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Paul Danner
Sixth Edit io n
Introduction

Hello, my name is Paul Danner. I am an ASE Ll certified master technician with 20 years of field
experience in driveability diagnostics and computer systems troubleshooting. For the past 11 years I have
been an instructor for Rosedale Technical Institute near Pittsburgh, PA where I developed this book for
training my students. Before entering my class students are expected to have a basic understanding of the 4
stroke engine and also some basic electrical background . Although this is important, it is not completely
necessary to understand most of the topics and testing methods taught in this book.
One of the main focuses in this book is what I like to call the "anti-flowchart". I hate engineer written
flow charts! These are step by step procedures that some pencil pusher thinks is the best way to troubleshoot
a particular problem on a car. For the most part they don't give us technicians enough credit. They are
certainly never written with speed in mind . How could they be when half of them start off with disconnecting
the computer and the sensor and checking the wire for opens and shorts? Do they realize that step one could
take more than a half hour to just get to the computer? This is ridiculous! There has to be a better way! I think
I have said that to myself thousands of times over the past 20 years.
Well guess what, I have found a better way and I want to share it with you. Some of my methods are a
little unorthodox, but if used correctly there is no faster or more accurate method for computer systems
trouble shooting than what I have outlined in this book. Do I still use engineer written flow charts? Of course,
but only as a guide and almost never literally. Maybe someday engineers will wake up and figure out that
some of us can handle more information than what they are providing. Until then we must develop a more
complete understanding of sensors and circuit designs. Once we have these fundamentals we will be able to
troubleshoot ANY computer controlled system, not just a fuel injection computer. I even fixed my furnace at
home using these same principles!
Table of Contents
Universal Testing Methods Section l 1- 29
SVl'itch Inputs Section 2 1 -30
Transistor Drivers and Output Solenoids Section 3 1 - 30
Oxygen Sensor Introduction Section 4 1 - 21
Oxygen Sensor Testing Section 5 1-27
Thern1istors Sl-'Ction 6 1-17
Potentiometers Section 7 1 - 15
Pressure Sensors Section 8 1 - 10
The 5 Volt Reference Circuit Section 9 1-6
Signal Circuit Integrity T esting Section 10 1-7
Substituted Values Sl-'Ction 11 1-6
A.irOow Sensors Sl-'Ction 12 1- 17
Types of Fuel Injection Section 13 1 -8
Fuel Delivery Designs Section 14 1 -9
Fuel Pun1p Electrical Circuits Section 15 1 - 19
Fuel Pressure Testing Sl-'Ction 16 1- 16
Fuel Injector Driver Designs Section 17 1 -7
Fuel Injector Testing Section 18 1 - 26
No Injector Pulse, No Start Problems Section 19 1 -5
Idle Speed Controls Section 20 1- 29
Ignition Systen1 inputs Sl-'Ction 21 1-33
No Start, No Spark l'roblen1s Sl-'Ction 22 1- 26
No Start, Good Spark and Injector Pulse Condition Section 23 1 -2
EGR System Problen1s Section 24 1 -8
Con1n1on Tern1s and Abbreviations Section 25 1-2
Universal Testing Methods

Section 1
Where Do I Start?
• Fuel
- Is the engine running rich or lean?
- Is there enough fuel delivery under a load?
• Ignition
- What is causi ng the misfire?
• Is it lack of spark, fuel or compression?
- What are some quick tests to identify the cause of the misfire?
• Mechanical
- Is there a compression problem?
- Is there a jumped timing belt/chain?
- Is there a vacuum leak?
• Electrical
- Is there a bad diode in the alternator?
- What is the computers response to low battery voltage?
• Emissions
- Is the EGR va lve stuck open?
- Is the exhaust restricted?
- Could the air pump or evap. system be causing problems?

2
• Question customer.
• Test drive to verify customer complaint. The symptom must be duplicated for an
accurate diagnosis.
• Scan for diagnostic trouble codes. (DTCs)
- Check freeze frame data (if available) to determine the engine load and
temperature set by the fault code.
• Check for technical service bulletins (TSBs)
• RESEARCH!!!
You must know the description and operation of the system or component
before diagnosis begins. (*The main resources I use as an aftermarket
technician: Shop Key, Mitchell, iATN.net, Snap-on's Troubleshooter and the
Component Meter of the Vantage Pro)
• Find the specific fault code and read or print the step by step "flow
chart". Even if you don't follow it completely you will still gather valuable
information about why the code is set and what the possible causes are.
• Print the wiring diagram for the system you are troubleshooting.
• Research theory and operation of the components being tested.
• Never forget to perform a visual inspection. This can save you significant time if you
just take a look first!

3
Fuel trim
• Short term fuel trim is used to keep the 02 sensor moving slightly rich I lean from
stoichiometric. This provides the catalytic converter w ith the necessary gases to properly
reduce the maj or pollutants.
• Long term fuel trim is learned from the short term fuel trim. Its primary functions are:
- To keep the short term with as much correction capability as possible. This is achieved
by keeping the short term close to 0°/o.
- To reta in fuel trim corrections in memory
• Use the long term fuel trim values to determine if the engine is delivering fuel normally or if it
is correcting for an overly rich or lean condition. Keep in mind that every load/rpm combination
will have a different "learned" long term fuel trim numbers.
• Positive numbers (numbers above Oo/o) mean the computer is adding fuel. This is a rich
command in response to a lean condition .
• Negative numbers (numbers below 0%) mean the computer is subtracting fuel. This is a lean
command in response to a rich condition.
• Oxygen sensor malfunctions w ill cause the computer to add or subtract a disproportionate
amount of fuel. If the 02 sensor voltage is fixed lean (below 450mv), the computer w ill
severely richen the mixture. This will result in poor gas mileage, black smoke and poor low
rpm performance. If the 02 sensor voltage is fixed rich (above 450mv), the computer will
severely lean-out the mixture. This will result in low power and hesitation problems. In either
case the eng ine will run good cold and at wide open throttle (WOT) because the 02 sensor is
not used du ring these times .

4
Understanding ST/L TFT
• STFT (short term fuel trim) • L TFT (long term fuel trim)
- #1 job is to keep 02 sensor near (a - #1 job is to keep STFT as close to 0°/o as
little above/below) stoichiometric .possible and to retain any fuel corrections
is a command from the PCM to alter 1n memory.
injector pulse PCM "looks" at L TFT first to know where
- Oo/o = no fuel corrections from factory to start injector pulse width
preset value learns from STFT%
is only used in closed loop is a command from the PCM to alter
injector pulse
NOTE* With left and right bank upstream 0°/o = no fuel corrections from factory
02 sensors , the PCM uses left and right preset value
bank STFT & L TFT (individual bank fuel +/- 10 °/o is considered normal on most
trim control) systems
may be used in both open and closed loop

Total fuel trim is the sum of the LTFT and STFT


Pre-OBDll GM used Block Learn
(LTFT) and Integrator (STFT) ; NORMAL :
binary numbers. 128 = 0°/o : RANGE :
_,,,,.,.,____ _ R_A_C_T_IN
s _u _s T _G F_U_EL
__ --.~-
· ~ 12s ~--~-A
-D_D
_l_
N_G_F_
U_E_
L~~~4)1~

0 - :•• I •
255
COl.INTS ••
••
26 51 77 ,02 » 11s 138 154 179 205 230

4
804'..4 · 80% · 4-0% · 20% · 10% + 1 O'o/o +.20'4 +4-0% • 60% +80%

PERCENTAGE
•100% I
Oo/o
I
NO ADJUSTMENT
5
02 and Fuel Trim Example

Fixed lean 02
• This is a data capture of a vehicle
with a bad 02 sensor. (signal fixed
lean)
1994 CHRYSLER CAR AA IT • The computer's response to a lean
3.0L V6 MPI A/C 02 sensor is to add fuel. This process
51 sustained LEAN F/A CO ITION of adding fuel will continue until the
0 RPM 704 02S(V)_0.04 INJ(mS)_ 3.5 02 sensor moves back to the rich
IGN CYCLES 1 3 IGN CYCLES 2 134 side of stoichiometric or until the fuel
IGN CYCLES 3 0 OPEN/CLSD trim has reached its limit.
LOOP CLSD • This limit of control is different on
MAP SNSR(V) 1.2 MAN VAC("Hg)_ 19.2 every car and is necessary to prevent
BARO PRES("Hg)_28.9 THROTTLE( 0/o) O severe over or under fuelling
TPS(V) 0.82 MIN TPS(V) _ _0.82
conditions.
COOLANT(V) 2.3 COOLANT(l1F) 199 • This engine ran well cold and at WOT
ST ADAP( 0/o) 24.8 LT ADAP( 0/o) 24.8
and also during a forced open loop
condition.
EXHAUST EAN VEH
SPEED(MPH) 0 - A forced open loop condition will
occur when an 02 sensor will not
respond to the computer's
command. A trouble code will
Rich command (limit
also be set at this time.
reached as indicated by
both ST and LTFT o/o
being high . 6
m'7 ~ ~
Fuel Trim After Replacing 02 Sensor
This vehicle had a bad (fixed lea n) 02 sensor. The below picture is a scan data capture of what
the fuel trim numbers looked like with the new 02 sensor and the computer's memory not cleared .
Why is the LTFT commanding rich and the STFT commanding lean?
The computer is in the process of relearning. The memory (L TFT} was to add fuel from a bad
(fixed lean) 02 sensor. The new 02 is able to react and is telling the computer there is too much
fuel. The computer immediately responds using the STFT command to lean-out the mixture .
*I like to see this reaction, this tells me that the vehicle is fixed! My preference after a repair for a
lean condition is to watch the STFT and see how much it counters what the L TFT memory is
commanding. For an example, see the following video:
http://www.youtube .com/watch?v=Hmt LNJ9Gkl

Examples after a repair for a lean condition:


• LTFT 30°/o STFT -25°/o = you fixed the problem (Total fuel trim is 5°/o, after the relearn
process the LTFT will be 5o/o and the ST FT will be 0°/o)
• LTFT 30°/o STFT -10°/o = you still have a lean condition . (Total fuel trim is 20°/o, after the
relearn process the LTFT will be 20% and the STFT will be 0°/o) It's better but there is still a
problem .

0 2 Sens o r 112 Volts 0 . 67


L ong Term F T Bank 1 2 4 .2
Short Term FT Bank 1 -25.0
E ngin e R P M 782
7
For Low Power Complaints

The upstream 02 sensor must be functional (switching rich/lean) to use the


following test:
• At WOT every engine runs rich, so the 02 sensor should be reading over 800mv.
Just because the computer ignores the 02 sensor at WOT doesn't mean you have
to. You can use this as a guide to fuel delivery under load conditions.
• Test drive while watching 02 sensor millivolts at wide open throttle (WOT)
- If the 02 drops lean (under 1OOmv) there is a fuel delivery problem. This is
most commonly caused by a dirty mass air flow (MAF) sensor or a low fuel
pressure/volume problem. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hmt LNJ9Gkl
- If the 02 stays rich (above 800 mv) then fuel delivery is good and you most
likely have a plugged exhaust causing the low power problem.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9TlygJMxTps

8
Vacuum leak testing without a smoke nold'fine~
In general a Speed Densi ty engine (MAP only) will idle high (Figure 1) and a MAF engine will
idle low with a vacuum leak (Figure 2). This will change what the follo wing data parameters
(PIDs) look like.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RFQBa-nqBPo
NOTE* Some vacuum leaks (especially manifold gasket areas) can on ly be located while the
engine is cold
• External vacuum leaks
- Check for diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs). Look for lean exhaust and idle adaptive limit
codes . (Figure 3)
- Look at scan data
• 02 mv
• LTFT
• Idle A ir Control (IAC) motor position (see Section 20 for further /AC information)
• RPM and Desired Idle Speed
- Carefully spray propane around the intake and all vacuum hoses (FIRE HAZARD!!!!)
• Listen for RPM changes
• Watch 02 mv I STFT 0/o, (02 will go rich and STFT will go negative if you find the
leak)
- If you find a lea k and are having difficulty pinpointing the exact area
» Spray the sa me areas w ith water. You w ill be able to see and hear the
water getting sucked into the intake and no you won't hurt the engin e
w ith a small amount of water.
• Internal vacuum leaks (V-type engines only) causing a single cylinder misfire
- Remove PCV valve and plug PCV port in the valve cover.
- Block off PCV breather port to the air cleaner. (Figure 3)
- Remove engine oil dipstick and install a vacuum gauge on the dipstick tube .
• There
. should be NO vacuum in the crankcase. Crankcase pressure will actually
increase.
9
• If you read vacuum, there is an internal vacuum leak .
(Return) 8
Figure 1
MAP Engine With Vacuum LeaklOJJ"

'' I • I

0.84

02Sensor1/1 Volts
\ - '
.'
0.2\
~
I
I

v 0.2

' r 3.74
'

lnj Base Pw Bank 1


Notice the increase in
RPM and P.W. /
/
2.49
' 2.49
IAC Counts Dropping
. 1
\ .:J 0
'
''
.' \ \
L_
IAC Motor Position \ 37 \ steps 0

'
~ ' 1.67
..I\
'
'
' \' 1.2
MAP Voltage ' 1.67 v
' 1056
-
Engine RPM
''
'
'
800
'
l

rpm 800
Fuel Control Status Closed
Adapt Short Term ·1 %
Adapt Long Term 2 %
MAP Vacuum 17.6 iHg

Notice the 02 actually goes rich with this sudden
Vacuum Leak Created Here
change in manifold pressure 10
(Return) 8
Figure 2
MAF Engine With Vacuum LeaklOJJ"

I Computer Adding Fuel I


IVacuum leak created here I

•••
02Voltage 0.72 v 0.07


142

Integrator 116 109

109
Block Learn Mult 107 106

•' 946
•'
779 rpm 544
•• 76
IAC Counts Increase
••
IdleAir Control 31 31 11
(Return) Figure 3 Vacuum Leak cont.
Block off PCV and
RPM 1 29 7
breather hoses here
HC
co
PP•
''.. ···-
·-
6 02
coz
A/f at.io ···-
·~

-·-
,,
4

z '-\, \ '\,,\. '\..


"'
I
D
0 -
~
'f . . ........ r"

VAPORS THEN PASS a -2 1- z-


.
3• 4•
.
5+ 6
AIR PASSES THROUGH THROUGH THE PCV
THE PCV INLET HOSE VALVE AND HOSE I
TO THE VALVE COVER
AND CRANKCASE 1997 Intrepid 3.5 with a P0305 OTC. Lean misfire caused by
vacuum leak at #5 intake runner.

FRESH AIR MIXES


Wml BLOWBY GASES
IN THE CRANKCASE

107 rrll 80
Idle air A "O" count means
control this pintle is fully 854
~---.::~-~ actuato closed '--~~~~~~~~
rrll 93
H02S B<rik 2Senso1l v 61B
Shat Te1mFT Bark 1 O.B
Short Te1m FT Bark 2 O.B
torg Teim FT Bart 1 0.0
Lorg Teim FT Bark 2 9.4
IAC Moto1Posiion
.: ngne Speed
Oe~red Ide Speed
I 0
902
640
cnt
1pm
rpm

Vacuum leak on bank 2, causing a 0 IAC count and an RPM that is


higher than desired idle speed. This car had no lean exhaust 12
DTCs but did have an idle adaptive limit code.
Misfire Diagnostics
Determine which cylinder and think about the cause (spark, air-fuel, compression)
1. Scanner
• Check DTCs and misfire counters (OBDll)
Some systems (Ford Trucks) may misidentify which cylinder is misfiring due to excessive timing
chain slack. Look at the firing order and check the cylinder before the identified misfire code.
• Check freeze frame data ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~---+ DTC .................... POlOl
For a cold engine only misfire look for an intake manifold gasket leak. Engine SPD... 2567RPM
0
ECT ( 108°F
) ...............

2. Digital Storage Oscilloscope (DSO) VEmCLE SPD...54 MPH


ENGINE LOAD ..... 18.8°/o
• Primary and secondary ignition (Figure 4, Figure 5 and Figure 6) MAP............... 14.8 inHg
• Relative compression (see examples on pages (Figures 7, §., ft., 10, 11, 12) FUEL STAT l ...........OL
FUEL STAT 2 ....UNUSED
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SUSh072Grg8 ST FT 1 ................. 3.1°/o
LT F1' 1 ................-1.5°/g
3. Cylinder drop test (constant misfire only)
• Short out each cylinder one at a time and listen for RPM drops
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ewJIBS9L98
• Can remove injector connectors, short out plug wires, or use scanner in a bi-directional mode on some
systems.
4. Gas analyzer
• Tailpipe emissions http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UzmoyoOOVpE
A misfire from an injector not opening will have normal hydrocarbon (HC) readings.
A misfire from a compression or ignition problem will have high HC readings.
• Check for HC's in the cooling system (head gasket problem)
There should never be the presence of unburned fuel (HC) in a cooling system.
5. Dipstick test (head gasket problems)
• With a hot exhaust manifold, remove the oil dipstick and let it drip onto the manifold. If the oil bubbles
(like water dripped onto a hot stove) there is water in the oil. This is not a 100°/o accurate test. An early
head gasket failure may have no water in the oil.
6. Water test (intermittent secondary ignition problems)
• Spray the entire secondary ignition system with water. Perform a snap-throttle test and see if it now
misfires. If it does you have a plug, wire, or coil problem.
13
(KerurnJ

Figure 4 Misfire Examples with 050 (snap throttle te~~


W 'r~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
kU
· · · ·. horted plu wire
15 No fuel misfire 3 . . . .

10 2

s 1 . . . . . . . . '

0 .. ·11~
. r .v: -.. .
-1 1
Si na.l
3
Pa.tlet"n/Swee • Sea.le
2
Di" la Tri er
S ec Paro.de 5Ms S kV C I. 1 Au.t..•

: 91 QI 4 . 3 181 13 OPER 'PtDC l'IIRE


I Deserlptlon
Date: 1 na.. 2003 13: 33
20 ~====~~==""'='"""'=='====~~~~~~~~~==: w :RPM z 9 z -.
kU kU
118
. . No fuel misfire, injector ).3
·-
I
LS
15 Open plug wire 15
•. 4

10 10 .---!--:------
-:: problems J. 1

I!'-----~~ L
5 5

0 0

-5 1
S I na l • 5
Pa.tf.e .. IV"Swee

Scale
3
Dia In.
2
Tri er
S ec C I 1. Aut.. ~

Two plug wires installed on wrong_ ___ _


:RPM Z Z OO
.~ ---=
cy"'i-ders l snap thro e est Mc ,.. ~ ...
HC: PP" 13
co ;c •11••• co ;( o.o
15 oz • ••••• No fuel . nisfire
1
02 :.c- ZO-. l
coz
A/F
i(
Jtat
. . . .-
0 • ••••
C02 % 0 .0
A/f R6t. io 0.0
10 \ I

--~
5

0
D
. .
D
-SBS.no
1,.ck
Z-
SI . .1
S.c Added
ft 3t
a t. •1"1V"Swl e
P&r•d• SNa
Sc a 1t
2S IN
.... ·-
5•
Off
l'lovi e
8-
Cursor
Off
s-
Scc.\le
'
3•
fra..e C I
' n.tt
novie ·- C.Ursor
(lf'f'
14
(Return)

Figure 5 Misfire Example with DSO

. ... ... .. . . .. . . . . ..' . . .. ... . .. '


..
. .
~o o ' ' * '
.. ' ' 0 ' ' ' '
.' ' ' I I o o ' ' o I ' o ' ' o ' ' o

..
··· · ··· ·· · ·· ··· · · . o • • 0 • I ' o I ' • ' ' '

.. .
zo . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ·· · ··· . · · · · · ···
' '
..
. . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . '

.. ..
LO .... .. . . .. .
.. . . . . .. . . . . ' ' .. . .. . . '

..

.•
. . . . .. . . ' . . ... ' . .
..
0 .. . lr \ 1 - - - - - . . .. ' . . . . .
. . . ' .. . ' . . . . . . .
Carbon track • • • • • • + •
.. ' • • • • • • • • '
..

caused this shorted
condition LO i+ 3- 4- Z+

15
(Return)

Figure 6 Primary Ignition Current Ramp

Turn On Oscillations Turn Off Oscillations

.,• Known Good .,• Open Plug Wire


u u

•• ..
u u

u ..
..., ...,
u

... ...
.. ..
... Shorted Coil • • " • -
"
.. • ·• • • • .. .. ..-
Known Good
..' • ••' '
.. ..
.. ..
•• ...
., u
" "
• " • ..
., ...
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•• ••
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·~ ·• ·• •
' ' • •••• "·\ ·• ·• • ' •
·-

16
CReturnJ Figure 7 Relative compression/ignition ti mi~ ~ ~
• Using a Scope (DSO) with a High Amp Probe
Fully charged battery, disable fuel, (can disable spark if you are not
performing a dual trace test), engine must not start or try to start.
Single Trace
• Connect

channel one using high amp probe to the starter BAT
wire
- Crank engine and watch for a uniform pattern with even peaks
and valleys
Dual Trace
• Connect

channel one using high amp probe to the starter BAT
wire
- Crank engine and watch for a uniform pattern with even peaks
and valleys
• For waste spark or conventional type ignition systems, connect
channel two using a capacitive type pick-up (also known as a
sync probe) to a secondary ignition wire.
• For coil over plug systems (COP) connect channel two to one of
the coil control wires (3 or 4 pin coils) or coil negative (2 pin coils)
- This will indicate 2 things
1. When the spark is occurring in relation to TDC
compression . See pages 20-22
2. Which cylinder has the compression problem (you must
know firing order) See pages 18-19
http://www.voutube.com/ watch ?v=WKdZsWU2Zml 17
http ://www.youtube.com/ wa tch ?v=spkpkRvQP HY
(Return) Figure 8 Relative Compression Testing
Jeep 4.0L Case Study
Single Trace Test
200 ~-·~··~·==~
)=l ~uk!n~
""ib~~u •;,:•==========J
~~··=
· zoor==============================;
A
A

150
150

100
lCJO

50
so
Known Good After Loosening One Spark Plug
0
0
-50 r,,.
o ----=n'--'.
~,-----..,:
n"""e----,.1.,°""'?_ __ , ..-~--• ...........i
,,,_
7 '

1. Each picture shows starter current. 200


A
!=='=======-=-=··=-
· ==-=--=·===
-·===============;
2. Amperage " humps" represent 150
compression in each cylinder.
100
3. As the piston approaches TDC the
amperage output of the starter 50

increases from compression After Removing One Spark Plug


0
building in the cylinder.

... .. .... " .


18
(Return)

Figure 9

Ford 4.0 Case Study ••


Dual Trace Test

A v
#1 Secondary Sync Probe 1.0
45 5
Connected to #1 plug wire
0 .8
420

0.6
385

350
o..e
#5
0.2
315
#4 #2 #3 #6
0.0
280

-0.2

-0.'I
21

-0.8
Starter Current
-1.0
10§.o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 s
Waste Spark Ignition System
Cylinders 1 and 5 have the
Firing Order 1-4-2-5-3-6 compression problems. 19
Companion Cylinders 1/5-2/6-3/4
(Return) Figure 10
mV'
Relative Compression vs. Ignition Timing
r:
A v
600 20

540 16

480 Secondary Sync Probe 12


Connected to coil wire
420
Notice the ignition firing event is taking place near TDC

360

240 ·4
Starter Current

-8

'
-12

60 -16

0 -20
-n.? -11.1 n.n n.1 n.? n.~ 0.4 n.s n.fi n.1 n.a ~

4 cylinder with the correct ignition timing


20
(Return) Figure 11

Relative Compression vs. Ignition Timing

A v
1.0
Secondary Sync Probe
196 Connected to coil w ire 0.8

182
0.6

Notice the ignition firing event is taking place nowhere near


168
TDC
,_.
IS• 0.2

140
0.0

126
.2

11 2
-0.4

98
-0.6

-0.8
Starter Current
70 -1.0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 s

4 cylinder Subaru with the wrong timing marks used to line up


the new timing belt. 21
(Return)

Figure 12
1996 Jeep 4.0 Case Study

E--- - - Camshaft Signal

Incorrect cam-crank relationship

Crankshaft Signal

Starter Current
, : . . - - - - (Relative Compression)

Coil Negative
~--- Voltage

Notice the spark (coil negative voltage spike) is not occurring anywhere nea r TDC as
indicated by the peaks of the starter current waveform . This was caused by an
incorrect cam-crank relationship due to a cracked/sh ifted flywheel. Short of
transmission removal and flywheel inspection there is simply no other test that would
verify this condition . 22
Multi-meter Basics
• Testing Voltage • Testing Resistance
1. The circuit must be loaded 1. Open circu it test
(cu rrent flow)
• Start w ith lowest scale
• No cu rrent flow =inaccu rate
readings (Figure 14) • One lead to each end of the
2. You must have a good ground for circuit
the meter. W ith a bad ground all of
your test results will be wrong.
3. Use battery ground for the
negative lead whenever possible. 2. Short to ground test
4. A voltmeter provides only average • Start with highest scale
read in gs . (Figure 13) • One lead must be connected
5. A voltmeter reads difference in to a known good ground

l
potentia l between the two test
leads.

