to the category. The first has been
done for you
1. Javanese English Dutch Indonesia New Zealand
2. dancer singer pointer manager musician
3. anger jealousy table love hatred
4. cello pianist guitar violin drum
5. drama poetry novel catalogue short-story
6. truck lorry cab cap van

Pertemuan 11 :
Understanding Scientific articles

34
General Objective :
Students will be able to comprehend a text of scientific article and to improve their
mastery of structure of complex sentences

Specific objective :
1. comprehend the text relating to stress analysis of English song lyrics
2. find out subject, predicator of sentences
3. identify complex sentences : main clause, and sub clause
4. identify noun phrases and translate
5. translate complex sentences on the passage and parts of the passage
6. understand procedure of the scientific article, part of scientific articles
7. draw reference, text structure of the passage

Title :
MUSIC AND LANGUAGE:
A STRESS ANALYSIS ON ENGLISH SONG LYRICS
by Suharto, a Lecturer of Music Department, UNNES

Introduction
Musical works fall into two categories based on their performance, namely
instrumental music and music accompanied by lyrics or sometimes called a song. A musical
work is called a song if only the existing sequence of melody is completed with song texts
(lyrics). It is in the form of a musical notation which is completed with song texts. The song
texts are arranged into a song. An instrumental music, on the other hand, is a song without
song texts.
The song text is an extremely important part of song. A good song text should be
harmonious with the melody of the song that will bring the listener to delightful and
pleasant mood. On the contrary, song texts which is not exquisite, and do not go well with
the melody flow nor with the song theme, will produce an unappealing song to hear, and
sometime potential to make the listener get bored, irritated, or even angry. Many of this kind
of song we see and hear in the radio or TV.
Musical works which is a language expression of the writer, actually have symbols.
The symbols are music notations which have principle like a language. In music, motif is
known as melodic or rhythmical idea which can be developed to a good composition. The
song motif is usually appear in parts of song. The parts may be in the beginning, middle,
or in the end of the song. Motif is sometimes called theme of the song which can be used as
a base of the composition. Making a good motif will make the development of the melody
in the composition process become a good one. Thus, like a language, the musical works
are the compositions which have meaning.
A complete song is a combination of some elements namely melody, harmony, and
song text or lyric. The sequence of melody is actually a language, music language. Because
the song text consist of words, phrases, or even sentences that have meaning. Both
language, music language and lyric language are one united meaning. That is why in every
composition process the writer should consider the two elements (music and language). The
two elements must be suitable in rhythm, melody, and harmony. If one element moves
without other one, then it can not be harmonious. Usually, the text in a song is a beautiful
language or literary language. However, the beauty of the language can be meaningless if
the melody is not suitable among theme, melody, rhythm, and harmony.
We can be sure that in music the first beat of the measure must be strong accent or
stressed. We can also see the character of the song by seeing and feeling the measure type.

35
Every type has different character. Based on the two character between language,
especially English and music song, some problems are appear. Do the patterns of
language especially in song texts (lyrics) follow the beat patterns of music and vice versa?
Can the stress patterns (the measure type) influence the song texts? To what extent is the
English stress pattern applied in English song lyrics viewed from the stress pattern of
musical rhythm and soon.. The questions stimulate me to research it.
The objectives of the study is to know the tendency of English stress pattern applied in
English song lyrics viewed from the stress pattern of musical rhythm.

Function of the Lyric in the Music


Actually, a music composition is not always a sequence of melody with a lyric. The
composition without a lyric on its melody is called instrumental music. On the contrary, the
one with a lyrics is called song.
The music composition performed by song contains an attractive aspect. The
attractive aspect is a language. The language which consists of a sequence of words gives
new dimension in the music which can not find in the other composition, instrumental
music (Sitompul, 1997: 97) . The lyric in a song is actually non musical aspect. However,
besides gives a new unique dimension, its presence in music song are not only as an
embedded element but also as a part of the music. Many songs are created from texts or
beautiful poems which can attract listeners or readers to always enjoy it. That is why that
the those songs should express the atmosphere that conform to its lyric. Even, sometimes,
the beauty of words or sentences is smoothly reflected in its rhythm. The blend of both
elements, lyric and its music can make new dimension. One example song to showing the
blend is “O Angin’ by Cornel Simanjuntak, which its lyric is taken from Sanusi Pane’s
poem. In the song composition the writer blends the two subtle elements, between lyric
and melody. A deep sense of longing is expressed by composer with subtle melody and
good arrangement. A piano accompaniment which pictures the sound of smooth wind is
reflected in this composition. The important sentence is expressively focused in its melody.

The Basic Musical Elements in Music Song


Rhythm in music, according to Kennedy and Bourne (1996) in Concise Oxford
Dictionary of Music covers everything pertaining to the time aspect of music as distinct
from the aspect of pitch, i.e. it include the effects of beats, accents, measures, grouping of
notes into beats, grouping of beats into measures, grouping of measure into phrase, etc. It is
the measured or accented movement of similar tones-groups; that is, the effect produced by
the regulated and systematic grouping of tones both in their accentuation and in their
succession as equal or unequal in time value. A rhythm is, therefore a tone-group serving as
a pattern for succeeding identical groups.
Rhythm is an important element in melody, whether it be the prose rhythm of
primitive music, plainsong, and compositions of some modern composers, or the metrical
rhythm of most other music. Indeed this element is so much a governing factors in the effect
of a melody that if, while the notes of popular melody are left intact, the rhythm is
drastically altered, it becomes difficult to recognize the melody.
As defined above harmony is the simultaneous sounding (i.e. combination) of notes,
giving what is known as vertical music, contrasted with horizontal music. The combination
heard vertical in this notion is called as a vertical music by Kennedy and Bourne (1996).
Lyric is simply a words of a song. The lyric roles not only as complement of the
song but also as an important part of the musical element which determents the theme,
character, and mission of the song. It can also make sense be stable. To know the sense of
the song we can feel the rhythm and melody, harmony and voices of the singer by singing
the song.
Lyric, actually, denotes non musical element of a music song. However, it makes
the song a new unique dimension and enriches its music performance (Sitompul, 1986: 96).
It is a part of the song which has important role to express composer’s feeling.
The next element of the song is form. Form is a structure and design of composition.
Musicians are committed to explore sounds of varying pitch, duration, loudness and timbre

36
that will relate to the listener. The composer, in simplest terms, has four compositional
techniques he can utilize in the creation of his music he may state a musical unit, and then
repeat it, vary it, or introduce a new one; that is, he may follow an idea with one that is the
same, varied, or entirely different (Crist and Delone, 1975: 7).
To get the form of expression above the composers create many forms of music
composition. Actually, the form always develop following the time, style of the composer
or even tend of the century. In the 16th and 17th centuries instrument compositions were
usually very brief whereas in the 19th century they were frequently long, e.g. a sonata or
symphony movement of the later Beethoven, Bruckner, and Mahler. This implies an
enormous growth in the understanding of the principles of form and in mastery of the
application of those principles (www.jp. classicalarchives.com./dict/form.html
The last element is texture. Texture, in music, describes two areas of musical
phenomena, (1) melodic and harmonic relationships, and (2) the density of the simultaneous
layering of different musical components. The simplest and most traditional use of the term
texture in music deals with describing the construction of music. The typical constructions
are: (1) a single melodic line (monophony or monophonic texture), (2) two or more melodic
lines of equal complexity, and sounding simultaneously (polyphony or polyphonic texture),
and (3) a single melodic line with an accompaniment of harmony (homophony or
homophonic texture). Thus, texture in music is the way in which a piece of music is
constructed with regard to the way in which its part or lines are combine which produces
quality of certain sound of music.

Stress and Accent in English language


The term stress has been used in different and confusing ways. Many linguist uses
the word stress the same as accent. Sometimes, it has been used simply to refer to syllables
(or vowels0 made prominent for linguistic purposes either in words or in sentences. But,
stress has also often been used to mean ‘breath-force or loudness’ the implication being that
this is the principal means whereby syllables are made prominent. This second type of usage
is misguided since, as indicated in the last paragraph, loudness generally plays a minor role
in producing prominence (Cruttenden: (1986:16). Further, he states that commonly implies
that such prominence is principally associated with pitch. However, he discriminate the
term that stress is being used in the more general, less specified, way. He, in particular,
uses of the word stress in three areas. Firstly, the term word- stress is used to refer to those
syllables which would be marked as stressed if stress were marked in a lexicon or dictionary
and which therefore have a potential for accent in utterances. Secondly, studies within the
tradition of generative phonology have preferred the term stress even for sentences. Thirdly,
it has been suggested that the rhythm of certain language (the so called ‘stress-timed’ ones)
is depend upon the regular occurrence of stressed syllable in connected speech.
That is true that the stress word may has high pitch means that the word has also
high frequency. According to Gilbert (wy : 12) in English stress system has three ways to
signal stress. All three signals are used at the same time, in order to make absolutely clear
which syllables are stressed. The three signals of stress are: (1) pitch change, (2) length of
vowel, and (3) vowel clarity.
Unstressed syllables usually have unclear vowels. The word ‘semester’ is written
with three letter ‘e’ vowels. But only one ‘e’ is said with a full, clear sound. The other two
letter ‘e’ are said with a reduced, unclear sound. This means that all stressed vowels are
clear. Besides, it can be concluded that the clear vowels are always full or long, can be
stressed, but, on the contrary the unclear vowels are always reduced or short and cannot be
stressed.

Stress and Accent in Music or Song


According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (1995: 1180) stress is an extra
force used when making a particular sound in music. The term extra force in music or song
actually is occurred in the first beat of a measure or bar. A beat is a unit of musical time. A
beat may be represented on staff by any note value. The first beat or pulse in each bar
always has extra force or emphasis or strong accent. Some times it is called accent. Christ

37
and DeLone ( 1974: 54) point out that emphasis on particular note or beat louder than others
through the use of dynamic accent.

Method of Study
Type and Strategy of the Study
This type of this study is quantitative which uses percentage as its analysis. That is
why this study is called percentage descriptive. Quantitative analysis is used to analyse data
that can be observed and measured directly by counting (Hadi, 1983:60). In this study
quantitative analysis will be used for calculating the frequency of the stress. Besides to know
the tendency of stress whether it follow to music (melody of the song) or follow the lyrics, it
also to know the percentage degree of the tendency of the stress.
Type of this study is quantitative research which uses quantitative data, therefore
the technique of data gathering is content analysis. The use of the content analysis because
the sources of data are documents. The documents used in this research are the English
songs. To identify the tendency of the stress and types of words which mostly get the stress
based on metrical units system of music, lyrics of English song and metrical unit system of
musical as units of analysis. To be able to identify the tendency of the stress, and classify the
words of English song lyrics which mostly get the stress, steps which are taken are 1)
making matrixes, 2) writing notation, 3) identification the stresses, 4) calculating, and 5)
classification.

