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A Keyword Classification Scheme for IS Research Literature: An Update

Author(s): Henri Barki, Suzanne Rivard, Jean Talbot


Source: MIS Quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 2 (Jun., 1993), pp. 209-226
Published by: Management Information Systems Research Center, University of Minnesota
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/249802
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Classification
Keyword Scheme

A Keyword Researchfromits beginninguntilfallof 1992, and


all the IS articles published in Organization
Classification Science since its beginning,were also included.
The totalnumberof keywordsidentifiedfromthis
Scheme for IS exercise was approximately2,000. Eachof these
keywordswas examined by all three authors in
Research Literature: relationto the classificationscheme, and a deci-
sion was made with respect to its inclusion. In
An Update all cases the authors agreed on whetheror not
to include a keywordand where in the scheme
to put it.
By: Henri Barki The new scheme now includes nearly 1,300
Ecole des Hautes Etudes keywords,which represents an additionof more
Commerciales than 175 new words(listedin AppendixA)to the
5255 Decelles previous version. Among these are 32 new
Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1V6 keywordsadded to the RESEARCH section (sec-
tion Al) in orderto better describe the research
Suzanne Rivard approaches and methods. Other additions in-
Ecole des Hautes Etudes clude recent develoments such as hypertext,
Commerciales object-orientedanalysis,and electronicmeetings.
5255 Decelles The scheme's categories are basically un-
Montr6al, Quebec, Canada H3T 1V6 changed, and as can be seen in the Appendix,
only 10 keywordsfromthe originalversion were
Jean Talbot deleted.
Ecole des Hautes Etudes A scheme such as this has three importantfunc-
Commerciales tions. First,itdefinesthe fieldof IS insome detail.
5255 Decelles Second, it providesa commonvocabulary.Third,
Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1V6 it provides a tool with which the evolution of
research can be studied. The second function
served by the scheme is especially importantin
Keywords: IS research frameworks,diffusionof
IS research,IS literature,information a rapidlychanging domainsuch as IS. The lack
search and retrieval of a common vocabularyamong researchers is
a problemthat cannot be solved by computer-
ISRLCategories: HA0901, IB02, IB0301, ized search systems. Researchersregularlycon-
IB0301.01 duct bibliographical searches in different
computerizeddatabases that are continuously
In June 1988 MIS Quarterly published a getting bigger and faster. However, lacking a
commonresearchvocabulary,such searches are
classification scheme of IS keywords. The not as fruitfulas they could be. Thatis, whiletheir
developmentof this scheme was intendedto pro- recall (the proportionof material actually re-
vide a descriptionof the discipline, introducea
common language, and enable research of the trieved) might be high, their precision (the pro-
field's development. The scheme has been portion of the retrieved materialthat is found
relevant)is often low. The reason forthis is that
recentlyupdatedin orderto incorporatethe new
research topics and methods, hence better manyresearchersuse differenttermsto describe
articlesdealingwithsimilarsubjects. Since most
reflectingthe evolution of the IS discipline. databases index the articles according to the
In orderto conduct this revision,all the articles keywords used by the authors, it becomes im-
that had been published in MISQuarterly,Jour- possible to have high precision in a database
nal of MIS,Information and Management,as well search unless one knows all the differentterms
as all the IS articles published in Management used by the differentauthors. Even withfulltext
Science and Communicationsof the ACM, be- searches, one still has to knowwhich keywords
tween 1987 and 1992 inclusive,were consulted. to look for. The classificationscheme provides
Allthe articlespublishedin InformationSystems a much needed common vocabulary.

MIS Quarterly/June1993 209


KeywordClassificationScheme

A Keyword Classification Scheme for IS Research Literature

A REFERENCE DISCIPLINES EC HARDWARE RESOURCEMANAGEMENT


AA BEHAVIORALSCIENCE ED SOFTWARERESOURCEMANAGEMENT
AB COMPUTERSCIENCE EE IS PROJECTMANAGEMENT
AC DECISIONTHEORY EF IS PLANNING
AD INFORMATIONTHEORY EG ORGANIZING IS
AE ORGANIZATIONALTHEORY EH IS STAFFING
AF MANAGEMENT THEORY El IS EVALUATION
AG LANGUAGE THEORIES EJ IS CONTROL
AH SYSTEMSTHEORY EK IS SECURITY
Al RESEARCH EL IS MANAGEMENT ISSUES
AJ SOCIALSCIENCE
AK MANAGEMENT SCIENCE F IS DEVELOPMENTAND OPERATIONS
AL ARTIFICAL
INTELLIGENCE FA IS DEVELOPMENTSTRATEGIES
AM ECONOMIC THEORY FB IS LIFECYCLEACTIVITIES
AN ERGONOMICS FC IS DEVELOPMENTMETHODSAND TOOLS
AO POLITICAL
SCIENCE FD IS IMPLEMENTATION
AP PSYCHOLOGY FE IS OPERATIONS
B EXTERNALENVIRONMENT G IS USAGE
BA ECONOMICENVIRONMENT GA ORGANIZATIONALUSE OF IS
BB LEGALENVIRONMENT GB USERS
BC ENVIRONMENT
POLITICAL GC TYPEOF IS SUPPORT
BD SOCIALENVIRONMENT GD TYPEOF IS ACCESS
GE TYPEOF PROCESSING
C INFORMATIONTECHNOLOGY
CA COMPUTERSYSTEMS H INFORMATION SYSTEMS
CB SOFTWARE HA TYPES OF INFORMATIONSYSTEMS
HB AREAS
IS APPLICATIONS
D ENVIRONMENT
ORGANIZATIONAL HC COMPONENTSOF IS
DA CHARACTERISTICS
ORGANIZATIONAL HD IS CHARACTERISTICS
DB FUNCTIONS
ORGANIZATIONAL
DC TASKCHARACTERISTICS I IS EDUCATIONAND RESEARCH
DD DYNAMICS
ORGANIZATIONAL IA IS EDUCATION
IB IS RESEARCH
E IS MANAGEMENT IC SOCIETIES
IS PROFESSIONAL
EA DATARESOURCEMANAGEMENT ID HISTORYOF IS
EB PERSONNELRESOURCEMANAGEMENT

Please note
Two descriptors-UF, USE-are used in the classificationscheme as relationalattributesbetween keywords.The
standard notationfor these descriptorsis as follows:
Keyword1
DESCRIPTORKeyword2
Below are examples for the two descriptorsused in the classificationscheme as relationalattributes.
UF: USED FOR:indicates that keyword1 should be used instead of its synonym, keyword2.
Keyword1 HIGHLEVELLANGUAGES
UF Keyword2 LANGUAGES
UF PROCEDURAL
UF PROGRAMMINGLANGUAGES
USE: Indicatesthat keyword2 should be used instead of keyword1.
Keyword1 INFORMATIONQUALITY
USE Keyword2 ATTRIBUTES
USE INFORMATION

210 MIS Quarterly/June 1993


Keyword Classification Scheme

A - REFERENCE DISCIPLINES

AA BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE AD02 INFORMATIONECONOMICS