2 v- - - - - -.......-.. • Testing Amperage

1. Cu rrent can be measured


on positive or negative side
2v Voltmet e r
of a circu it.
2. An ammeter must be
connected in series .
1 2 v-- - - - - -~...., 3. Think of an ammeter as a
7v Voltmeter jumper wire with a gauge
5v ~----~__...___,
on it. Wou ld you connect a
jumper wire from battery
positive to battery
http://www.youtube. com/watch ?v=wO Pp LTnKKZg
negative?
23
Figure 13
Average Voltmeter Readings
(Return)
1lQ

I
!O 1100

10
I
llO

Ml
10 I
I
-40 1

I
·SO,.,...._--' 00

.so!
318.8 331 l :ltl.8 368.8 331.2 3SJ) 4CG.1 ~138

The DC average readings you see to the left


•A DC Average Between rulers 2.584 V is what a digital voltmeter would read on
these types of on/off signals.
•B DC Avera e Between rulers 628.6 mV

24
Figure 14
mV' r:
Voltage Drop Testing vs. Ohmmeter Testing
(Return)
1gn1con Swlldl

With no current flow in the


main battery cable there Is
corroded no voltage drop. tf the circuit
- Battery
cable Is not loaded a voltmeter
reading will be inaccurate.
12v

Even though this main battery


cable is hot all the lime the
circuit needed to be loaded
oorroded
cable (ignition switch In the crank
- Battery
12v position) for the voltage drop
to be seen.
1v

oorrodec:t So why is the ohmmeter showing


cable
no res istanoe? Because an
ohmmeter does not stress or toad
a circuit and there are sbll a few
good strands of copper wire in this
cable.
25
Battery testing
• Ensure battery voltage is not dropping too low during cranking . This may
interfere with anti-theft systems and possibly cause a no start, no injector
pulse situation.
• A battery that is shorted and will not take a charge must be replaced
before ANY further diagnostics can be performed. (see picture below)
'
''
' '
12f........... . . ·'· . . . . . . .. '
0

- - - ---- -1--------------


-' --- - ---- --
I

.•
~
I


- -- -- - --- _____ __________ 1___ - -- -- - -·- - .•
0


I

- -- .. -- ~-
''
- ---------- ~
''
•• ••
•• '' ''
'
1O' · ., - --·
.•
'' -- - --
.•
-. - -- , - - - --
•'
'
'
.,'' .
'

' ' ' '


'' '' '' ''
'' ' ' '
'
'
''
'
'' ''
8'· --- . . . , ... ' y •• - - ,., • .,. - '
'. '
' '' '' '' ''
'' '' '' ''
' '
' '
6. .. - . - .. -· - '... - - .... -- .. - "" - - . "" - -- .. - - - . -'
'
''

4~
I I
''
I

--------------_,_ --------------.,,_ --------------


0 I
.
I

£ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .A. - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
I

~-
t
'
I
'
I
'
.
'
I

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - .. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _,_ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .,,_ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - :

:' The main problem here is there is too much AC voltage in this system for the engine :'
'
2~---···· computer to function. The cause was a shorted battery. Engine would start with a jump ·····i'
: box, but not with the cha rger. :
' . . . . . . . . . '
0'· .............................................................................................
: : : : : J· ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
: : : :ms
250 400 300450 500 350 550 600 650 700 750
A = Battery Voltage with charge r on 250 amp start mode.
~-----------K
_O_EC
_d_u_
rin__no_s_ta~
rt_
no_ s,j>ark. no inj._
ed
_o~
r e_ul_se_. D
_T_C_P0_3_20_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~

26
Alternator testing

• Current output
- Run eng ine at 2000 rpm with all
accessories on ( AC , blower on high ,
14 high beams , rear window defrost,
wipers on high )
• Watch scan data battery voltage
or check actual voltage at the
battery
• Make sure that system voltage is
over 13 volts ( ideal is 13.5 -
15.0 volts )
• AC ripple test (diode test)
0 - Run engine. at 2000 rpm with all
accessories on
- Connect voltmeter to alternator BAT
post and known good ground , set on
2 .13U 2.23Ul=IC an AC scale
5s • Maximum allowable average AC
voltage is .3 volt (300mv)
- Too much AC voltage allowed into
the system will cause major
driveability problems

27
Exhaust Backpressure Testing

• Using a pressure gauge


Should be less than 2 psi at 3000 rpm (No loads, in park test)
• Most cars will read near 0 with a clear exhaust
0 psi during cranking
• Test locations
- Upstream 02 sensor exhaust port
- EGR backpressure transducer (Chrysler, Nissan)
- EGR pressu re sensor (Ford)
If no gauge is available remove the 02 sensor and see if driveability
problem improves
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9TlygJMxTps "Testing for a plugged, clogged,
restricted exhaust, converter"

http://www.youtube .com/watch?v=Lafv2c4szZY "Exhaust Backpressure Testing"

28
Pre OBD II Catalytic converter funrtffi a naP1
testing
• Using a gas analyzer
- TEST 1 (running test)
• Engine at normal operating
temp., remove and ground 1
plug wire
• Restart car and watch HC
- HC should peak and then drop
1/3 of the peak if the converter is
good
TEST 2 (cranking test)
• Heat the converter
• Shut car off and disable the
ignition and c rank the engine
(injectors must be spraying)
• Watch C02 read ings == should
increase to a min . of 12°/o
• Using an infra-red temp. gun Catalytic converter tes~ pertormed on ahot cal duringcranking ~th ignit~n coil unplugged
C02%1ose over 13% withinafew seconds and was maintainer! lor at least 1n ~econds of cran~ng
(running test)
Thi~ car also passes the HC test 'Mlilerunning (over ~ ppm peak,~n dropped IQ under 400)
- Measure inlet and outlet
temperatures of the converter.
• Outlet temp. should be at least
10°/o hotter than inlet

29
Switch lneuts

Section 2
Introduction
Examples of types of switch inputs
• Digital input to a
computer • Mechanical/Hydraulic switches
Power steering pressure

• Signal voltage is Park/neutral


Transmission range and gear position
either high or low Throttle position
Headlight/parking light controls
(on/off) Body computer inputs
• Door lock/unlock
• Opening and closing • Cruise Control

of a switch causes • Windshield wiper controls


• Door ajar
the signal voltage to Climate controls

change • Electronic switches (no moving parts, a


transistor is the switch)
Hall effects, optical pick-ups
• There are two main • Crankshaft, camshaft, vehicle speed,

circuit designs and newer design wheel speed


sensors

1. Pull-up Communication between modules


• Ignition module to PCM
2. Pull-down • PCM to Igniter
Frequency generating devices
• GM MAF Sensors
• Ford MAP Sensors
2
Pull down switch inputs
(Mechanical Type)

• Signal voltage to the switch is PCM


internally sourced by the computer
5 Volt
• With the switch open, signal
Regulator
voltage remains high 1? v
• With the switch closed, signal
• • • 5v
voltage gets pulled to ground I ~ vvv

PCM Voltage
Ov Sensing
5Volt Circuit
Regulator
11
1

Voltage
,...----JL-----,

5v Sensing
Think of this Circuit
as a voltmeter

3
Pull up switch inputs
(Mechanical Type)
PCM
• Voltage to the switch is externally
sourced (does not come from the
computer)
• With the switch open , signal
12~
voltage is low - A
v 11

• With the switch closed, signal


voltage is high
pCM Voltage
Ov Sensing
Circuit
11

___..._~Voltage
12v Sensing
Circuit

4
Switch Input ldentificatioW~ ~ ~
(mechanical and hydraulic type)
1. Wiring diagram identification
- Look at the switch and follow the wire that doesn't go to the
computer.
• If it goes to a ground then the circuit is pull-down.
• If it goes to power then the circuit is pull-up.
2. Voltmeter identification
- Check voltage levels on both sides of the switch.
- Force the switch to close
• Pull-down switch will show 0 volts on both wires with the switch
closed. (see figure 1)
• Pull-up switch will show high volts on both wires with the switch
closed. (see figure 8)
• Remember that the signal wire is always the wire that changes
voltage as the switch is opened and closed
- Both pull-up and pull-down, with the switch open or connector
unplugged , will read high volts on one side and 0 volts on the other.
To identify the circuit if you cannot close the switch you would need a
wiring diagram to know which of the two wires is the signal wire
(computer input wire).
» Switch unplugged, signal wire voltage is high = pull-down
» Switch unplugged, signal wire voltage is low = pull-up. 5
Honda Accord VTEC Oil Pressure S'10ldi ~
Circuit ID .

---
. .. ... ~-,.. L"'C ,,.. . . I:•si•• 'Prtf'o tw.a•c..-" ..,.• • D••r•• l ~<c-Onl .J:.>L ,, 0
i
~
1 1
- j
... ..,.,...
j -'
-..
a•
i r---r.

.--·=- •
"
J
• I

..- -

I
• • •

Watch the video here:


http ://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=vTis29 MQC4 U
6
Scan Tool Testing
(Mechanical or Hydraulic Type)

• Check for OTCs (diagnostic trouble codes)


• Find switch input data parameter (PIO)
• Move the switch and watch for a change in state
- Scan tool will display either the voltage value, high/low or on/off
• If the data PIO changes state, the switch is working fine .
- If data PIO does not change , then voltmeter and switch input
bypass testing must be done to determine if there is a wiring or
switch problem.

7
Pull Down Testing
Mechanical or hydraulic type

• Signal voltage measured • Signal voltage measured at


at the switch is fixed low (figure 3) the switch is fixed high (figure 2)
- Disconnect switch, if signal voltage goes - Check switch ground , WITH THE
high = bad switch (figure 4) SWITCH CLOSED! (loaded circuit)
- Perform a by-pass test to confirm • Should be 1OOmv or less
• Signal voltage stays low with switch - Check for mechanical or hydraulic
disconnected problems that would normally actuate the
- Measure signal wire at the PCM (figure 5) switch
• Signal wire voltage is high at the PCM - If all the above checks are good, = bad
and low at the switch = open wire switch
• Signal wire voltage low at the PCM - Perform a by-pass test to confirm
and low at the switch = short to
ground in the wire or a PCM
problem (figure 6) BYPASS TEST (figure 14)
• Signal voltage low at the switch and PCM
- Check for a short to ground in the signal - Disconnect the switch and touch on and
wire with an ohmmeter, only an infinite
reading is acceptable off the signal wire , ha rness side w ith a test
light to ground . Signal voltage will get
- No short = PCM problem (figure 7) pulled down . Look for some type of
• PCM not sending out voltage on the signal wire response such as spa rk, inj ection pulse or
- Check all PCM powers and grounds , and data PID change .
refer to 5 volt ref. testing before replacing http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yp kK6U8a64
the computer http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=irHVjFTq4LE
"Chrysler Hall Effect Testing"

Note: figure 1 is what a good


working circuit looks like.
8
(Return)

Pull Down Switch Input


Figure 1
Normal Operation
PCM
Switch
Signa.I Wire
' II •
tOv t12v

PCM
Switch
S ignal Wire

tOv Ovt
9
(Return)

Figure 2 Signal Voltage Fixed High


(regardless of switch position)

PCM
Switch

...·· t
I I 1-I- - - · · - - - . ; . _ . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - ·

t
Ov
t
12v

• Bad Swit ch

PCM

•.••· 1
I I ,..._ _.....,. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ·
t t
1 2v closed 12v
Ov open

• Open ground

10
(Return)

Figure 3 Signal Voltage Fixed Low


(regard less of switch position)

PCM
Switch
••
t··..
11--1----····· ......- - - - - - - - - ·
tOv
Possible Problems:
• Short to ground on the signal wire
• Shorted switch
• Open in the signal wire
• PCM problem

11
(Return)

Figure 4

PCM
Switch Disconnected
'•
,,,_ .......
t··...
----------·
l12v
.- Shot'~ ~e "9f"et.tfld- et=i-the-sigftel-wwe
• Shorted switch
r -Gperrin-the.al-'Mre
r 'PeMprobtern

12
(Return)

Figure 5

PCM
Switch Disconnected
i·· ..
•11- ~ ...:..
tOv I
12v

~~ ~eigAO~w+re
r ~switetl
• Open in the signal wire
~ -PGM1)f8~1em

13
{Beturn)

Figure 6

PCM
Switch Disconnected

111- ·'- - - - - - - - - - -
/
Ov Ov

• Short to ground on the signal wire


• PCM problem

14
(Return)

Figure 7
PCM
Switch and Computer Disconnected

• 1I •""-
j\_

0 ohms
• Short to ground on the signal wire
le'""
• ..P€-M 1'f'ee
PCM
Switch and Computer Disconnected
11 I •""-
j\_
I+---4.--...J
•1
infinity

- ~~-gretH'ld-efl~R&Si~~ wife ·
• PCM p roble m
15
Voltmeter Pull Up Testing
(Mech. Or Hydraulic Type)

• Signal voltage measured at the • Signal volta~e measured at the switch is


switch is fixed low (figure 9) fixed high (figure 12)
• Check for mechanical or hydraulic • Check for mechanical or hydraulic problems that
problems that would normally actuate would normally actuate the switch
the switch - If all above tests good = bad switch
Check the external supply • Signal voltage measured at the switch is
voltage to the switch (with the ood but is not recognized by the module
switch opened and closed) (figure fi ure 13
111 • Possible open in the signal w ire
• Supply voltage should remain • Check signal wire at the computer
constant regardless of switch • Voltage stays at 0 regardless of switch
position, if supply voltage position = open in the signal wire
changes with switch position • Voltage gets pulled-up at the sensor and
there is a short to ground in the at the computer= possible computer
signal circuit. problem
Check the signal wire for short to BYPASS TEST (figure 14)
ground using an ohmmeter
No shorts and good supply = bad - Disconnect the switch and touch on and off the
switch (figure 10) signal wire, harness side with a test light to
power. Signal voltage will get pulled up. Look
for some type of response such as spark,
injection pulse or data PID change.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lzZNIPosGSY
Note: Figure 8 is what a good (GM 24x crank sensor signal)
working circuit looks like http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OxP41MCd06w
(GM Camshaft sensor signal)
16
(Return)

Figure 8 Pull Up Switch Input Normal Operation


PCM
Switch
Signal Wire
(+)_.....-........_._ _ _ .:__ _--I
t t
12v Ov

PCM
Switch
Signal Wire
(+)~........----.~------------1
l l
12v 12v

17
(Return)]

Figure 9 Signal Voltage Fixed Low


(regardless of switch position)

PCM
Switch
Signal Wire
__ ,..,,~ .... ---------

Ov

• Bad Switch
• No Power Supply
• Short to Ground on Signal Wire
18
(Return)

Figure 10
PCM
Switch

(+.)_.....,.,..···t
..... ,......______
Signal Wire
_
12v Ov

• Bad Switch
•-Ne-Pewer ~y
..-ShGR-te GFel::fRe-GA~.Wire

19
(Return)
Figure 11
Switc h

(+)
.··t
•· ...
••
Signal Wire

tOv tOv
.. ~ae~~
• No Power Supply
-.SR9~ k>-bf"~en S~WiFe PCM
••
•••• f Signal Wl re
(+)---·····---------I
t
12v open
t
Ov
During a bypass test the
test light will light
0 closed confirming a short to
ground on the signal
- ~ae~wilE*l wire
.. ~~ewer-Swppl y
• Sho rt to Ground on Signal Wire
(This is more of a concern on electronic type switch input circuits)

20
(Return)

Figure 12 Signal Voltage Fixed High


(regardless of switch position)

PCM
Switch

...··1
(+) -- ..... -------- --·
l
12v

• Bad Switch

21
(Return)

Figure 13 Signal voltage changes with switch but not


recognized by the PCM
PCM
Switch
••··} Signal Wire
(+)-----4·····......------~·
t
Ov open
I
Ov constant
12v closed

• open signal wire

PCM
Switch

..·· i
(+) --·······- -----------·
Signal W ire

t
Ov open Ov open
I
12v closed 12v closed

• PCM problem or PCM connector problem

22
(Return)pg. 8
(Return)pg. 16
Figure 14 Switch Input Bypass Testing

PCM
Switch
• llj-- . .
.... Signal Wire
--~~~~~~~~~~ Pull-Down
Design

-
To uch the test light onl off to the signal
wire and look for a response.
PCM
Switch
(+)- . .
.... Signal Wire
--~~~~~~~~~.......
Pull-Up
Design

12v

23
How to Identify an Electronic Type SwitcITT"n~ut
Circuit Design
• It must be done with a voltmeter or scope.
• A wiring diagram will usually not show circuit design.
• On hall effects and optical pick-ups, disconnect the sensor and measure signal
voltage on the harness side. KOEO or KOER
- Signal voltage is high = pull-down design
- Signal voltage is low= pull-up design
• On module to module communication circuits, disconnecting one of the modules
will not identify circuit design in all cases. Leave the modules plugged in and
measure signal voltage with the KOEO or KOER (if it runs).
- If signal voltage is high you can pull the circuit down with a test light
connected to ground.
- If signal voltage is low you can pull the circuit up with a test light connected to
battery positive.
• This test will be used primarily on PCM to Igniter/Ignition Module control
circuits when there is a no spark or no injection pulse condition and there
is no signal on this circuit. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VG3EZJlyjl8
• An open or shorted signal wire will cause misdiagnosis of circuit design.
- The only way to be 100°/o sure is to test known good circuits and document
your findings for future reference. 24
Frequency Generating Device m " " "'
r7
V

GM 3-Wire MAF
I
I
I
I

.. 14
I
I I 14
Sensor • Engine running , sensor
Unplugged
~
plugged in , there
L
shou ld be a sq uare

1 ..
L

wave pattern here


j I
I

I L
I I
I I L
I I
I I L
I •I
I
I 0 !
L
0
I I I
. I •
-
• I I I I I
••

4 .99U 5 .06UDC 0.76U 0 .83UDC


0 .. ~ii:: ,_ ~ii::

0 • The above picture is the signal voltage of a 3 - wire GM MAF sensor. Measured at the sensor,
backprobing , with the sensor unplugged and plugged in.
• The key to proper diagnosis is to know what the signal circuit design is and what a proper
signal should look like. On this type of MAF the ECM sends 5v down the signal wire to the MAF
sensor, and the MAF "pu ll s it to ground" to create a varying frequency based on air flow.
• This is a pull-down design circuit.
1. With sensor unplugged the signal wire voltage should be 5 volts. This tells you that the
ECM is good and the signal wire is not opened or shorted. No need to use the ohmmeter
here! You have a bad MAF sensor.
2. If the signal voltage remained low with the sensor unplugged then you would need to look
toward the ECM or signal wire and not the MAF sensor.
25
Electronic Pull-down desi
GM 3300 Dual Crank Sensor

.. . .
-• ... D
8 ~
... v . . . . .. .
v
6 ,.. . . . I . . I . ..' 1 .
. . J. . . ... . 6 ,.. . . . . . .. . . . .....
.. ,.. . . . . . .
4 ,.. . . . Cold Engine . . 4 Final Test, Sensor .
. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . ,.. . . . . . .•
0
2
- . . .
l . . . . .. .
.
•LJ ;
.
...
2
0 ,.. . . . .
Unplugged . . :..
.
-2 ( . ' . . . .
; . . -2 0
; .
200 300 50 100 150
8 -...__ _Engine -Running .. B .
v .-- . ... . .
v ,.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . ....
6 - .
~

. . . . . .. . . . 6 .
... .
4 - · . . . . .. . . . . . . ..
.. . . . .. . .
4 ,.. . This Jest confirms. that the . . ...
..
.. . . ..
;
.
2 -. . . . . . . . . . . . .. .: 2 r· . . ·module· and w·iring. are good ..
..
0 .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . ..
0 ,..~ . . . -
bad. ·sensor . . ... . . . .
. .. . ...
0 v
-
"
6 ,.. . . . .. .
;

..
:
.

. . .
..

.
_., ~ .

This is an example of en electronic


; ;

G 4 ,.. . . .
.
Hot Engine
. .
switch input. This is a 7 volt pull -down
z ~ .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
design hall effect. (The module supplies
I I I I
0 . . .
7 volts to the sensor and the sensor
-z 0 '

u
8
6
-,.. .
No Start, No Spark
. . . .
.
. . .
LOO

. . .
150

. .
pulls it to ground to generate the square
wave signal.) In all of the captures the
4 . .. . . : . . . .. . . . .. . .. . . scope was connected to the crank
2 ,.. . . . . . .
. . .. . . ... . . . .. . .
sensor signal wires at the module .
0 ,.. . . . . .... .. . ... . .. ...
-- ' '
Why is the signal voltage so low in this bottom capture? Is the sensor bad? Is there a
wiring problem? Or is the module not sending out the proper voltage? The key is to
understand signal circuit design and what the "final test, sensor unplugged" capture 26
tells v ou
~
ion
<=1

Module to Module Communica


FORD TFI IGNITION EXAMPLE

CKP+
PIP Signal \Vire
PCM ICM CKP·
CKP

ICM to PCM communication wire, known as the PIP (profile ignition pickup) wire is a

0 square wave signal generated by the ICM and sent to the PCM. This is a pull-up
design circuit where the module supplies the 0 to 12 volt square wave to the PCM
based on the input from the CKP signal. If you know circuit design you can quickly
G and accurately identify whether there is a wiring , module or crank sensor problem.
The following test would be performed on a system that had no signal on the Pl P wire
and no injection pulse from the PCM.
Perform a bypass test:

1. KOEO
2. Connect a test light to battery(+) and touch on and off the PIP wire.
3. PCM should respond by firing injectors
• If it does then the PIP wire is not opened or shorted and the PCM is
good, and our focus is now on the ICM or CKP for the problem. 27
~
ion
<=1

Module to Module Communica


GM HEI IGNITION EXAMPLE

ICM to PCM communication wire, known as the Reference wire is a square wave
signal generated by the ICM and sent to the PCM. This is a pull-up design circuitt.
Where the module supplies the 0 to 5 volt square wave to the PCM based on the
input from the CKP signal. If you know circuit design you can quickly and accurately
identify whether there is a wiring, module or crank sensor problem. The following
test would be performed on a system that had no signal on the reference wire and
no injection pulse from the PCM .
Reference Wire

CKP ICM PCM


0 EST Wire

G
Coil
Perform a bypass test:
1. KOEO
2. Connect a test light to battery (+) and touch on and off the Reference wire.

3. PCM should respond by firing injectors


• If it does then the Reference wire is not opened or shorted and the PCM is
28
good, and our focus is now on the ICM or CKP for the problem.
Circuit Designs
• 90 Cadillac Seville 4.5 CMP Sensor
Pull-up (CMP pulls up 12v signal to PCM)
• GM DI and early El systems, the ICM to PCM REF . circuit (purple-white) is a 5 volt pull-up design.
The ICM sends a 0 to 5 volt square wave to the PCM.
• GM 3800 CMP ckt.
CMP to ICM
• Pull-down (ICM sends CMP 7v, CMP pulls it down)
ICM to PCM, CMP signal
• Pull-up (ICM sends 5v pull-up signal to PCM for camshaft reference)
• 95 Ford Windstar 3.8 waste spark ignition. PIP Signal
Pull-up (12v), gry/org wire to pin 49 of PCM. ICM rece ives AC signal from VRS ckp. ICM coverts to digital PIP
signal and sends to PCM.
• 94 Ford Probe DI ignition with remote mounted ICM, 4 wire dist. Connector.
Dual Hall Effect in distri butor. 1 = PIP Signal, 2 = CID Signal

0 •
PIP Signal = red/yel wire is a 12v pull down circuit supplied by PCM pin 56.
CID Signal = pull-down (12v)
GM 3-wire MAF

G •
Signal circuit is a 5 volt pull-down (PCM sends 5 volts to MAF, MAF pulls it to ground)
GM 3300 CKP
Pull- down (ICM sends 7 volts to CKP, CKP pulls the signal down)
• 92 Chevy Caprice 5.0 ESC Module
Pull-up design (ESC sends 1Ov to PCM, when there is no knock, during knock 0 volts is sent to the PCM)
• Dodge Caravan Fan Module
Fan Module sends 12v to PCM all the time (even key off), PCM pulls the circuit down to turn on the fan. (PCM
pulses the circuit for low speed and fully grounds it for high speed)
• 2004 Nissan Altima 2.5 (VIN A) CMP Sensor (pull-up design). 12v feed , g round , signal. The signal is a 0/12 vo lt
square wave. There is no voltage on the signal wire with the sensor unplugged . Engine will run without CKP input
due to CMP design.