Finding and Discussion


(Accuracy of all English Stress Pattern toward Stress Pattern of Musical Rhythm in
Song “Morning Has Broken” and “In the Morning”)

Based on descriptive data, show that most of syllables in lyrics of the two songs are
matched. In Song 1 (Morning Has Broken), there are 78.15 % syllables, both stressed and
unstressed syllables are suitable with the stress pattern of the musical rhythm. Even, in Song
2 (In the Morning) almost syllables (97.31 %) are suitable. It can be said that the songs have
good lyrics. In measure 3, the syllable -ken is putted on the first beat which gets strong
beat or accent. We can fell that the beat is not comfortable, especially the one who can fell
the stress of the word. It is also in noun phrase. According to word-stress rule, stress is
always on the head of the phrase (Cruttenden, 1986:19). It is true that to apply and match
the English stress pattern to stress pattern of musical rhythm is very difficult. Moreover, if
the composer must match the lyric after finishing the melody. However, it can be concluded
that the two songs have good lyric especially if it viewed from the accuracy of English stress
pattern and stress pattern of musical rhythm although, actually in music it is subjective.
There is no absolute rule in music, for instance in harmony rule. Moreover in composing
the melody or lyric, creativity can change the rule. Although there is no especially the rule
how to put the lyric on the song melody. The length of percentage of the two songs are
very wide. In the Song 2, the composer may be more careful than the composer of the Song
1 to match the two elements, song and lyric, that is actually very related each other.
Considering the accuracy of English matched syllables toward stress pattern of musical
rhythm of the Song 1, it shows that most syllables put on strong beats are matched (68.18 %
As explained above, the function of the lyric in a composition is not only as a complement
but it has an important role because the strength of the song can be also seen through the
lyric such as theme, mission, message of the song writer. Song sometimes is created to
certain mission and it has a certain message. The strength of the song can be felt through
its rhythm, melody, harmony, and even the lyric. They are unit of composition which
cannot be separated.
Even, in Song 2 the number is bigger than the Song 2, because there are 50 (90.91
%) syllables of stressed syllables (55) which are matched. It shows that the composer
applies and blends seriously the two elements, lyrics and musical stress. It is difficult to say
that the rhythm of song is not harmonious. The one who can fells the music, moreover
understand the stress of language, will say that the song is good to listen.

38
Kinds of Word the Stresses are matched and not Matched Viewed from the Stress
Pattern of Musical Rhythm in Song “Morning Has Broken” and “In The Morning”
In this study I classify the words in two category namely the words belonged content
words such as nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs. This is why that the words located on
the accented beats and the words stress are on the strong beats they are called matched
syllables. On the contrary the syllables will be come unmatched if they are put on the strong
beats if the syllables belong to functions words such as prepositions, pronouns, conjunction,
etc.
There are some kinds of word which are the stresses are matched namely nouns,
adjectives, verbs, and adverbs. Meanwhile the types of “mistake” that the stresses are not
matched are wrong stresses of two-words nouns, affix - tion, wrong stresses of verbs,
preposition, and wrong stresses of noun phrases.
Based on the data analysis in Song 1 and Song 2, the stressed syllables of nouns which
are the most one get matched accent. In Song 1, there are 46 Syllables (52.27%) of nouns.
Meanwhile in Song 2 the nouns which are matched are 37 syllables (67.27 %).
It is important to analyze why the word class, nouns, are bigger number than the other
content words. It can be conclude that most of the word class in the songs are nouns.
According to the language theory (Leech, 1986: 41) noun is one of the open words (content
word). It known as open word because we can readily coin new words to add to them.
The more important thing that the function of the noun in a sentence. In the close or
sentence the word may be a word or noun phrase. The phrase can be a subject, object,
complement, and adverbial. Thus, it is true most of word class in a song are nouns because
of the function of the word.

Conclusion
Based on the data analysis conclusion of this study are :
1. Most of the syllables of English stress pattern are matched to the stress pattern of the
musical rhythm in the lyrics of song “Morning Has Broken” and “In the Morning”.
Most of syllables in lyrics of the two songs are matched. In Song 1, there are 78.15 %
syllables, both stressed and unstressed syllables are suitable with the stress pattern of the
musical rhythm. Even, in Song 2 almost syllables (97.31 %) are suitable. It can be said
that the songs have good lyrics.
2. Most of word class which the its syllables of word stresses are matched to the stress
pattern of musical rhythm are nouns, 52,27 % in Song 1 and 67.27 % in Song 2.

Suggestions
Suggestions in this study based on the finding are :
1. It is important for composers to consider to the two important elements of the
English song, lyric and beats or meter signature, to get good song.
2. It is needed other studies related to this study in order to this findings can be
generalized to all of English songs for instance study about other stress songs which
have various meter signatures, and different types of tempo, and types of music such
as reggae, rock, slow rock, etc.

Minggu ke 12 -13
TUGAS -TUGAS TERSTRUKTUR MENGANALISIS KALIMAT
DAN READING COMPREHENSION

39
1. Mencari teks bacaan asli dari penulis native speaker yang terdapat dalam
web site-web site asing maupun majalah asing.
2. Analisis kalimat mulai dari predikat, prasa-frasa, main clause, subclaus,
struktur kalimat, reference, inference, pesan teks, terjemahan alinea yang
dipilih, dan kohesi.
3. Membuat pertanyaan dan jawaban sehubungan dengan isi bacaan,
inference, reference, dan kohesi.

CONTOH HASIL TUGAS 1:


(Diambil dari salah satu tugas mahasiswa a.n. Rustarmaji Mahasiswa Unesa Surabaya)
Catatan : Teks dan hasil analisisnya berikut adalah hasil karya/analisis mahasiswa yang hanya digunkan
untuksontoh dan bahan diskusi dalam perkuliahan mata kuliah ini yang masih asli dan belum dikoreksi
oleh dosen pengampu.

Very young children learn their culture’s social definitions of gender and gender
identity at the same time that they learn what gender behaviors are appropriate for them.
But they only gradually come to understand the meaning of gender in the same way as
the adults of their society do. Very young children may learn the words which describe
their gender and be able to apply them to themselves appropriately, but their
comprehension of meaning is often different from that used by adults. Five-years-old, for
example, may be able to accurately recognize their own gender and the genders of the
people around them, but they will often make such ascriptions on the basis of
information, such as hair style, rather than physical attributes, such as genitals, even
when physical cues are clearly known to them. One result of this level of understanding
of gender is that children in this age group often believe that people may change their
gender with a change in clothing, hair style, or activity.1

1. Reference / cohesion

Very young children learn their culture’s social definitions of gender and

1
Maccoby, p.255.
40
gender identity at the same time that they learn what gender behaviors are

appropriate for them.

But they only gradually come to understand the meaning of gender in the same way
as the adults of their society do.

Very young children may learn the words which describe their gender and be able

to apply them to themselves appropriately, but their comprehension of meaning is often


different from that used by adults.

Five-years-old, for example, may be able to accurately recognize their own gender
and the genders of the people around them, but they will often make such ascriptions on the
basis of information, such as hair style, rather than physical attributes, such as genitals, even
when physical cues are clearly known to them.

One result of this level of understanding of gender is that

children in this age group often believe that people may change their gender with a
change in clothing, hair style, or activity.

2. Logical Connection

41
Very young children learn their culture’s social definitions of gender and gender
identity at the same time that they learn whey that gender behaviors are appropriate
CONTRAST for them.

But they only gradually come to understand the meaning of gender in the same way
as the adults of their society do.

Very young children may learn the words which describe their gender and be able to
apply them to themselves appropriately,
CONRAST

but their comprehension of meaning is often different from that used by adults.

Detailed Explanation described by example

Five-years-old, for example, may be able to accurately recognize their own gender
and the genders of the people around them, but they will often make such ascriptions
on the basis of information, such as hair style, rather than physical attributes, such as
genitals, even when physical cues are clearly known to them.

One result of this level of understanding of gender is that children in this age group
often believe that people may change their gender with a change in clothing, hair
style, or activity.

The Sample Questions (Reference)

1. “But they will often make such ascriptions on the basis of information…”(line 8). The words
“They” refer to….
a. Very young children
b. Adults
c. People
d. Five-years-old
The Answer: D
2. ” but they will often make such ascriptions on the basis of information,”(line 8). The word
“Ascription” has a synonym with…
a. Attribution
b. Affection
c. Perception
d. Mistaken view
The answer: A

3. Which one of the following sentences is correct?


a. Very young children usually learn their culture’s social definitions of gender
and gender identity separately.

42
b. Most very young children are able to understand their culture’s social
definitions of gender correctly as same as adults are able to do.
c. Very young children have no idea about the words which describe their gender
at all.
d. Very young children often believe that people possibly change their gender
with a change in activity.
The answer: D

4. Which one of the following sentence is incorrect?


a. Children’s comprehension meaning of gender definition is often different from
that used by adults.
b. Children will rarely make such ascriptions on the basis of information.
c. Children in the age of five may be able to accurately recognize their own
gender and the genders of the people around them.
d. Very young children learn their culture’s social definitions of gender and
gender identity at the same time.
The answer: B
5. Children learn their culture’s social definitions of gender and gender identity at the
same time that they learn what gender behaviors are…. for them.
a. Suitable
b. Interesting
c. Identical
d. Synchronous
The answer: A

Pattern Identification

1. Very young children learn their culture’s social definitions of gender and
gender identity at the same time that they learn what gender behaviors are
appropriate for them.

Main Clause : Very young children learn their culture’s social definitions of
S V Compound Object
gender and gender identity at the same time
Adverb
Sub-clause : that they learn what gender behaviors are appropriate for them.
Conj. S V O (Noun phrase)
Predicate : learn their culture’s social definitions of gender and gender identity

2. But they only gradually come to understand the meaning of gender in the
same way as the adults of their society do.

Main clause : But they only gradually come to understand the meaning of gender
S Adv. V O
in the same way as the adults of their society do.
Adv.of manner
Predicate : Only gradually come to understand the meaning of gender

43
3. Very young children may learn the words which describe their gender and be
able to apply them to themselves appropriately, but their comprehension of
meaning is often different from that used by adults.

Main clause : Very young children may learn the words which describe their
S P O
gender and be able to apply them to themselves appropriately
P Od Oi Adv.

Notes : The pattern of sentence above consists of compound predicate and


compound object.

Sub-clause : but their comprehension of meaning is often different


Conj. S V Adv. C
from that used by adults.
O (non-finite clause)

Notes: S = Subject Oi = Indirect object


V = Verb C = Complement
P = Predicate Adv. = Adverb
O = Object Od =Direct Object

TRANSLATION
Very young children learn their culture’s social definitions of gender and gender
identity at the same time that they learn what gender behaviors are appropriate for them. But
they only gradually come to understand the meaning of gender in the same way as the adults
of their society do. Very young children may learn the words which describe their gender
and be able to apply them to themselves appropriately, but their comprehension of meaning
is often different from that used by adults. Five-years-old, for example, may be able to
accurately recognize their own gender and the genders of the people around them, but they
will often make such ascriptions on the basis of information, such as hair style, rather than
physical attributes, such as genitals, even when physical cues are clearly known to them.
One result of this level of understanding of gender is that children in this age group often
believe that people may change their gender with a change in clothing, hair style, or activity.