UF ORGANIZATIONALBEHAVIOR
AD03 INFORMATIONPRESENTATION
AA01 BEHAVIOR AD04 INFORMATIONCHANNELS
UF HUMAN BEHAVIOR
AA0101 Cognitive dissonance theory AD05 INFORMATIONATTRIBUTES
AA0102 Theory of reasoned action UF INFORMATIONCHARACTERISTICS
AA02 HUMAN FACTORS UF INFORMATIONQUALITY
UF BEHAVIORALFACTORS AD0501 Currency of information
AD0502 Frequency of use
AA03 INDIVIDUALDIFFERENCES AD0503 Level of aggregation
UF INDIVIDUALCHARACTERISTICS AD0504 Relevance of information
AA0301 Cognitive style AD0505 Source of information
AA0302 Locus of control AD0506 Information scope
AA0303 Personality AD0507 Timeliness of information
AA04 HUMAN INFORMATIONPROCESSING AD0508 Information structure
AA0401 Information recall AD0509 Age of information
AD0510 Reliability of information
AA05 ATTITUDES AD0511 Accuracy of information
AA0501 Attribution theory AD0512 Utility of information
AA0502 Equity theory AD0513 Adequacy of information
AA06 LEARNING MODELS AD0514 Data integrity
AD0515 Quantity of information
AA07 MOTIVATION
AD0516 Recency of information
AA0701 Expectancy theory
AD0517 Value of Information
AA08 SATISFACTION AD0517.01 Strategic value
AA0801 Job satisfaction AD0518 Information richness
AA09 GROUPS AD06 INFORMATIONPROCESSING
AA0901 Anonimity
AE ORGANIZATIONALTHEORY
AA0902 Facilitation
USE ORGANIZATIONALENVIRONMENT
AA0903 Group processes
AF MANAGEMENTTHEORY
AA10 CONFLICT RESOLUTION
AF01 MANAGEMENT
AA11 CHANGE THEORY
AF0101 TQM
AA1101 Change
UF Total quality management
AA1102 Resistance to change
AF02 LEADERSHIP
AA12 ROLE THEORY
AA1201 Role preferences AF03 MANAGEMENTSTYLE
AA1202 Role conflict AF04 MANAGEMENTACTIVITIES
AA1203 Role ambiguity AF0401 Planning
AB COMPUTER SCIENCE AF0401.01 Strategic planning
USE INFORMATIONTECHNOLOGY AF0401.02 Corporate strategy
AF0401.03 Planning horizon
AC DECISION THEORY
AF0401.04 Contingency planning
UF DECISION SCIENCES
AF0402 Organizing
AC01 DECISION AF0403 Staffing
AC02 DECISION MODELS UF Personnel management
UF Human resource management
AC03 PROBLEM SOLVING AF0404 Control
AC0301 Problem-solving behavior AF0404.01 Standards
AC0302 Interactive problem solving AF0404.02 Managerial control
ACO303 Knowledge utilization AF0404.03 Operational control
AC0304 Problem diagnosis AF0404.04 Internal control
AC0305 Problem representation AF0404.05 Procedures
AC04 DECISION-MAKINGPROCESSES AF0405 Evaluation
UF DECISION MAKING AF0405.01 Corporate performance
UF DECISION PROCESSES AF0406 Strategic scanning
AC0401 Individual decision making AF0407 Forecasting
AC0402 Group decision making AF0408 Budgeting
AC0403 Organizational decision making AF0409 Resource allocation
AC0404 Management decision making AF0410 Priority setting
AC0405 Participative decision making AF0411 Environmental scanning
AC0406 Decision making under risk and uncertainty AF0412 Environmental analysis
AC0406.01 Probability assessment AF05 SUPERVISION CONCEPTS
AC05 DECISION MAKERS AF06 AUTHORITY
AC0501 Decision-making style
AF07 MANAGEMENTLEVEL
AC06 DECISION RULES AF0701 Strategic planning level
AC0601 Linear decision rules AF0702 Tactical level
AC0602 Heuristic decision rules UF Managerial control level
AC07 COGNITIVESCIENCE AF0703 Operational control level
AC08 DECISION AIDS AF08 MANAGEMENTTECHNIQUES
AF0801 Delphi technique
AD INFORMATIONTHEORY
AF0802 Brainstorming
AD01 INFORMATION
AF09 MANAGEMENTROLES
AD0101 Strategic information
AD0102 Information in organizations AF10 CHANGE MANAGEMENT

MIS Quarterly/June 1993 211


Keyword Classification Scheme

AF11 OFFICE MANAGEMENT A10603 Correlation analysis


AF12 MANAGEMENTPOLICIES A10604 Regression analysis
A10605 Discriminant analysis
AF13 MANAGEMENTISSUES A10606 Factor analysis
AF1301 Globalization A10607 Cluster analysis
AF1302 Pricing A10608 Conjoint analysis
AF1302.01 Transfer pricing A10609 Path analysis
AF1303 Strategic alliances A10610 Partial least squares
AG LANGUAGE THEORIES AI0611 LISREL
A10612 Non-parametric statistics
AG01 LANGUAGE
A107 RESEARCH MODELS
AG02 LANGUAGE ACQUISITION A10701 Causal models
AG03 LANGUAGE GENERATION A10702 Contingency models
UF Contingency theory
AG04 LANGUAGE TRANSLATION
A10703 Structuration theory
AG0401 Parsing
AI08 EPISTEMOLOGY
AH SYSTEMS THEORY
AI0801 Positivist perspective
AH01 SYSTEM A10802 Interpretivist perspective
AH02 CYBERNETICS A10803 Critical perspective

AH03 INPUT/OUTPUT MODELS AJ SOCIAL SCIENCE


AH04 SYSTEMS EVOLUTION
AH0401 Systems entropy AK MANAGEMENTSCIENCE
AH05 SYSTEMS APPROACH AK01 MODELS
AK0101 Financial models
AH06 TYPES OF SYSTEMS AK0102 Planning models
AH0601 Closed/open systems
AH0602 Deterministic/probabilistic systems AK02 OPTIMIZATION
AH0603 Human-machine systems AK0201 Optimization methods
AH0604 Socio-technical systems AK0202 Heuristics
AK0203 Linear programming
Al RESEARCH
AK0204 Goal programming
AI01 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AK0205 Mathematical programming
AI0101 Action research AK03 STATISTICS
A10102 Case study
AK0301 Statistical methods
AI0103 Comparative study
A10104 Empirical research AK04 SIMULATION
AI0105 Experimental research AK05 MANAGEMENTSCIENCE IMPLEMENTATION
A10106 Exploratory study UF OR/MS IMPLEMENTATION
AI0107 Conceptual study
AI0108 Field study AL ARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCE
AI0109 Protocol analysis
AL01 KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION
AI0110 Laboratory study
AL0101 Frames
AI0111 Literature review
AL0102 Scripts
AI0112 Ethnography
AL0103 Predicate logic
AI0113 Longitudinal study AL0104 Rule-based representation
AI0114 Meta-analysis
AL0105 Semantic networks
AI0115 Discourse analysis
AI0116 Hermeneutics AL02 NEURAL NETWORKS
AI0117 Quasi-experimental study AL03 DEDUCTION AND REASONING
AI0118 Secondary data analysis AL0301 Analogical reasoning
AI0119 Citation analysis AL0302 Fuzzy reasoning
A102 RESEARCH FRAMEWORKS AL0303 Probabilistic reasoning
AL0304 Rule-based deduction
A103 RESEARCH ISSUES AL0305 Answer/reason extraction
A10301 Research status AL0306 Approximate reasoning
A104 MEASUREMENT AL0307 Memory-based reasoning
A10401 Measures AL04 KNOWLEDGEACQUISITION
UF Instruments
UF Scales
A10402 Reliability AM ECONOMIC THEORY
A10403 Validity UF ECONOMICS
A10403.01 Construct validity AM01 AGENCY THEORY
A10403.02 Content validity
AM02 TRANSACTION COST ECONOMICS
A10403.03 Predictive validity
AM0201 Contract
A10403.04 Convergent validity
A10403.05 Discriminant validity
AN ERGONOMICS
AI05 DIFFUSION OF RESEARCH
A10501 Literature AO POLITICAL SCIENCE
A106 STATISTICALMETHODS USE POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT
A10601 ANOVA
A10602 MANOVA AP PSYCHOLOGY