29
Circuit Designs
• 1992 Honda Prelude VSS Hall Effect
5v pull-down signal
• 2002 Gallant 2 .4 Cooling fan controller. T he PCM turns the fans off by applying a ground to the control wire
between PCM and controller. No ground = both fans on
• 1992 Buick Lesabre 3800 CMP Sensor
Pull-down design
• ICM sends 12v to the CMP, CMP pulls it to ground
• 1997 Monte Carlo 3100 VIN M CMP Sensor
Pull-up Design
• CMP Sensor sends a 10 to 11 volt signal to PCM
• 1989 Honda Civic 1 .5 Igniter Signal
Igniter sends 10 volts to PCM, PCM pulls the circuit to ground to control Igniter transistor.
• Ford Digital MAP Sensor
Pull-up design
• The map sensor sends a 0 to 5 volt square wave to the PCM

0 • 1993 Nissan Sentra/Maxima PCM to Igniter Control Signal


Pull-up design
• With connector unplugged and cranking PCM sends 12v on/off pulse to the igniter
G • With connector plugged in and cranking this same pulse drops to around 4 volts
Add to this list on your own as you learn more system designs, which will make you
faster and more accurate in the field.

30
Transistor Drivers and
Outeut Solenoids
0
G Section 3
Warning
Please read this carefully! If you do not follow exactly what is taught in this section you
can and will damage sensitive electronic circuits inside of the computer. I am explicitly
drawing your attention to these procedures, which - done properly - allow you to
quickly and accurately identify solenoid operation WITHOUT removing the solenoid
from its location. This is vital for a number of reasons outlined below:
• To identify a sticking solenoid you never want to remove it from its normal location.
The vibrations created by removing the solenoid to test it will cause the solenoid to
unstick, making an accurate diagnosis impossible.
• While following a 3 page flow chart, you are told to remove the solenoid to test it.
The solenoid is not easily accessible and would take an hour to remove it. This
hour spent removing the solenoid may be a complete waste of time! The solenoid
0 could end up being good! It is more effective to test the solenoid where it "lives",
without removing it!
G • There are no scan tool bi-directional controls.
• Bi-directional controls for solenoids are limited to KOEO only. What if you need the
solenoid to function with the engine running? Such as when testing for EGR flow
problems.
With these procedures I am teaching you how to "be the computer'', that is, turn on the
solenoid as the computer would do.
The testing methods used in this section are universal concepts and apply across the
board into any and all types of switched circuitry including non-automotive related
circuits.
2
Introduction
• There are two basic ways a computer will energize an output solenoid. (see figure 1)
1. By controlling its power supply
2. By controlling its ground
• To determine if the solenoid is power or ground side controlled.
1. Use a wiring diagram
• Remember that a solenoid needs a power and a ground to work. Follow
both wires. The wire that goes to the computer is the "control wire". The wire
that doesn't go to the computer will ALWAYS tell you what's in the
computer. (see figure 1)
http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=pH kjRwD-Xw (start watching at the 4: 11)

0 2. Use a voltmeter, KOEO (key on, engine off) check voltage on both solenoid
wires. With the solenoid NOT energized. (see figure 2)
• +12v on both wires =this is a ground side switched solenoid
G • Ov on both wires = this is a power side switched solenoid
» NOTE - with the solenoid energized both types will read + 12v on
one wire and near Ov on the other
http://www.youtube.com /watch?v=pkcwNkkNWYA

• To be able to quickly identify a problem with an output you must


- know how the solenoid is controlled (see figure 3~
- Determine if the solenoid normally open or normally closed (see figure 4 )
- Know how to energize and de-energize the solenoid both manually and with
scanner bi-d irectional controls.

3
[Return Figure 1
PCM
Power Side Switched Circuit

Solenoid

11 ......- - -

Transistor
Shows circuit design Control Wire
"Driver"
PCM

0
G Fuse Solenoid

12v_

Ground Side Switched Circuit


A transistor is nothing more than an electron ic switch. These circu its are controlled by switching
on/off the power supply or the ground to the solenoids. Wiring diagrams do not provide an inside
view of the PCM (as I have) so circuit identification is achieved by following the wire that does not go
to the PCM.
4
Return Figure 2

0 0

Power Side O ff
control
Switched
On

12

0 • You cannot determine circuit design with the solenoid on because both designs look the
same. To identify the circuit design with a voltmeter the solenoid must be off.
G • To determine which of the two solenoid wires is the control wire (see figure 3)

12 12

Ground Side O ff
Switched control
On

5
12 0
Circuit Identification Using a VoltmetePJl'V ~
Return
Figure 3
(known good circuits)
Power Side Switched Ground Side Switched
SolGnoid SolGnold

Ov - - 12v- -

Solenoid Solenoid

0 Test Light
off
Test Light
on/
G 12 v .......,\ 12v

·--~ov
,,....... Ov- • - - 12v

Control W ire Constant Ground Control Wire Constant Power

Notice is these pictures that solenoid circuit identification (power/ground switching)


is done by measuring voltage levels on both sides of the solenoid. Also control
wire identification can be done by unplugging the solenoid. This method can be
used on any ground or power side switched ci rcuit, not just solenoids. 6
Return Figure 4

Normally Open Solenoid Normally Closed Solenoid


i--~- Ov

Off Off

0
0
On On

It is important to understand the mechanical differences between solenoids when


testing them for normal operation. With the solenoids energized, a normally closed
type wi ll have flow and a normally open type will block flow. 7
http://www.youtube.com/watch'~riizJ 1dg ~A1
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QYtYSgglJoY
Solenoid Functional Test http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pH kjRwD-Xw
PCM
To safely energize the solenoid
use a test light connected with the
correct polarity and touch on the
control wire with the KOEO or fuse Solenoid
KOER (be the computer). Listen 12
for a click and a change of state in v_.. ---
the solenoid. This test will only ................!
work on low current solenoids.
:: 'i ,{ Test Lighl
If you accidently connect the test : Transistor Oil
light to the wrong polarity you will t
not harm the computer transistor.
The brightness of the test light bulb -
0 will depend on the resistance of
the bulb and the component you
are testing. With low ohm
PCM
G solenoids the test light will be
bright. With high ohm solenoids
the test light will be dim. Solenoid
For higher current solenoids a
jumper wire is necessary. Perform llt----.-...-...--..........,
the same test as illustrated in the ·•
pictures using a jumper wire :' /
instead of a test light. !i \ Test Ught
• Transistor Oil
If you accidently connect the :
jumper wire to the wrong polarity '
you WI LL "fry" the computer 12v
transistor! 8
Test Light Current vs. Solenoid Cu~rff ~
• Test light current examples: • Solenoid current
- Thexton (I use this one to energize - Solenoids tested ranged from .3A to
solenoids) .SA (low current) and . 7A to 1.0A
• .43A @ 12.SVDC (high current)@ 14.SVDC
• .47A@ 14.SVDC - Relay coil current is around .1A
- Mac (I use this one to check
computer drivers)
• .1 4A@ 12.SVDC
• .17A@ 14.SVDC

• Determine test light current draw by connecting it in series with an ammeter.

0 • A test light that only draws .1 to .2 of an amp will not energize most solenoids, but will have no
problem energ izing relay coils.
G • A test light that draws more than .3 of an amp will energize most solenoids. Even if it is only
partially energized there is usually enough magnetic field strength to ma ke the solenoid iron
core move .
• Use a jumper wire for solenoids that need .5 of an amp or more. WARNING: A JUMPER
WIRE CONNECTED TO THE WRONG POLARITY MAY OVERLOAD THE COMPUTER
DRIVER AND "FRY" IT!!!
• When checking transistor drivers, it is safer to use a test light that draws very little current
especially on relay coil drivers. You could potentially overload and "fry" a computer driver even
w ith your test light. Just make sure your test light current draw is less than .3 of an amp or
300ma .
9
A Warning on Using Jumper Wires on Output Circuits
••• •••• •••• PC M
• ••• • ••
••• ••• PCM •••
••• ••• • •• • ••
-.. • • • •. ... •••
• • • ••• • •• •
•••
~.~ • • Solenoid
Solenoid ••• •• ~e
11.-----..f'"'V""l"'~----~1-·-··-·....· ·...·..,··r-·~·!-:.1~· ..... ·12~ 11
:................. • • • •• •... :••••••••••••••••
• •••• ••
••
••• • • • •• •

j umper wire : ••••• • • • • • ••• ••• •.Jumper wire :

••• ... ....... - '


•••
-
• •:" • •

Transis tor On • • • • •.
••• . ......
••\
12v
:

••• • •••
Trans1&lor On

•• •••
A jumper wire connected like th is will not energize the solenoid . The only th ing that would happen
is you w ill "fry" the driver if it happened to be "on". NEVER CON NECT A JUMPER WIRE LIKE

0 THIS!
PCM
PC M

G
Solenoid Solenoid
Fuse

11 - -....................
- -... 12V--J

................,• '9-----+-~"""'""-1 1 1
• ••
• ju mper wire

• j umper w ire •

•• ••
•• Transistor Oil •• Transtslor Oil
• t

12v -
A jumper wire connected like th is will energize the solenoid. Even if the driver happened to be
on you would not hurt the driver due to equal potential. Pay attention to circuit design and
jumper wire polarity. If in doubt do not perfo rm this test! Remove the solenoid and run your
own power and ground to test the solenoid instead. 10
mV'~ @
A Warning on Using T-pins on Outputs Circuits
PCM PCM

Solenoid Fuse Solenoid

!It----- \o------+-i.t"')r- 12v 12v__,


T-pln T-pin

Trans slor On Trans slor On


If this T-pin touches body If this T-pin touches body
ground you will "fry" the PCM ground you w ill not damage
driver if it happens to be "on". anything. You will just energ ize

0 Be extra cautious on power side


switched circuits.
PCM
the solenoid.

0 ••• •••
•••••••• •••••
••• •••
•• • • • • • • • •• • ••
'd ~ •••• ••
Soleno1 • •. • • • • Fuse • &tflfo1d
••• • •• • ••
t-----+-__,,~·11""·-
· · 12v...
...•• 3lv
... · · · · · ·r---<
·
I-~ ••• ••• • •• • ••
T-p1n T-pin
• •• • .. ····l iW\.
. •• T-pin
••• ••• • •
••• •••
• •• • ••
••• Trans sl0t On ••• ••• Trans.slor On
••• ••• ••• • •••
• •• • ••
•••• ••• ••
Never use two T-pins on a solenoid connector. On either circuit design if the T-pins touch
each other and the driver happens to be "on" you will "fry" the PCM driver.
11
ro'7 ~
Testing Computer Drivers and Control Circuit
~

Integrity
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MOSH8XLKrlc
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8FnYllf5D9E

Ground Side Switched Circuit Test Power Side Switched Circuit Test
PCM PCM
unplugged Solenoid Solenoid
~ rYYY'\
Fuse
12v----'\r-- -................ ..
1
11 11---- 12v
••
'f I
,• .................. /

' ,- :
/ •••

' ...'- / •
••
Tes1 Lighl / •
Test Light - •• ~

on Translslor On •
•• on / •• Transistor On

0 Solen old
12v

PCM

Solenoid
-
T
••

PCM

G Fuse rYYY'\
12V----'\r-- : 1t 12 v
' F
11-1- -
' f

Test llgl\t ""-


~

off Tesl Llghl ~

Tra nsls1or Off off Transistor Off

12v ...-
Force the transistor to turn on and off by using a scanner in bi-directional mode or by meeting the
running conditions that the transistor needs to turn on. This test is usually performed when there
is a shorted or open solenoid and there is concern that the transistor may have been damaged.
The above pictures show what the test light will look like with a good driver and control wire . 12
Ground Side Switched Circuit Problems
(see page 14 for what normal circuit voltage levels should look like)

High volts (12v) on the control wire with the driver commanded
"on" (backprobing the solenoid connector) (see figure 6a)
- Check control wire voltage at the PCM
• Reads 12+ volts= PCM driver problems (see figure 6b)
- Must check all inputs that affect this driver before condemning the
PCM

0 - Check PCM connector for pin contact problems


- Must check all PCM powers and grounds before condemning the
G PCM
- Remember that the PCM will at times shut off an output solenoid if it
doesn't like the current flow from the solenoid circuit or if the voltage
level is incorrect for the solenoid command ("on" should be low
voltage and "off' should be high voltage)
• Reads 0 volts = open in the control wire (see figure 6c)

13
(Return) Figure 5

Ground Side Switched Circuit Normal


Operation PC M
(Output state monitor-

Solenoid
l osM 1 measures control wire
voltage and current
Fuse
flow)
12v_..

Trans istor Off

0 Normal Operation PC M

G l osM
Fuse Solenoid

12v_..
t ~t----+--6---.e- ........... ,.

12v Ov
Transis tor On

14
Return Figure 6

PCM

Fuse Solenoid
Possible causes: --~ 12v__, '-t_ _____,.____,,~--111
a. • Open control wire
• Open driver t
12v 12v
Transistor On

PCM

Fuse Solenoid

0 b. • Open driver --~ 12v__,

l
'-----"'--..e--...-~11

l ~
CD 12v 12v 12v
Transislor On

PCM

Fuse Solenoid

c. • Open control wire --) 12v.-


t
12v
TranS1stor On
15
Ground Side Switched Circuit ProbfelJmi ~
Low volts (Ov) on the control wire with the driver commanded "off"
(backprobing the solenoid connector) ((see figure la),
1. Use a test Light http://www.youtube.com /watch?v =Wt zT JWbDzs
Connect test light to battery (+) and touch on the control wire (solenoid
unplugged)
1. Test light on = shorted control or shorted driver {see figure lb)]
• Key off, unplug PCM connector (s)
Test light still lit= shorted control wire (see figure le)
Test light goes out= shorted PCM driver (see figure ld)
2. Test light off= open solenoid or solenoid connector (see figure le)
Check solenoid and connector with an ohmmeter
0 2. Use an amp probe
Connect amp probe to the feed or control
G 1. Constant current flow = shorted control or shorted driver (see figure Ba)
• Key off, unplug PCM connector(s)
• Key on, recheck current flow
No flow = shorted driver (Make sure you still have feed voltage
available to the solenoid after unplugging PCM. The PCM may be
controlling a relay that powers up that circuit. If you unplug the PCM
the relay will shut off and you will lose the 12v feed to the solenoid
causing misdiagnosis!) (see figure Bel
Flow = shorted control wire (see figure Bd)
2. No current flow = open solenoid or solenoid connector (see figure Bb)
• Check solenoid and connector with an ohmmeter 16
Return Figure 7
PCM PCM
a. d. Solenoid (disconnected}

Fu&e Solenoid Fulie


Unplugged '
12v__. 12v --'\.r--- 1--~~1 1

Test Light
off Transistor Off
Ope n solenoid Trans1slor Olf • - -Gpe•1<1oleneid
S horted control wire • - - Slol()f(EMI iM>IWelo wire
S horted Driver Shorted Driver
12v

PCM PCM
b. Solenoid (disconnected)
e.
Solenoid (disconnected}

Fu&e Fulie
12v--'\,r---
0 Test Light
,......---+---,c~-11 1

G • - -0~A-sei9"oid
S horted control wire
Transistor Olf
Open solenoid
- - .$herle~og~l.wi'8
olf Transistor Off

• Shorted Driver 12v • - -Slol()f(e<i Bri...er 12v

PCM
c. Solenoid (disconnected}

rYYY\
Fuse Unplugged .........
2v--'\.r--- "I I
I
,11
'/
Test Light -- -•
Transistor Off
· - .ope.. sel9'laid on / '
Shorted control wire
· - - Sh"'1ed e riYer 12v 17
Return Figure 8

a. PCM b. PCM

Fuse Solenoid Fuse Solenoid

.l. +---~i----rr........tll
l
12v Qy
l
12v
Transistor Orr Transistor Orr
A (curent !low) A (no CUITlll11 now)

Inductive Inductive
Ammeter Ammeter

Circuit is shorted to ground Open coil winding or connector

0 c. PCM d. PCM
G
unpligged
Fuse Solenoid

12v- \ 11

12v Qy '
12v
l
Ov
Transistor OH Transistor OH
A (no CUITlll11 now) A (curent flow)
Make sure you still
have 12v here Inductive
during this test
Inductive
Ammeter Ammeter
18
Shorted driver Short to ground on control wire
Feed Circuit Problems

PCM
Corroded Feed Wire

Fuse Solenoid

12v ~ ---- . '--------1--....--...~ 11


t t ~onnal circuit
off" read ings
f
1 2v 1 2v 1 2v
Trans1Sto r Off

0 Unwanted voltage drop on the feed side of the solenoid


which is only visible with the ci rcuit loaded (current
PCM

0 flowing).
Fuse Solenoid

Tran sisto r On

To properly test voltage on ANY circuit there must be current flow. "The circuit
must be loaded"
19
Power Side Switched Circuit Probl~f ~
(see page 21 for what normal circuit voltage levels should look like)

• Low volts (Ov) on the control wire with the driver commanded "on" (backprobing
th e so le noid connector)

- Possible problems: (figure 9a)


• Open in the control wire
• Faulty PCM driver
• PCM is intentionally not turning on the solenoid ("driver shut-down") due to
incorrect voltage or current levels. This is usually caused by an open or
shorted solenoid and will also set a trouble code. As long as there is a
current code for the solenoid in memory, the driver for that solenoid WILL
0 •
NOT turn on.
Measure control wire voltage at the PCM
G - 12v = there is an open in the control wire between the PCM and the solenoid
(figure 9b)
- Ov = the PCM is not turning on the driver or the driver is bad (figure 9c~
• Check the resistance of the solenoid coil. If it is open or shorted the PCM
may not turn the driver on. Disconnect the solenoid and touch on the
control wire with a test light connected to ground. Clear trouble codes and
command the driver on (test light must be connected before clearing
codes). If the test light lights the driver is good and an open or shorted
solenoid was causing the PCM to shut down the circuit. (figure 9d)
20
(Return)

Power Side Switched Circuit Normal Operation


PC M

(Output state monitor-

Solenoid
losM measures control wire
voltage and current
flow)

I I 12v
l
Dv
l
12v
Transistor On

0 Normal Operation PC M
G
Solenoid
losM

•I 12v
l
Ov
l
Dv
Transistor Off

21
(Return) Figure 9

a. PCM c. PCM

Solenoid Solenoid
-J .

llti---- II I J -
,. 12v
l
Qy
l
Ov
l
Qy
l
Ov Ov
I ..-... ,j

Transistor On Transistor On

• Open control wire • Opec = tr.ol.wira.


• Open driver • Open driver
• Driver "shut down" from a faulty solenoid • Driver "shut down" from a faulty solenoid

0 PCM PCM
G Solenoid
b.
Solenoid

11
,.,,,,
-- -
, 12v 1 11~-- , ..... ...........
12v
I .. - ' '
l
••
l
Ov Ov 12v
..- ,j
Test Light •
on / ' '- : I ••


~

Transistor On
Transistor On
...- '
-

• Open control wire • Of*l!'l eoRtFOl-wir&-


• Gpe"°dt'ivel'- • 0~ drio.<er
• 0rio.<et ''slttll-dewn'- "'°"1-9 .fettll'; sofel'IOid • Driver "shut down" from a faulty solenoid 22
Power Side Switched Circuit Problems (continued)

• Normal voltage readings on both the control wire and the ground wire to the
solenoid, 1(figure 1Oa, 1Ob) however the solenoid is not functional and/or there is a
trouble code set in memory.
- Connect an amp probe to the control wire and measure current flow with the
circuit "on". If there is no current flow with a good power and ground, this
indicates an open coil winding in the solenoid. (figure 1Oc)
- For additional confirmation you can disconnect the solenoid and measure

0 resistance of the solenoid winding.


• Note - An ohmmeter test of a coil may not be 100°/o accurate, in particular
G on higher amperage solenoids. A solenoid can measure the correct
resistance with an ohmmeter but when normal power and ground is sent to
the coil the winding opens up due to heat. This is why an amp
measurement may be necessary.

23
(Return) Figure 10

a. PCM b. PCM

Solenoid Solenoid

11~--- '-----+----illl"">r-12v 11 I
--
f ' ., I
12v

' ' l l -'


0
Qy 12Y Qy Ov
~

Transistor On TranS1stor Off


Normal circuit "on" readings Normal circuit "off' readings
G PCM
c.

__
,,...._ _,
Solenoid
. ........
'' .., I 12v
l
Ov
l
12v (no current flow)
...
Transistor On
~-

Abnormal current
reading
-
A

Inductive
24
Ammeter
Power Side Switched Circuit Problems

• High volts on the control wire with the driver commanded "off" (backprobing
the solenoid connector)
- Possible problems:
• Shorted driver allowing current flow all the time
• Control wire shorted to battery positive
• Normal condition with an open solenoid winding or bad solenoid ground.
This will cause bias line voltage to read near battery volts. (Not all systems
0 use this bias, you just need to be aware of it and not let it fool you) (figure
l111l
G • Connect a test light to battery negative and touch on the control wire (solenoid
unplugged)
-Test light lights = shorted driver or control wire
•Disconnect the PCM
- test light goes out= shorted driver
- test light still lit = shorted control wire
- Test light does not light = the voltage you where seeing in the original test was a
bias voltage that is now being pulled to ground through the test light.
25
(Return) Figure 11 ffi'V ~ ~
Power Side Switched Circuit Bias Voltage
• There is a variable when it comes to power side switched solenoids. Some systems run a bias
voltage on the control w ire for the solenoid. Th is is a very weak voltage signal that is easily pulled
to ground through the windings of the solenoid. With the solenoid "off' and plugged in (good
solenoid) the solenoid itself will pull down th is bias voltage to near zero volts (left picture). If you
unplug the solenoid you w ill see a voltage of near battery volts (right pictu re).
• This can be confusing because an open in the solenoid winding w ill cause high voltage to be seen
on the control wire . This high voltage is NOT the driver turning "on". It is a DC bias that is sent to
the solenoid on the control wire. Which, by the way, is actually there all the time. You just will not
see it on a normal good working circuit. This bias voltage is used by the PCM to test the circuit for
opens and shorts . If yo u know the system uses a bias voltage , it can be used for easy
conformation of wiring integrity between the solenoid and the PCM .

0 • Additional testing that can be done on this type of system:


Check voltage levels on both sides of the solenoid with the solenoid plugged in and un plugged
(d river off). With the solenoid plugged in, the ground w ire should read near zero volts, with the
G control wire reading a few millivolts higher. (left picture) Unplugged, the control wire should
increase to around 1Ov. (right pictu re) What these readings indicate, is the integrity of the wiring
between the computer and solenoid is good.
PCM ~M

Solenoid
100k ohm 100k ohm - -(+)
Solenoid
- -(+)
resistor --+--i> resistor --+-~

ii------' '------+~ll....oll~-1 2v lli-1----


rOv f
~~
Transistor Off
.l Transistor Off

Voltage drop on the control wire only High voltage on the control wire is coming 26
occurs w ith the solenoid plugged in. from the resistor circuit not the driver.
Power Side Switched Circuit Problems
(continued)

PCM

So lenoi d

,, ,...._
t
Ov
t
Ov

0 Normal control wire "on" and


"off' readings, but the solenoid
Trans s lo r Off

0 doesn't function
PCM

Sole noid

,, ,......- - - 12v
t
1 2v
t
1 2v
T rans stor On
Only with the circuit "on" (loaded) can the ground wire
problem be seen. You must have the circuit "on" to
properly test a ground for a voltage drop problem. 27
Variable Control Solenoids
• There are two types of controls
1. Pulse Width Modulation (P.W .M.)
• This re fers to the on-time of a pulsed signal. (there is no comparison to any off-
time period as with duty cycle measurements) It is usually measured in
milliseconds.
A longer pulse width will cause the solenoid to be "on" or "energized" for a
longer period of time.
• A common PWM solenoid is a fuel injector. A longer pulse width causes fuel to
spray for a longer period of time.

0 2.