Anak-anak pada usia sangat dini belajar mengenai pengertian dan identitas gender
mereka secara budaya dan sosial dalam waktu yang bersamaan, yang di dalamnya mereka
belajar tentang perilaku seperti apa yang cocok untuk diri mereka. Namun, butuh waktu
panjang bagi mereka untuk dapat memahami pengertian gendei layaknya orang dewasa.
Anak-anak di usia yang sangat muda mungkin dapat mempelajari istilah-istilah yang
menggambarkan gender mereka masing-masing dan mempraktekkannya pada diri mereka
sendiri dengan benar, tetapi pengertian gender dalam pikiran mereka seringkali berbeda
dengan pengertian dalam pikiran orang dewasa. Anak-anak usia lima tahun contohnya,
mungkin dapat mengetahui gender mereka sendiri dan gender orang lain di sekitarnya
dengan tepat, tetapi mereka juga sering membuat atribut-atribut tertentu pada informasi
awal yang mereka dapatkan, seperti lebih menilai gaya rambut ketimbang penampilan fisik
ataupun jenis kelamin, sekalipun mereka telah mengetahui tanda-tanda fisiknya dengan
jelas. Salah satu dampak dari pengertian gender pada tahap ini adalah anak-anak pada
44
kelompok usia ini seringkali percaya bahwa orang-orang dapat mengganti gender mereka
hanya dengan melakukan perubahan dalam cara berpakaian, gaya rambut, ataupun
aktivitas.

The Sample Questions (Inference)


1. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage….
a. Most young children do not have enough sufficient ability to understand
about their culture’s social definitions of gender and gender identity.
b. Only smart adults that are able to understand correctly about distinction of
gender.
c. Children need to learn intensively to understand about gender completely.
d. The understanding of gender between young children and adults has some
significant differences.
The answer: A
2. The following can be implied from the passage….
a. Lack of ability in understanding meaning of gender shows children’s
immaturity.
b. Most young children make helpful ascriptions in their meaning of gender.
c. Children must enter into age of seventeenth, or they will never understand
completely about gender.
d. Comprehension in meaning is one problem that makes differentiation in
understanding of gender between young children and adults.
The answer: D
3. It is most probable that….
a. The ability to understand about gender definition correctly is possibly
influenced by age.
b. Young children may have an ability to understand about gender better than
adults.
c. The differentiation of view about gender between young children and adults
is always a matter of meaning comprehension.
d. The main factors influencing people’s understanding about gender are found
mostly in environment.
The answer: A
4. The passage suggests that….
a. The meaning of gender in most children’s mind comes in various and
different shapes.
b. People not only can understand gender definition correctly, but also change it
whenever they want.
c. Most young children often believe that people can change their own gender
with changes in hair style.
d. It is obscure to predict whether children understand correctly about gender or
not.
The answer: C

Pertemnuan ke 14-15 :

45
CONTOH HASIL TUGAS 2:

Berikut adalah salah satu contoh tugas yang dikerjakan mahasiswa.

Isi tugas ini meliputi analisis kalimat, kohesi, pemahaman teks, isi teks,
sampai pada struktur teks dan kesimpulan.

Tunjukkan bagian- bagian mana yang masih salah dan yang sudah benar
menurut bagian bagian tugasnya.

Judul Teks :

Classical Court Dance

Puro Mangkunagaran
The pendopo (front hall) of Puro Mangkunagaran are full with dancers male and female,
who are dancing enthusiastically following the rhythm of live gamelan music
accompaniment. Every Wednesday, from 9.00 am – 12.00 am all the Mangkunagaran court
employees (abdi dalem) from Langenprojo department who take care of court dance,
gamelan music and singing, they themselves have to train to dance and to pay on the
gamelan.
Some dancers from STSI (Higer School of Arts) and SMKI (School of Performing Arts)
sometimes are joining this art court exercises. The gamelan sounds are perfect and the dance
movements are exellent. This compulsory art activity is supervised directly by the Gurus of
Mangkunagaran dance i.e. Mr. R. M.T. Ronosuripto and Ibu Umi Hartono.
There is no day without art and cultural activity in Mangkunagaran Palace, as seen in
program of Art, Culture and Tourist Promotion of Mangkunagaran Palace. The Puro
Mangkunagaran is quite aware that Javanes Court Dance of Mangkunagaran style must be
well preserved, maintained and developed accordingly by withholding firmly the principles
of Joged Mataram ( Mataram Palace).
The differences of some dance movement and/or of clothes/accessories/ornaments among
the four palaces are of normal development, which have positive competitive value.

Bedaya Anglir Mendhung


Bedaya dance is also sacred in Puro Mangkunagaran. Bedaya Anglir Mendhung is the most
sacred Bedaya dance, created by Sri Mangkoenagaran I, assisted by Kyai Gunasuta and Kyai
Kidang Wulung.
Anglir Mendhung means something which looks like a cloud. It is depicting his feeling
when he had to fight against his own father-in-law, Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono I. The
dancers are 7 girls in a holy state. For the execution of this dance, a strict ritual must be
performed, before and during the performance.
In fact, the gamelan music of this dance is based on gamelan music of Ketawang, the
creation of Queen Kencanasari, the Goddess of the South Sea, Kanjeng Ratu Kidul. All
dancers have to purify themselves by fasting for several days. They have to request
permission and blessing from Sri Mangkoenagoro I, in front of his grave, to be able to
perform Anglir Mendhung at their best. May God the Almighty protect them during the
performance.

Ritual Uluk-Uluk requesting safety and blessing from God and Ratu Kencanasari is
performed in the palace. Acertain offering must be also conducted. The make-up and the
dress of these dancers are like a bride of Surakarta palace. It’s color is dark blue, in
accordance with the color of Prince Sambernjawa’s flag.
The dodod (a 9m long batik-cloth) of Cinde design Bangun Tulak (against evil) calligraphy
“ALLAHHU” and other accessories and ornaments with Bangun Tulak design, showing this

46
danceis really a sacred ane. During the dance performance, incense must be burned
continuously, so everything and everybody are safe. By performing Bedoyo Anglir
Mendhung.
III. It’s a part of ritual requesting safety, happiness and prosperity for the Mangkunagara
family, territory and its subordinates.
IV. Showing the greatness of Sri mangkoenagara I and Mangkunagara elite. It is hoped
by performing and watching this dance, all the Mangkunagara descendants and
lineage should remember the big name of there ancestor and should behave
accordingly
V. Showing and entertainment with positive value.
There where another Bedaya dances in Puro mangkunagaran, which had never been
performed againt for more than 200 years. There were Bedoyo Dirodometo (fighting
elephant) and Bedoyo Sukopratomo (Happy Warriors). Both were performed by male
dancers. The gamelan players and singers were also male.
The dances/fragments such us : Klono Jayengsari, Karno Tinanding, Bondo Yudho, Bondo
Boyo, Bondo Wala, Arjuna Sasrabahu-Sumantri were frequently performed.

Jawaban :

Kohesi
The pendopo (front hall) of Puro Mangkunagaran are full with dancers male and female,
who are dancing enthusiastically following the rhythm of live gamelan music
accompaniment. Every Wednesday, from 9.00 am – 12.00 am all the Mangkunagaran
court employees (abdi dalem) from Langenprojo department who take care of court dance,
gamelan music and singing, they themselves have to train to dance and to pay on the
gamelan.
Some dancers from STSI (Higer School of Arts) and SMKI (School of Performing Arts)
sometimes are joining this art court exercises. The gamelan sounds are perfect and the dance
movements are exellent. This compulsory art activity is supervised directly by the Gurus of
Mangkunagaran dance i.e. Mr. R. M.T. Ronosuripto and Ibu Umi Hartono.
There is no day without art and cultural activity in Mangkunagaran Palace, as seen in
program of Art, Culture and Tourist Promotion of Mangkunagaran Palace. The Puro
Mangkunagaran is quite aware that Javanes Court Dance of Mangkunagaran style must be
well preserved, maintained and developed accordingly by withholding firmly the principles
of Joged Mataram ( Mataram Palace).
The differences of some dance movement and/or of clothes/accessories/ornaments among
the four palaces are of normal development, which have positive competitive value.

Bedaya Anglir Mendhung

47
Bedaya dance is also sacred in Puro Mangkunagaran. Bedaya Anglir Mendhung is the most
sacred Bedaya dance, created by Sri Mangkoenagaran I, assisted by Kyai Gunasuta and Kyai
Kidang Wulung.
Anglir Mendhung means something which looks like a cloud. It is depicting his feeling
when he had to fight against his own father-in-law, Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono I. The
dancers are 7 girls in a holy state. For the execution of this dance, a strict ritual must be
performed, before and during the performance.
In fact, the gamelan music of this dance is based on gamelan music of Ketawang, the
creation of Queen Kencanasari, the Goddess of the South Sea, Kanjeng Ratu Kidul.
All dancers have it purify themselves by fasting for several day. They have to request
permission and blessing from Sri Mangkoenagoro I, in front of his grave, to be able to
perform Anglir Mendhung attheir best. May God the Almighty protect them during the
performance.

Ritual Uluk-Uluk requesting safety and blessing from God and Ratu Kencanasari is
performed in the palace. Acertain offering must be also conducted.
The make-up and the dress of these dancers are like a bride of Surakarta palace. It’s color is
dark blue, in accordance with the color of Prince Sambernjawa’s flag.
The dodod (a 9m long batik-cloth) of Cinde design Bangun Tulak (against evil) calligraphy
“ALLAH,HU” and other accessories and ornaments with Bangun Tulak design, showing
this dance is really a sacred ane. During the dance performance, incense must be burned
continuously, so everything and everybody are safe. By performing Bedoyo Anglir
Mendhung.
5. It’s a part of ritual requesting safety, happiness and prosperity for the Mangkunagara
family, territory and its subordinates.
6. Showing the greatness of Sri mangkoenagara I and Mangkunagara elite. It is hoped
by performing and watching this dance, all the Mangkunagara descendants and
lineage should remember the big name of there ancestor and should behave
accordingly
7. Showing and entertainment with positive value.
There where another Bedaya dances in Puro mangkunagaran, which had never been
performed againt for more than 200 years.
There were Bedoyo Dirodometo (fighting elephant) and Bedoyo Sukopratomo (Happy
Warriors). Both were performed by male dancers. The gamelan players and singers were
also male.

48
The dances/fragments such us : Klono Jayengsari, Karno Tinanding, Bondo Yudho, Bondo
Boyo, Bondo Wala, Arjuna Sasrabahu-Sumantri were frequently performed.