212 MIS Quarterly/June 1993


KeywordClassificationScheme

B - EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

BA ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT BC POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT


UF ECONOMY UF POLITICALSCIENCE
BA01 ECONOMIC IMPACTS BC01 GOVERNMENTS
BA0101 Employment BC0101 Federal government
BA02 ECONOMIC SECTOR BC0102 Local government
BA0201 Construction industry BC0103 State government
BA0202 Education BC0104 Governmental issues
BA0203 Electronics industry BC0104.01 Regulation
BA0204 Financial sector BC0104.02 Taxation
BA0205 Manufacturing sector BC0104.03 Transborder data flows
BA0206 Mining industry BC02 POLITICS
BA0207 Transportation industry
BC03 PUBLIC POLICY
BA0208 Services
BA0209 Utilities BD SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
BA0210 Food industry UF SOCIAL SCIENCE
BA0211 Information industry BD01 SOCIAL ISSUES
BA0212 Communications industry BD0101 Computerization of society
BA0213 Banking industry UF Computers and society
BA0214 Insurance industry UF Sociology of computing
BA0215 Real estate industry BD0102 Changes in work force
BA0216 Software industry BD0103 Remote work
BA0217 Travel industry BD0104 Ethics
BA03 PUBLIC SECTOR BD0104.01 Ethical issues
BD0105 Privacy
BA04 PRIVATE SECTOR
BD0106 Discrimination
BA05 INTERNATIONALBUSINESS
BD02 SOCIAL ORGANIZATION
BB LEGAL ENVIRONMENT BD0201 Social support
BB01 LEGAL ISSUES BD03 SOCIAL VALUES
BB0101 Software protection
BD04 SOCIAL ENTITIES
BB0101.01 Software copyrights
BD0401 Homes
BB0101.02 Patents
BD0402 Family
BB0101.03 Proprietary rights
BB0101.04 Trade secrets BD05 CULTURAL DIFFERENCES
BB0101.05 Software copyright infringements BD06 COMPUTING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
BB0101.06 Licensing
BB0102 Individual rights
BB0103 Abuse and crime
BB0103.01 Piracy
BB0103.02 Fraud
BB0104 Electronic fund transfer act

C - INFORMATIONTECHNOLOGY

UF COMPUTER SCIENCE CA07 COMPUTER SIZE


UF IS TECHNOLOGY CA0701 Supercomputers
UF TECHNOLOGY CA0702 Large-scale computers
UF TECHNOLOGICALENVIRONMENT CA0703 Minicomputers
UF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY CA0704 Microcomputers
CA COMPUTER SYSTEMS UF Personal computers
UF COMPUTERS UF Desktop computers
UF HARDWARE CA08 COMPUTER ORGANIZATION
UF COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE
CA01 DATA COMMUNICATIONSEQUIPMENT
UF COMPUTER STRUCTURE
CA02 INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICES UF PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE
CA0201 Voice recognition devices CA0801 Architecture types
CA0202 Video display terminal CA0801.01 Array processors
CA0203 Interactive terminals CA0801.02 Von Neumann architecture
CA0204 Optical disk CA0801.03 Data flow architecture
CA0205 CD-ROM CA0801.04 Pipeline architecture
CA0206 ATM CA0802 Architectural features
UF Automatic teller machine
CA0207 Pen CA09 DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS

CA03 MEMORY CA10 NETWORKS


CA1001 LAN
CA04 PROCESSORS UF Local area networks
CA05 STORAGE DEVICES CA1002 Wide area networks
CA1003 Network topology
CA06 WORK STATIONS CA1004 Value added networks
CA0601 Multifunctional work stations CA1005 Packet switching networks

MIS Quarterly/June 1993 213


Keyword Classification Scheme

CA1006 Circuit switching networks CB0602.03 Query languages


CA1007 Store-and-forward networks UF Retrieval languages
CA1008 ISDN CB0602.04 SQL
UF Integrated service digital network UF Structured Query Language
CA11 TELECOMMUNICATIONS CB0603 Data independence
CA1101 Telecommunications technology CB0604 Data structure
CB0605 Data semantics
CA12 FRONT-END COMPUTERS CB0606 Distributed databases
CA13 BACK-END COMPUTERS CB0607 File management systems
UF File systems
CA14 MULTIMEDIA CB0607.01 Logical file structure
CA15 CLIENT-SERVER CB0608 Object-oriented DBMS
CB SOFTWARE CB07 HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGES
UF PROCEDURAL LANGUAGES
CB01 MICROPROGRAMMING
UF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
CB02 MACHINE LANGUAGES UF 3RD GENERATION LANGUAGES
CB03 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGES CB0701 Language constructs
CB0701.01 Abstract data type
CB04 OPERATING SYSTEMS CB0701.02 Logic programming
CB0401 Operating system characteristics CB0701.03 Predicate calculus
CB0401.01 Interactive operating systems CB0702 Language categories
CB0401.02 Online operating systems CB0702.01 COBOL
CB0401.03 Timesharing operating systems CB0702.02 FORTRAN
CB0401.04 Multiprocessing systems CB0702.03 C
CB0401.05 Parallel processing systems CB0702.04 BASIC
CB0401.06 Virtual memory CB0702.05 Pascal
CB0402 Operating system products CB0702.06 ADA
CB0402.01 Multics CB0702.07 LISP
CB0402.02 UNIX CB0702.08 PROLOG
CB0402.03 VM
CB0402.04 DOS CB08 VERY HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGES
CB0403 Access methods UF 4TH GENERATION LANGUAGES
UF 5TH GENERATION LANGUAGES
CB05 COMPILERS UF NONPROCEDURAL LANGUAGES
CB06 DBMS CB09 SOFTWARE PACKAGES
UF DATABASE MANAGEMENTSYSTEMS CB0901 Data processing software
UF DATABASE DESIGN CB0901.01 Dialog generators
CB0601 Data models CB0901.02 DSS generators
UF Database models CB0901.03 Modeling languages
UF Data organization CB0901.04 Program generators
UF Data schema CB0901.05 Report generators
UF Database schema UF Report writers
UF Data architecture CB0901.06 Statistical packages
UF External schema CB0901.07 Electronic spreadsheets
UF External view CB0902 Text processing software
CB0601.01 Relational model UF Word processing software
UF Relational data structure UF Text editing software
UF Relational database CB0902.01 Hypertext
CB0601.0101 Relational algebra CB0903 Knowledge-based software
CB0601.02 Network model CB0904 Communications software
CB0601.03 Hierarchical model
CB0601.04 Semantic data model CB10 NATURAL LANGUAGES
CB1001 Natural language processors
CB0601.05 Entity-relationship model
CB0602 Database languages CB11 SPECIAL PURPOSE LANGUAGES
CB0602.01 DDL CB12 SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE
UF Data description languages
UF Data definition languages CB13 ALGORITHMS
CB0602.02 DML
UF Data manipulation languages