Duty Cycle (D.C. 0/o)
This refers to the percent of on-time within one cycle of a pulsed signal. (can also
be the off-time). Measured in a percentage ranging from 5°/o to 95°/o.
G The higher the duty cycle 0/o the higher the current flow through the
solenoid winding, the stronger the magnetic field strength. This causes the
solenoid to open more.
• A common duty cycled controlled solenoid is an idle air control motor. A higher
duty cycle causes the IAC pintle to open more due to a stronger magnetic field .
This raises the idle speed. (see Section 20 pages 23 & 24)
The terms pulse width modulation and duty cycle control have been used in describing solenoids
that are pulsed on and off to control solenoid magnetic field strength. There is some field
confusion as to which term applies to what component. What you need to understand is there
are similarities and differences. (see figure 12)
28
(Return) Figure 12
PWM vs. Duty Cycle
1Hz Signal

500 m .s.

250 m .sl

In this picture you can see that if you change the pulse width you will change the duty cycle
and vice versa.
0
G Ground side
I I I I I I I switched circuit.
Low volts is "on"
and high volts is
I "off'

In this picture there is a duty cycle change (0/o of on-time within one cycle) with no
change in pulse width (on-time in milliseconds). This is due to a momentary drop
or change in frequency. So you see there is a difference at times when measuring
these. 29
8
Fuel Injector Misfire Case Studfl"
Ford Taurus with a cam sensor problem causing the injectors to momentarily shut down
during a load condition. Symptoms where violent surging and misfiring under load.

Injector Duty Cycle Injector Pulse Width

0
G

Typically there is no need to measure injector duty cycle but in this case it was the
duty cycle that showed the injectors where dropping out, not the pulse width. A
graphed pulse width reading may not show an injector "drop-out" if the pulse width of
the signal before and after the drop out are the same. A graphed duty cycle 0/o will show
the drop out as a sudden, longer 0/o of off time. 30
Oxygen Sensors and Fuel
Trim
0
G Section 4
m'7 ~ ~
Two Main Types of Narrow Range 02
Sensors
• Zirconia 02 sensor • Titania 02 sensor
- Variable resistor
- Creates it own - Varies a reference
voltage voltage supplied by the
PCM
May or may not Always a heated type
contain a heater sensor
0 circuit Becomes "active" much
faster than the Zirconia
G type
- Most widely used
- Application is not
type common
Cheaper to produce • Example: 1987-1990
Jeep
Output voltage is
reversed

2
Purpose
Narrow Range 02 Signal

• Feedback to the PCM, for 1.0


stoichiometric fue l control (all
upstream sensors)
- The PCM "trims" the mixture by
adding and subtracting fuel from Rich
this stoichiometric point
• For catalytic converter efficiency
450mv --- Set
0 • 02 Signal is used in closed loop
only
Lean
point

- Open loop the signal is ignored


0 (cold engine, WOT , heavy
acceleration, deceleration etc.)
• May also be used for A. l.R. (air 0 '--~~~~~~~~-
pump) and EGR (exhaust gas 14. 0 14.7 15.0
recirculation) system diagnostics
Air/Fuel Ratio
• OBD II (1996 and newer) systems
use a "downstream" 02 for
catalyst monitoring

3
02 Locations
B1=Bank1
This is the #1 cylinder
side of the engine.

B2 =Bank 2
Bank 1
Opposite bank of the Sen sor 3

#1 cylinder

S1 =Sensor 1 Bank 2
Sen so r 2

0 Upstream (in front of


the cat.) fuel control
B a nk 1
0 02
Bank 1
Sen sor 1 S ensor 2

S2 =Sensor 2 Bank 1
Se n sor 1
Bank 1
Sen sor 2

Downstream catalyst
monitor(behind the
cat. unless there is an Bank 1 Bank 1
Sen sor 2 Se n sor 3
83 02 sensor) Bank 2
Sen s or 1

· B a nk 1
Se n sor 1
4
Open vs. Closed Loop
• Open Loop • Closed Loop
02 sensor is not being 02 sensor is being used
used - Preset a/f ratio based off of
other inputs is now being
Preset a/f ratio based off of "trimmed"
other inputs
- PCM is maintaining a/f ratio
PCM is not trying to a little above and below
maintain stoichiometric a/f stoichiometric point
ratio
0 • Open loop occurs:
1. Cold engine
• Closed loop occurs:
1. 90% of driving conditions
0 2. WOT
3. Heavy acceleration
4 . Deceleration
5. Extended idling
6. Initial start up hot or cold
7. Fixed rich or lean 02 signal
causing a fault code will
force open loop (see pg. 11 JI
5
Operation (zirconia)
• Sensor must be hot to work (minimum 600 °F)
Heated by exhau st gas (single wire sensor)
• Sensor location must be near the exhaust manifold .
Heated by an internal heater circuit (3 or 4 wire sensor)
• Allows for location of the sensor to be moved anywhere in the exhaust system.
• Allows
. . the computer to enter closed loop mode faster which improves warm - up
em1ss1ons.
• Signal output is from 0 to 1 volt with a typical range of 200 to 800mv
• The mid point of the sensor range is 450mv which is the stoichiometric
window. Also known as the "set point".
• Voltage higher than 450mv is read by the computer as a rich signal.
0 •

Voltage lower than 450mv is read by the computer as a lean signal.
Signal voltage should drop to at least 200mv on the lean side and
G increase to at least 800mv on the rich side. (closed loop only)
• Signal voltage should switch between rich to lean or lean to rich in less
than 1OOms or a frequency of 1 to 5hz. (closed loop only)
• Typical 4-wire heated 02 wiring (sensor side)
1. White = heater (+) Black = Heater (+)
2. White= heater(-) Black= Heater(-)
3. Gray = 02 ground White = 02 ground
4. Black = 02 signal Blue = 02 signal

6
Understanding ST/LTFT
• STFT (short term fuel trim) • L TFT (long term fuel trim)
- #1 job is to keep 02 sensor near - #1 job is to keep STFT as close to Oo/o as
stoichiometric (a little above and below) possible and to retain any corrections in
Is a command from the PCM to alter memory.
injector pulse PCM "looks" at LTFT first to know where
- 0°10 = no fuel corrections from factory to start injector pulse width
preset value Learns from STFT%
Is only used in closed loop Is a command from the PCM to alter
NOTE* With left and right bank injector pulse
upstream 02 sensors, the - Oo/o = no fuel corrections from factory
PCM uses left and right bank preset value
STFT & LTFT (individual - +/- 1o % is considered normal on most
bank fuel trim control) systems

0 May be used in both open and closed loop


Total fuel trim is the sum of the LTFT and STFT
G Pre-OBDll GM used http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oRX2V6 a3do
Block Learn (LTFT) and NORMAL :
. ·
Integrator (STFT) binary SUBTRACTIN G FUEL RANGE •
ADDING FUEL
numbers. 128-= 0°/o....,.._1--.....-=.-..-..-..--.=---~ 126
-----------------o1•~
o
;..
• I
COUNTS :
255

26 ~1 77 102 116 138 154 179 205 230

· 80".4 · 60% -40% · 20% · 10'Yo + 10% +.20.04 +40% +60% +80%

PERCENTAGE
· 100% I + 100%
0%
I 7
NO ADJU STMENT
m'7 ~ ~
Bank Control Fuel Trim Example

Injector Pw'M Bank 2 4 msec


Long Term FT Bank 1 0.0 %
Long Term FT Bank 2 9.4 %
, ~
....r
Short Term FT Bank 1
- ""'- .- - 0.8
- --r

%
: 8.6
'
' -2 .3

,r- ~ ___,..,.,.. -
........
: 8.6
'
' -2 .3

0 Short Term FT Bank 2


- -
3.9

-
%

' 845
G H02S Bank 1 Sensor 1v
J 578 mV
''
' 80

r ~
- v '' 854
''
- ' 93
H02S Bank 2 Sensor 1 v 107 mV
IAC Motor Position 0 cnt
Engine Speed 904 rpm
Desired I die Speed 640 rpm

Engine with a vacuum leak on Bank 2. IAC Error OTC, no Fuel Trim OTC .

See section 20 for /AC count interpretation 8


8
02 and Fuel Trim ExamplelOJJ"
1994 CHRYSLE R CAR AA A/T • What is the 02 signal
3.0L V6 MPI A/C
51 sustained LEAN F/A CON DITIO N indicating? Lean
0 RPM 704 02S(V)_ 0.04 INJ(mS)_ 3.5
IGN CYCLES 1 3 IGN CYCLES 2 134
• What is the computer's
IGN CYCLES 3 0 OPE N/CLSD command? Rich
LOO P CLSD
MAP SNSR(V) 1.2 MAN VAC("Hg)_ 19.2
• Is the 02 lying? Further
testing is needed. Perform the
BARO PRES("Hg)_28 .9 TH ROTTLE (o/o) 0
following:
TPS(V) 0.82 MIN TPS (V) _ _ 0.82
COOLANT(V) 2.3 COOLANT(°F) 199 - Add propane to the intake

0 ST ADAP( 0/o)
EXHAUST
SPEED (MPH) 0
24.8 LT ADAP( 0/o)
LEAN VEH
24.8 - Compare 02mv with tailpipe
C0 °/o
G - Rapidly pump the throttle to
drive the mixture rich and
watch 02 response.
(see section 5 for more details)

9
m'7 ~ ~
What's wrong with the fuel trim?
Scan data capture after repairing a vacuum leak without clearing PCM memory.

02Sensor111 Volts 0.85 v


02Sensor112 Volts 0.67 v
Long Term FTBank 1 24.2
Short Term FTBank 1 ·25.0
Engine RPM 782 rpm
0 Throttle Position 15
G Engine Coolant Temp 149 degF
This car is fixed! The PCM is simply in the process of relearning its fuel trim
memory.
Use ST and LT fuel trim numbers after a repair to determine if the problem is fixed .
Remember total fuel trim is the sum of both ST and LT and should be with in +/-10°/o
Example of where you fixed a problem but not all of it:
LTFT 35°/o STFT -15°/o Fuel Trim Total 20°/o ..... .keep looking, you still have a lean
condition. Its better but still not a fix.
10
m'7 ~ ~
Fuel Trim Example With A Shorted 02
Integrator= STFT and Block Learn= LTFT (128=0o/o)
These are pre OBD II GM terms.
lor.p Stalus !lJsed lor.p Stilus Open
' 6.9 6.9
'
'
'
~ Pulse WJJ!h 4 msec 0 ~ Pulse Width 3 m!fl: 0

'' 160 160


' '
' 128
OCkleamMul 100 b:k le~nMul lfll 128

0 rle~alo1
''
'
'
'
100
160

128
160

128
G rlega~o1 128
'' 078 078
'
'
J2Ydt~e 0.14 v 0 0
2Ydlage 0.13 v
Notice the change in fuel trim and injector pulse width when the system switches back
into open loop.
This is an example of an engine that runs better with the check engine light ON!

For this system (pre 080 II GM) to set an 02 OTC, the signal must stay fixed for 8 minutes!

11
Fuel Trim Numbers At Different Loads

• Every Load/RPM combination has a learned LTFT number in


memory. By changing throttle angle and RPM while watching fuel
trim numbers you can determine the type of lean condition.
• An engine with a lean condition caused by a vacuum leak may have
high fuel trim numbers at idle and normal fuel trim numbers at a
higher RPM.

0 • An engine with a lean condition caused by a dirty MAF sensor or


low fuel pressure may have normal fuel trim numbers at idle and
G high fuel trim numbers at a higher RPM.
• To determine type of lean condition, run the engine from idle to
3500 RPM and note fuel trim values.

http://www.youtube .com/watch?v=n YN-RoFVwAA

http://www. youtube .com/watch?v=Sq pelz3aTNq

12
Vacuum Leak At Idle

• 1998 C HEV ROLET A/C


• 3.4L V6 CHEVY SFI A/T
• ** CODES & DATA. OK TO DRIVE. **
• (NO CODES AVAILABLE IN THIS MODE)
• RPM_873 TPS(V)_ 0.51 TPS(o/o)_ _O
• OPEN/CLSD LOOP_CLSD INJ PW(mS),_ _3.2
• 02B1-S1(mV) 39 02 B1-S2(mV) 4
0 •

ST TRIM( 0/o)
LT TRIM( 0/o)
27 ST TRIM
22 LT TRIM
163
156
0 • RIGHT CROSSCNTS 0 02 READY YES
• MAF(gm/Sec) 2.88 MAF(Hz) 1858
• MAP(V) 2.58 MAP("Hg) 17 .1
• BARO(V) 4.80 BARO("Hg) 29.9
• COOLANT(°F) 199 INTAKE A IR(°F) 99
• IAC POSITION 20 DESIRED IDLE 725

13
Vacuum Leak At 1500 RPM

• 1998 C HEV ROLET A/C


• 3.4L V6 CHEVY SFI A/T
• ** CODES & DATA. OK TO DRIVE. **
• (NO CODES AVAILABLE IN THIS MODE)
• RPM_1554 TPS(V)_ 0.57 TPS(o/o) 2
• OPEN/CLSD LOOP_CLSD INJ PW(ms) 3.1
• 02B1-S1(mV) 30 02 B1-S2(mV) 4
0 •

ST TRIM( 0/o)
LT TRIM( 0/o)
27 ST TRIM
22 LT TRIM
163
156
0 • RIGHT CROSSCNTS 0 02 READY YES
• MAF(gm/Sec) 4 .70 MAF(Hz) 2331
• MAP(V) 1.48 MAP("Hg) 11 .1
• BARO(V) 4.80 BARO("Hg) 29.9
• COOLANT(°F) 225 INTAKE A IR(°F)_ 106
• IAC POSITION 26 DESIRED IDLE 700

14
Vacuum Leak At 2500 RPM

• 1998 CHEV ROLET A/C


• 3.4L V6 CHEVY SFI A/T
• ** CODES & DATA. OK TO DRIVE. **
• (NO CODES AVAILABLE IN THIS MODE)
• RPM_2521 TPS(V)_ 0.70 TPS(o/o) 5
• OPEN/CLSD LOOP_CLSD INJ PW(ms) 2.9
• 02 B1-S1(mV) 299 02 B1-S2(mV) 556
0 •

ST TRIM( 0/o)
LT TRIM( 0/o)
13 ST TRIM
22 LT TRIM
145
156
0 • RIGHT CROSSCNTS 6 02 READY YES
• MAF(gm/Sec) 7.95 MAF(Hz) 2927
• MAP(V) 0.96 MAP("Hg) 8.3
• BARO(V) 4.80 BARO("Hg) 29.9
• COOLANT(°F) 210 INTAKE AIR(°F)_ 113
• IAC POSITION 28 DESIRED IDLE 700

15
Vacuum Leak At 3500 RPM

• 1998 C HEV ROLET A/C


• 3.4L V6 CHEVY SFI A/T
• ** CODES & DATA. OK TO DRIVE. **
• (NO CODES AVAILABLE IN THIS MODE)
• RPM_3472 TPS(V)_ 0.88 TPS(o/o)_ _ 11
• OPEN/CLSD LOOP_CLSD INJ PW(mS),_ _3.2
• 02 B1-S1(mV) 334 02 B1-S2(mV) 595
0 •

ST TRIM( 0/o)
LT TRIM( 0/o)
-2 ST TRIM
11 LT TRIM
126
142
0 • RIGHT CROSSCNTS 9 02 READY YES
• MAF(gm/Sec) 14.89 MAF(Hz) 3779
• MAP(V) 1.00 MAP("Hg) 8.5
• BARO(V) 4.80 BARO("Hg) 29.9
• COOLANT(°F) 22 1 INTAKE A IR(°F) 97
• IAC POSITION 42 DESIRED IDLE 700

16
Dirty MAF At Idle
Throttle Position 11 %
Engine RPM 890 rpm
Long Term FT Bank 1 ·3.9 %
Long Term FT Bank 2 0.8 %
Short Term FT Bank 1 1.6 %
Short Term FT Bank 2 0.8 %
0 Mass Air Flow. 4.63 g/s
0 Malfunction Ind Lamp On
Engine Coolant Temp 71 degC
Vehicle Speed 0 kph
Spark Advance 16 deg
Cale EngineLoad 17.3 %
DTC's Set 1

17
Dirty MAF At 2500 RPM
Dirty MAF At 3500 RPM
EGR Flow Test Using The 02 Sensor
The PCM monitors EGR flow on
some systems by watching 02 and
STFT while turning the EGR on and Chrysler Backpressure Backpressure Transducer
off at different times during closed EGR System EGA Solenoid
loop operation.
How much STFT o/o changes is
dependent on how much EGR flow

0 occurs.
EGR commanded on during cruise
G would cause the 02 signal to go
rich and STFT 0/o to drop.
EGR commanded off during cruise
would cause the 02 signal to go Notice this system does not have
lean and STFT 0/o to increase. any type of EGR flow sensor. Only
a solenoid and a backpressure
transducer.

20
AIR System Flow Test
Solid state
The PCM tests the air relay
Air injection
pump for proper flow by
LH exhaust bypass solenoid RH exhaust
turning on the pump in manifold B+ manifold
closed loop and then --
watching 02 and STFT. Vacuum
source - -LJ
A good air pump causes
the 02 to drop lean and
STFT to increase to a
r Electric
0 pre-determined amount. •
air pump

CD Air
pump
Air divert
valves
(AIRD)

LH catalytic RH catalytic
converter converter

21
Oxygen Sensor Testing
0
0 Section 5
Oxygen Sensor Signal Circuit T.mtffig ~
All detailed 02 testing must be done off idle with a hot sensor.

• Scan Data
• Look for a min. of 200 - 800 mv.
• Frequency cannot be determined because scan data reports over
frame, not time. Speed up your data process by limiting data PIDs
to see if the 02 is switching rapidly.
• DSO
- Connect scope(+) to the 02 signal wire and scope(-) to a known good
ground or 02 sensor ground
0 - Set scope on a 5 second screen with a 2 to 5 volt scale
• Look for a min. of 200 - 800 mv.
G • Look for a frequency of 1 - 5 HZ.
- OBD 11 systems look for a switch rate from lean to rich and rich
to lean in less than 100 m.s. (alternate frequency test)
(figure 1)
• Digital Voltmeter
- Look at the signal as you would on scan data (due to the slow sampling
speed of the DVOM you cannot accurately measure frequency)
nttp:fiwww.youtube.comfwatCh?v=u MGnvtgf8w

2
(Return) Figure 1 x=l SS'ims,.o -=1 bU!Jfn s~

0 .8

0.6

n.•
After
1.0
0 .2
re p lacing
n.n ••• both 0 2s
•0.2 II O. G
II
..o..ii 11
11 •••
11 0 .2
0.6
11
11
..o.o II
II Cursors set at 600 and 300mv
II
1.0
n.o 0.5 1.0 I . !i 2.0 2.5 3.0 3 .5 for ric h to lean switc h t ime

0 v
' .o
measurem ent

0 O. R

•••
Blue trace
setting " 02
0.A
1.•s1ow respo n se
••• n.nDTC "
J
o.n O. G

. . .. 0.A

. . .. 0 .2

•O.G o.o

. .o.o -0 .2

.., . 0 - t) , 4 3
u.u U.b 1 .u 1.b 2.U 2.b ~. u •.u ••• b.U

02 Signal Fixed Rich
(above 450 millivolts)

• Ask you rself, is the a/f ratio actually rich or • Causes of a rich exhaust, negative
is the sensor lying? fuel trim numbers and/or higher
1. Make a large vacuum leak than normal 02 mv
Signal voltage should drop to below - Higher than normal fuel psi
175 mv in less than 100 m.s. If it does - Ruptured fuel psi reg. diaphragm
you must find the cause of the rich a/f - Leaking fuel injector
ratio . The 02 sensor is not the
- EVAP purge problems
problem!
- ECT or IAT sensor problems
- If signal voltage stays rich the sensor is
lying or the a/f ratio is extremely rich. - MAP/BARO or MAF sensor
problems
0 Perform the test below to confirm.
http ://www.youtube .com/watch?v=H61Y 42u 19VM
1. Compare tailpipe C0°/o to 02 sensor
- EGR va lve stuck open at idle
- Fuel contaminated oil
G voltage cfigure 2) - Head gasket leaking causing
- If 02 mv is fixed rich and C0°/o is high coolant contamination of the 02
then the 02 is NOT lying. Look for the - Jumped timing chain/belt
cause of the rich a/f ratio. The 02 is
NOT the cause!
- If 02 mv is fixed rich and C0°/o shows
normal to low, the sensor is lying
(check 02 heater circuit and 02 signal
and ground for opens and shorts
before replacing 02)
See page 6 for tailpipe CO review 4
02 Signal Fixed Lean
(below 450 millivolts)

• Ask yourself is the a/f ratio actually • Causes of a lean exhaust, positive
lean or is the sensor lying fuel trim numbers and/or lower than
1. Add propane thru the air intake normal 02mv
(enough to hear an rpm change) - Lower than normal fuel psi
Signal voltage should increase to - Vacuum leaks
over 800 mv in less than 100 ms. - Clogged injectors or injectors not
If it does the sensor is not lying firing
and the a/f ratio is actually lean - Contaminated fuel
If signal stays lean the sensor is
0 2.
lying
Compare tailpipe C0°/o and 02°/o to
- ECT or IAT sensor problems
- MAP/BARO or MAF sensor
problems (especially a dirty hot-wire
G 02 sensor voltage lff1gure 3)1 type MAF)
If 02 mv is fixed lean and C0°/o is
- Jumped timing chain/belt
low with high exhaust 02°/o, the
sensor is NOT lying. Look for the - Exhaust leaks upstream of the 02
cause of the lean a/f ratio. (false lean, causing rich a/f ratio)
If 02 mv is fixed lean and C0°/o is - Severe misfiring (false lean,
high, the sensor is lying. (check causing rich a/f ratio)
02 heater power and ground and - AIR system problems (false lean,
02 ground before replacing 02) causing rich a/f ratio) (figure 4)
see pg. 10

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G 89r12vZFVJ 5
(Return)

Five Gas Theory


Efficient Air/Fuel Range

C0°/o is your rich 02°/o is your lean


indicator. You will not
"
i!l::iJ~r ~
indicator. You will not
read carbon read oxygen on the
monoxide on the rich side of
lean side of stoichiometric unless
stoichiometric. Use it is coming from
0 tailpipe C0°/o levels
to determine how
outside of the
combustion
G rich the engine is chamber. (false lean)
running or if a fixed
02 sensor signal is
reporting accurately.

10/1 15/1 20/1


AIRFUEL RATIO

6
(Return) Figure 2

1.6 ~-----------.--------
\)
. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . .
. ..
12 . ··· ··· ··· .· · · · · · · · · · · · ·
. , , , , , ... . .
.

• Look at C0°/o and 02°/o, is .. . . .


.. . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . .
'
' '
the engine running rich, ...
.
...
. .. '
...
.
0 .4 ' . ' . ' ' .. . ·· ··············· · ········· . ·· ··········
.
lean or normal? .... . You :w.ill
. .not.ha.ve . .a.fixed . rich 02:. in .a .....
• Compare these readings o ..... zero. co.environment..This
.
i.s a dead
.
.. ..
02 .. ::. . . . . . . . . . ::. . . : :
'

with 02mv . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . ... . ..


a '
: : '

-o.4 0 1 2 4 s5
• Is the 02 sensor lying or is rs.incl Si al Paltern/Swee Scale l-,!t1~ov!.!.i!:...e-1-~Cu~rs~o!;...r_
it indicating the proper ILock I Pi npt 1 5 sec 2 u ""orC!-r----"o"-'rr'-----

0 mixture? 1.
u 6
~,-th~02~,-
se
- ~
, ----.----. ---....:;
y1ng .;
-.:.:-
_-:...:-...:..
-
. . ..
. : . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . Ud . PP" . . . 601
: co :I.
- - -=.

G 1.2 .. .. . .... : . . . . . . . . . : .. . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . .
10 .7
oi .;1, . .. ..0.. 2
6.7
You will not have a fixed lean 02 in -10.. 0
0.2
o.s · · · a 10. 7°/o CO environment. This is a
· · · dead 02.
0. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . -~~'l)IJI
. . . ~1-M
. .N..
. .WI-'
.. 11.J..l
.
.
... ..
IJ
_ ).1J . .

. '
..
0 . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. .
'
..
. . . . . . . . . . . . ..
. . . . .... . ' .
' .
D ... ..'
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .
'
........ . . . . . . .. . . . ... . . . . . . . ' '
'
..
D '
'
'
'
'
'

-0.4 0 1 z 3 4

7 ~
Si anal Pattern/Sween Scale Disnl a~ Tr
Pi n...,, t. 1 5 sec 2 v Aut.o
" " " ' IC'
(Return) Figure 3

-v. - .
. . ... . . . . l:IC . PPM . . . . 15
x 0. 0
. .
... . . . . . .x . . .o. .
0.8 .
.. . . . cft x 14 .
. 11
· Raio 1:4".
.. "" " ··

.
After 0 .6 .

replacing . ... .
02 0.4 . .. . .