Menentukan kalimat kompleks :

1. The Pendopo ( front hall ) of Puro Mangkunagaran are full with dancers male and
female, who are dancing enthusiastically following the rhythm of live gamelan music
accompaniment.
MC : The Pendopo ( front hall ) of Puro Mangkunagaran are full with dancers male and
female
SC :who are dancing enthusiastically following the rhythm of live gamelan music
accompaniment.
Terjemahan : Pendopo (ruang depan) pada Puro Mangkunagaran penuh dengan penari-
penari laki-laki dan perempuan, menari dengan antusiasnya mengikuti irama
dari iringan musik gamelan secara langsung.

2. There is no day without art and cultural activity in Mangkunagaran Palace, as seen in the
program of Art, Culture and Tourist Promossion of Mangkunagaran Palace.
MC : There is no day without art and cultural activity in Mangkunagaran Palace
SC :as seen in the program of Art, Culture and Tourist Promossion of Mankunagaran
Palace.
Terjamahan : Tiada hari tanpa aktivitas seni dan kebudayaan di istana/kraton
Mangkunagaran, seperti melihat di dalam program Seni, Kebudayaan dan
Promosi Pariwisatawan dari istana/keraton Mangkunagaran.

3. The differences of some dance movements and/or of clothes/accessories/ornaments


among the four palace are of normal development, which have positive competitive value.
MC : The differences of some dance movements and/or of clothes/accessories/ornaments
among the four palace are of normal development
SC :which have positive competitive value
Terjamahan : Perbedaan dari beberapa gerak-gerik tari dan/atau dari
pakaian/assesoris/perhiasan di antara empat istana/keraton dalam
perkembangan yang normal, yang mana mempunyai nilai persaingan yang
positif.
4. Bedaya Anglir Mendhung is the most sacred Bedaya dance, created by Sri
Mangkoenagaran I, assisted by Kyai Gunasuta and Kyai Kidang Wulung.
MC : Bedaya Anglir Mandhung is the most sacred Bedaya dance
SC :created by Sri Mangkoenagaran I, assisted by Kyai Gunasuta and Kyai Kidang
Wulung.
Terjamahan : Bedaya Anglir Mendhung adalah tari bedaya paling keramat, diciptalan oleh
Sri Mangkoenagaran I, dengan dibantu oleh Kyai Gunasuta dan Kyai Kidang
Wulung.

5. In fact, the gamelan music of this dance is based on gamelan music of Ketawang, the
creation of Queen Kencanasari the Goddess of the South Sea, Kanjeng Ratu Kidul.
MC : In fact, the gamelan music of this dance is based on gamelan music of Ketawang
SC :the creation of Queen Kencanasari the Goddess of the South Sea, Kanjeng Rtu Kidul.
Terjamahan : Kenyataannya, musik gamelan dari tarian ini merupakan dasar musik
gamelan dari Ketawang, ciptaan dari Ratu Kencanasari seorang dewi dari
pantai selatan, Kanjeng Ratu Kidul.

6. They have to request permission and blessing from Sri Mangkoenagoro I, in front of his
grave, to be able to perform Anglir Mendhung at their best.

49
MC : They have to request permission and blessing from Sri Mangkoenagoro I
SC : in front of his grave, to be able to perform Anglir Mendhung at their best.
Terjamahan : Mereka harus minta izin dan berkah dari Sri Mangkoenagoro I, di depan
makamnya, untuk dapat menyelenggarakan Anglir Mendhumg dengan baik.
7. Ritual Uluk-Uluk requesting safety and bleesing from God and Ratu Kancanasari is
performed in the palace.
MC : Ritual Uluk-Uluk is performed in the Palace
SC : requesting safety and blessing from God and Ratu Kencanasari.
Terjamahan : Ritual Uluk-Uluk merupakan permintaan keselamatan dan berkah dari
Tuhan dan Ratu Kencanasari yang dilakukan di istana/keraton.

8. It’s color is dark blue, in accordance with the color of prince Sambernjawa’s flag
MC : It’s color is dark blue
SC : in accordance with the color of prince Sambernjawa’s flag.
Terjemahan : Warnanya adalah biru tua, yang disesuaikan dengan warna bendera dari
Pengeran Sambernjawa’s.

9. During the dance performance, incense must be burned continuously, so everything and
everybody are safe.
MC : During the dance performance, l incense must be burned continuously
SC : so everything and everybody are safe.
Terjamahan : Selama pertunjukan tari, kemenyan/dupa harus dibakar dengan terus-
menerus, sehingga semua hal dan semua orang selamat.

Contoh Soal berdasarkan teks :

1. The word “ they “ in line 2 refrers to….


(A) All the Mangkunagaran court employees
(B) Dancers
(C) Singers
(D) Gamelan players
Answer : (A)

2. The word “ it “ in peregraph 2, line 4 refers to….


(A) Bedaya Dance
(B) Puro Mangkunagaran
(C) Anglir Mendhung
(D) Strict ritual
Answer : (C)

3. The word “his” in paragraph 2, line 4 refers to …..


(A) Kyai Gunasuto
(B) Sri Mangkoenagaran
(C) Kyai Kidang Wulung
(D) Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono I
Answer : (B)

4. The word “It’s” in paragraph 2, line 14 refers to …


(A) Ritual Uluk-Uluk
(B) The Palace
(C) Bride
(D) The make-up and the dress
Answer : (D)
5. According to the text, which of following is true ?
(A) All dansers have to request permission and blessing from Sri Mangkoenagoro, in
front of his grave, to be able to perform Anglir Mendhung.

50
(B) All dancers have not to request permission and blessing from Sri Mangkunagoro, in
front of his grave.
(C) All dancers have to request permission and blessing from Sri Sultan
Hamengkubuwono I.
(D) All dancers have to request permission and blessing from Kyai Gunasuta.
Answer : (A)

Isi Artikel :
In this article, describe about Puro Mangkunagaran. In Puro mangkunagaran Palace,
there is no day without art and cultural activity. The Pendopo (front hall) of Puro
Mangkunagaran are full with dancers male and female, who are dancing enthusiastically
following the rhythm of live gamelan music accompaniment.
In Puro mangkunagaran, there are three Bedaya dances, such us : Bedaya Anglir
mendhung, Bedaya Dirodometo, and Bedaya Sukopratomo.Bedaya Anglir Mendhung is the
most sacred bedaya dance, created by Sri Mangkunagaran I, aseested by Kyai Gunasuta and
Kyai Kidang Wulung. The dancers are 7 girls in a hold state. The gamelan music if this
dance is based on
Gamelan Music of Ketawang, the creation of Queen Kencanasari, The Goddess of the south
sea, Kanjeng Ratu Kidul. All dancers have to purity themselves by fasting for several days.
They have to request permission and blessing from Sri Mangkunagaran I, in front of his
grave, to be ableto perform Anglir Mendhung at their best. The ritual used is Ritual Uluk-
Uluk and the costume is the dodod.
There were another Bedaya Dance is Bedaya Dirodometo (fighting elephant) and
Bedaya Sukopratomo (happy warriors), both were performed by male dancers. The gamelan
players and singers were also male. But, Bedaya Dirodometo and Bedaya Sukopratomo
never been performed againt for more than 200 years.

51
Puro Mangkunagaran
Struktur Teks :

Bedaya Anglir Mendhung Bedaya Dirodometo Bedaya Sukopratomo

Is the most sacred Bedaya Is Bedaya dances in Puro Is Bedaya Dances in Puro
Dance, the dancers are 7 Mangkunagaran, which Mangkunagaran, which
girls in a hold state. This had never been performed had never been performed
dance created by Sri again for more than 200 again for more than 200
Mangkunagaran I, assested years. This dance describe years. This dance describe
by Kyai Gunasuta and fighting elephant. Both happy warriors. Both were
Kyai Kidang Wulung. The were performed by male performed by male
gamelan music of this dancers. The gamelan dancers. The gamelan
dance is based on gamelan players and singers were players and singers were
music of ketawang. The also male. also male
costume is the dodod (a
9m long batik-cloth)of
cinde with design Bangun
Tulak Calligraphi
“ALAHHU” andother
accessories and ornaments
with Bangun Tulak
Design.

Ritual Uluk-Uluk
Is performed in the palace to
requesting safety and blessing from
God and Ratu Kencanasari

The dances/fragments such us : Klono Jayengsari, Karno


Tinanding, Bondo Yudho, Bondo Boyo, Bondo Wala, Arjuna
sasrabahu-Sumantri were frequently performed

52
ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES (ESP) 2

Music Definition
Accidental: a sign -- a sharp, flat, or natural -- indicating the raising or lowering of a note.

BeBop: jazz form of the 1940's and 50's, characterized by fast tempo and complex chord
patterns, played by small ensembles with often dizzying instrumental virtuosity.

Blues: melancholic, usually guitar-based, modern folk music, originating in the work songs
of the black American plantation workers. Typically constructed around a simple twelve-
bar, three chord pattern on which a vast amount of popular music has been based ever
since.

Bossanova: Brazilian dance of the 1950's, closely related to the samba.

Cadence: a sequence of two chords that brings a phrase to an end, with an air of wither
finality or partial completion.

Cadenza: originally an improvised decoration of a cadence by a soloist; later a more or less


elaborate and written-out passage in a aria or concerto to display performance skills by a
singer or an instrumentalist.

Canon: a musical form in which a tune in imitated by individual parts at regular intervals;
known as a round when each part is continuously repeated. In simple examples, such as
"London Bridge is Falling Down," the successive voices enter at a same pitch and at the
same speed. In more elaborate examples, such as the canons in J.S. Bach's keyboard work
known as the Goldberg Variation, the voices may enter at different pitches and present the
tune at different speeds or even backwards or upside down (in inversion).

Cantabile: in a singing style.

Cantata: a vocal work, wither sacred or secular. Some early examples approach operatic
style and may have narratives; others, such as Bach's church cantatas, are inventions on
chorales. Twentieth-century revivals of the form, most notably by travinsky and Webern,
have been meditative rather than storytelling.

Cantus firmus: a preexisting tune, often familiar, used by medieval and Renaissance
composers as the basis of a polyphonic position in which the other parts are invented.

Carol: originally a round dance with singing, later a popular song or hymn celebrating
Christmas.

Castrato: male singers whose voices were preserved in the soprano or alto range by early
castration. The virtuosity attained by certain
castrati can be gauged by parts of Handel's operas that modern sopranos often find nearly
unsinkable. The last castrati lived into the 20th century and were recorded.

Cavatina: a short, usually simple operatic aria, in one or two sections without repetition;
occasionally, an instrumental piece in a songlike style.

Chamber music: music of an intimate character in which there is usually one player to a
part, each of which is equal in importance to the others, written for from two to ten
players, although "chamber symphonies" have been written for small orchestras.

Charleston: popular 1920's syncopated dance.

Chest voice: the lower part of the singing voice, as opposed to head voice.

Choir: a group of singer, usually more than one to a part.

Chorale: a hymn, especially a :Lutheran setting of sacred text.

Chord: three or more note sounded simultaneously.

53
Chromatic: in tonal music, notes that do not belong to the key in which a piece is written.
the chromatic scale includes all twelve notes in the octave.