D - ORGANIZATIONALENVIRONMENT

UF ORGANIZATIONALCONTEXT DA03 ORGANIZATIONALSTRUCTURE


UF ORGANIZATIONALTHEORY DA0301 Hierarchy of authority
UF ORGANIZATIONS DA0302 Formalization
UF OFFICE ENVIRONMENT DA0303 Centralized/decentralized organizations
UF WORKING ENVIRONMENT DA0304 Matrix organization
DA ORGANIZATIONALCHARACTERISTICS DA04 ORGANIZATIONALMATURITY
UF ORGANIZATIONALFACTORS
DA05 ORGANIZATIONALSTRESS
DA01 ORGANIZATIONALCULTURE
DA0101 Psychological climate DA06 ORGANIZATIONALEFFECTIVENESS
DA0102 IS culture DA07 ORGANIZATIONALEFFICIENCY
UF Computing culture DA08 ORGANIZATIONALSTRATEGIES
DA0103 Computing milieux
DA09 ORGANIZATIONALPROCEDURES
DA02 ORGANIZATIONALSIZE DA0901 Offi"e procedures
DA0201 Small business
DA0202 Large business DA10 ORGANIZATIONALVALUE CHAIN
DA0203 Multinational corporations DA1001 Information intensity

214 MIS Quarterly/June 1993


Keyword Classification Scheme

DB ORGANIZATIONALFUNCTIONS DC05 TASK PROGRAMMABILITY


UF ORGANIZATIONALDEPARTMENTS
DC06 TASK INTERDEPENDENCE
DB01 GENERAL MANAGEMENT
DC07 TASK LEVEL
UF STRATEGY AND POLICY DC0701 Managerial tasks
DB02 ACCOUNTING DC0702 Clerical tasks
DB03 FINANCE DC08 BOUNDARY SPANNING
DB04 HUMAN RESOURCES DC09 TASK EQUIVOCALITY
UF PERSONNEL
DD ORGANIZATIONALDYNAMICS
DB05 IS
DD01 ORGANIZATIONALCHANGE
UF INFORMATIONSYSTEMS DD0101 Organizational growth
UF DP
UF MIS DD02 ORGANIZATIONALCOMMUNICATION
UF INFORMATIONRESOURCE DD03 POWER IN ORGANIZATIONS
UF CORPORATE COMPUTING FACILITY DD0301 Political perspective
UF EDP DD0302 Rational perspective
UF ADMINISTRATIVEDATA PROCESSING
UF BUSINESS DATA PROCESSING DD04 ORGANIZATIONALDESIGN
UF ORGANIZATIONALDEVELOPMENT
DB06 MARKETING DD0401 Job design
DB07 PRODUCTION UF Work design
UF OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT UF Organization of work
DD0402 Business process re-engineering
DB08 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
UF Business process redesign
DB09 AUDITING UF Business process transformation
DC TASK CHARACTERISTICS UF Process innovation
UF JOB CHARACTERISTICS DD05 INNOVATION
DC01 TASK AMBIGUITY DD0501 Technological innovation
DD0502 Diffusion of innovation
DC02 TASK COMPLEXITY
DD06 ORGANIZATIONALLEARNING
DC03 TASK UNCERTAINTY
DD07 INFORMATIONFLOWS
DC04 TASK STRUCTURE

E - IS MANAGEMENT

UF MANAGING MIS EE IS PROJECT MANAGEMENT


UF MIS MANAGEMENT UF SYSTEMS LIFE CYCLE MANAGEMENT
UF MANAGING COMPUTING EE01 IS PROJECT MANAGEMENTMETHODS AND TOOLS
UF DP MANAGEMENT EE0101 IS project risk management
UF MANAGEMENTOF COMPUTING AND IS
UF INFORMATIONRESOURCE MANAGEMENT EE02 IS PROJECT TEAMS
UF MANAGEMENTOF INFORMATIONRESOURCE UF IS TEAMS
UF INFORMATIONMANAGEMENT EE0201 Interdisciplinary teams
UF ADMINISTRATIONOF IS EE0202 Chief programmer teams
UF SYSTEM MANAGEMENT EE03 IS PROJECT DEVELOPMENT POLICIES
EA DATA RESOURCE MANAGEMENT EE04 IS PROJECT DEVELOPMENT PRIORITIES
UF DATA ADMINISTRATION
UF MANAGING DATA RESOURCE EE05 IS PROJECT PLANNING
UF DATA MANAGEMENT EE0501 Effort estimation
UF DATABASE MANAGEMENT EE0502 Time estimation
UF DATABASE ADMINISTRATION EE0503 Cost estimation
EE0504 Risk assessment
EB PERSONNEL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT EE06 IS PROJECT CONTROL
UF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
USE IS STAFFING EF IS PLANNING
EF01 IS PLANNING METHODS
EC HARDWARE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT UF IS PLANNING METHODOLOGIES
UF COMPUTER MANAGEMENT EF0101 Structured planning
EC01 HARDWARE SELECTION EF0102 CSF
UF COMPUTER SELECTION UF Critical success factors
UF HARDWARE ACQUISITION EF0103 BSP
EC0101 Hardware selection criteria UF Business systems planning
EF0104 CAP
EC02 HARDWARE EVALUATION UF Computer-assisted planning
EC03 HARDWARE MAINTENANCE EF0105 BIAIT
EF0106 Entreprise modeling
EC04 HARDWARE CONTRACTS
EF0107 Information engineering
ED SOFTWARE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT EF02 IS PLANNING ISSUES
UF SOFTWARE MANAGEMENT EF0201 Alignment of IS plans with business plans
ED01 SOFTWARE SELECTION EF03 IS PLANNING OBJECTIVES
ED0101 Software selection criteria EF04 IS STRATEGIC PLANNING
ED02 SOFTWARE EVALUATION EF05 IS OPERATIONAL PLANNING
ED03 SOFTWARE CONTRACTS EF0501 Capacity planning