0 .2 . . . ... .
D . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .
.
D o ~~~~~,.1--<-~~~~-::f---~~~~""";f-~~~~-'-7-~~~~~
O 1 2 3
- 4. s5

0 b·b .--~
ls~t~
he~o
=2~1~
yin
-g~
?-: ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-. ~~~~--.

. . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l:IC . pp111 . . . .601


G 1 .2
. . : c~ x
· ·Th·is extremely rich exhaust·was caused · · · · 0 ~ · :..c • · · · •0 ·· 2
: : . C02 x
10. 1
6. 7
· ·b y·an 02· reporting l e~n · a ll· the· time: · · · · · · · ~i · ~~~io · t:g·:g
0 .8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .
.
.
. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .' . . . . . . . . ' . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .
''
..
Before 0 .4
.
. . . . . . .
.....
replacing .... ..... .... .
02 0 . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..• . . . . ... ..... . ... .
...
.
D . ... . . . . . . . . .•• . . . .. . . . . . . .
D
-o.4 n 1 2 3 4 s
8
(Return) Figure 4

02 signal with air pump off 02 signal with air pump on



••

••
1 1

0 0

0. 0931J 0. 21 5 1JDC 0. 6681J 0. 8 51 1JDC


0 5s

1988 Chevy Camaro 2.8L Failed PA State Emission Test


5s

G (Limits for this year car: HC 220 C0°/o 1.2)

Em ission levels are Tailpip e Rea dings A fte r Ta ilp ipe Readings Befo re
now good but the fuel
trim numbers are too H""C- - - - - =4'-"P:::.cP:..:..m:..:-_ _ _ _ _-=9:;.;:5:..1P""P::.:.m
'"' !!. Why is the PCM
co .5 •1. 4 .5- 5 .3 •1.
Iow . This was due to .:
C..:::0-= 2_ _ ____,_ 1 :::..:
3 ·c:. 5-'.;."-._ _ _ _ _ _.:. 9 ·:..::9~ 010 comm anding rich (high
fuel contam inated oil 02 1 . 0 •i. 3 .8 •i. block lea rn) when the
.:...:::;----~'--'-"------..:=.:.~
from a n exte nded !!.In'""te""'g..,,r.::.at.:..::o:..:..r_ __,_
1..:.;
14;!..-_,_1::,, 2 , ~-_.-'\
2 2::...__ _ _ _ _1.:..::3:..=. ex ha u st is a Iready rich
period of time that the Block Learn 11 5 1 52 as indicated by high
. .
C0°/o? Th e air pump
engine was running
rich . problem caus ing a
false lean condition 9
8
02 Signal voltage fixed with Wo
response to ratio changes
• Possibilities • Tests used
- Bad 02 - Verify bias voltage (some)
- Short to ground in the - Ohmmeter
signal wire - Voltage drop tests
- Open in the signal wire PCM response testing

0 - Heater circuit problems


- Sensor ground problems
(some)
- Scan data response testing
G - Computer ground problems

10
m'7 ~ ~
02 Sensor Signal Bias Voltage
• The PCM sends a small bias voltage to the 02 sensor.
• With an active 02 sensor the bias voltage gets pulled up and down with the 02
signal.
• Can only be measured with a cold sensor or with the sensor unplugged .
Cold sensor = very high resistance to ground = high bias voltage
Hot sensor = lower resistance to ground = low bias voltage
• 02 Signal wire bias voltage levels
1. GM = 450mv bias
2. Chrysler = 500mv bias with a warmed up sensor and a 5v bias with a cold
sensor

0 3.
4.
Nissan, Honda = similar to GM 400-500mv
Ford = no bias
G NOTE: Scan data bias will be higher than what you will read with a voltmeter. This
is because the bias voltage is so weak that even a 1OMohm impedance meter will
pull the bias voltage down a hundred millivolts or so.
• Purpose of signal wire bias voltage
1. Allows the PCM to monitor a non computer controlled 02 heater circuit.
2. Used by the PCM for proper AD (analog to digital) converter operation

Any circuit that has a bias voltage can be easily checked for opens or shorts
without using an ohmmeter. Just unplug the sensor and measure the
bias

voltage. No bias voltage means there is an open or short in the
wire. 11
m r=1
'V : :
(6\i
(1(AJ

02 Sensor Signal Wire Bias Voltage Testing


• Scan data test
1. Scan Data 02mv signal fixed at 0
• Disconnect 02 sensor connector and recheck 02mv Pl D
1. 02 now reads around 450mv (GM) means the signal wire from the
PCM to the 02 sensor is good and the sensor is bad
2. 02 signal is still fixed at 0 volts means the signal wire is shorted to
ground
2. Scan Data 02mv signal fixed at 450
• Jump the signal wire to ground at the 02 connector using a test light
1. 02 PIO now read Ov =bad/open 02 sensor

0 3.
2. 02 PIO stays at 450mv =open 02 signal wire
lh ttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=adkFTSoxM6Q (GM)
02 signal fixed high (up to 5 volts) - (Chrysler)
G • Caused by an open in the 02 sensor, the 02 sensor signal wire, the 02
sensor ground wire or a heater circuit problem
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v8XrM-7Bu0g (Jeep)
• Measure signal voltage at the sensor
Voltage at the sensor matches scan data = bad 02 or heater circuit
not working (check heater + and -)
Voltage at the sensor differs from scan data = open signal wire , bad
02 sensor ground or PCM problem
(most common problem is just simply a bad 02 sensor)

12
JfYll """"" Col"l
l.!..LJ.J'V : : <i[8J

Signal Wire Bias Voltage Test (case study)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nlhqTGOiBVU (Honda)

Signal measured at the sensor back probing harness side

I
I
02 signal I
02 signal shorted
1
I 02 signal , sensor unplugged
I
I
What does this tell you
0 about the 02 signal
wire from PCM to
G sensor?

Its good! Leave


your ohmmeter in
your toolbox.

0
The concern during this period of low voltage on the 02 sensor was either the sensor is bad or the
signal wire is shorted to ground. Unplugging the sensor and using bias voltage was the key.
13
lM
m ...,. ~
02 Sensor Ground Bias Voltage~

• Newer systems use a bias voltage on the sensor ground.


• Improper diagnosis of the 02 sensor will result if this is not taken
into account.
• Purpose of a ground bias
1. Improves accuracy

0 2.
3.
Eliminates ground circuit interference problems
Proper AD converter operation
G

14
1997 Volvo 02 Ground Bia§OJ~ ~ ~
.................... . .
. . . . .: · .
..... . ... , .. . .
.6
..
..
. . . ..... ' . . .. . . . . . ..
. .This. W;as taken ~fter relo cating tht3 ·
2 1
l · : · · . · )\ .. . · ground. connection on th scope .
... .. ... ....: .
""""" ... ..
0.8 .. .. . . '
.. .8 . . . ..: .. _,.......,._.... " . .. .

. .. . .. ... ....
......
'
.. ....
. .. .
:.
0.4 ........ ''• .... .. . . . . . . .. ... .... . .4 ..... . ..:" .. . . '
Notice the 02 signa amplitude is higher

0 . .
than n:ormaL
. ...: .. ... .. . . . .. . . ....
·· ···· · · · ····
'
······ ~·
. ..
""'
'"-'-' --
...... .. . . . . . .
" ~£.. " .

. .' 0 . .. . . . ... . . . .. ....


. : :.
.:
.. !Scope{-) to· b tte..Y (-) · · · · · $.cope (•):to sen .or ( ~) · ·
.. .

0 1.6
v
-- . . .
.
.
.
. . . . . .. . .
.
. • . • .
...
. ...
.
.
. . . . . .
...
...
. . . ... . . . . . • . .
.
.
..
•.
. .. . . . .

G 1.2 - . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
This 1$ sensor ground voltage referenced to battery gro~nd . On a
-. . . . . .
typical sensor c·ircu it' this WO Li Id be a b~d · g·rou"nd . ·s·ut not here:
. ... .
0.8 ... .
... ..
.
.,
.
.
..
. . . . . .
...
. . . . ..
..
. . . . . . . . . . . • . . . .
..
.
I

. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .
•'
. .
..
. .. . . '. . . . . . . l . . . .
.
.

·1
. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .
-.
~.

' .. .. .
. ..
. . .
. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . • . ... . . . . . . . . .
0.4 ... . . . . ..
.. . . .
..
>
-
. . .
..
.
• . . . . .. .02 Sensor .Ground...
.Bias Vc?ltage . . . . • . . • . .
. .. .
.

l
>

>
-
0 ' . . . . . . . . .• . . .
•.


. . . . •. . •
. . • . . . . . . . . . .. .
••
. .•.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .• .
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
..
.
. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . .
-. . . .. .. .. ..
~n A I . . I . I. I
15
1997 VW 02 Ground Bias ffi~

. ' .
1 . 8r••••••r•••••••••••••••••••••••••••,••••••,••••••,••••••,••••··~------~
' ' ' ' ' ' ' . ' ' .
1.8r••••••r•••••••••••••o••••••o••••••,••••••,••••••,••••••,••••··~------~
' ' ' . ' ' ' .
1 .6~ ------ ~ -----. ! ... . 1 C::~ ---
'' '' .'
Another example of a shifted high 02 signal caused by using
1 4~------~------ ~ --- ---·------J------J
• I ! I
the wrong ground connection during the test
I I

.I I I I

.
I

1.2~------~------~------·------·------·------~------·------·------J------J
' ' ' ' ' ' ' '
I I I

.
I I I

.
I I I I

1.2~------~------~------·------·------·------~------·------·------J------J
' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' .
I I I I

.
I

1.0~ - - _____ , _____ 1 ••••• 1 •••••• J ••••• J ••••• J •••••• J


1.O. . ..
'L • • • • • • 'L • • • • • • •.. .' '
•••••• 1 •••••• 1 •••••• J ••••••
.. .. .' .'
~ •••••• J •••••• J •••••• J •••••• J
..
'
0.8f- -f------ .' ------- -------:--
., ______ .., ______ ,..______ .,
0 .8. -----.,.--...... --:- ------:
---------- '
'
' ' '
---f------

0 '
0,6;- ····r·· .,' ..... ,' ........ . .. -----.-
' -- --,' '
0,6;- ,' ...... ,' ----- .. --- .. , ..... ,' ........' '
" " " " " '\

0. 4, .,• 0 .4: ·····r•• ·------·


' ' ..........
' -.. ------ .. -------.- ----..
0 .2
,
. .. .
..
r······r·····-~·-························-
.' .. .. .. .' ..
.. · ····- .. -·-··-.,·····- .. ·····- ..
.
0. 2''. ·····r·· ...•.... •......
' ,' . ~
---- .. -- --- .. ---- -...' -----... - ---..

0 .0~ ------ ~ ------


' '
···-·· ······· ·················--·· ······· ·············· . ,'
00 '
.. ' ' '
.. '
· ·----- ~ ------ · ------ · ······ · ······ · ······ · ······ · ······ · ······ · ------ ~
' ' ' ' '
'
'
'
' ..
·0.2~ ·· · · · · ~ · · · · · · ··· · · · • · · · · · · • · · · · · · ~ - · · · · · ~ ...... ~ ...... ~ ...... J •••••• J S
! ! t I I ! • I I ! I

-0. 2~ ------ ~ ------ · ······ · ······ · ······~------~------~---··· · ······J·····-~


0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.
Scope (-) lead on battery negative Scope (-) lead on 02 signal ground

02 Sensor ground bias voltage was .3 Volt


16
2004 Dodge Stratus Case StuWys

4 . o~ · · · · · · · · · · · · · -~ · · · · · · · · · · · ··02 ·Sensor·G roond ·referended ·to· baftery·grot.lnd · ··· ·· ·· ·· ~ ·· ·· ·· ··· ·· ·· ·~- ·· ·· ··· ·· ·· ··"!3
' . ' ' '1 ' .
;...., h pJi--~l\\ili ~- ..... ft ' IY'1*tt' '): 1111'- '"'fl.-'\<'"' \ · ·~~ .,. .;.,,.. •,J. , I .,; . . ..... . ,~· -4JI~~---~.. ·#·' · ~ ... ..... , J...•'- 4.l.~' ,,1.-,,. ......... ¥ .. ,.~' .. •, ,,. ., ~~·l:!f. ....,. ,,.,. ....~1lfl'lb 'I
. . . .
I I I I I
I I I I t

3 ' ' ' ' ' ' '


SL ••••••••••••••"••••••••••••••h•••••••••••••• " ••••••••••••••'•••••••••••••• " ••••••••••••••"••••••••••••••'••••••••••••••'••••••••••••••~•••••••••••••• J)
' I I I I 0 I I I I
....., I -, _

• '
3.0f' ····-- ··-·-·· '
______ !
---- .----
' • -----;---
' ·~
' • '

.
I I I I
2 . 5~---- ------ -- -- ~ -- -- --------- --------------•--------------• . . ------------• --------------•--------------• -------------- ~ --------------.. ---------------0
'
' 02 Sensor Signal i: ferenced to battery ground : : :

0 Notice the 2.5 volt bias on the 02 sensor ground and what it did
to the amplitude on the signal wire.

1 .0~ .............................:............................. ~- ............................ ; ............................ -~ ............................ -~ ........................... ~- ............................ ~ .............................:.............................. ~- ........................... ~


I I I I I I I I I I I

0 . 5~ ' .................. .... ·'· ...................... ,J,. ........ ................. ' .. .. ..... .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .•............................. ' .... .. ~ .................. .. .. .. ·'· ............. . .......... J ......... .. .. ............. '

o.or............................ -:- ............................ ............................ ;............................ -r ............................ -:- ............................


I t

~-
I

~-
I ........... I

............................ ;. ............................ -:-............................ ~- ............................ :


I I I I I I I I I

' .
I I

: : 04 Sensor ~ igna l referenced!to 02 S~nsor Grtjund : : :5


0.5........................................................... .,............................ , ..................................................................................... , ............................. ~ ............................................................. J .............................. ,

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
17
<=>
L.:..l4J'V : :

2004 Dodge Stratus Case Stu


02 Voltage OEM Scan Data 02 Voltage SAE Generic Scan Data

3.39. 0.84 .
3.35 . 0.8 .
~
3.3 0.75 . v \ f\
3.25 .
0. 7
3.2 j
\
0.65 .
3.15

3.1 . 0.6 .

3.05. 0.55

0 3

2.95
0.5 .

0.45
G 2. 9 .
0.4 .
2.85.
0.35 .
2.8

2.75 0.3 .

2.7.

\
0.25
2.65
0.2 .
2.6 .
0.15 .
2. 56

Scan Data captures of a normal 02 sensor signal using two different methods
of communication. Once again you must be aware of the 02 sensor ground 1a
circuit desian
m'7 ~ ~
02 Heater Circuit Description and Operation
• OBD-11 systems require 02 sensor heater circuit monitoring. This can be
done in the following ways:
1. The PCM directly controls the 02 heater power or ground using a
transistor. With this method the PCM can monitor voltage levels and
current flow through the heater circuit directly.
• If voltage or current levels do not match what is desired a trouble
code is set and the heater circuit may be switched off. This may
cause inaccurate diagnosis of the heater circuit.
- Example: A ground side switched heater circuit reads battery voltage
on the heater ground. This leads you to believe the transistor inside
the PCM is bad (not turning on) but what is really happening is the
0 PCM doesn't like what it "sees" on the heater ground circuit so it
switched the circuit off intentionally. (see section 3 for further info)
G 2. The PCM monitors the heater circuit by using a bias voltage on the
signal wire. With the sensor cold the bias line voltage is high (due to
high internal resistance of the 02). At start up the PCM watches the
bias voltage drop (as resistance drops in the 02) to determine heater
circuit activity. htfp:ffwww.youtube .com/Watcn?v=v8Xr~Bu0g[ (Jeep)

• The 02 heater circuit may also be pulse width modulated (PWM) this must
be taken into consideration when using an average reading digital
voltmeter. You will read lower than normal power and higher than normal
ground voltage. (see page 22)
19
02 Heater Tests
• Voltmeter or Scope
- KOER, sensor plugged in, backprobing 02 connector
Connect one lead to a known good ground and the other lead to the heater (+)
wire and the heater (-) wire individually
• Heater(+) should equal system voltage (most)
- Some PCMs will PWM the power side of the 02 heater.
» Voltmeter tests will show lower than normal feed voltage if PWM
is used (average read ing)
• Heater(-) should be close to BAT(-) (around 300-400 mv)
- Some PCMs will PWM the ground side of the 02 heater.

0 See pg.21 and


22 for Scope
examples
» Voltmeter tests will show higher than normal ground voltage if
PWM is used (average reading).
• During initial start up, some systems delay the turn on of the heater on
G downstream 02s to allow time for moisture burn off.
• Also the heater circuit may be "turned off' if the PCM recognizes a fault in
the heater circuit. (I ncorrect voltage level or cu rrent flow on the heater control
wire)
• Inductive low current probe testing
- KOER, sensor plugged in.
• Measure amperage on either the heater + or - wire.
• Can read anywhere from 600 ma to over 2000 ma
• Scanner
- Some systems will show 02 heater current draw on data stream
20
PCM Controlled 02 Heater Growntt
(Not a PWM type)

v;u _------ ----- . ---- ----- ----- . ---- ----- ----- . ---- ----- ----- . ---_E=1


I
• •
• I

?~m~;f :.~~~.'!'~.J- -.--.. ---.. ---... --.. ---.. ---...--..---.-----..-.-.--.----.--~o I

• •

:.·(s-tiows -9i:lo-
. d-iieiiier-·:.·---··--- . -··· -···· -··.•· -···· -·· -· -··.•· -·· -· -·· -· -··
Heater Ground KOEQ •
~~ ~~ -- - -- - - - -- - - - -·~6

power feed)

• • •
0. ._ __ - ---- - ---- - _.. __ - ---- - ---- - _.. __ - ---- - - - - - - - - - - - - .. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~1 2
I 0 0 0 t

Shows Gr ound Circljit


.. . .
0. q •• ................... " ..................................................................
• •
.. .......................... ..

.. .'!'!~~-ar!~Y. .. ....................... ; ........................... ~
. '

• •
0 ~ ------- --- -- --~ -- --- -- --- -- --~ -- --- -- --- -- --; ................. ------------ -·y·- ----- ----- -- --------------,-- - - - - - .. - - - - .. , - - .... - - - - .. - - - - .. ~ - - .... - - - - .... - - - - -:.4
. ·• ·• ·• ·• KDER ·•

0 o.~ ---=-=-=--=-=-=-- -- - ~ =-=-=-- =-=-=-- =-=-=--- - ~ - :-:-:-.. =-=-=-- =-=-=---!--=-=-=-- =-=-=-- =-=-=-- :--------------:-------------- ~ --------------•
393my

0 ..,___
r- -------------~-..------







1.02:
•' .. • • .. • .. • • .. • .. • • .. • • •
O
.u•._
~ __________...;.___________..;.____________.___-1--'• .. • .. • • .. .
. ................... ; .................... ~ ............. amRs ................... .•;.a
' • • •
Heater ~urrent
. KOEO . . . • • •
-o. 1r --------------r -------------•r --•• ---•• -----t - - --------- ··t-- ··--- ··--- ·· -- ··--- ··--- ·· - -··-- -·· -- -··t- -·· -- -·· -- -·· --·· ---·· ----·1---··---· - ---- +.12

'• .
-o..,,_' ___--·-····-····-····-····-····-····-
~
' .
· -Tran.s1-:or--
----- E~M . _., . . .
-- --- -- ---·' - --- -- --- -- ---· - --- -- --- -- ---·' - --- -- --- -- ---·.- ---- - ---- -- --·' -- --- -· ··- ·· ·· ~16
.' . .
ON
-0. 3'- - -- --- --.. -- -- -~ - -- --- --.. -- -- -~ - -- --- --- -- --- ! - - - - - - - - .. - - - - - ! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ! - - - - - - - .... - - - - - :. - - - - - - - - .. - - - - - :. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - !.20
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 s

21
(Return) PCM Controlled 02 Heater P'1Ner
(PWM type)
' File Edit Settings Vle¥J Window Automotive Help - ~

g jg~ ~ xj 100 m s /div :::J jx1 :::;J) Al :t2 0 V :::J l o c :::J f x1 :::J c f -1-9A l r
:::J DC:::J Off :::J
sf .20 v ::::fJ o c :::J[x1 :::J o f off :::J lDC:::J rOff :::J
v A v
..... ...' . ..
.
..
.
'
..
.
.
..
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.
.
.
. ' ...
. ..
.'
.
g... . - - - - - - - - - - - - .. - - - - - - - - - - - - - -.- - - - - - - - - - - - - - • - - - - - - - - - - - - - .. - - - - - - - - - - - - - -.. - - - - - - - - - - - - - .. - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .. - - - - - - - - - - - - - .. - - - - - - - - - - - - - --20
..
.
. . . H. p . . . . . .
i.-__ ____ ___ ---~' -------------+-------.----.;..' --------- ~ate.r.
. --0,W&-------~ -------------~- -------------~ ------------- ~ ------------ - -:~ s
.. .. ... ..
... '. ... . .. .
.
'
..'
20 ,;----n-n--~-m--~n--n--n1~--n-n-n-m--R-A-- ------ ---- --------- -.f----- •
--1 - - ---- - ·l 2
.• -
~ -- ..
16
If monitoring this power feed with a
- - -- - - - - - - - -- -
.••
~ -----
...•
-~ - ---- - 8

. , - - -- ---- .f----

12 5} - -
voltmeter, you would read around 7 ___ -l ------
'

volts and might think you have a


0 8 4' -

~
-- problem
' . ' •
-·.
' ••••••••••••••••••••••••••·~·•••••••••••••r••••••••••••·~·•••••••••••·~
. ' • ' '4
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G 4 ~ ··••••••••••• ., ••••••••••••••o•••••••••••••• o ••••••••••••·~··•••••••••••• ..

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'
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Heater
. Current
. ~. .•~ .!• .•~
• • • • •
-1 2 -l L --- - --- - --- - -J- - --- - --------·-------- - --- - -l- - --- - --- - --- J--- - ----------~--------- - --- l --- - --- - --- - -J- - --- - -------- L ------- - --- - -J- - --- - --- - ---~20
0.0 0.1 0 .2 0. 3 0.4 0.5 0.6 o.7 0.8 0 .9 1.0 s
A = 02 Heater Ground B = 02 Heater Powe r
C = 02 Heater Curre nt (idle, warm engine, known good)
Heater circu it is power s ide s witch ed and grounded to blo ck

J Waiting for ADC Trigger .J_N_o_ne_ _.:...


::J ·"""lJ.__...:::J...._.IJ_ __jJ_.] 1450
22
PCM response testing
Engine at normal operating temp above idle speed.
Scan data 02 signal will change during this test however injector pulse width and RPM
may not if the system is in open loop.

• Simulate a rich signal • Simulate a lean signal


- Touch one hand to battery(+) - Test light connected to
and the other to the 02 signal battery (-)
wire. (Sensor may need to be - Touch test light to the signal
plugged in for this test to wire. (Sensor may need to be
work) plugged in for this test to
0 - Scan data 02 mv should read
over 1000 and the PCM
work)
- Scan data 02 mv should
G should respond by decreasing drop to zero and the PCM
injector pulse width (STFT 0/o should respond by increasing
should go negative) injector pulse width (STFT o/o
- C0°/o should go down should go positive)
- RPM will change - C0°/o should go up
- RPM will change

The above testing is used to quickly identify signal circuit integrity


(no opens or shorts) on 02 sensors with no bias voltage. 23
m
Downstream 02 and Catalyst Oxygen Storage
r=1
'V : :
(6\i
(1(AJ

Tests
Pre-Cat
Post-Cat
Good Oxygen Storage Good Ox gen Storage
1O Downstream Switches
400 Upstream Switches = 0 ·025
- - - - - ----------- --- -
Poor Oxygen Storage
Delayed
300 Downstream Switches Reaction
400 Upstream Switches = 0.875 by Post-Cat
Sensor ~

0 Upstream 02
1.0 Volt
Downstream 02 O . . . Time in Seconds ... 25
G Poor Oxygen Storage

0.0 Volts

- - - - - -----------
Post-Cat
Sensor
Mirrors
Pre-Cat

24
Catalytic Converter Oxygen StoragJlt~t
Bad Cat. Setting P0420 OTC
:l ' • ' •
t •
. • i I • I : : D : (f :' :'
o.S: .... ......... .. •..• :' ..... n '' {
····....•••.•. ! ...•' : . ............. 1........... ..' .. ......_ .~ ..~ .r9P..
~.IJ.Ei!..9.•.. : ...............;' 6
. .. ...
..' ..' ...' ...''
~
' .. ' '

Ups tream '' '' . .. '


' .
; .... · i · · · ······· P.rop··ane ·~n ············ ··············f········ ·····!··············1·············· ···············~ .2
02 ' '
' '
. .. '
. .. '
.
• 1: :l { I :, : ;
: .. ~---~,,,_'•.
f'!~·i:: ·~·~-~.~-~-~--~-~.'•.l'!~.~-·:r.-~.-.~r.. ~-~-'-~-'P!'~~.~::~,~-~-~-,.:! 1 !...~~• ...~.,...""~~····r·~·::·•. .~.·~-oi;·~il;/o··;l;ij·~·~·~·:: wJ.'~·~·i.·'~..--~J',.......llfl~'t··~~.s
I

o.o)·· • .. . . ..
: ,
' . . '' '' ''
. .. '''
I
. :
''
.
· · :
''
.
Downs tream 0.4 . . . . . . • • • •
'
• • • •f • '
'
' '
'
'
·- ·······;··············f··············i··············f········· ···· .f··············i··············i···············D.4'
'
. ' '
• • •
02
••
.••• ••

••

'. . ~ .......... .
• • I ,:
• .. . : 11. .. I : I
-0.8· .....~ .. ... . . • 1 - ....
, -. , :~ ·O

0 •.• .• .• .• .• I ' I .