Classicism: a period in music that extended from the middle of the 18th century to the first
decade of the 19th. Its major figures were Mozart, Haydn and Beethoven. although it
characteristics are a concern for order and balance, its most important productions are
notable as much for passion and feeling within considered forms.

Clavier: the keyboard of an instrument, or any keyboard instrument with strings.

Clef: a symbol at the beginning of a line of music that denotes the pitch of a particular note
and thus also the pitches of the notes on all the other lines and spaces. the most common
clefs are treble,
bass, alto and tenor; some instruments commonly use two or ven three in succession to
accommodate their wide range.

Coda: the closing section of a movement.

Col legno: (of stringed instruments) tapping against or drawing across the strings with the
wooden back of the bow rather than the hair.

Compound time: a time signature that indicates two, three, or four groups of three notes
(or the equivalent) in each measure-for instance, 6/4 constitutes two groups of three
quarter notes, and 9/8 three groups of three eighth notes.

Concert: a musical performance for an audience.

Concertmaster: first violin in an orchestra, called the leader in Britain.

Concerto: a work for solo instrument (or occasionally, struments) and orchestra; usually in
three movements, but sometimes four, as in Brahms, or more - Ferruccio Busoni's piano
concerto is in five movements. Generally designed to display virtuosity, it has been
consistently popular form since the 18th century. Concertos have been written for every
imaginable instrument as soloist; and here are also "concertos for orchestra" displaying
virtuosity throughout the orchestra, written by such 20th century composers as Bartok,
Roberto Gerhard, and Elliot Carter.

Conductor: - the director of a group of performers, indicating the tempo by beating and
communicating phrasing, dynamics and style by gesture and facial expression.

Console: the keyboards, stops, and pedals of an organ, by which the player activates and
controls the organ's sounds.

Consonance: in diatonic harmony, a group of tones that are heard as a compatible


combination when sounded together; its opposite is dissonance.

Consort: a group of instruments, in Renaissance and early aroque music. A "whole


consort" constitutes instruments of one sort (for instance, a consort of viols); a "broken
consort" is made up of instruments of different sorts.

Continuo: the part played, in Baroque music, by a bass instrument and keyboard.
Generally, only the bass line is written out, with the harmonics indicated by means of
chord numbers, which the keyboard player fills in and decorates in appropriate style.

Contralto: the lowest female voice.

Cool: the term for California jazz in the 1950s, a reaction to the more frenetic style of
bebop.

Counterpoint: the combination of simultaneous melodic line to form choral progressions


and harmony.

Country music: white American folk music - a term preferred by fans to the more common
Country and Western.

Courante: a Baroque dance form, utilizing a combination of three or two beats to the bar,
often compound duple.

54
Crescendo: a steady increase in volume.

Crotchet: the British term for a quarter note.

Cycle: a sequence of pieces, particularly songs, with a common theme or subject.

Da capo: a term meaning "from the beginning" -an instruction to repeat the first section of a
piece before stopping.

Downbeat: the beat given the strongest accent, at the beginning of a bar.

Drone: a held bass note under a melody, such as that heard in the playing of bagpipes.

Duet: a piece of music for two performers.

Duple time: a tempo with two beats in a bar (for instance, 2/4, 2/2, or 6/8).

Dynamics: the loudness of softness of music, indicated by a system of gradations; from


softest to loudest, these are pp, p, mp, f, ff. The extremes have been extended in both
directions.

Ecossaise: a dance in duple time of the late 18th century, supposedly of Scottish origin.

Electronic music: music produced by live performers on electronic instruments; or sound


manipulated by electronic means into a recording, which contains a piece of music rather
than being a record of performance of a piece.

Elegy: an instrumental lament.

Embouchure: the position of the lips in wind instrument playing, by which the player
controls the sound, especially for brass and the flute.

Encore: an extra piece played at the end of a recital in response to an audience's


enthusiastic reaction to the performance.

Enharmonic interval: two notes that sound the same (as played on a modern keyboard
instrument) and differ from each other only in name-for instance, A sharp and B flat, or E
sharp and F natural.

Ensemble: a group of performers; also, the term used to describe the quality of playing
together with unanimity of attach and balance of tone.

Expressivo: expressively.

Etude: literally, a "study," A musical form originally intended solely to improve technique,
it was raised to a level of musical interest by Chopin, and concert studies have been
written by many composers since.

Exposition: the opening section in sonata form or a fugue, which sets out the initial
thematic and harmonic material.

Expressionism: a school of German music at the beginning of this century, often atonal and
violent in style, as a means of evoking heightened emotions and expressing states of
mind.

Falsetto: a style of male singing in which, by only partial use of the vocal cords, the voice
reaches the pitch of a female voice.

Fanfare: a short exclamatory phrase on brass instruments, originally for eremonial


occasions.

Fantasia: a piece in free form or of improvisational character, often for a single performer.

Fermata: a pause.

Fifth: the interval between notes that are three whole tones and a semitone apart is a perfect
fifth-for instance, C natural to G natural. increased by one semitone, it becomes an

55
augmented fifth-C natural to G sharp. Decrease by one semitone, it becomes a diminished
fifth-C natural to G flat.

Finale: the last movement of a sonata-form work : also, a sequence of numbers at the end of
an act in an opera.

Fingerboard: the long piece of hardwood over which the strings of a stringed instrument
are stretched.

Fingering: a system of indicating by numbers which finger should play which note on
keyboard, wind, or stringed instruments.

Flat: a sign showing that a note should be lowered by one semitone.

Flutter-tonguing: in wind instruments, a colorist effect produced by the performer rolling


"R" sound while playing.

Form: the structure or architecture of a piece of music.

Forte: dynamic marking meaning "loud", indicated by the letter f. May by strengthened to
fortissimo (ff).

Fourth: the interval between notes two whole tones and a semitone apart is a perfect fourth
- for example, C natural to F natural. Reduced by one semitone, it becomes a diminished
fourth - C sharp to F natural. increased by one semitone, it becomes an augmented fourth-
C natural to f sharp.

Foxtrot: a lively American popular dance in duple time.

Free Jazz: cutting itself loose from the harmonic and rhythmic shackles of the past, free
jazz was a radical improvising style of the 1960's.

Frequency: the rate of vibration that produces a particular pitch. On the piano, the lowest C
has a frequency of 32 vibrations per second, the next C has 64 per second, and so on.

Fret: on some stringed instruments such as guitar, a metal band on the fingerboard to mark
a particular position of the fingers.

Frog: the heel of the bow of a stringed instrument.

Fugue: a contrapuntal form, beginning with an exposition in which each voice enters with
the same subject in turn and proceed in imitation. Unlike a canon, fugues have free
passages of
imitation and passages without imitation. They commonly have from three to six separate
voices. In more complex examples a fugue may have two or three different themes,
contrapuntally combined. These are known as double and triple fugues. Fugues were most
regularly written in the later Baroque period, but, regarded as a demonstration of
compositional virtuosity, have also been written by most composers since then.

G.P.: general pause

Gagaku: the ceremonial music of the Japanese court. It exerted a strong influence on some
Western composers in the 1960's, otably Karlheinz.

Gallaird: a Renaissance dance in triple or 6/8 time.

Galop: a lively 19th century round dance in duple time.

Gamelan: an Indonesian instrument similar to a xylophone; also, an Indonesian orchestra,


consisting of such instruments as well as gongs, flutes, strings, drums, and voices. Notable
for the prominence given to tuned gongs, its sounds have been used by many Western
composers since it was first widely heard at the
Paris World's Fair of 1889.

Gavotte: a 17th century dance in quadruple time, always beginning on the third beat of the
bar.

Gigue: a lively dance in triple time or 6/8; the English jig, often incorporated in Baroque

56
dance suites.

Glissando: sliding between two note.

Gopak: lively Russian in duple time.

Gospel: the hymn-based choral music of the African-American evangelical churches.

Grace note: an ornamental fast note or notes immediately proceeding a main note.

Grandioso: grandly

Grave: very slowly and serious.

Grazioso: gracefully

Griot: French term describing a traditional West African story-teller or praise singer.

Ground bass: a repeating phrase underneath freely varying upper parts in passacaglias or
similar forms.

Grunge: rock hybrid of the 1990's, combining punk anger


with heavy metal guitar histrionics.

Habanera: a slow Cuban dance in duple time.

Half note: a note equal in time value to two quarter notes or fourth eighth notes; in Britain
it is called a minim.

Harmonics: When a note is played on an instrument, along with the fundamental there
may often be heard higher pitches, extending in a series up to four octaves above the note.
The sounds are known as harmonics, or overtones. In some instruments, such as a bell,
they may be heard strongly; in others, they are relatively faint.

Harmony: the combination of sounds of different pitch to form chord, which developed
initially from the weaving together of two or more melodic lines; and, within the tonal
system, the interrelationship of the major and minor chords based on each of the seven
degrees of the scale. Although a sophisticated harmonic sense may be discerned in
relatively early music, the modern
sense of tonal harmony dates back only to the 17th century.

Heavy metal: loud, riff-centered rock, fixated on the power and symbolism of the electric
guitar.

Hip-hop: another name for rap music.

Homophony: a non-contrapuntal chordal style, in which all the parts move together in the
same rhythm (as in hymns); or a melody with a chordal accompaniment.

Hornpipe: a lively British folk dance in duple or triple time, originally accompanied by a
reed instrument of the same name, and which became popular among sailors.

House music: a form of disco music, with dominant bass motifs, developed in Detroit in
the early 1980's.

Humoresque: an instrumental composition of playful or unpredictable nature.

Hymn: a church song, often choral.

Idiophone: an instrument consisting of material producing a simple sound, such as a bell.

Imitation: in counterpoint, when a phrase or theme introduced by one voice is repeated


almost exactly (but higher or lower) by a second voice. If it is repeated exactly, with part
of it overlapping in each voice, as in the stretto of a canon or round, then it is strict
imitation.

Impressionism: a term borrowed from painting and applied, often inappropriately,

57
principally to the works of Debussy and Ravel. Characteristics are often a shimmering
texture and loose tonality. Other composers who may be classed as Impressionist
are Frederick Delius, Emmanuel Chabrier, and Karol Szymanowski.

Impromptu: a short piano piece of improvisatory or intimate character, there are examples
by Schubert and Chopin.

Improvisation: creating music spontaneously, with the player inventing as he or she plays.
It has been a common element in much music, and composers including Bach, Handle,
Mozart, Beethoven, and Liszt have been celebrated for their ability to improvise. Many
forms, such as the classical piano concerto,
incorporate opportunities for improvisations. In the postwar period, aleatoric music raised
improvisation to a more important place than it had occupied for many years, as in music
by Cage, Stockhausedn, and Xenakis.

Incidental music: music written to be performed with a stage play.

Instrumentation: the art of assigning appropriate parts of a composition to individual


instruments within an ensemble.

Interlude: a piece of instrumental music played between scenes in a play or an opera.

Intermezzo: either an interlude in a play or opera, or a short comic opera of the 18th
century Italy, performed originally a s part of a longer evening. Nineteenth-century
composers such as Brahms have used the term for a short, intimate piano work.