MIS Quarterly/June 1993 215


Keyword Classification Scheme

EF06 IS PROJECT SELECTION E10103 Utility function evaluation


UF APPLICATIONSELECTION EI0104 Multiple criteria evaluation
UF SYSTEM SELECTION UF Multi-attributeevaluation
EF0601 IS project selection criteria E10105 Benchmarking
UF Application selection criteria E10105.01 Synthetic programs
EF0602 Application portfolio E10106 Cost benefit analysis
EF07 IS INVESTMENT UF Cost estimation
UF Time and cost estimation
EF08 IS POLICY E10107 Information evaluation
UF INFORMATIONPOLICY EI0108 Quality control
EF09 IS ARCHITECTURE EI0109 Value analysis
UF SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE E0110 Workload modeling
UF INFORMATIONARCHITECTURE El0111 Software metrics
EI0112 Function point analysis
EG ORGANIZING IS
UF INFORMATIONINFRASTRUCTURE
UF INFORMATIONSERVICES ORGANIZATION E102 EVALUATIONCRITERIA
E10201 Effectiveness
EG01 IS CENTRALIZATION/DECENTRALIZATION UF System effectiveness
EG0101 IS centralization E10202 Efficiency
EG0102 IS decentralization UF System efficiency
EG0103 DDP E10203 User friendliness
UF Distributed data processing UF User orientation
UF Distributed information systems E10204 IS performance
UF Distributed processing UF EDP performance
EG02 STRUCTURE OF THE IS FUNCTION UF Performance incentives
EG0201 Database administration E10205 Productivity
UF Database management E10205.01 Programmer productivity
EG0202 Steering committees E10205.02 Managerial productivity
UF Executive steering committee E10205.03 Office productivity
EG0203 Information centers E10205.04 Organizational productivity
EG0204 Help desks E10205.05 Group performance
E10206 Quality
EG03 ISSUES IN ORGANIZING IS E10206.01 System quality
EH IS STAFFING UF Software quality
E10206.02 Information quality
EH01 IS JOB CATEGORIES USE Information attributes
UF IS OCCUPATIONS E10206.03 Service quality
UF DP PROFESSIONALS E10207 User satisfaction
UF IS PERSONNEL UF User information satisfaction
EH0101 Chief information officer E10208 IS Utilization
UF IS manager/director/executive UF IS Use
UF MIS manager/director/executive UF System use
UF DP manager/director/executive UF Computer use
EH0102 Systems development manager UF Information utilization
EH0103 IS operations manager E10209 IS Reliability
EH0104 Database administrator UF Software reliability
EH0105 Data administrator E10210 IS flexibility
EH0106 Systems analyst E10211 IS impacts
UF Information analyst E10211.01 Organizational impacts
EH0107 Programmer E10211.02 Social impacts
UF Applications programmer E10212 Size of backlog
EH0108 Data preparation personnel E10213 Cost
EH0109 Computer operator E10214 Computer performance
EH0110 Systems designer E10214.01 Response time
EH0111 IS project manager UF Turnaround time
EH0112 Systems architect E10215 Ease of learning
EH0113 IS auditor E10216 Information overload
UF EDP auditor E10217 System errors
EH0114 IS operations personnel E10217.01 Program correctness
EH0115 Knowledge engineer E10218 IS development time
EH0116 Software engineer UF Software development time
EH02 IS STAFFING ISSUES E10219 Semantic integrity
EH0201 IS training and development E10220 IS development effort
EH0202 IS turnover UF Software development effort
EH0203 IS absenteeism E10221 Risk
EH0204 IS job satisfaction E10222 Complexity
EH0205 IS career path E10223 Accessibility
EH0206 IS recruiting E10224 Sophistication
EH0207 IS staff performance evaluation E10225 Strategic impact
EH0208 IS skill requirements E10226 System acceptance
EH0209 Systems manager activites
EH0210 IS professional values EJ IS CONTROL
El IS EVALUATION EJ01 IS CONTROL METHODS AND TOOLS
UF IS MANAGEMENTAUDIT EJ0101 Budgets
UF IS PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT EJ0102 Chargeback
UF IS PERFORMANCE EVALUATION UF Chargeout
UF MANAGEMENTASSESSMENT OF IS UF Chargeback systems
UF SOFTWARE EVALUATION EJ0103 Costing of computer services
UF SYSTEM EVALUATION EJ0104 Priority setting
El01 EVALUATIONMETHODS EJ0105 EDP audit
EI0101 Pragmatic assessment UF Computer auditing
E10102 Theoretical evaluation UF Internal auditing

216 MIS Quarterly/June 1993


Keyword Classification Scheme

EJ0105.01 EDP audit tools and techniques EK09 COMPUTER CRIME


EJ0105.0101 Online auditing EK10 COMPUTER VIRUSES
EJ0105.0102 Audit interfaces
EJ0105.0103 Audit command EL IS MANAGEMENTISSUES
languages EL01 MARKETINGOF MIS
EJ0105.0104 Computer assisted
auditing EL02 IS PROBLEMS
EL0201 IS project abandonment
EJ02 IS CONTROL ISSUES EL0202 IS project failures
EJ0201 Software auditability
EJ0202 IS cost control EL03 IS SUCCESS
EL0301 Defining IS success
EK IS SECURITY EL0302 Measuring IS success
EK01 DATA SECURITY EL04 IS EVOLUTION
UF Data protection EL0401 IS maturity
EK02 DATA ENCRYPTION EL0402 Stage theory
EK0201 Public key encryption UF Nolan stage theory
EK03 ACCESS CONTROL EL05 IS TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER
UF INFORMATIONTECHNOLOGY ADOPTION
EK04 PHYSICAL SECURITY
EL06 IS INTEGRATION
EK05 AUTHENTICATION
EL07 OUTSOURCING OF IS
EK06 AUTHORIZATION
EL08 IS RISK MANAGEMENT
EK07 PASSWORDS
EL09 GLOBALIZATIONOF IS
EK08 DISASTER PLANS
EK0801 Recovery EL10 IS DOWNSIZING

F - IS DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONS

UF IS DEVELOPMENT FB03 INFORMATIONREQUIREMENTS DETERMINATION


UF MIS DEVELOPMENT UF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS
UF SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT UF USER NEEDS ASSESSMENT
UF APPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENT UF INFORMATIONANALYSIS
UF EDP PROJECT DEVELOPMENT UF REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION
UF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT UF REQUIREMENTS DEFINITION
UF SOFTWARE ENGINEERING UF INFORMATIONREQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS
UF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN UF IRA
UF DETAILEDSTUDY
FA IS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES
UF REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS
UF IS DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGIES
FB0301 Information requirements determination activities
UF IS DEVELOPMENT APPROACHES
FB0301.01 Database requirements analysis
UF IS IMPLEMENTATIONAPPROACHES
FB0301.02 User interface requirements analysis
FA01 TRADITIONALDEVELOPMENT APPROACH
FB0302 Information requirements determination issues
FA02 PROTOTYPING
FB04 IS DESIGN
FA03 ITERATIVEDESIGN UF LOGICALDESIGN
FA04 EVOLUTIVEDESIGN UF SYSTEM DESIGN
UF EVOLUTIONARYDESIGN UF CONCEPTUAL DESIGN
UF HEURISTIC DEVELOPMENT UF MIS DESIGN
UF MIS DESIGN PROCESS
FA05 USER DEVELOPMENT UF IS PHYSICAL DESIGN
UF USER-DEVELOPED SYSTEMS FB0401 Database design
UF USER-DEVELOPED APPLICATIONS UF Database conceptual design
FA06 PARTICIPATIVEDESIGN UF Database physical design
UF Database logical design
FA07 AUTOMATED IS DEVELOPMENT FB0401.01 Data abstraction
FA08 CLIENT-CENTERED DESIGN FB0401.02 Data modeling
UF USER-ORIENTED DESIGN FB0401.03 Normalization
UF USER-CENTERED DESIGN FB0401.04 Normal form
FB0401.05 View modeling
FA09 USER-LED DESIGN
FB0402 Process design
FA10 SOCIO-TECHNICALAPPROACH
FB0402.01 Functional design
UF SOCIO-TECHNICALDESIGN
FB0402.02 Structured design
FA11 OBJECT-ORIENTED APPROACH FB0402.03 Algorithm design
FA12 REVERSE ENGINEERING FB0402.04 Query design
FB0402.05 Software design
FB IS LIFE CYCLE ACTIVITIES UF Program design
UF DEVELOPMENT PROCESS LIFE CYCLE FB0402.06 Procedure design
UF SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE FB0403 Interface design
UF SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT PROCESS FB0403.01 Screen design
UF IS LIFE CYCLE FB0403.02 Output design
UF SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE FB0403.03 Report design
FB0403.04 Dialog design
FB01 PROPOSAL DEFINITION
FB0404 Communication network design
FB0101 Development objectives
FB0405 Knowledge-base design
FB02 FEASIBILITYASSESSMENT FB0406 IS design issues