Known Good Cat.


• • •
• •
0.8' ··············~······ ....... l ..... .
'
~'lllMA'~
..............~ .. . ~~MfMI~---~
...~ ... il!lllt
. ~ ~... ;.. ~.~~~~~~- ~~~ ....... ~ .6
• •

Ups tream I I I
•+ I I

02 0.4 .. ..... . ....... ~r.~P.~ n~ -~ n............ t.•..........•. ~ ......•....•.. i....... -I·· ·. i. ·.. ·.-I·... ·· •
·~ .2
.
~.

I I I
•I I

' '

0.0, .............., ............................ ;... . -. . . . . ' -.. ,


.......... ' ............. ,.. -~~.......,.......... ·0.8

Downstream •
02 . ; ....... 1 .............. -0.4
• '
Oxyger storage rang~d from !2 to 4 ~econd~ I I !
.s;·de e·ndirr ·urr:RPM ..antl ·how ·lon ro arre·was·ad·de·d .... l..... ;....... l..~..~..,.~-~
--:~.o 5
Catalytic Converter Oxygen Storage Test
Known Good Dual Cat. System
Edit Set t ing:; View W indo w Automotiv e Help

~ XJ 2 s/div 31
:::J J oc :::J~x1 3'
:::J loc3 Jx1 3 3
v v x = 17.00 s , o = 6117m s , xo= -10.88s v v
1.2 .. .. .. ..I .. .. .. . ..
•----•••••• •• o •••••••••••• •• ••••••••••• • Q •••••••••••~•••••••••••••o•••••••••••••p••••••••••••r•••••••••••••••••• ~ •••••o••••••••••••• .. .. 2.0

o.e : : ii----1 Propar e Off , -··········>···········-L


. .... ....... ~ ................ '!
.... .... 1 .6

. l J· • .. .. . .
0 .4 r •••• • • • ••• • •

...
~ • • •• • • • •••• • , . •••• • • • •••• ~

..
·1
. .. ... ... ... I ...
•••••··~··•••••••••••,•••••••••••••r••••••••••••r••••••••••••r••••••••••··~··••••••••••,

'
... 1 .2

o.o o.e
.
0 -0 . 4

-o.e '.
1 .2-
. .
Upstr~am 02$
.
-~
.
.. .
:I
1 .6~-------- ---!·-----------1--------·--·i1··--

:1
. ·
:1
.
~,..,.,~
. .
------~-------------:-------------~------------·-------

..... . . .-. . . . . . . . .
...,,,~"f!l'~
..
I
----r---··r···-
1
~"""'~.....,~.w....;...
.

.......-...p.a,...,.,,..~. 6
.
f - - - - - - - - - - - - ·2.0 0 .4

o.o

- 1. 2 o.o~;1!"!'~~~r.·~-~-r-~-~-~-~:-~-~-~~'.l!"l'~:li;,o~""'rrltit'~~~~~~~r:o~~~,,.,~.i.,!~~,...,;,..1+,1,o.:1- ····•········ ··· rt . 2 -0 . 4

- 1.6 0.4~
~ ~~~~'!';'~-,!":I
.-~ - -r-"-'!'1
--~ , ~~~~~~~~~~"""
..
-2 . 0

Downstream ..
-0 . 4~
.. .
. . .
-o .e~ , , -·. - ..
0 2 4 6 B 10 12 14
A = 02 61 S 1 6 = 02 6 251 C = 02 61 S2 0 = 0 2 6252 1<.0ER@
at idle d ur ing oxygen sto r age test . N ew cats on bott1 banks .

Waiting for AOC Trigger INone 3 I 31 3 ,_I•_ _,l~ mv

26
m 'V : :
<=>
-~o.

Can a downstream 02 look like an upstream


02 with a good Catalytic Converter?

v v
2.0·····························-,······················································································································ ..........................................................., ............................................ ,.............. ,........................... '''

., ..i . . : : K.n9w:n G99d C~t-~lyti~ C..oo..v~rt~r . . . ... · ...........


1.2 2.8

0
G
. . . . . . .
' Cold '; '; '; ': '; . • . • . • . Hot• • . ': -o •
1.2•
...: .. :
.. . ..
. . ..
. • • . • • . • ..
. . • . .
.. . .... ... ... ' ... .... ... '

1.6· ~.
..........; .............. ; ......................... :. : ......................... :.. ........• .•...... ........ . •......• .:........ ........ ........ .......• .....•.. . ...... :. ........ . ....... -O t
· · Until the. converter
. . gets hot the signals will look the same ! ·
2.Q '
' '
I ! ! !
'
! .. ' ; ' ~1.2
0 s 10 15 20 !'i 30 35 •O •5 I 5 10 15 ro & ~ ~ itO itS Su ,

27
Thermistors
0
0 Section 6
Types of Thermistors

NTC PTC
• Negative Temperature • Positive Temperature
Coefficient Coefficient
- Used as a temperature Used in place of fuses on
sensor for a computer some systems
0 system • With normal current flow
through the system the PTC
G Examples:
thermistor has no resistance
- Engine coolant, intake air, so it will not affect circuit
ambient air, transmission fluid, in- operation
car, evaporator core, high and
• With excessive current flow
low sides of an AC system, EGR
the PTC thermistor will heat
flow monitoring, battery temp,
up and increase resistance
fuel tank temp, EVAP purge flow
which will reduce current
etc.
flow in the circuit.
2
NTC Thermistor
S ignal to S ignal for Signal to Signal for
computer Ground gauge computer Ground gauge

• Description and Operation


Negative temperature co-efficient thermistor (NTC)
0 • As temp. increases, resistance decreases
Most are two wire sensors, one signal and one ground .
G Some are three wire sensors, two signals sharing one ground .
1. The 5 volt reference wire on a thermistor!.§. the sensors signal wire and is
never shared with other inputs. (The computer "watches" what it is sending
out to the sensor)
2. The ground circuit is constant and may be shared with other inputs
• As temperature increases resistance decreases which causes the
applied 5 volt reference to drop.
Cold = high resistance= high voltage
- Hot = low resistance = low voltage
3
m'7 ~ ~
Thermistor circuit operation
PCM
-----------------, I
I
Constant 5v from internal I T hermist or
PCM 5v regulator I
I

l I
1 Signal/Sv 1"efe1"enc·e 4 .Sv cold
I 1 .0v hot
Vol tage sensing cirouiL I
Does not support I

---
any measurable I 30,000 ohms cold
I
amoun1 of current 110\v I 1 ,000 ohms hol
I

,,_____ _________________________
___,
I
I
: Signal retum (ground ) <100mv___.
I

Notice in the picture, as the thermistor heats up its resistance drops which pulls
0 the signal voltage down.
Note: Current flow on these types of circuits is in the micro amps and not
G measurable, however there must be current flow for a voltage drop to take place.

In a thermistor circuit the computer is monitoring voltage between two resistors


in series. The "pressure" or voltage between the two resistors is dependent on
the amount of resistance of each resistor and whether or not there is a complete
circuit. If there is an open in the circuit there will be no current flow and therefore
no voltage drop across the resistors. This will cause the computer to read 5v all
the time. If the signal wire shorts to ground or the thermistor internally shorts, all
source voltage will drop across the first resistor. This will cause the computer to
read Ovall the time. 4
Thermistor circuits
Conventional PCM '\i fJ, f'* S,t,1iig} j:~,. 'iiJv.i,,., Ahn,i;,~ !::'*. ~~

Thermistor 5Volt
E!l!':i!gij xlso '1d;v ::JI•• ::J •lsv ::J loc::J lo• ::J olo• ::J l•c::J !OH ::J
v
Regulator 5.0

Variable betwee n 0-5v 1.._.._ _,f--r--l <.S


..o
Think f
~ l .5
this a a l .O,
Signal .:-- ---r- hig h l .S "
"'-•.................,
~_,__~ Voltage im ped nee 2.0
Thermistor I.'> ~ ............_ ___.._
Sensing
'--"T"'""--' Ci rcuit
v oltm ter
1.0 --------..... ~
~-~·-~----
Ground 0.5
'----~---1f--..L---'----i ll 50 1DO 150 200 250 300 350 400 450

soo

Constantunder1 00mv

0 Dual Circuit
PCM
G Thermistor 5 Volt
Regulator
v
5.0 120° switch point
f--r-l 4.5
•.O 5v re f. runn ing i
l .5
l .O
l .S
through 1Okohm
resistor {cold cu rve)
----- - -
-~
5v ref. running
z.o --~-......___ _ _
Vo ltage Sensi g ..--'-~ 1.5 through 1koh m
Thermistor Circuit >---~
1.0 - - -- - --·
res istor {hot curve)
o.s
0.0
n 50 )00 )50

11
ID
100 150 ?,0 0 250
"' 4!i0 !iOO

WeldngferAOC Triyyer INu111: .:.I I .:.I I .:.1 EJa lu ~

Primarily used on ECT sensor circuits for better monitoring of the warm up period of the engine.
5
Dual Circuit Thermistor Operation

• Ohms law review


E = I x R, I = E + R, R = E + I
E = Electromotive force (volts)
I = Intensity (amps)
R = Resistance (ohms)
• Kirchhoff's Voltage Law
-The sum of all voltage drops in a circuit will equal the source voltage.
0 Use the above formulas in figure 1 to explain the following :
'
1. As resistance decreases in the external resistor the signal voltage will drop .
G 2. As resistance decreases in the inte rnal resistor the signal voltage will rise.
The external resistor is the thermistor and the internal resistor is switched from
a high to a low ohm resistor at approximately 120°F. With this design small
changes in temperature cause large changes in signal voltage. This allows
the PCM to more precisely lean out the mixture as the engine warms up.
- The "cold curve" runs the 5v reference through a 1Okohm resistor.
- The "hot curve" runs the 5v reference through a 1kohm resistor

6
(Return) Figure 1
In this illustration I am showing the source voltage as 12v for easy math. A thermistor circuit will use a
m r=1
'V : :
(6\i
(1(AJ

5v source, and is grounded inside of the PCM.

Inside of the computer Outside of the computer Inside of thecomputer Outside of the computer
---------------------------1 A drop in resistance -· This is where the computer
here
would be monitoring the circuit.

12v 11ohm ' 1ohm 1ohm


(1vd11e1i: Ov Ov
--,/'NV'\,.-____;.....,....+---....,/V'VV'1.,-----lll --,/'NV'\,.-~--.-..+--....,/V'VV'1.,-----ll l
E=12volts (O vo11s 1e1t) (0 l'd1s left)
Rr=12 ohms
I=1amps
(11volt drop)

-
0 Equals a rise in voltage
' - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ------< here

G Inside of the computer Outside of the computer Inside of thecomputer Outside of the computer
---------------------------1 ---------------------------1
I I
I A drop in resistance I
I I
here
1ohm I
I 11 ohm I 2ohm
12v I
(11Yols left) I 12v I
(8voltsleft)I Ov
E=12volts (0 veils ~ft) 11 E=12 volts (<hells left) II
Rr=12 ohms Rr= 3ohms
I= 1amps 1v I= 4amps 8v
(1veil drop) (11\d ldrojl) (8veil drop)

-- Equals a drop in voltage -


' - - - - - - - - - - - - ' - - - - - - - - - - - 1 here
7
Engine Coolant Temperature Senmr""
(ECT)

• Description and operation


1. Main input for cranking air/fuel ratio and warm up fuel curve.
The colder the engine the richer the ratio
2. Input for electric cooling fan control
3. One of the inputs for electronic climate control systems.
Indicates heater core temperature.

0 4. One of the inputs for idle speed control.


Cold engine fast idle speed.
0 5. Other outputs affected by the ECT input:
AC clutch, EGR control, AIR pump control, Spark timing,
Open/Closed loop operation.
- No AC during overheating
- No EGR on cold engine
- No AIR on a warm engine
- No closed loop below 150 deg.
8
Symptoms with a Faulty ECT

• No start due to a flooded engine.


• Overheating (electric fan only)
• No cold fast idle
• Start/stall
• Hot engine high idle speed
• Failed emissions
0 • Black smoke
0 • Lean hesitations (during warm-up only)
• No AC clutch engagement

9
ECT Scan Tool Testing ffi~ ~ ~
1. Compare ECT and IAT temp. on a cold engine
Should read within 5 deg. of each other
2. Compare engine temp. to scan data ECT temp.
3. Warm up engine and note ECT temp. when the cooling fans turn on. (210 to 230
deg.)
4. For intermittent ECT trouble codes wiggle ECT wiring and connector and watch for
changes.
5. Wiring test
Signal voltage fixed at Ov
• Unplug ECT sensor
- ECT signal should rise to near 5 volts
0 - ECT °F should drop to near -40°F (Keep in mind the PCM will substitute
values on certain data Pl Ds) Section 11 "Substituted Values'!
G Signal voltage fixed at 5v
• Jump ECT wires together
ECT signal should drop to near 0 volts
ECT °F should read from 260 to 400°F
6. Use ECT data to check for a stuck open thermostat
Test drive car at a constant speed over 25 mph while watching ECT temp.
ECT temp. should not drop below thermostat rating.
A stuck open thermostat can cause poor gas mileage from extended open
loop operation, and will set a trouble code on some systems.
10
ECT Voltmeter Testing
• KOEO or KOER (backprobing sensor connector)
• Connect negative lead to a known good ground
• Connect positive lead to :
1. ECT signal wire
Measure signal voltage and compare to engine temperature using a
chart.
A typical hot engine reading is .5 to 1.5 volts
A cold engine reading varies greatly dependent on ambient
temperature. Any where from 2.5 to 4 .5 volts
• Signal fixed at 5v r(tigure 2)
Check sensor ground, if sensor ground is good either the thermistor
0 •
or the connector is bad (open).
Signal fixed at Ov r(tigure 3)
G Disconnect the sensor, if signal voltage jumps to 5v the sensor is
shorted. If signal voltage remains at Ov there is either a short to
ground or an open in the signal wire. Compare to scan data to
confirm. If scan data also shows Ov the circuit is shorted to ground. If
scan data shows 5v, there is an open in the signal wire. ,(figure 2b)
2. ECT ground wire
Measure ground voltage
Should be less than 100 mv
3. No signal or signal out of range
Disconnect ECT sensor and measure signal voltage
Should read near 5 volts
11
m'7 ~ ~
Intake Air Temperature Sensors~
(IAT)
• Description and operation
Used to measure incoming air temp.
• Air temp. affects air density which affects how much air will enter
a cylinder
- Cold air = more dense = more fuel
• Input is used to adjust fuel curve.

0 - Some manufacturers claim the fuel curve is only affected by


5°/o based on IAT input.
G Located in the air cleaner box, air intake hose, part of the MAF
sensor or mounted in an intake runner.
• An intake manifold mounted IAT will read hotter temperatures
than an air cleaner mounted IAT.
Other names and abbreviations for the IAT sensor
1. MAT - manifold air temperature sensor
2. ACT - air charge temperature sensor
3. Battery temperature sensor - (Chrysler)
12
IAT Scan Tool Testing
1. Compare ECT and IAT temp. on a cold engine
• Should read within 5 deg. of each other
2. Compare ambient temp. to scan data IAT temp.
3. For manifold mounted IAT sensors:
Engine running, IAT should read cooler than ECT
- If IAT reads hotter than ECT, the EGR valve may be stuck
open.
- This condition may even set an IAT sensor related
trouble code
0 4. For air box mounted IAT sensors:
G Engine running , IAT should read near ambient temperature.
5. Scan data and voltmeter wiring test are the same as the ECT.

13
Exhaust Gas Temperature Sensor

• (EGT)
- Used to monitor EGR flow.
• For proper EGR control.
• For diagnostic purposes.
- As flow increases signal
voltage decreases.
- Mounted on the intake side of

0 •
the EGR valve.
Testing the EGT
G - Use the same electrical
testing as other thermistors.
- Open the EGR valve with the
engine running (see Section 3
for manual solenoid activation
procedures) and watch for the The only time exhaust gas
EGT signal voltage to drop. flows through this tube is
The more the EGR valve is when the EGR valve is open.
opened the hotter the EGT As EGR flow increases,
gets, due to hot exhaust gas thermistor voltage should
entering the intake. decrease. 14
All Other Thermistors

• Follow the exact same tests as you would for an ECT sensor with the
exception of what changes the thermistor temperature. For example if you
are testing an evaporator core temperature sensor for a signal voltage
change you would not just run the engine as with an ECT sensor. You would
need the AC system activated for a temperature change to take place in the
evaporator core. Think about the system you are working on .

0
G

15
(Return) Figure 2

Scan Data Signal Fixed at 5 Volts


PCM a. PCM b.
-----------------, I -----------------, I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I
5v . • ... • . • .. ! Si!1181 5v ..
... .......
......
I
! Signal opons1jN!we
I t

'
From Sv regulalor
5v
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
5v
\
.
>

> Thermistor
'
From Sv regwtor
5v
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
5v Ov
\
.
>
> •
Thenn1stor
I
I
> I >
I
I
Signal return 5v I
I
I Signal return Ov
11: '
I
11: '
I
I open ground I

0 ' I

0 PCM
~------------- -- -,
I
c.
I
I
I
I
I
5v ... .
• • •
...... ~
Signal

t :
I
5v
From Sv regulator I
I
Sv I
I """" thlrn1s1or '> Thermistor
I .
I
I
>
I
I Signal return Ov
ti: '
I
I
'
16
(Return) Figure 3

Scan Data Signal Fixed at 0 Volts


PCM PCM c.
-----------------, a. -----------------,

Sv Signal Sv Signal
t Ov I Ov
From Sv regulator From Sv regulator
Shofted &q1al ..we
Ov Thermistor Ov Shorted Lhermslllr Thermistor

Signal return Ov Signal return Ov


tI

0 ti

G PCM PCM
-----------------, b. ~----------------,
d.
I
I
I
I
I
I
Sv Signal Sv ............ I Signal
v • •
'I
t - Ov t I
I
Sv
From Sv regulator From 5v regulator I >
Shorted &q1al wwe I \
ov Thermistor Sv I
I
Shorted Lhermislor Thermistor
I
I
I
>
Signal return Ov I
I
Signal relurn Ov
11 11:
i
I 17
'
Potentiometers
0
0 Section 7
m'7~ ~
Throttle Position Sensor (TPS)
• Description and Operation
• TPS input is used for the following outputs:
1. Accel. enrichment
- A rapid opening of the TPS = computer adds
extra fuel (figure 1l
89
2. Decel. fuel cut off IAC
A rapid closing of the TPS = computer shuts off
injectors completely (high RPM only) (figure 1) cnt 17
3. Idle speed control
1.78
0 - Computer prevents decel. stalling by opening up
IAC passage after any increase in TPS signal
voltage (see picture to the right) TPS
G 4. Back up for a MAP or MAF failure v 0.65
- Computer w ill use RPM and TPS to estimate
incoming air volume 2188
5. Some of the other outputs controlled using TPS input:
1. EGR 6. Spark Timing RPM
2. Open/closed loop
3. AC clutch KOER while lightly snapping
4 . Transmission shift points throttle. Notice IAC response to
5. Clear Flood Mode TPS changes.
2
Faulty TPS Symptoms

Hesitation on acceleration, usually just off idle


High idle speed
Low idle speed
Rolling idle speed
Stalling at stops
No start (TPS stuck at WOT during cranking)
AC compressor clutch does not engage
Transmission does not shift, electronic shift only (limp mode)

3
(Return) Figure 1

TPS - Injection Pulse Comparison


v v
mV
-------- ...------------- ... --------------·--------------·- ---------- TPS --~ ------------- ~------------- ~-------------:------------- : ----- 5
' ' . .
' . . .'
5 - - - - - - - - ~- - - - - - - - - - - - - -:- - - - - - - - - - - - - -:- - - - - - - - - - - - - -:- - ~ - - - - - - - - - - -:- - - - - - - - - - - - - - :- - - - - - - - . - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - ! - - - - - - - - - - - - - ! - - - - - 4
• •

4 . Rapid . Acee~
.............................. ....,•. · · · · · • · · · · · -:;rv
- ~W.J;M'l>N/;''~j\~mll\llW
.
.
~apid D~el
.• . .
- - . ;. - . - - . - .. - - . - . ;. . - . - .. - .. - ... ; . - .. - .. - .. - - . ; - . - - . 3

. . . . . . .
3 20 0· ....... ;_ ............ ; ..... - . - .. - -..:.

. .

MAP ---~-------------~-------------:-------------~----- 2

.r- ------------ .r------------- .1-- -- - -- - -- - --r.-- - --1


2
' '
160- - - - - - - - -:- - - - - - - - - - - - - -:- - - - - - - - - - - - - -:- - - - - - - - - -

' ...
.--------------r-------------r---------
• ' .
0 l .
.
.
.. .
.
.
.
120-- --- --- .:;_---- -- --- --- .. _- --- --- --- ---·-' -- --- --- --- __;_--- --- --- --- -~ - --- --- --- -- -~' -- --- --- --- -- ~ --- -

.:--
----- 0

0 80-- -- -- - ~ -------------~- ----:---- ------- -:- ------------- ~ ------------- ~ ------------- ------1

. .• .,• . .
-1 4 0-- -- -- - ...•------ --- --- .•' - ----.---- - -------------• ------------- ..• -------------
~

.•
-- -- --2

-2 0- - - - - - - - ~- - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - -i--------------i- ----------- -t"--~ -~-:. _-~ ~- ~ -------_._..,~--·_-_._--·_-_._-_-_._-_,~,.._·_-_-_._-_._-_-_·_-_._-_·.':"--_·_-_._-_-_._-_._-_._-~.,;·_-_._-_-__ 3

. . . . . '
-4 0--------~-------------~--------------:----------- ---.-----
' ' ' '
·3
Inje·. c tor·!.P:w:···!····· '
-------~-------------;------------- ; ------4

·4 •' • ------···-·····-·· --~-- ----------~ -----~-----~~-----· ------~---·-········ · --------~---- · ~-- ··5


-750 -500 -250 0 250 750 1000500 1250 1500

Double pulse from injector -- AceeI No injector pulse - Decel fuel cutoff -
enrichment
4
m'7 ~ ~
Throttle Position Sensor (TPS)
• Description and Operation (continued)
• Most are three wire sensors (Figure 2)
1. 5 volt reference is constant (always near 5 volts and never varies) and may be
shared with other potentiometers, pressure sensors, and hall effects.
2. Signal varies from low voltage at idle (under 1 volt) to high voltage at WOT
(usually over 4 volts). Signal voltage follows throttle movement and should not
glitch or drop out.
3. Ground circuit should be constant (less than 100 mv) and may be shared with
other inputs
0 • Some are four wire sensors
G 1. A Toyota 4-wire TPS contains a potentiometer and an idle contact switch.
(Figure 4!
2. A Ford 4-wire TPS contains 2 separate pot. signals, while internally sharing a
5 volt ref. and ground. (Used on electronic throttle systems) (Figure 3)
• Some are not potentiometers at all and only contain two internal switches. (Figure 4)
• Nissan uses a 6 wire TPS on some models. It contains an idle and WOT switch and a
potentiometer. (3 wires for the potentiometer signal and 3 wires for the switches)
• With electronic throttle control systems the TPS may be an integral part of the throttle
body unit and is not serviced separately.
5
(Return~ Figure 2

Three Wire TPS

Notice there is no current limiting


resistor and the PCM is not
PCM
monitoring the reference circuit
as it would a thermistor. 5 Volt
Regulator
1--T"---i

WOT
0 The PCM i s
----- ...
'
''
''
5 volt Ref

G " watc hing" the


voltage drop
''
'
Signal Voltage
acros s thi s fixed Sensing
re s isto r. Circuit
' Signal Return
IDLE - ... '
'I'

11
Potentiometer

As with a thermistor, the voltage sensing circuit does not


support current flow. Current flow through this circuit is from
the Sv ref. through the resistor to ground .
6
£Return.~ Figure 3

Ford Electronic Throttle Control TPS


.. .
.. ..
I I I I I I I I t I I

6..' -... --. ---. --...' -.. --. ---. --. -\. -. --. -... --. -. ' l • • - • - • • • • - • • • • ' • - - - • - • - - - - • - • l • - - • - • • • - - • - • • l • - • - • • • • • • - - • - J. - •• - • • • - • - - - . . . . - • - - • • - - • - - - • - . . . . . . . - - • - • - • - -1 0
I

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! • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ; • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ! • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ! • • • • • • • • • • • • • ! • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • -lJ
4~• •• • •• •• •• • •• • •• • •• •• •• • •• •
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.. • I • • • • • • • • • • • • •

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.-------------- --------------.----- --------r--------------,--------------r--------------r--------------,---------- ---{.--------------{---------------6.