Interpretation: the art of bringing expression to the performance of a work. Although a


composer will probably indicate, in addition to the notes to be played, an appropriate
tempo, some articulation, and the dynamic markings for each passage in more or less
detail, the performer inevitably has a good detail if leeway, within these indication where
his or her powers of interpretation and skill become important.

Interval: the difference in pitch between two notes, expressed as a second, third, fourth and
so on. These intervals, if altered by a semitone in either direction, may be qualified as
major or minor, augmented or diminished.

Intonation: singing or playing in tune.

Introduction: an opening section of a piece or a movement, formally separate often


containing themes or passages that do not recur. In sonata forms, the introduction to a fast
movement is very often on a slow tempo.

Invention: the term used by Bach for his fifteen short keyboard pieces in two contrapuntal
parts.

Inversion: the tuning of a musical line upside down, so that an interval moving upward in a
melody becomes the same interval downward in its inversion, and vise versa. Invertible
counterpoint means that a piece is written in such a way that the individual parts may be
exchanged, so that the bass part may be reassigned
to the soprano and the result is harmonically satisfactory.

Jam session: a term used, especially in jazz, when two or more players get together to
improvise.

Jazz: a strongly influential musical form, emerging shortly after World War I from black
communities in America, incorporating many styles, including blues and ragtime. Taken
up by commercial musicians, it was disseminated into the wider musical culture.
Originally highly improvisational in character and played only on a small group of
instruments, it developed into several forms, such as swing and bebop, and became
popular as a form for big band ensembles. It was a big influence on the composers of the
interwar period, many of whom wrote in a jazz idiom. Similarly, many musician whose
origins were in jazz produced works that have proved lasting in the context of art music,
most notably George Gershwin.

Jig: a lively English dance, originating in the 16th century; it became the gigue.

Jongleur: a wandering musician in the Middle Ages of relatively low status, possibly also
capable of juggling, acrobatics, and general entertainment.
58
Jota: a quick Spanish dance in triple time.

Key: in tonal music, the concept of interrelated chords based on the notes of the major and
minor scales, and centered on the tonic (the fist note of the scale, also called the
undamental). A key is indicated at the beginning of each piece by means of a key signature.
Other notes, foreign to the key, may be used in a piece, but the nomination of all else b the
basic key-exerted by gravitational pull of the tonic-is virtually constant. Most tonal works,
even a very substantial piece such as a symphony or, on occasion, an entire opera, are
written in a single key. Although the piece may in its course move far away from the
fundamental key for the sake of variety, the unity imposed by the fundamental key is
always felt.

Keyboard: the range of levers pressed by the player on an instrument such as a piano or
harpsichord to sound the note; also; generically, an instruments having such a keyboard.

Key signature: the sharps or flats at the beginning of each line of music to indicate the
key of the music.

Klavier: any keyboard instrument; in German, the piano.

Landler: an Austrian or Bavarian dance in tripletime, a precursor of the waltz. There are
examples byBeethoven and Schubert.

Leader: British term for the concertmaster (first violinist) in an orchestra or ensemble.

Leading note: the seventh note of the scale,characterized by a strong tendency to lead
upward tothe tonic.

Legato: smoothly.

Leger line: short line which indicates the pitch of anote above or below the five-line staff.

Leggiero: lightly.

Libretto: the text of an opera.

Ligature: a form of plainchant notation combining two notes in a single symbol.

Madrigal: a secular composition of the 14th through 17th centuries, written for four, five, or
six unaccompanied voices.

Maestoso: majestically.

Maestro: the Italian term given to a distinguished


inusician, usually a conductor.

Major: one of the two modes of the tonal system; the other is the minor mode. The sequence
of degrees in the major scale is always as follows:whole tone, whole tone. semitone, whole
tone,whole tone, whole tone. semitone. Works written in major keys are often felt by
listeners to have a positive, affirming character.

Malaguena: in the style of the music of Malagaoccasionally refers to a type of fandango.

Manual: an organ or harpsichord keyboard.

March: music for marching to, in quadruple time,originally for military use.

Masque: an allegorical court show of the Renaissance and early Baroque, which almost
invariably includedmusic and songs as an essential part of the spectacle.

Mazurka: a Polish dance in triple time, with much use of rubato; the most celebrated
examples are by Frederic Chopin.

Medley: a sequence of tunes, often used in overtures of musicals or operettas.

Melisma: several notes sung to a single syllable.

59
Melodrama: spoken text over music, popular fromthe late 18th century onwards.

Melody: a particular, identifiable association of notes and pitches; a tune.

Meno: less (for example, meno vivo, "less fast").

Mesto: mournfully.

Metronome: a pendulum-like instrument datingfrom the early 19th century, used to


regularize and
measure tempo.

Mezzo: half (for example, mezzo tempo, "halfspeed"; mezzo soprano, a voice between
soprano and alto in pitch).

Microtone: an interval between semitones.

Middle C: the C more or less at the center of thepiano keyboard (about 262 vibrations per
second).

Minim: the British term for a half note.

Minor: one of the two modes of the tonal system.The melodic minor scale differs from that
of the major scale in having a flattened third degree (and, in the harmonic minor, a flattened
sixth). When used melodically, the sixth and seventh degrees are the same as the major scale
when ascending, but both are
flattened when descending. The minor mode is often felt by listeners to have a more
poignant, less positive sense than the major mode, and in Classical usage, a piece in the
minor mode would often have a conclusion in the major, which was felt to have
more final effect.

Minstrel: a singer of verses ac companied by harp in the Middle Ages.

Minuet: a formal 18th-century court dance in triple time, very commonly used in substantial
Classical sonata-form works.

Moderato: moderate tempo.

Modes: the system that predated the tonal system. In each mode, the ordering of tones and
SCMiLones in thescale differed somewhat. Tonal music consists of
only two modes, major and minor. In post-tonal music some composers (such as Messiaen)
havewritten pieces using artificially constructed scales asmodes.

Modulation: changing from one key to a related key in the course of a musical passage.

Monotone: the repetition of a single pitch.

Motet: an accompanied or unaccompanied choral work, in a single, usually fairly short


movement on a sacred text, of polyphonic character.

Mosso: literally, "moved" (for example, piu mosso, "quicker").

Motif or Motive: a short melodic or harmonic idea, perhaps a fragment of a larger theme in a
symphonic development. Wagner's leitmotifs are short themes associated with particular
characters or certain psychological or symbolic elements in his operas.

Moto: motion (for example, con moto, "moving onwards").

Movement: a separate section of a large work.

Musette: an instrumental Baroque dance with a bagpipe-like drone bass.

Musicology: the theoretical and historical study of music.

Mute: a device used to dampen the tone of an instrument, affecting its volume and tone
color.

60
Nationalism: a 19th-century political movement that led to investigation of native folk
music by musicologists, and the incorporation of folk material into art music. The most
notable musical nationalists were in Russia (Glinka, Mussorgsky), Czechoslovakia (Smetana,
Dvordk, Jangcek), Scandinavia (Gfieg, Nielsen, Sibelius), Hungary (Kodaly, Bart6k),
America (Ives), and Britain (Vaughan Williams, Hoist).

Natural: a sign that, after a particular note has been raised by a sharp or lowered by a flat,
restores it to its original pitch.

Neck: the narrow part of a stringed instrument extending from the body.

Neoclassicism: a movement in music which sought, during the period between the two world
wars, to use past forms and styles in more or less stylized and even ironic ways. Its traces
may be found in composers as varied as BarL6k, Schoenberg, and Poulenc, but the composer
most associated with Neoclassicism is Stravinsky, who wrote several compositions
reinterpreting the works of previous composers, including Bach, Pergolesi, Gounod, and
Tchaikovsky. Its characteristic manner is crisp and direct, and only rarely are Neoclassical
works written for large orchestra.

Neumes: the ancient system of notation, indicating the rise in pitch of plainchant.

Niente: nothing (as in a niente, "diminishing to nothing").

Nocturne: originally a salon piano work, as in examples by John Field and Chopin, with
nighttime associations. Mozart's Nottumi are small chamber pieces. A celebrated orchestral
set by Debussy owes more to the paintings so titled by Whistler than to previous musical
examples.

Nonet: a work for nine instruments.

Notation: methods of writing music. Notation was first developed in the 8th century with
neumes, and slowly evolved into the present system by the middle of the 17th century.

Obbligato: an occasional but extended instrumental solo, often to accompany the vocal part
in an aria.

Octave: the interval between two notes six whole tones apart that bear the same name; thus,
C natural to C natural. An augmented octave is C natural to C sharp; a diminished octave, C
natural to C flat.

Octet: a work for eight instruments.

Ode: a formal celebratory address to a person or on the subject of an abstract quality. There
are several examples by Purcell, and the form was revived by Schoenberg and Stravinsky in
this century.

Open strings: the strings of a stringed instrument when played without being fingered.

Opera: a drama in which the actors sing and are accompanied by an orchestra. It was
invented at the beginning of the 17th century in Italy as a court entertainment by composers
such as Monteverdi, who were attempting to revive classical Greek drama. By the end of the
century it became a widespread public entertainment. In the first half of the next century, in
the works of Handel and Alessandro Scarlatti, it was characterized by spectacle and vocal
virtuosity. In the reforming spirit of Gluck and the operas of Mozart that followed, a new
simplicity and psychological penetration entered into opera. In the 19th and 20 th centuries,
opera has been written by practically every major composer, and, in the hands of Wagner.
became the focal point of some of the most advanced musical thinking of the day. Opera
continues to
fascinate composers, despite the complexity, difficulty, and expense of mounting new works.

Operetta: a light and perhaps short opera, often comic, usually with spoken dialogue instead
of recitative. There are familiar examples by Jacques Offenbach, Johann Strauss, Arthur
Sullivan, Franz Lehdr, and Sigmund Romberg.

Opus: literally, a work; shortened to Op., a convenient method of numbering a


composer'sworks. Thus, Beethoven's Op. 111 is his last piano sonata.

Oratorio: an extended cantata on a sacred subject, such as Handel's Messiah, Mendelssohn's


61
Elijah, or Sir William Walton's Belshazzar's Feast.

Orchestra: a large group of instrumentalists, at least some of whom are normally playing
more than one to a part. Chamber orchestras may have only twenty players, but a large
symphony orchestra may consist of more than a hundred players. The basic instruments that
make up its regular membership have remained constant since the late 18th century, although
the orchestra since then has been increasing steadily in size. Instruments are occasionally
added and ultimately become a fundamental part of the orchestra. The clarinet was added in
the last years of the 18th century; the trombone in the first years of the 19th; then the tuba,
the harp, numerous percussion instruments, and so on.

Ornaments: formalized decorations of a melodic line, such as the trill or the mordent.

Ostinato: a repeated phrase.

Overture: an extended prelude to an opera also, the term for a Baroque suite or an
independent orchestra] work, often on a literary theme. There are examples
of the latter by Tchaikovsky, Berlioz, Elgar, and many others.