MIS Quarterly/June 1993 217


Keyword Classification Scheme

FB05 PROGRAMMING FC14 HIPO


FB0501 Program generation UF HIERARCHY INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT
UF Automatic program generation FC15 IS MODELS
UF Automatic programming
FB0502 Programming issues FC16 INTERVIEWING
UF Coding issues FC17 MIDDLE-OUTDESIGN
FB0502.01 Program comprehension
FB0502.02 Programming style FC18 OBSERVATION
FB0502.03 Psychology of programming FC19 STRUCTURAL MODELLING
FB0503 Programming methodology
FC20 STRUCTURED ANALYSIS
FB0503.01 Algorithm design
FB0503.02 Modular programming FC21 STRUCTURED ENGLISH
FB0503.03 Interactive programming UF PSEUDO-CODE
FB0503.04 Structured programming FC22 STRUCTURED TOOLS
FB0503.05 Top-down programming UF STRUCTURED TECHNIQUES
FB0503.06 Object-oriented programming
FB0504 Programmer workbench FC23 SYNTAX METHOD
FB0505 Programming environment FC24 TOP-DOWN DESIGN
FB06 TESTING FC25 TRADITIONALANALYSIS
FB0601 Testing activities
FB0601.01 System testing FC26 WARNIER/ORR CHARTS
FB0601.02 Unit testing FC27 WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE
FB0601.03 Program testing
FC28 OBJECT-ORIENTED ANALYSIS
FB0601.04 Debugging
FB0602 Testing issues FC29 OBJECT-ORIENTED DESIGN
FB0603 Code inspection
FB0604 Code walkthrough
FB07 CONVERSION FD IS IMPLEMENTATION
UF COMPUTER SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION
FB08 MAINTENANCE UF MIS IMPLEMENTATION
UF SYSTEMS MAINTENANCE UF SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION
UF IS MAINTENANCE
UF SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE FD01 USER-ANALYST DIFFERENCES
FB0801 Program maintenance FD02 USER INVOLVEMENT
FB09 POST AUDIT FD03 USER PARTICIPATION
UF POST-IMPLEMENTATIONAUDIT FD04 SENIOR MANAGEMENTSUPPORT
FB10 SYSTEM DOCUMENTATION FD05 IS IMPLEMENTATIONAPPROACHES
FB1001 User manual
USE IS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES
UF User documentation
FB1002 Program documentation FD06 USER TRAINING
UF PERSONNEL TRAINING
FC IS DEVELOPMENT METHODS AND TOOLS UF USER EDUCATION
UF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS METHODS
FD07 IMPLEMENTATIONPOLITICS
UF INFORMATIONANALYSIS TECHNIQUES
UF SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT TECHNIQUES FD08 USER-ANALYST INTERACTION
UF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT TOOLS UF USER-ANALYST INTERFACE
UF ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES UF IMPLEMENTOR-USERRELATIONSHIP
UF DESIGN STRATEGIES UF USER-EDP-SPECIALIST INTERACTION
UF DESIGN METHODOLOGIES UF CLIENT-CONSULTANTRELATIONSHIP
UF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGIES FD0801 Body language
FD0802 Communication gap
FC01 ACTIVITYDESCRIPTION CHARTS
FC02 BOTTOM-UP DESIGN
FE IS OPERATIONS
FC03 COGNITIVE MAPPING
FE01 IS OPERATIONS ACTIVITIES
FC04 CASE FE0101 Input operations
UF COMPUTER-ASSISTED SOFTWARE ENGINEERING FE0101.01 Data preparation
FC05 DATA DICTIONARY FE0101.02 Data entry
UF DATA DIRECTORY FE0101.03 Data validation
FE0101.04 Data collection
FC06 DFD FE0102 Data processing
UF DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS FE0102.01 File updating
FC07 DECISION AND ACTIVITYANALYSIS FE0102.02 File maintenance
FE0102.03 Record keeping
FC08 DECISION TABLES
FE0103 Data protection
FC09 DECISION TREES USE Data security
FC10 ENTITY DIAGRAMS FE0104 Output operations
FE0105 Database operation
FC11 EXECUTIVE APPLICATIONSURVEY FE0105.01 Storage
FC12 FLOWCHARTS FE0105.02 Retrieval
FC13 FUNCTIONAL DECOMPOSITION FE02 COMPUTER SYSTEMS INSTALLATION

218 MIS Quarterly/June 1993


Keyword Classification Scheme

G- IS USAGE

UF COMPUTER USAGE GB06 EXECUTIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR DECISION SUPPORT


UF COMPUTER UTILIZATION GB07 USER EXPECTATIONS
GA ORGANIZATIONALUSE OF IS GB08 USER JOB TITLES
GA01 COMPETITIVEUSE OF IS GB0801 CEO
GA0101 Strategic IS UF Chief executive officer
GA0102 Competitive IS GB0802 Executive
GB0803 Middle manager
GA02 OFFICE AUTOMATION
GB0804 Senior management
GA0201 Word processing
UF Top management
GA0202 Satellite work center
GB0805 Entry-level personnel
GA03 END-USER COMPUTING
UF PERSONAL COMPUTING GC TYPE OF IS SUPPORT
UF PERSONAL USE
GA0301 End-user programming GC01 CORPORATE SUPPORT

GA04 OPERATIONAL COMPUTING GC02 DEPARTMENTALSUPPORT

GA05 TELECOMMUTING GC03 PERSONAL SUPPORT


UF HOME COMPUTING UF PERSONAL IS
GA0501 Distributed work arrangements GC04 USER SUPPORT
GB USERS GC05 INTERPERSONAL SUPPORT
GB01 USER CHARACTERISTICS GC06 MANAGEMENTSUPPORT
USE INDIVIDUALCHARACTERISTICS
GD TYPE OF IS ACCESS
GB02 USER ATTITUDES
GD01 DIRECT ACCESS
GB03 USER BEHAVIOR
GD02 CHAUFFEURED ACCESS
GB04 USER TYPES
GB0401 Direct users GE TYPE OF PROCESSING
GB0402 Indirect users
GB0403 Intermediate users GE01 ONLINE IS
GB0404 End users GE02 BATCH IS
GB0405 Expert users
GB0406 Novice users GE03 REAL-TIMEIS