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.•

~
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I

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f 0

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0.r··············;··············r···
. •
•••••••••••••• r• ••••••••••••••

• •••• 'l• •••••••••••••• ----··-----··-·:4

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·2~ -------------- ~ -------------- ~ -
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------------! - -- -- - -- -- -- - -!' -- -- - -- -- -- - -- ! - -- - -- -- -- - -- -! -


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••

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-4~ --------------~ --------------~ --------------! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - : - - - - - - - - - - - - - - : - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ·O
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
2004 F-150 5.4 4-wire TPS with 2 pot signals.
G
GRYIWHT
,,' TPS Signal Wires
YEUWH-r---:=:::===========-
...
,
f'o. /\:f' A
'"
'_,
'_,
YEL.JWH T
5 Volt Ref
PNK/ORG
,'

Ground
l,..J...Af./'

7
(Return~ Figure 4

___.... ..._. Bl U •WHT WOT signal

-.
- '--
....1
BlU...wHT

IDLE Pull-up switch Input des ign


"--1 QAM- Polarity here determines
circuit design 'i YEl-ILU
.._ __ ....~ QRN..YEL ldlesignal

,ULL
... - J.
~V)O

Older VW desi gn
YB.-ew ', FUH ID

~:=~ Older Nissan design


THROTTLI .
VALVllW sv Ref. RED 4 (
'
Toyota 4-wire
Pot. slgnal <,'
BLK 3 ( , . :<,
Signal Signal <,
BLU 2 ( '•
0 0
w
~
I-
0
w
~
>-
::i::
_J

~ I-
(!)

3~
Cl'.
I-
~ ~ ~3 1 ~ 1
~ >-~ and
sh~red ref.
Switch signal
'

~ •
J: Cl'. CJ:'. _J

0 (!) J:
~ (!)
~ Ill Ill (!)
Shared ground_s..R
....N
...........l -'( •
ground
'
8, "' 3, , 7,,2,..._,.-..,.,
5 6 1, , 4 1,..._2,.1_3~
, , I \ I ' ,' ' ' '
' '

<' 1 ORG
· :..:: <.
~
<
<' ;..? '----+--+-_ ....<, 3 ORGIRED
<' <j'
- ,,.<s <.' '------:iii BLK/LT BLU
ELECTRONIC THROTILE lHROTILE Conventional
CONTROL MOOJLE POSITION SENSOR
potentiometer
Ford 4-wire used
on ETC systems 8
TPS Scan Tool Testing
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nfnkTOlkiBs,
• KOEO
1. Look at TPS Volts at IDLE and WOT
IDLE= under 1 volt (.3 to .9 volt typical)
WOT = 3.5 to 4.5 volts
2. Look at TPS 0/o at IDLE and WOT
IDLE= 0 to 10°/o (some cars must be 0°/o, see Section 20 pages 6-8)
WOT = 85 to 100°/o
3. Perform a TPS sweep test
must open and close the throttle slowly to see any glitches or dropouts
Limit data PIDs to speed up datastream sampling
4. Signal Wire Tests (TPS 0/o may show a defau lt value see ·\substituted Va/ues,i')
0 a)

Perform when TPS signal voltage is fixed at 0 volts
Unplug TPS http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h17kYyFrExE
G • TPS volts should read 5 on some models and 0 on others (Figure 7)
If it reads 5 the signal circuit is good
If it reads 0 then jump the 5 volt reference wire to the signal wire
using a 5kohm resistor (added protection from a short to ground)
If scan data TPS volts now reads 5 then the signal circuit is good
b) Perform when TPS signal voltage is fixed at 5 volts
• Unplug TPS
• Jump TPS signal wire to TPS ground wire
If scan data TPS volts now reads 0 then the signal circuit is good

*Note* DO NOT JUMP THE 5 VOLT REFERENCE WIRE TO GROUND! 9


TPS Voltmeter/Scope Testing ffi~ ~ ~
(Potentiometer Type)
• KOEO or KOER
• Connect negative lead to a known good ground for all tests
• Connect positive lead to: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=znw-gjLEOfk
1. TPS Signal Wire http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8KfKflmo1XgJ
• Check at IDLE and WOT and compare to spec
- Under 1 volt at IDLE (.3 to .9 volt typical)
- 3.5 to 4.5 volts at WOT
• Perform a sweep test {Figure 5)
(Figure 6l.
'
- If using a voltmeter you must perform this test slowly
0 • For intermittents heat and vibration are the keys to re-creating the fault
• If no signal or signal out of range
G 1. Check 5 volt reference and ground
2. Check for opens and shorts in the signal circuit using "Signal Circuit
Integrity Tes ti ngl'
2. 5 Volt Reference Wire
• Should read close to 5 volts
• If low or no voltage refer to "The 5 Volt Reference Circuit" for further
testing
3. TPS Ground Wire
• Should read less than 100 mv
• If voltage is too high = high resistance in the ground wire from sensor to
PCM, bad PCM ground or bad PCM 10
(Return) Figure 5

TPS Sweep Test

0
0 _/

Known Good " Sweep Test" A Glitch will usually


occur just off idle.

11
(Return) Figure 6

TPS Sweep Test


5- -------:---------------:---------------:- ••••••••••••• -:-•••••••••••• --:---------------:- --------------:- --------------:- --------------:- -------• ------:- ---- .
Know~ Good~ : : : : : : :
. . . . .
4.. - - - - - - ... - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... - - - - - - - - - - - - - ... - - - - - - - - - - - - - .... - - - - - - - - - - - - - ...
O 0 I I
············ ~···woT ··:···············: - -------------~ --------------~ ----·


.
3- -------·' ---------------·---------------·---------------·---------- . . .
----·---------------·---------------·---------------~------
' ' '
. .
-----··r··-----------·r··--
O 0 I I

' I
2-------~--------------~------------··""Y""·············"T"··-
• • • •
0 I . .• . '
- - - - - - - - - ... - - - • - - - - - - - - - .... - - - - - - - - - - • - - ......... - .......... ............ ">
• •
.....................

Idle
• • •
1..~-~...;..........- ..........;............_..........;................-~<C -:- •••••••••••••·:· •••••••••••••·:· •••••••••••••·:· •••••••••••••-~ •••••••••••••-~ •••.., ................. C
... . . . . .. .

• •

0 o
o
.
O
O
. I
I
. . --------------,-. --------------.
0- ------..;. -------------..;. --------------,---------------,---------------,---------------,-

• •
I
I
I
I


0
0
I
I
I
I
.I
I
.
I
I

r - - • • • • • • • • • • • •r • • • • • - - - - • • • • •r • • • •

• - -- - -
5 - - - - - - - - - - - - ..; • - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -:- - - - - - - - - - - - -· ,,.o!;o.......................00:~·..- -- - - -- - -- - -.-• - - - -- - -- - - -- - --.-
• • •

Known Bad
4 · - ............... -:•·· .......................................................................... . .. ......... •..................... ..
~ ......................

-...............•. -..... .

3· ........... -:-............. . -- -----:-- -- -- --- -- -- -- -:-- -- -- -- --- -- -- ---- -- -- -- •
----~--------------- .------

2· · · · · - · · · · · · ~- · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ;- · · · · · · - · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ThF;ottle·op·e-fted ·alm~!st ·half ···-~··· -- -- ·- -.. ---·------

,. . -~~;~,;!~.~~~-. . ~
i~
:
10

:
-.-... -.. -.. -.... -.-.~~¥--~-~-~~~-~--T-~~--~_i_g ~ ~~ .. -.-.-...... -~ .. -. ....................:.......... ..
ch~nges · : ·
~....................
'
......................................................;,
. . . . .
0 - - - - - - - - - - - - .... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -·- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ..' - - - - - - - - - - - - - - •r-' - .
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -.- - - - - -

12
{Return~ Figure 7 PCM
S Valt
Rttullkl

Sensor 12 v
Unpl ugged
5

0
Skohm
< Yobu• $9Ming
Clrtu•

0 "'
11

0 Normal KOEO
sensor PCM
G unplugged
readings •Vall
R19"llM

Sensor 12v
Unpl ugged
5 This inte rn al r esis to r
does not affect the
V.· ' ~100kohm TP S s ig n al vo ltage as
5 ' lo ng as t he sen sor is
Skohm < Yoltave Sensing
CIR:'Ylt p lugged 1n .

0
11

13
Figure 8 PCM
S Valt
Rttullkl

Sensor 12 v
Plugged in
5

_,,,. .45
Skohm Yobu• $9Ming
Clrtu•

,,
.01
11

0 Normal KOEO
idle position PCM
G readings

Sensor 12v
"----'
Plugged in
5 This intern al r esis to r
d oes n ot affect the
~1;:::00=k=o=h=m==:;---~L- TP S s ig nal vo ltage as
.45 lo ng as th e sen sor is
Skohm <E-- - - - - - - - - - - - - -+-...L--l ....~;;.":.;"'"• plugged in .

.....____ _ _ _____:_::·0~1---l---__J__--_L_----11 1
14
EGR valve position sensor (EVP)

• Informs the PCM of


exact EGR valve position Pulsed
ABC Signal
for feedback control and
diagnostic purposes Vent Cap
- This signal does not
indicate actual EGR flow ,
flow is assumed based on Position EGA
0 position . Sensor Control
Solenoid
0 • Same wiring as a three
wire TPS
EGA
• Same testing as a three Valve ,,._
wire TPS with the only
difference being in how
the EGR valve gets Vacuum Source
opened and closed.
15
Pressure Sensors
0
0 Section 8
Manifold Absolute Pressure SeP$m- ~
(MAP)
• Description and operation Speed Density System
1. Main input for engine load on a speed
density system
2. Measu res intake manifold pressure Air Temp CTS
High pressure = low vacuum
Ind icates heavy load
PCM adds more fuel
1'
Low pressure = high vacuum Throttle
Opening (TPS)
Indicates light load
p
0 PCM adds less fuel
As eng ine load increases, vacuum
decreases
Volumetric
Efficiency
_.,I Engine Speed

G 3. Used as a BARO sensor (measu res GM EGR Flow Test


atmospheric pressure) (some)
KOEO and WOT only
RPM I I ' f o ' o ' • •
•• • .. ... '•
..•...
•,
Higher altitude = less atmospheric
,
~ I I 0 I t I j 0 +f I f I

-··11 •-
psi. = less fuel needed under ALL •

• ••
conditions •• •
MAP ~
• •• •••·····•·•·
Lower altitude = more atmospheric --·····-- , . .Open
. - -......

psi. = more fuel needed under ALL EGR ........,,,


Cl,....
os-ed,_..,, Closed
conditions Less
4. Used to monitor EGR flow (some) Time In Seconds

5. Used as one of the inputs for spark 2


timing
m'7 ~ ~
Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensor
(MAP)
• Description and operation (continued)
• Attached to the intake manifold by a hose or
directly mounted
• Hose condition is critical
- A broken, kinked, or clogged
hose causes the MAP to read
the wrong pressure, so engine
0 load and BARO calculations
will be wrong
G • Signal output may be analog or digital
- Manifold pressure changes cause MAP
signal changes
• Low psi (high vacuum)= low
voltage or frequency
• High psi (low vacuum) = high
voltage or frequency

3
Is the MAP more important than the TPS?
c:i ~?110 mv
u "" ..=.J I oc 3 Ott ..=.J
...v x-- 13S3µ tJ,v-3 t 68µt:J.xv - 454 I µis V
- • - - - - • - ~ - • - -- - - - - - - - - - ;Q. - -- - - - - - • - - - - - - -- - • - - - - • - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ . ....
-----·· r··-----------1·----------·-1··----------- I : I
3.0 ; t i
I ' I Average MAP 2.0
2 .5 ....... ~ ............·;.............;..................... +... .........+.~- ............ ~- ........ '-~~---------' .....·
I '
~-
I vo ltage 1.6 VOe
1.5

• • • I : I . .
? .O ?00 1.0
: : ; I • I
I ,5 ••o~-~~.~. =:::::'.::.':'.'.-
~+~-::::::::'.:~ib-~::;,.ci,~~-~-~
-- ,.,..._
±, d:I ~~~ft..~--;,-~~~
..~::::::::::::::±-~.:::::.::::::j:'.::=:.o.5
: I I
1.0 l ?O : I I 0 .0

o. .,; U U · •••••• ~ ••••••••••• • t·...........·t·............ ....... · :


~ r·..
I
~ -.. - .·1·...........·1·............·1·............ ............ .....
I
-~- -~ · -U. !.o

u .u <4U· •••••• ~' • • • • • • ••••• • t, . . . . . . . . . . . . · f, ............. ~ ........ -t·.. ~-.......... ---:· ............ -:· ............ -~- ............ -~- ............ -~ ..... · · 1 . u
: : : :
.......,.,,.. ' ......._ .--...,;...
:
__
-0 . 5 ----·~-..
O· • • • • • •
..--·-·-+ --···-- ---~----~ ··-· ~-·-·---
r·· ·· ·· ··· ···: · ··· ·· ··· ·· ·· r···········.,········ 1~--~-
. ·t: · ·::-:
· ·:-::
· ·::: ·,·:,t
· ·::-:
· J
: '

Injector P.W. at 1100


~,,._._ .~

.
' ,_.__ ' ·---~- --

~--------------~------ -1 . G

: •
_, . 0 - .i11u---- --- ~ --- - ----- ---~------ ----- -- ~. - - ---- - ---- - -~-- - ---- _ J_ __ - ~ --- - ----- -- :--------------~------ -~ . u

- r.s -80 •
.
:
-12
.... ....

;
/\ = MAr -·
~

A = Trs

0
RPM in gear = 4 .54 m .s .
1------~------,-,
111 nn ...... ,.,., ;,·, '.)•~ ~···1
------''c;

.
:.
20 ~ . mo

0
_J
epeat ... H.l ~Ing ... .l~-'-~I.:' rnv I-·~ l.:'jl(;
TPS voltage .5 voe 1n
bot h captu res
v .....v "><=- 1 :'1!'>:'1 11.:t, i"• = l SSC111.:t,"><•.. = ?~OF011o:t v
3.S ):( l q 1 2.5
. : : I : I : : Average MAP
'.J. U ........... ........ ; . ............ ; . ............ i . . . . .... J•. •• ; .•• • .l ...... . ~·-··· · · · ····- ~· - ····· · ·
· · · I · I · · vo ltage 1.1 voe
....., ! ! • I : I • !
-----· t · ------------; ------------- ~- ------- ·i-· -- ~ ---- "j" --- -- - ~- -- --- -- --- -- ~- - --- --- - '--~----~----~ - --- · 1 . ...

: ! • I • I . .
? .n ?no 1 .0
: ~ ~ 1 :1 .
1 .5 ::
,...-v• 'L • . • •4 '
.
..
_,. • • •
: -
--- _ __ __
: •• -: ···· I - ·1
- ~ • . •~ • . • _' . " •• • • • • "~- •
: "
··1· .. • :
' • •••·- -- 1
,:··... "f ". ., .. ,,'
- • . -•··.
0 .., "c. '
: • . . • -· ··....-:-·
: .•'
-" ~ - •'
~ - •c--~~,;
· ""-~ :u;
•••• •••••· .;~ •c.•• 2 •· 9 · ,._,. ,._ ' .l , .~ -

I.O ' 20 ~~. • ' •....I


~....,...,.....,- '~ .••l .
I ··"'"""T""'""'--'~!'-..·__.~.. .
.--._.;__.,.,_,,,,¥-....o.o
. , , • I • I
u . ... uu- - - - - - -r------------·r-------------! - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - -:- - - - ~ - - - --- -- · 1-------------1--------------~- -------------1- - -- -- --- --- --1-------u ....
0.0 4 0 - --- ___ t ___ --------- .l .. --------- -- ~ --------_____ j __ - --- ---1- -- ----- - -~,_--- -- - ---- --- ~,_- ---- -- - ---- - ~'. - -- --- -- - - ---i,_--------- ---- -~. --- - --- 1 .0
n .._--'-
· --------'"'-':'-·'-
• ! --- . ----- I _____,._..__......._....-_._.....,.,.---------~--··-;· --.-.-·--
- 0 . !'i - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - -•- - - - - - - - - - - - :- - 1 . !i

- 1 . ll
·::·······r·············•·············1············-~·-·······1.... L..... Injector P.W. at 3000 -------------~------ - ~ . u
RPM in park= 2 .95 m.s.
- •.s -1 c ·12 -0
A = MAP
-4
a = 'l "PS c =
0
lnJeCt()I" Curt~n•
·------··------ .-·~-----
t:tuuu r-prn, In pl'ltkJ
.. 20 2 .5
mo
4
_J
!waitin g tor AUC Trivv-.:• l no..:1·-.:~~ - I lo.:•• C -I ( n;l:J;,,!J -I ls1 l$011V
Analog MAP Circuit
Intake manifold pressure

j
~
-l PCM
Silicon
Diaphragm ....
~ . 5 Volt
.............. Regulat or
1 '> .,
• J
-
Absolute - - 5 Volt Ref I

Voltage

0 zero Filtering
circuit
......
....
Signal

Ground
Sensing
Circuit

G 11 -
'"'I
11

Range is O to 5 volts
• 3 wire pressure sensor NA e ngine
Idle = .5 - 1.5 (most)
5 volt reference KOEO or WOT= 4.0 to 4.5+ volts at sea level, most (as
altitude increases voltage decreases)
Signal Example: 2007 Honda Civic SI is around 2 .8 volts KOEO or
Ground (signal return) WOT so make sure you look up the specs!
Turbo engine
Idle = .5 to 1.5
KOEO = 2.5 (changes with altitude)
WOT= 4.5+ (depends on how much boost psi) 5
Ford Digital MAP
Sensed
pressure Moveable capacitor PCM
plate, mounted to
Flexible ceramic diaphragm
diaphragm
5 Volt
Regulator
~--

5 Volt Ref

y
F~ capaotor
Signal
Voltage
Vent Sensing
0 plate (negative)
on ceramic bed
Circuit
L - + - - - +----'---- - - . . _ _ _ _---l I I
0 Rigid
ceramic bed
Sealed
difference pressure
Range is 90 to 160hz
Idle= 92-112hz
KOEO or WOT= 160hz@ If the signal is measured with a
sea level {as altitude voltmeter, you will read around 2.5
increases frequency volts regardless of frequency
decreases) changes. You must use a frequency
Same wiring as an analog meter or scope to measure a digital
MAP the only difference is in
input 6
the signal circuit.
MAP Problems
• MAP OTC
1. Is the MAP faulty causing the engine to run poorly, or is the engine
running poorly causing a false MAP code? (due to low manifold vacuum)
Check manifold vacuum and compare to MAP Signal on scan data.
2. Check vacuum hose to MAP for cracks and breaks.
Visual inspection
• MAP Testing with or without OTC
Wiring tests
• 5 volt ref. and ground circuits are tested the same as a potentiometer. Refer
to Potentiometers and The 5 voTt reTe'rence circuit for details.

0 • Signal circuit testing for an analog MAP is the same as a potentiometer with
the exception of what causes MAP signal voltage to change. Refer to Signal
Circuit Integrity Testing ;section for complete details.
G • Signal circuit testing for a digital MAP requires different testing methods. You
must use a frequency meter or scope. Refer to ,S witch Inputs section for pull-
up and pull-down circuit testing of a frequency generating device.
Calibration test
• May need to be performed on a system that uses a MAP for EGR flow
monitoring. A slightly out of range MAP can cause false EGR flow codes.
This test involves using a hand vacuum pump KOEO while monitoring signal
voltage changes.

7
Analog MAP Glitch
•lllOC;It~ ..( COH Of • • DC•
0 OH :J~oc '.lfof• o'l"oH
- -"ii.Poc,;;·il-O""i"

•S·······-·············- :······· ......:··········· .. ··:..··········· v
. ...' .... ...
·~······ ·······~-········ ........ ········-··-····-········ ·······- ...... . S···············"."······························:···············:··············:-··············: .. ·············:······························:-···············
.
: :·: : : r::. :.. : : ·' :~1~~rt11~1~~1 ~.~~~ . ·: :·: :: : : :.
" ..... r· . .
·,•J'j.~V.WN//.+,fl;/1*1~ JlilJlllllJ11ffW1!
11
ll~.11n1~v
. .
. . ..;. . . . .j
.
.
I..............,................:;............... :. ..... ......i' ..............:;...............................:...............
. : : . : :
J·.............................. ~.. ~

.... ...
. .... . '
.. " I .: '. ..:
' ..:
' .':\ ' ..
'
:
..: '

.. ... " .... ....: ......... ~.... "" """:.... \


l·······"'··············~···············:············ ...... ·························~························· ····································;
.. ! .............................; " .............. .....: """" "" ........ -. """ ""
... ..
' '
. I '

0
: : . : : '

~...,..,
!···············~.. ·····························!···············~··············~··············!
.....,.) : : : : .. ··· · ··7Mrl4'~""'"1'
~ · • 111...../lji1,.~"~ .w'\*llliill•" ·
... . ._..............,..............:...............:..............................,.............................................................., .. . .. .
I .. • ..
G . .
•1· ......•:........•....•. ,.•....•.......• ;....•...•....• ·i .............. <· •••••••••••••• ,•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ·:· ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ·i . .
·1···············································:···············~··············7··············:···············:······························7···············
. . . . .
·l··· ~···
.
..... : ..... .... :' ..... .
..:.. ..... .... .
.... : .... .... .... -··· ..... ..... ..... ,
·2 .,
. . . •

· } ··
: : Bad MAP Sehsor
.......... ···········~··········· ····:···············:··········· ····~· ·············:············ ...................................................:
. Good MAP Sens6r
.... ... .... .3............... .'...............................i···············~··············~···············l············ ..·!·······························:·.. ·············
. .....
'

. . . ..... . ..
·4 ......... .............. ,:.............. ·! ..............·: .............. .............. .............................................................,
... ...
·~

... ~·
.
• .... ......
.. ... ...
'~

.5... ..... ,, .... ....' . ...... ..... ..... ..... .... ,, .... ...•. ..... ..... .... ' ' '
.. .... '
0,, : : : : : :
............................................................................................................................................................. .s
·0.6 ·0.4 ·0.2 0.0 02 0.4 0.0 1.0 I. ~

I.= MAP Stnsnr, Sn11p lhrottletest M.1POTf. 32


~ U U U U U U IA U IA U
J.. =W.PKOEO Sntp Tltt¢t llntr.-11 ioo4
J

8
Ford DPFE Sensor

• Description and operation EVRSolenoid

• DPFE = Delta Pressure Feedback EGR


sensor
Input used to monitor EGR flow
Sensor measures the difference in DPFE
pressure between the two sample
ports
Sensor

0 1. With EGR valve c losed there is no


difference in pressure
Sensor voltage signa l is low
Exhaust Manifold

0 • Us ually under 1 volt (. 5-1 .0v)


2. As EGR valve opens the upper chamber
pressu re drops .
Sensor voltage signal increases in
proportion to EGR flow
3. With EGR valve fu lly open there is a
large difference in pressure
Sensor voltage signal is high
• Us ually ove r 4 volts
9
Ford EGR Flow Test
W!int Cap

CD Solenoid
I,.....-......::::::-o(%1evR
KOER , connect voltmeter to DPFE

signal wire or monitor scan data PIO.
DPFE ....r-'111 Should be around .5 to 1v at idle with no
EGR flow.
Sensor
1. Jump EVR control wire to ground
L!;=:Exhaust Manifold w ith a test light to energ ize the
solenoid (may need to use a
jumper wire, BE CAREFUL!).