Pariando: a rhythmically free or even semi-spoken way of singing.

Parody: as in "parody mass," a work based on previous material, one of the three common
techniques of composition in medieval and Renaissance sacred music.

Part: an individual voice, or instrument, in a piece; or a line in a contrapuntal work.

Partial: a harmonic given off by a note when it is sounded.

Partita: a Baroque suite of dances, adapted by Bach


as a suite for keyboard instruments.

Part-song: an unaccompanied vocal work in


harmonic style.

Pasodoble: a fast 1920s dance in 6/8 time.

Passe-pied: a French Baroque dance in triple time.

Pastorale: a theatrical piece, song, or instrumental piece on a pastoral theme or idyllic in


character.

Pause: a held note, or a moment of silence.

Pedal: the foot-operated mechanisms on piano, organ, or timpani; also, the term for a long-
held bass note.

Pentatonic scale: a five-note scale on which much folk music is based: the most common
corresponds tothe black keys on the piano.

Phrase: a single line of music, usually played or sung by a single musician in one real or
metaphorical breath.

Piano: instruction to play softly, abbreviated p; more quietly, pianissimo, abbreviated pp.

Pitch: the frequency of a note; how high or deep it sounds.

Piu: more (for example, piu mosso, "faster").

Pizzicato: of stringed instruments, plucked rather than bowed.

Plainchant: unaccompanied church singing.

Poco: little (for example, poco a poco crescendo, "getting louder little by little").

Polka: a fast 19th-century middle-European dance in duple time.

Polonaise: heroic or ceremonial Polish dance in triple time, transformed in the examples for

62
piano by Chopin into a kind of ceremonial rhapsody.

Polyphony: the art of counterpoint, or combining melodies.

Polytonality: the combination of two or more keys simultaneously. Twentieth-century music


has often used the technique-for instance, the simultaneous sounding of C major and F sharp
major in Stravinsky's ballet Petrushka, or many examples by Milhaud.

Prelude: a short piece, originally preceding a more substantial work, for instance Bach's
Preludes and Fugues; also, an orchestra] introduction to an opera not substantial enough to
merit the term overture, or a short independent piano piece, often collected into sets, such as
those by Chopin, Debussy, and Messiaen.

Presto: tempo marking, meaning "very fast."

Program music: music on a particular non-literary subject, usually with a narrative-for


instance, some of Couperin's keyboard works, or Richard Strauss's symphonic poems.

Progression: a series of harmonies.

Punk: a fiery, high-speed variant of rock that values excitement and energy above technique.

Quadrille: a French 19th-century dance in duple time.

Quadruplet: a group of four notes played in the time normally occupied by three.

Quarter note: a note equal in time value to two eighth notes or four sixteenth notes; in
Britain, it is called a crotchet.

Quartet: a work for four instruments, such as a string quartet, consisting of two violins,
viola, and cello or, in opera, an ensemble for four singers.

Quasi: almost (for example, quasi forte, "almost loudly").

Quaver: the British term for an eighth note.

Quintet: a work for five instruments, such as a string quintet, consisting of two violins, two
violas, and one cello, or two violins, one viola, and two cellos, or a wind quintet. for flute,
oboe, clarinet, bassoon, and horn.

Quintuplet: a group of five notes played in the time normally occupied by three or four
notes.

Quodlibet: a medley, or a polyphonic combination of well-known tunes.

Raga: an ancient traditional melodic pattern or modein classical Indian music; also, an
instrumental improvisation based on a traditional raga, in which a melody is usually played
over a pedal note without change of key.

Ragtime: a style of music with a characteristic syncopation in duple time, predating jazz but
sharing some of its characteristics. Its most famous composer was Scott Joplin. Igor
Stravinsky wrote two compositions based loosely on the style, Ragtime and Piano Rag
Music.

Rallentando: getting slower.

Rap music: a form of pop music based on chanted street poetry and rhymes accompanied by
a thumping rhythmic backbeat.

Recital: a concert by a soloist, with or without accompaniment. The term was invented by
Liszt for his solo performances.

Reed: in wind instruments, the piece of cane that the player causes to vibrate by blowing
through it, in order to produce sound.

Reel: i Scottish or Irish folk dance in duple time.

63
Refrain: a repeating phrase that occurs at the end of each verse in a song.

Reggae: Jamaican popular music, associated with Rastafarianisni, which achieved great
popularity in the United States and Europe in the 1970s.

Register: a portion of the range of an instrument or voice; thus, the bottom octave of the
clarinet is known as the chaltimeau register.

Relative major and minor: the major and minor keys that share the same key signature.
Thus, E major is the relative major of C sharp minor, since both have four sharps.

Relative pitch: the ability to determine the pitch of a note in terms of its relationship to the
notes that precede and follow it.

Repeat signs: the signs at the beginning and end of a section of music, indicating that the
section in between should be played twice.

Reprise: a repeat of some earlier material. generally


after some different music has intervened.

Requiem: a mass for the dead in the Roman Catholic liturgy, although works that are not
settings of the mass text may also be called requiems, such as those by Brahms, Delius, and
Hans Werner Henze.

Resonance: the phenomenon by which several strings tuned to pitches that are harmonically
related will vibrate even if only one of the strings is struck. Thus, if a note is struck on a
piano, with the strings undamped, the strings tuned to pitches that belong to the harmonic
series of that note will also vibrate.

Rest: a period of silence within a piece of music. The various lengths of rests correspond to
note lengths.

Rhapsody: a musical composition of irregular form, and having a dramatic, improvisatory


character, usually either for a solo performer or a soloist with orchestra.

Rhythm: the element of music pertaining to time and expressed as grouping of notes into
accented and unaccented beats, of beats into measures, etc.

Ricercar: an elaborate polyphonic or imitative instrumental composition of the Renaissance


or Baroque period.

Riff: a repeating motif or refrain in a modern pop song or jazz piece.

Rigaudon: a fast 17th-century dance in duple or quadruple time, of French origin.


Pitardando (ritenuto) - slowing down, perhaps for less time or less forcefully than would be
implied by rallentando.

Ritornello: a passage that returns repeatedly in a rondo-like form-. also, a tutti passage in a
concerto.

Rococo: a short-lived musical style that occurred roughly between the end of the high
Baroque and the beginnings of the Classical period, most often applied to the music of such
French composers as Couperin, Claude Daquin, and Rameau. Often characterized as trivial,
ornamental, or lightweight, it is sometimes called the gallant style.

Rondo: a musical form in which the principal theme is repeated several times, with short
sectionsbased on different themes (called episodes) in between each restatement of the
opening theme; sometimes one or more of the episodes is also repeated, a common pattern
being ABACABA. The rondo was often used for the final movements of Classical sonata-
form works.

Root: the principal note of a triad or triad-derived chord.

Round: a canon in which the melody is sung by two or more voices in strict imitation (i.e.,
using the same notes) of the original statement, and in which all the parts repeat
continuously. (See Canon.)

Rubato: literally, "robbed." A style in which the strict tempo is temporarily loosened by

64
either speed- ing up or slowing down.

Rumba: a lively Cuban dance, in quadruple time, divided into a characteristic 3 + 3 + 2


pattern of eighth notes.

Saltarello: a fast Italian dance in 6/8 time.

Samba: a fast, syncopated Brazilian dance in duple time, based on an Afro-Brazilian ring
dance.

Sarabande: originally a fast triple dance, by the 17th century it had become a grand slow
dance, regularly featuring in Baroque dance suites.

Scale: the successive notes of a key or mode.

Scat singing: a style of jazz singing with nonsense syllables, popularized by Cab Calloway
in the 1920s.

Scherzando: jokingly, or in scherzo style.

Score: the full copy of all notes to be played in a musical work. This may be in the form of a
large "full score," or a reduced "miniature score," or a"vocal score" for use in rehearsal (with
instrumental parts reduced to a piano part).

Seguidilla: a fast Spanish dance in triple time.

Semibreve: the British term for a whole note.

Semiquaver: the British term for a sixteenth note.

Semitone: normally, the smallest notated pitch difference in Western music-for instance, G
to G sharp.

Sempre: always, or still (for example, sempre piano, "still quietly").

Senza: without (for example, senza sordo, "without mute").

Septet: a composition for seven players.

Sequence: a successive transposition and repetition ol' a phrase at different pitches.

Serenade: a somewhat lighthearted piece, either a song or an instrumental work in several


movements, such as those by Mozart, Brahms, or Schoenberg.

Serial music: a way of writing music in which unity is supplied by basing the entire
composition on a short series of notes in which no pitch is
repeated until all are used once. Invented by Arnold Schoenberg in the 1920s as a way of
ordering atonal music, the series originally consisted of the twelve
tones of the octave (called a tone row). The series may be transposed to any other pitch, may
be played backward, in inversion, or backward and in inversion
to generate forty-eight separate forms from a single series. Schoenberg's pupils Alban Berg
and Anton Webem refined the technique. Webem worked with
series divided into three or four identical segments, to give the illusory sense that the work is
written on a three- or four-note series. Berg used more than one
series in each piece; in his opera Lulu. each character is identified by a particular series. In
later developments, after World War 11, Olivier Messiaen
extended the technique to apply to non-pitch elements such as rhythm and dynamic levels;
and Igor Stravinsky, in his late works, often used series of fewer than twelve notes.

Sextet: a work for six players (for example, a string sextet, consisting of two violins, two
violas, and two cellos).

Sforzando: a strong accent; written

Shake: a trill.

Shanty: a sailors' song.

65
Sharp: a sign indicating that the pitch of a note should be raised by a semitone.

Siciliano: a fairly slow dance with swaying rhythm in compound time, usually 6/8 or 12/8.

Skiffle: hybrid of folk music and jazz played on improvised, nontraditional domestic
instruments, such as washboards, jugs, etc.

Slide: a glissando or portamento; or the moving part of a trombone.

Slur: a curve over notes to indicate that a phrase is to be played legate.

Sonata: an instrumental work for a soloist or two players. In early examples by Domenico
Scariatti. the piece is in one movement, but in general a sonata is in three or four movements.
The first movement is generally in sonata form, followed by a slow movement. In a four-
movement sonata, the third movement is usually a scherzo or minuet (although sometimes
this is the second movement, preceding the slow movement). The sonata ends with a more
extended last movement, usually at a fast tempo. This is the structure that many sonatas
follow, although the departure of many of Beethoven's piano sonatas from the model
suggests its limitations. Sonatas have been written more or less constantly
from the late 18th century onward, and are still being written; there are distinguished
examples by such contemporary composers as Pierre Boulez, Jean Barraque, and Elliott
Carter.