GB05 USER REQUIREMENTS GE04 INTERACTIVEIS


UF MANAGEMENTINFORMATIONNEEDS
UF USER NEEDS

H - INFORMATIONSYSTEMS

HA TYPES OF INFORMATIONSYSTEMS HA0808 Audio conference


HA01 TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEMS HA0809 Voice messaging
UF OPERATIONAL SUPPORT SYSTEMS HA09 INFORMATIONSTORAGE AND RETRIEVALSYSTEMS
HA02 MIS HA0901 Information retrieval
UF MANAGEMENTINFORMATIONSYSTEMS HA0902 Information search and retrieval
HA0903 Commercial databases
HA03 DSS UF External databases
UF DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS
HA0301 Group DSS HA10 DOCUMENT MANAGEMENTSYSTEMS
HA0302 Distributed decision-making systems UF RECORDS MANAGEMENTSYSTEMS
HA0303 DSS architecture UF FILINGSYSTEMS
HA1001 Document retrieval systems
HA04 EXPERT SYSTEMS
UF KNOWLEDGE-BASED SYSTEMS HA11 ELECTRONIC MEETING SYSTEMS
UF EMS
HA05 EXECUTIVE SUPPORT SYSTEMS HA1101 Electronic meetings
UF EXECUTIVE INTELLIGENCESYSTEMS
UF MANAGEMENTSUPPORT SYSTEMS HA12 COLLABORATIVEWORK SYSTEMS
HA1201 Collaborative writing
HA06 OFFICE SYSTEMS HA1202 Document sharing
HA07 INTER-ORGANIZATIONALSYSTEMS HA13 MODEL MANAGEMENTSYSTEMS
HA0701 EFT
UF Electronic fund transfer HA14 IMAGE SYSTEMS
HA0702 Electronic markets HA15 AUTHORING SYSTEMS
HA08 CBCS
UF COMPUTER-BASED COMMUNICATIONSYSTEMS
UF COMMUNICATIONSYSTEMS HB IS APPLICATION AREAS
HA0801 Electronic mail UF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
HA0802 Computer conferencing UF APPLICATIONS SOFTWARE
HA0803 Facsimile transmission UF BUSINESS APPLICATIONS
HA0804 Videotex UF APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS
HA0805 Teletext
HA0806 Voice/data sharing HB01 ACADEMICADMINISTRATIONIS
HA0807 Message systems HB02 ACCOUNTING IS

MIS Quarterly/June 1993 219


Keyword Classification Scheme

HB03 AGRIBUSINESS IS HC COMPONENTS OF IS


HB04 AUDIT SOFTWARE HC01 INTERFACE
UF USER INTERFACE
HB05 BANKING IS
HC0101 User/machine dialog
HB06 CAD/CAM UF Human/computer interaction
UF COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN/COMPUTER-AIDED UF Person/machine interaction
MANUFACTURING HC0102 Command language
HB07 COMPUTER-ASSISTED TRAINING SYSTEMS HC0103 Database views
HC0104 Direct manipulation
HB08 EDUCATIONALIS
UF EDUCATIONALTECHNOLOGY HC02 DATABASE
HC0201 Data
HB09 ENERGY IS HC0202 Files
HB10 FEDERAL IS HC0202.01 Sequential files
HC0203 Data classes
HB11 FINANCIALIS
HB1101 Cash management system HC03 PROGRAMS
HB12 FINANCIALPLANNING IS HC04 INPUT
HB13 FISCAL IS HC05 OUTPUT
HC0501 Exception report
HB14 GOVERNMENTAL IS
HC06 INFORMATIONRESOURCE
HB15 HEALTH IS
HC07 KNOWLEDGE BASE
HB16 HUMAN RESOURCE IS
UF PERSONNEL IS HC08 MODULES
HB17 LEGAL IS HD IS CHARACTERISTICS
UF IS FEATURES
HB18 MANUFACTURING IS
USE PRODUCTION IS HD01 INTERFACE CHARACTERISTICS
UF INFORMATIONPRESENTATION
HB19 MARKETINGIS UF INTERFACE REQUIREMENTS
HB20 MEDICALIS HD0101 Graphics
UF Computer graphics
HB21 MILITARYIS
HD0101.01 Business charts
HB22 ORDER-PROCESSING IS HD0101.02 Graphic design
HB23 PRICING IS HD0101.03 3-D graphics
HD0102 Tables
HB24 PRODUCTION IS HD0103 Icons
UF MANUFACTURINGIS HD0104 Color
UF INVENTORY/PRODUCTIONSYSTEMS HD0105 Menus
HB25 PRODUCTION PLANNING IS HD0106 Error messages
HD0107 Prompts
HB26 SIMULATIONAND MODELLINGIS HD0108 Graphical user interface
HB27 STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCEIS HD0109 Natural language interface
HD0110 Interactive interface
HB28 SUPERVISORY IS
HD02 DATABASE CHARACTERISTICS
HB29 URBAN IS
UF DATABASE REQUIREMENTS
HB30 WORD PROCESSING APPLICATIONS
HD03 IS STRUCTURE
HB31 GLOBAL IS HD0401 Formal/informal IS
HB32 AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEMS

I - IS EDUCATION AND RESEARCH


IA IS EDUCATION IC03 ANSI
IC0301 ANSI/SPARC
IA01 IS CURRICULUM
IC04 ACM
IA02 COMPUTER LITERACY
UF ASSOCIATION FOR COMPUTING MACHINERY
IA03 COMPUTER SCIENCE EDUCATION
IC05 IFIP
IA04 CERTIFICATION UF INTERNATIONALFEDERATION FOR INFORMATION
IB IS RESEARCH PROCESSING

IB01 IS RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES IC06 ISO


UF INTERNATIONALORGANIZATIONFOR
IB02 IS RESEARCH FRAMEWORKS
STANDARDIZATION
IB03 IS RESEARCH ISSUES
IC07 DPMA
IB0301 Diffusion of IS research
UF DATA PROCESSING MANAGEMENTASSOCIATION
IB0301.01 IS literature
IC08 ICCP
IB04 IS RESEARCH AGENDA UF INSTITUTE FOR CERTIFICATIONOF COMPUTER
IB05 IS RESEARCH CENTERS PROFESSIONALS
IB06 IS JOURNALS
IC IS PROFESSIONAL SOCIETIES ID HISTORY OF IS

IC01 SIM ID01 HISTORY OF COMPUTING


UF SOCIETY FOR INFORMATIONMANAGEMENT ID02 OFFICE OF THE FUTURE
IC0101 SIM services
ID03 FUTURE INFORMATIONPROFESSIONAL
IC0102 SIM issues
ID04 TECHNOLOGY TRENDS
IC02 CODASYL
IC0201 Database task group ID05 FUTURE OF IS

220 MIS Quarterly/June 1993


KeywordClassificationScheme

About the Authors


Henri Barki is associate professor of information Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales and a
systems at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Com- Ph.D. in MIS from the University of Western On-
merciales in Montreal. He received his Ph.D. in tario. Her main research interests include the
information systems from the School of Business management of software development projects,
Administration, University of Western Ontario. end-user computing, and impacts of information
His research interests center on the management technologies. She has published articles in a
of software development projects and include the variety of journals, including MIS Quarterly,Com-
study of user participation, user involvement, and munications of the ACM, Information & Man-
conflicts. His papers have been published in MIS agement, Interfaces, and INFOR.
Quarterly, Information& Management, Canadian Jean Talbot is assistant professor of information
Journal of Administrative Sciences, and INFOR.
systems at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Com-
merciales in Montreal. He received his doctorate
in information systems from the Universite
Suzanne Rivard is professor of information Montpellier II in France. His current research
systems at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Com- interests are in the area of system development
merciales in Montreal. She holds an MBA from management.

Appendix A
New Keywords

Cognitive dissonance theory AA0101


Theory of reasoned action AA0102
Attribution theory AA0501
Equity theory AA0502
Anonimity AA0901
Facilitation AA0902
Resistance to change AA1102
Problem representation AC0305
Decision-making style AC0501
Information richness AD0518
TQM AF0101
UF Total quality management
Corporate performance AF0405.01
Environmental scanning AF0411
Environmental analysis AF0412
Brainstorming AF0802
MANAGEMENTISSUES AF13
Globalization AF1301
Pricing AF1302
Transfer pricing AF1302.01

MIS Quarterly/June 1993 221


KeywordClassificationScheme

Strategic alliances AF1303


Ethnography AI0112
Longitudinal study Ai0113
Meta-analysis A10114
Discourse analysis AI0115
Hermeneutics AI0116
Quasi-experimental study A10117
Secondary data analysis A10118
Construct validity A10403.01
Content validity A10403.02
Predictive validity A10403.03
Convergent validity A10403.04
Discriminant validity A10403.05
STATISTICALMETHODS A106
ANOVA A10601
MANOVA A10602
Correlation analysis A10603
Regression analysis A10604
Discriminant analysis A10605
Factor analysis A10606
Cluster analysis Al0607
Conjoint analysis A10608
Path analysis A10609
Partial least squares A10610
LISREL A10611
Non-parametric statistics A10612
RESEARCH MODELS A107
Causal models A10701
Contingency models A10702
UF Contingency theory
Structuration theory A10703
EPISTEMOLOGY A108
Positivist perspective A10801
Interpretivist perspective A10802
Critical perspective A10803
Frames AL0101
Scripts AL0102
Predicate logic AL0103
Rule-based representation AL0104

222 MIS Quarterly/June 1993


KeywordClassificationScheme

Semantic networks AL0105


NEURAL NETWORKS AL02
DEDUCTION AND REASONING AL03
Analogical reasoning AL0301
Fuzzy reasoning AL0302
Probabilistic reasoning AL0303
Rule-based deduction AL0304
Answer/reason extraction AL0305
Approximate reasoning AL0306
Memory-based reasoning AL0307
KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION AL04
AGENCY THEORY AM01
TRANSACTION COST ECONOMICS AM02
Contract AM0201
Communications industry BA0212
Banking industry BA0213
Insurance industry BA0214
Real estate industry BA0215
Software industry BA0216
Travel industry BA0217
INTERNATIONALBUSINESS BA05
Federal government BC0101
Local government BC0102
State government BC0103
Family BD0402
Optical disk CA0204
CD-ROM CA0205
ATM CA0206
UF Automatic teller machine
Pen CA0207
Circuit switching networks CA1006
Store-and-forward networks CA1007
ISDN CA1008
UF Integrated service digital network
MULTIMEDIA CA14
CLIENT-SERVER CA15
SQL CB0602.04
UF Structured Query Language
Object-oriented DBMS CB0608
3RD GENERATION LANGUAGES CB07

MIS Quarterly/June 1993 223


KeywordClassificationScheme

Hypertext CB0902.01
ALGORITHMS CB13
ORGANIZATIONALVALUE CHAIN DA10
Information intensity DA1001
TASK EQUIVOCALITY DC09
Business process re-engineering DD0402
UF Business process redesign
UF Business process transformation
UF Process innovation
Diffusion of innovation DD0502
SOFTWARE CONTRACTS ED03
IS project risk management EE0101
Effort estimation EE0501
Time estimation EE0502
Cost estimation EE0503
Risk assessment EE0504
Information engineering EF0107
Alignment of IS plans with business plans EF0201
Capacity planning EF0501
Application portfolio EF0602
INFORMATIONARCHITECTURE EF09
Help desks EG0204
Knowledge engineer EH0115
Software engineer EH0116
Function point analysis E10112
COCOMO E10113
Group performance E10205.05
Software quality E10206.01
Service quality E10206.03
Software development time E10218
IS development effort E10220
UF Software development effort
Risk E10221
Complexity E10222
Accessibility E10223
Sophistication E10224
Strategic impact E10225
System acceptance E10226
COMPUTER CRIME EK09
COMPUTER VIRUSES EK10

224 MIS Quarterly/June 1993


KeywordClassificationScheme

IS project abandonment EL0201


IS projectfailures EL0202
OUTSOURCINGOF IS EL07
IS RISKMANAGEMENT EL08
GLOBALIZATION OF IS EL09
IS DOWNSIZING EL10
OBJECT-ORIENTED
APPROACH FA11
REVERSEENGINEERING FA12
Dialog design FB0403.04
Communicationnetworkdesign FB0404
Knowledge-basedesign FB0405
Object-orientedprogramming FB0503.06
POST AUDIT FB09
UF POST-IMPLEMENTATION AUDIT
CASE FC04
UF COMPUTER-ASSISTED SOFTWAREENGINEERING
OBJECT-ORIENTED ANALYSIS FC28
OBJECT-ORIENTED DESIGN FC29
Expert users GB0405
Novice users GB0406
Executive GB0802
Middlemanager GB0803
Senior management GB0804
UF Top management
Entry-levelpersonnel GB0805
MANAGEMENT SUPPORTSYSTEMS HA05
Electronicmarkets HA0702
Computerconferencing HA0802
Audio conference HA0808
Voice messaging HA0809
Document retrievalsystems HA1001
ELECTRONIC MEETING SYSTEMS HA11
UF EMS
Electronicmeetings HA1101
COLLABORATIVE WORKSYSTEMS H12
Collaborativewriting HA1201
Document sharing HA1202
IMAGESYSTEMS HA14
AUTHORINGSYSTEMS HA15
Cash management system HB1101

MIS Quarterly/June 1993 225


KeywordClassificationScheme

GLOBALIS HB31
AIRLINERESERVATION SYSTEMS HB32
Database views HC0103
Direct manipulation HC0104
Graphicaluser interface HD0108
Naturallanguage interface HD0109
Interactiveinterface HD0110
IS JOURNALS IB06
ACM IC04
UF ASSOCIATIONFOR COMPUTINGMACHINERY
IFIP IC05
UF INTERNATIONAL FEDERATIONFOR
INFORMATION PROCESSING
ISO IC06
UF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONFOR STANDARDIZATION
DPMA IC07
UF DATAPROCESSINGMANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION
ICCP IC08
UF INSTITUTEFOR CERTIFICATION OF COMPUTERPROFESSIONALS

Appendix B
Deleted Keywords
General information A1109
Methodologicalstudy A10112
Other A10114
Self-containedquery languages B0602.0301
ADMINISTRATION OF COMPUTERCENTERS EC
Programefficiency EJ0202.01
Programcomplexity EJ0202.02
COMPUTER-AIDED ANALYSISAND DESIGN FC04
PSL/PSA FC0401
UF Problemstatement language/problemstatement analyzer
COMMONSYSTEMS HA12

226 MIS Quarterly/June 1993