Sonata form: the musical form that evolved in the later years of the 18th century, used in
almost every large-scale work-symphonies, quartets, piano concertos, and even ensembles in
operas-well into the 19th century and beyond. Sonata form refers primarily to the
organization of themes and harmonic relationships within a single movement, the general
structure of which consists of an exposition, a development section, and a recapitulation. The
exposition (which may be preceded by an introduction, usually in a slow tempo) presents the
primary themes in the main key and a second group of themes in a subordinate key or keys,
and a partial developments the entire exposition may be repeated, perhaps in different form
(for instance, in a concerto,the exposition mav be played first by the orchestra alone and then
again with a soloist). In the development section, any portion of one or more themes from the
exposition may be presented with new or related material in any order and in any
combination, moving through different keys but eventually returning to the original key of
the movement. The recapitulation sets out the themes ol'the exposition in the same order as
the exposition, but in somewhat different form, such as presenting both the primary and
second group of themes in the main key; a short concluding passage, called a coda, may
follow. This three-part structure is also known as ABA form. The sonata form lasted so long
and produced so many masterpieces principally because it was capable of great variation.

Sonatina: a short sonata, sometimes with the implication that it is not too difficult to play,
such as those by Muzio Clementi; there are also elaborate examples, not for beginners, by
Maurice Ravel, Jean Sibelius, and, most notably, Ferruccio Busoni.

Song cycle: a sequence of songs, perhaps on a single theme, such as Mahler's


Kindertotenlieder, or with texts all by one poet, for instance Debussy's Fetes Galantes, or
having a continuous narrative, such as Schumann's Dichterliebe.

Soprano: the highest female voice.

Sordino: a mute.

Sostenuto: sustained, often with a suggestion of playing quietly or more slowly.

Soul: the pop refinement of church-based, African-American gospel music.

Soundboard: the part of a piano that amplifies the sound.

Spiccato: a type of bowing on stringed instruments in which the bow is allowed to bounce
rather than be drawn across the string.

Spirito: liveliness.

Staccato: abbreviated and detached notes.

Staff: the horizontal lines on which notes are set down; in modem notation, there are five

66
lines on each staff.

Steel band: an ensemble of beaten oil drums, played like tuned percussion instruments,
originating in the Caribbean.

Stop: a device that controls the different sets of pipes (or strings) for each note on an organ
(or harpsichord), enabling the player to temporary change the tone color.

Stretto: in fugue, the overlapping of the same theme or motif by two or more voices a few
beats apart; also, more loosely, an accelerando, with the suggestion of an approaching close.

Suite: a loose collection of instrumental pieces. In the Baroque period, a collection of dances
as in B.ich's instrumental and orchestral suites; in the 19 th and 20th centuries, a series of
character pieces, as in Holst's suite The Planets, or a set of excerpts from I larger work, e.g.,
the suites from Grieg's music for Peer G.Ynt or Ravel's Daphnis and Chloe suites.

Swing: a form of big-band jazz, popular in the 1930s and '40s. with a strong element of
massed effects and less improvisation than in earlier forms of jazz.

Symphonic poem: a single-movement orchestral work with a narrative or a literary theme.


Invented by Franz Liszt. it was taken up by such composers as
C6sar Franck and, most notably, Richard Strauss, whose lonu and complex symphonic
poems were popular and influential before World War 1.

Symphony: a three- or four-movement orchestral work, sometimes with choir, generally in


sonata form. Early sinfonias were single-movement overtures; but by the middle of the 18th
century, such composers as Karl Stamitz were writing elaborate symphonies in several
movements. In the hands of Haydn, Mozart. and Beethoven, the symphony attained
enormous depth, balance, and variety of
expression, ensuring that it remained a common form for composers. The Romantic period
both continued the Classical tradition of the symphony-in the works of Schubert,
Mendelssohn, Schumann, and Brahms - and initiated a new kind of symphony with an
implied or actual program, such as Beethoven's Sixth Symphony and the symphonies of
Berlioz, Tchaikovsky, and Mahler. Twentieth-century
composers have continued to write symphonies, and from Jean Sibelius and Carl Nielsen to
Witold Lutoslawski and Peter Maxwell Davies, they have continually reconsidered and
reinvented the form.

Syncopation: placing the strong beat on what are normally the weaker beats in a bar. Thus,
in a normal four-beat bar, the accents would lie, in order of strength, 1423. A syncopated bar
would place the strongest accent on the second or fourth beat, or even, as in the rumba, on
beats which lie between the normal quarter-note beats.

Synthesizer: an electronic machine for producing artificial sounds and tones with any
desired characteristic or quality, often recorded directly onto magnetic tape for future
performance through amplifiers.

System: a combination of two staves or more on which all the notes to be played
simultaneously in different registers or on different instruments are vertically aligned.

Tablature: a system of notation for plucked stringed instruments, for instance lute or guitar,
in which the notes are indicated by means of the finger position required.

Tango: a slow ballroom dance of Argentine origin in quadruple time, similar to the Cuban
habanera.

Tarantella: an Italian folk dance in rapid 6/8 time, characterized by light, quick hops and
turns.

Temperament: tuning. Instruments may be tuned to the exact pitches of a specific key,
which would make the intervals between different pairs of semitones not precisely equal; or,
as has generally been the case since the 17th century, they may be tuned so that the interval
between B and C is the same as the interval between C and C sharp, etc. This system, known
as equal temperament, is necessary if modulations from the original key are to be possible.

Tempo: speed.

67
Tenor: the highest natural male voice.

Tenuto: a marking that means "held," indicating that the note should be sustained for its full
value, and even a little more.

Ternary form: a simple, common three-part form, in the pattern ABA-that is, consisting of a
first section, then a second, contrasting section, followed by a repetition of the first section.

Tessitura: the overall range of an instrumental or, more commonly, a vocal part.

Theme: a melodic or, occasionally, harmonic idea used as a fundamental unit in a musical
form; also called sulliect.

Tie: a curved line indicating that two separate notes should be played as a single note, the
length of which is the same as the sum of the length of the two individual notes.

Timbre: the tone "color" of an instrument, voice, or register.

Time signature: the two numbers that indicate the numbey of beats per bar of a piece of
music, given at the beginning of the first staff or system of staves, and whenever the number
of beats changes. The lower number shows the length of note assigned one beat (i.e., 2 as the
lower number refers to half notes, 4 refers to quarter notes, 8 to eighth notes, etc.) and the
upper number shows how many of those notes are in a single bar. Thus, 3/4 means three
quarter notes to the bar; 5/16 means five sixteenth notes. and so on.

Toccata: a fast keyboard piece, exploiting rapidity of performance, runs, and repeated notes.

Tonality: the system of major and minor keys.

Tone: in American usage, a pitch; also the interval of a major second.

Tone row: See Serial music.

Tonguing: in wind instruments, the articulation ol'a note or group of notes by the silent
sounding of the consonant t or k.

Tonic: the fundamental note of a key; also, the triad formed on that note.

Transcription: the rewriting of a piece of music for instruments other than those for which it
was originally written.

Transition: a bridging passage between sections in a composition.

Transposition: changing the pitch of a piece of music up or down a given interval. so that
the internal relationships remain precisely the same.

Treble: the upper half of an entire vocal or instrumental range, as opposed to bass; also, the
highest voice in choral singing.

Tremolo: the rapid repetition of a note, or the rapid slurred alternation between two notes.

Triad: the basic form of three-note chord on which all diatonic harmony is based; it consists
of a tonic plus the notes that lie a major (or minor) third and a perfect fifth above it.

Trill: the quick repeated alternation between a note and the note a semitone or whole tone
above or occasionally below it.

Trio: a work for three instruments; also, the middle, contrasting section of a minuet or a
scherzo.

Triplet: a group of three notes to be played in the time normally taken by two.

Triple time: a time with three beats in the bar.

Tritone: the interval of the augmented fourth or diminished fifth, equivalent to three whole
tones.

68
Trope: an addition to or extension of the standard plainchant.

Troppo: part of a tempo marking, meaning "too much"; for example, Allegro ma non troppo
means "fast but not too fast."

Troubadours: court poet-musicians of southern France, northern Spain, and northern Italy
during the Middle Ages, often of noble family themselves.

Tune: a melody.

Tuning: the raising or lowering of the pitch of an instrument. or its strings, to produce
correct intonation.

Turn: a formal ornamentation of the notes around a principal note.

Tutti: a passage for the whole ensemble, or for the orchestra without a soloist in a concerto.

Una corda: the muting (or damping) mechanism on a piano.

Unison: more than one instrument or voice playing the same notes simultaneously.

Upbeat: the beat before a strong beat; also, the conductor's signal immediately before the
first entry.

Valves: on brass instruments, the pistons that alter the pitch by changing the length of the
tube through which air passes.

Variation: a musical form consisting of a series of progressively developed versions of a


complete self-contained theme, either an original one or, as is common, a preexisting theme.
Variation form is a very widespread form in Classical slow movements. as in Beethoven's
Seventh Symphony.

Verismo: a style of Italian opera from the last decade of the 19th century in which the setting
is contemporary to the composer's own time, the manner is, to some extent, realistic, and the
characters are drawn from everyday life. Verismo
operas, of which the most famous is I Pagliacci (1892) by Ruggiero Leoncavallo, are often
strongly melodramatic.

Vibrato: a rapid undulation in the pitch of a note, or of two contiguous notes, made by an
instrumentalist or a singer to increase the expressiveness of a passage.

Virtuoso: an instrumentalist or singer of great technical skill.

Vivace: a tempo marking meaning "lively."

Vivo: a tempo marking meaning "with life."

Vocalise: a vocal style of singing without words, or occasionally, a work for voice without
words.

Voice: one of two or more parts in polyphonic music.

Voluntary: a piece for organ played before, during, or after a church service.

Waltz: a dance in triple time of Austrian and Bavarian origin, popular throughout Europe in
the 19th century and afterwards, especially the Viennese
waltzes of Johann Strauss, Sr. and Jr. The waltz was often incorporated into symphonic
works in the place of a scherzo, and independent concert waltzes
were written by such composers as Schubert, Chopin, Brahms, Richard Strauss, and Ravel.

Whole note: a note equal in time value to two half notes or four quarter notes; in Britain it is
called the semibreve.

Whole-tone scale: a six-note mode that consists only of whole-tone steps (for example, C,
D, E, F sharp, G sharp, A sharp), instead of the combination of whole tones and semitones in
other modes.

69
Word painting: in vocal music, a passage that imitates some external element referred to in
the words at that point.

Yodeling: a folk-singing style switching from falsetto to normal voice and back again;
common in Switzerland and the Tyrol.

Zarzuela: traditional Spanish comic opera, from the 17th to the 19th century,
that has spoken dialogue instead of recitative.

REFERENCES

A Team of Writers.1996. English for University Teaching. Semarang: Balai


Penerbit University Diponegoro Semarang)

Marcella Frank, Modern English a Pratical reference Guide New York


University)

Soemarno, Thomas. 2001. Cara menafsirkan Frasa Nomina dan Kalimat.


Surakarta. Muhamadiyah University Press.

Suharto, 2004. Music and Language : a stress analysis of English Song


Lyrics.Articles of Harmonia.Semarang: Sendratasik Press.

Wiratmo, Tri, dkk. 2002. Program Peningkatan Kemampuan Bahasa Ingris


Mahasiswa S1 (UPT Pelayanan dan Pengembangan Bahasa UNS).

70