0 2. Engine should stall or almost stall


and DPFE voltage should increase.
G 3. Increase RPM to 1500 to prevent
stall and re-do test. DPFE voltage
should increase to over 4 volts and
the engine should get very rough.
4. If eng ine gets rough and/or stalls
and DPFE voltage doesn't change
= DPFE problem
5. If engine does not get rough =
there is a flow problem .
http ://www.youtube.com/watch ?v= pH kj RwD-Xw Most common EGR flow
problem is from a restricted
~ttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=znw-gjLEOfk intake passage
10
The 5 Volt Reference Circuit
0
G Section 9
The 5 volt reference m'7 ~ ~
PCM
c ircuit
• Grounds may be SVott
I R$gula tor
shared between any - I
t 2 volt supp
I
input S ignal wir
I . .
Vvv
Cutre:f1t limiUng re~or
• Signal w ires are never
Swit c h In put I
I 1 -~ng :
shared between I "'<""
. . .
sensors ig n al w ir I v v v
Cutre0t limit.1nQ reSistor
ECT I
• The 5v reference can y :""""°
~ I
I

be shared (externally ignal wir


.I . .
Vvv
from the PCM) with
_
Current limiting re sistor
I
pots , psi sensors , and
IAT
I y --
.... 1
_,...,. I

ha ll effects but never I


- volt referenc
I
with thermistors
0
Signal W ire

-
I I
• A shorted pot. , psi I
l -- - - - ' - - - - - -1'-- - sii gnal Retu m
I
I -~
- ··
sensor, hall effect may
I
G pu ll down the entire 5v
ref. circu it includ ing all
I
I
of the internal circuits MAP <:•- - --1'- - - - - - S i gnal Wire
I

that use this same


reference voltage
• A shorted therm istor VAF<:•>----------~ Sig na l w ir
I
I
I
I
-,_,
I J~ I
CN"ClM

I
I

I
will not pull-down the I tMC...t

I . . .
Hall effect , - - - - - - - -S i g nal Wire
entire ref. circuit due to 1
I
VVv
Cu.rran t limiti:l'lg resistor
..... ,
the interna l resistor in
the PCM for thermistor
~
I I' 5 volt reference
I
I ·-I-~ ·
1n·tegreted r-
circu its I C l:rcu l1
Signal Retu rn
I I

I I "''eg"'""'
C ircuit I-
2
Description and Operation

• The PCM uses a 5 volt regulator for multiple purposes (communication and
sensor inputs to name a few)
• If the 5 volt reference circuit gets shorted to ground the engine will NOT
start (no injector pulse, no communication with scanner, possibly no MIL,
no flash codes, possibly no spark.
• KOEO check for 5 volt ref. at the TPS or MAP
- No 5 volt ref
• shorted sensor (any one of them that share this reference voltage
0 except thermistors and switch inputs)
• Short to ground in the wiring
G • An open in the wiring
• PCM not sending out the 5 volt reference
- Bad PCM
- No power or bad ground for the PCM

3
Testing the Sv Reference Circuit
• You must have a good wiring diagram and identify what sensors share this
reference. All potentiometers, pressure sensors and some hall effects
(cam, crank, vehicle speed sensors) must be isolated to find the short.
Thermistors can be left plugged in and will never cause this condition due
to internal design differences.
• While measuring reference voltage with the key on, (usually at the TPS or
MAP because of easy access) start unplugging the sensors one at a time.
Find the sensor that causes the reference voltage to return to 5v when you
0 •
unplug it.
If you still have no 5v ref. with the sensors all unplugged, then you must
G disconnect the PCM and measure for a short to ground on the reference
circuit. (sensors still unplugged)
• No short to ground then you have a PCM problem. Make sure you check all
PCM powers and grounds before replacing the PCM .
- Part 1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a-d6-jrGidA
- Part 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jlwNcgtv9zO
- Part 3 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dCZdv-FYwxw
'
4
Wiring Identification
Practice using the information on page 3 to determine signal wires,
ground wires and reference wires in this diagram.

COOLANT AIR TEMP -~

TEMP SE NS
- BLK- LT BL U
TAN-BLK
-A
BLl<-LT BlU
' - TAN - Bl K
B
SENS

::>
I
c
•I
THROTTLE
POSITION
SENS
CRANK
POSITI ON
SENS
CAMSHAFT
POSITION
SENSOR
VEHICLE
SPEED
SENSOR
HEATED
02
SENSOR
""' '- CD w
cc ·1111 1
!:i I ll Al Cl I A I B ICI !211131 I I I I
~'
~ Ill ....
_, _, :r 3 ... _, "''II_, !
z

t_, ~
::;)
::;) ::;)
"' ~ 3m a:0 0 ::> 0 Ill 0
cc
......
CD CD 3::I ..._, >
CD CD
I 0 0 er:
0 a!
9
er:
!:; z ~
c
......
VlO-WlH
I A 18 1
~
I "~
Q
I
~
cc ... ~:.: ... I "'0 a:0 .,,_,
g
I
MAP
8
OKGRN-REO ~ _, 0
_, i ~ !i :.:
SENS ..... 8lK- LT BlU ::> 0w CD Ill CD Ill
c

0
CD Ill
~ ccI
!:;
I
~
"
mm -
G "1 /

, SlK·l T BLU /
TCU PIN 03 ,
'
MAP SENS
.....
2
COOLANT TEMP SENS .....
-, Kl OK GN· RD
K2 TAN•BLK

BATTERY 3
SENS GROUND
SIG GROUND 5
'-
.....
-' A14 RED
K4 Bll<·LT BLU
Z11 BLK· WMT
1(6 V10-WHT
SENS 6V SUPPLY
~ K7 ORG /
8VSUPPLY
J. VlO

IGN START/ RUN 9


•-
.....
A21 OK BLV
KI OOK BLU- WHT (OR V10)
• IGNITION
•SW
(4.0L, •' Fl

10
PWR STEERI NG SENS .....
7.12 BLK-TAN
-
Wiring Identification
Practice using the information on page 3 to determine signal wires, ground wires
and reference wires in this diagram.

-- I
--- ...I ___ _-- - - - - - - - · --·
(ENG HARN ' (ENG HARN,
I S112
-- •
I


NEAR NEAR BREAK-
BREAKOUT OUT ~ RIGHT :::>
FOR REAR OF ENG __J
CD
C.APACITOR) COMPT) ...,

----- -----
__J
S105
-e 3
- S107
(ENGHARN '
NEAR
- - - - - -- ~
CD
.....

0 __J
:::>
__J
CD
:JCD
:::>
__J
CD 0
:::>
__J
0
w
-
a:: :::>
__J
BREAKOUT
FOR FUEL
CD INJ 5)
:::>
__J __J

:s
:::>
__J
CD 0

-fi:
__J
w ':::; w CD
z ::.:: CD w

-
':::; w ':::; a::
G <
z
f5
S2 (!)
__J a:
0 (!)
S2 (!)
__J a:
0
(!) (!)-
a:: ':i
a:: a:: S2
__J
(!)
a::
(!)
':i
a:: ::.:: S2
__J
__J

-> fi:
CD
0
c ':i
'__J
Si:
CD
z S2
__J
S2
__J
CD CD
0 0 CD 0 0 CD (!) CD f5 CD CD

"' "' . "' ... ... ... "',


("") ("")
·.."'', ,"', ....
~ ~ ~
~, ~, .f', -.."", ... "'·
.•
~

"",• ,,...."',
, ' I' ' I' I' ' ' • I' '

. '
<, <, " ·' . ·' .
~• ~•
~ 'V'v A, A
v y
A A , J\ '\ A
y ., y v " '' v " '"

CAMSHAFT CR.ANKSHAFT THR OTILE MANIFOLD ENGINE OIL ENGINE COOLANT INTAKE.AIR
POSITION SENSOR POSITION POSITION SENSOR .ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TEMPERATURE TEMPERATURE
(ON RIGHT SIDE SENSOR (ON THROTILE POSITION SENSOR SENSOR SENSOR SENSOR
OF ENG, NEAR (ON TRAAISMISSION BODY) (ON SIDEOF (RIGHT REAR (ON THERMOSTAT (IN INT.AKE
OIL FILTER) BELLHOUSI NG) THROTILE BODY) OF ENG BLOCK) HOUSING) MAAllFOLD PLENUM)

6
Signal Circuit Integrity
Testing
0
G Section 10
Purpose

1. To quickly and accurately verify sensor wiring for opens and shorts
without using an ohmmeter.
2. To bypass an engineer written "flow chart" that was never designed for
speed.
3. To prevent the need to access the computer and unplug it to perform
wiring tests.

0
G

2
Using DTCs
This method is used primarily when data stream is not available

• "Circuit high" trouble code


1. Disconnect the suspected faulty sensor.
2. Jump the sensor signal to the sensor ground wire and re-read
codes. If you now have a "circuit low" code then the wiring is good
and there is most likely a sensor problem.
• "Circuit low" trouble code
0 1. Disconnect the suspected faulty sensor.
2. Jump the 5 volt ref. wire to the signal wire using a 5kohm resistor
G and reread codes. If you now have a "circuit high" code then the
wiring is good and there is most likely a sensor problem.
- On some systems it is normal to read high signal voltage with
the sensor unplugged. (see pg. 5)
NOTE: The engine may need to be cranked or started to set DTCs on some
input sensors.

3
Using Scan Data

• Potentiometers, Pressure Sensors


1. Disconnect the sensor and check sensor PIO on data stream.
2. Jump the 5 volt ref. to the signal wire using a 5kohm resistor. (this
step is not needed on some systems, see pg.5)
• Look for sensor PIO to change to near 5 volts.
3. Jump the sensor ground to the signal wire.
0 • Look for sensor PIO to drop to near 0 volts.
NOTE : The engine may need to be started or at least attempted
G to start for scan data sensor PIO to update on some input
sensors.

• Thermistors
1. Disconnect the sensor and check sensor PIO on data stream
• Sensor PIO should read near 5 volts.
2. Jump sensor ground to the signal wire.
• Look for sensor PIO to drop to near 0 volts.

4
PCM
S Valt
Rttullkl

Sensor 12 v
Unplu gged
5

0
Skohm
< Yobu• $9Ming
Clrtu•

ft..
0
11

0 Normal KOEO
sensor PCM
G unplugged
readings •Vall
R19"llM

Sensor 12v
Unplu gged
5 This inte rn al r esis to r
d oes not affect the
V' ~
100ko hm s ig na l vo ltage as lo ng
5 ' as t hese nsor is
Skohm < Yoltave Sensing
CIR:'Ylt plugged in .

0
11

5
Knock Sensor Example

Signal voltage on this


PCM design should be
1.5VDC with the
sensor plugged in and
Knock
5v- 5 vo lts unplugged
{this will be vehicle
sensor
specific)

0
G Internal to the KS is a "bleed" resistor tha t will pull the 5v
reference down a specified amount. The PCM "watches" the
signal circuit for changes in reference voltage that would
indicate an open or shorted condition.

Knock sensor with a 5 volt bias line.


Use this picture with the knock sensor example on page 7.
There is no need to use an ohmmeter to find opens and shorts
is a circuit that uses a bias or reference voltage.
6
Knock Sensor Example
Knock Sensor Scan Data Testing With A Current OTC P0327

Is the knock sensor bad? yes


Is there an open in the signal wire? no
Is the computer bad? No
Understanding circuit design was the key!

0
G
KS unplugged. KOEO with KS plugged in. KOEO
signal wire jumped to ground. and KOER voltage
Signal voltage dropped to rernained @ 4 .86. Spec
under .1 is 1.5
'' 4.86
:f
.II 0.08
KS Sensor 0.18 v
7
Substituted Values
0
0 Section 11
Purpose
• The PCM may substitute scan data PIOs with default values based off of
other inputs. This is also known as "limp home mode". (signal circuit integrity
testing in section 10 may be misleading do to this condition)
• In general only the value of the input is substituted and not the voltage. This
will only occur with a "hard" fault (problem happening right now).
Example:
1. Hard TPS OTC in memory.
Scanner TPS voltage = 0 volts regardless of throttle position .
Scanner TPS 0/o = varies from 0 to 1OOo/o as throttle is opened and
closed
*Notice the 0/o is substituted and not the voltage
0 2. Hard MAF OTC in memory.
Scanner MAF frequency = Ohz regardless of amount of intake air/rpm
G Scanner MAF grams/sec= increases and decreases with airflow and
rpm changes
*Notice the grams/sec is substituted and not the frequency
3. Hard ECT OTC in memory.
Scanner ECT voltage is fixed near 5 volts
Scanner ECT deg . F = 150 deg .
*Notice the deg. F =substituted
NOTE: 08011 data will never show substituted values. ,S ee page §
2
Example of a rare voltage substiiffitibn

Scan data TPS volts doesn't match


~~~~~ and never changed

0 KOEO idle position KOEO while opening

0 Signal voltage
measured at TPS

"Hard DTC" in memory for TPS. Sensor tests good but scan data doesn't respond to any TPS
voltage change.
Is there a signal wire or PCM problem?
3
What test do we oerform next?
After cycling ignition off then baQ2Jk~n ~
Notice the scanner signal now matches actual signal voltage in both pictures.

RPM-----
At'4T' D F •

0 Pr1nt Hold

G
.l

KOEO idle position~ KOEO while disconnAl!t'


- sensor

•.. "
0 .7 6
J
~;t- .96 I

After checking signal wire voltage at the ECM and all ECM powers and grounds
the scanner now reads normal and the OTC does not reset. The picture to the
right is an attempt to recreate a TPS OTC to watch the ECM's response. 4
m'7 ~ ~
Immediately after disconnecting sensor
I
• Look at the response

RPM _____ 1 02CU --


• The ECM has recognized an open
C LRNT a~ _ _ _ _ _ 156 circuit in the TPS
TPS~ _________ 1.25
T-BODY TEMP(U _3.11 • Scan data shows the default
(substituted) value of the TPS
circuit.

0 • This engine needed a new TPS.


The wiring and ECM were fine.
G • If you were not aware of this
condition you may have
condemned a perfectly good
PCM.

5
(Return)

Scan Data with ECT unplugged

OEM Global OBDll

~11 ~~CL£AA l!J C\z~ e. J QJ~~ ~11 ®CLE•Al! l C\z~ e. I Qj~fl


- 0 •

ID:$ 10
104 ENGINESPEED(1/min) 0

0 TPS(V)
~NF SE-B1V
NF Al.PHA-B1rkJ
0.60
0.5
0
ABSOLUTETHROTTLEPOSITION(%)
FUEL SYSTEM1
FUEL SYSTEM2
3.5
OPEN LOOP
G VEHSPEED(MPH) 0 INTAKEAIR TEMPERATURE('~
BATTM 12.2
BIFUEL (MSEC) 0.0 AIR FLOW RATE(g/s)

200111SS.VUl.11M UL 1.4Ill (KA2.q) ,112Ql11f j f~ J • I j02123111 J t?ltp J

Substituted value Actual value


The point with this is you just need to be careful. The global 08011
mod e will never substitute a va lue, but the OEM may. 6
Airflow Sensors
0
0
Section 12
Vane Airflow Meter
(VAF)
• 5 or 7 wire sensor located in front of
the throttle body
• All incoming air must pass thru the
sensor
- Vacuum and air intake tube lea ks
cause major problems on these
systems
• Contains an air measuring plate that
is pivoted by incomi ng air flow
0 -
-
No air flow = plate closes completely
WOT = plate is fully open
0 - Attached to the plate is the pointer of
a potentiometer
- Position of the air plate and pointer
indicate to the PCM exact incoming
air flow
- PCM uses this input to determine
engine load , injector pulse and ign. 4.Z

Timing J.6
J.D
• Contains an intake air temp. sensor 2.4
• May also contain a fuel pump cut off 1.8
.,.,.~-
switch (7 wire only) 1.2
~~
0.6

2
VAF testing
• 5 pin
- Check VAF potentiometer signal
• Signal voltage should follow RPM w ith no glitches or dropouts (compare voltage read ings
with specs)
- The air measuring plate can stick or bind causing incorrect signal voltage to the
PCM.
» To test: KOEO measure signal voltage while manually opening and closing
the air measuring plate. Signal voltage should follow plate movement.
• If signal is out of range or no signal appears (see "Potentiometers" for complete circu it
testing)
- KOEO or KOER
- Check the reference w ire (should be 5 volts) and the ground wire (less tha n 100
mv).
0 - Check the signal wire for opens and shorts. (refer to Signal Circuit lntegrit~
Testing)
- If above checks are good, replace the sensor
G - Check VAF intake air temp signal
• See "1Thermistors1' for complete circuit testing
• 7 pin (Toyota)
- Testing the VAF pot. signal and IAT signals is exactly the same as the 5 wire type
- The extra 2 wires are part of a fuel pump cut off switch which shuts down the fuel pump if the
engine stalls.
• Air plate fully closed = FP switch opens
• Air plate in any other position but closed (any RPM above 250) = FP
switch stays closed
• With engine running , both FP switch wires should read 0 volts. KOEO one wire should
read 12 volts and the other should read 0 volts.
3
Early Model Toyota VAF
FP cut-off
switch

AIRFLOW MEtEA CIRCUIT OPENlllQ "ELAY REI A.Y aox "2 (PARTIAIJ
-• - - I EFI MA.JN R.EU.Y

.

'
I I '
-
- -- l - - ~ ,>
> 11A
I I
' EFtFUN
Ill fl I I
~ ""

171 l sJ l•I l'I llltl I z I I t I 14'1 l• l I3 I


0 0
w
a::
'
.J
0
w
a:I
=> :cs a ·!
~
G
~
m

·~~~
ii~i
, ..,. #!PIN le
- _,,_....., (NIN FUH)

1 t t t I\
IAT Sensor
Signal ground
(shared)
' '
VAF
Signal
Sv
Ref.
Hot in
run
FP
terminal
on DLC
Hot in
crank
position
only

4
m'7 ~ ~
Mass Airflow Sensor (MAF)
• Description and operation GM Hot-Wire MAF Sensor
• Hot wire type
Conta ins a heated resistor (hot-wire) that is
maintained at a predetermined temp. above
ambient temp.
As air flow increases the current required to
maintain hot-wire temp . also increases. This
increasing current is converted to a signal
and sent to the PCM as a measurement of
mass air flow .
• Signal can be analog or digital
As with a VAF, all incoming air must pass
0 th ru the sensor. Vacuum lea ks and air intake
tube problems will cause "un-metered" air to
enter the engine causing mild to severe lean
G a/f ratio problems .
Unique to the hot-wire MAF is problems with
contaminates . Dirt, dust, pollen and PCV
gases cause the hot-wire to become "dirty"
which acts as an insulator covering the hot-
wire causing the MAF signal to be wrong
under all conditions .
• Causes lean running conditions Air ensing
(symptoms noticed more when engine Passage
is cold)

If this is a " honeycomb" type


screen, DO NOT TOUCH IT! MAF 5
Scan Data MAF Testing
• Look at MAF signal (voltage or frequency)
• Look at MAF grams/sec (th is is the signals converted value)
• Ford - look at BARO HZ (lower than normal HZ = possible dirty MAF). Sea level readings
should be near 160HZ. Barometric pressure is calculated off of the MAF at WOT.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h5KAHv4 7viw (Using Fuel Trim data to determ ine type of
lean condition)
1. Check at idle and WOT (redline)
2. May need to test drive for the WOT test if scan data baud rate is slow
• Pay close attention to the WOT redline values
• Look for near 150 grams/sec for most GMs and Fords (some systems will be less
than th is. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hmt LNJ9Gkl (Toyota Dirty MAF)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-5L5tp4NDqO (Cracked air intake tube)
• Ford, Nissan, and Toyota signal voltage should go over 4 volts

0 • GM frequency should increase to 8,500 HZ or more


(see pages 1Q, 12. and .Ll. for case stud ies)
3. Check 02 mv at WOT (test drive)
G • 02 should read rich (800 mv +) if the MAF is clean
• 02 indicates lean then possible dirty MAF or other fuel delivery problems
4. Check fuel trim
• Generally a dirty MAF will have normal fuel trim numbers at id le and higher than
normal (positive) fuel trim numbers with higher RPMs
• On occasion a dirty MAF can over estimate air-flow at idle . The contaminants cause
an increase in surface area , which under low airflow conditions cause a greater heat
transfer. The PCM "sees" higher airflow so it provides more fuel. This causes the
fuel trim at idle to be negative.
5. Can try the unplug it test if the signal is out of range . If the eng ine runs good with MAF
unplugged = suspect faulty MAF
• The above test is NOT always accurate. Some systems do not provide good back-
up strateg ies for MAF failures . (N issan , Toyota, Subaru) 6
Scope Testing MAF Sensor~~~ ~
• Digital Type
• To determine if the MAF sensor is dirty you must measu re peak frequency .
• Peak frequency is best measured using a graphing multimeter (Snap-on Vantage,
Picoscope 4000 series) which allows the digital signal to be converted to analog for easier
measurements. (see page 11)
1. Measu re signal frequency at idle and WOT redline (see examples)
Look for over 8500 HZ at WOT (newer GMs)
If frequency is low then remove sensor and inspect hot wire for contaminants
(see picture on pg. 14)
Clean with brake cleaner and a soft paint brush (hot-wire type only) - BE
CAREFUL! Do not clean any other type of MAF sensor with brake or carb .
cleaner!
http://www.youtube .com/watch?v=h5KAHv47viw (Digital MAF test with

0 •
1.
Picoscope)
If signal is out of range or no signal appears
Measu re MAF power feed KOEO or KOER
G Should be near 12v
2. Measure MAF ground KOEO or KOER
Should be less than 100 mv
3. GM only, disconnect the MAF sensor and measure signal voltage harness side w ith
the KOEO
Should read 5 volts
The PCM sends 5 volts down the signal wire to the sensor and the sensor
pulls it to ground to create "square wave" signal. (see switch inputs for more
details)
If no voltage you have a PCM or a signal wire problem , NOT a MAF sensor
problem.
http://www .youtube .com/watch ?v=p2QLxxstRn8
7
http://www.youtube .com/watch?v=E8sBg7kMbOw
8
Scope Testing MAF Sensom"
• Analog Type
• To determine if the MAF sensor is dirty you must measu re peak voltage
1. Measu re signal voltage at idle and WOT redline (see examples on pg. 1...§. and 1§.)
Look for over 4 volts at WOT (Ford, Nissan, Toyota)
If voltage is low then remove sensor and inspect hot wire for contam inants (see
picture on pg . 14)
Clea n with bra ke cleaner and a soft paint brush - BE CAREFU L! Do not clean
any other type of MAF sensor with bra ke or carb. cleaner!
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H mt LNJ9Gk I
• If signal is out of range or no signal appea rs
1. Measu re MAF power feed KOEO or KO ER
Should be near 12v
0 2. Measure MAF grou nd KOEO or KOER
May be more tha n one grou nd
G Ford uses two grounds . It has an MAF ground and a PCM ground . The PCM
gets its ground th rough the MAF sensor . This is important to know when
performing signal circu it integrity testing because the PCM w ill not respond
to any test with the MAF sensor unpl ugged .
All grounds should be less than 100 mv
Some MAF sensors conta in an internal intake air temperature sensor identified by the
number of w ires .
1. Ford 4 wire = MAF signal , MAF ground , PCM ground, MAF power feed .
2. Ford 5 or 6 wire= MAF signal , MAF ground, PCM ground , MAF power feed, IAT
signal , and IAT signal return (which may be sha red w ith another ground wh ich would
eliminate one wire)
3. Testing this IAT sensor is no different than any other therm istor
8
m <=>
'V """"'
-~
o.

MAF signal low with good MAF senSor


• Vehicle exhibits similar symptoms as a dirty MAF sensor however the
sensor is clean. (Ford BARO HZ will also be lower than normal)
1. Plugged exhaust
• If the engine cannot "exhale" it cannot "inhale" so intake air volume will
be low under all conditions.
• A quick test to identify this condition is test drive at WOT and watch
02mv
02mv fixed rich (over 800mv) at WOT suspect plugged exhaust
02mv fixed lean (under 1OOmv) at WOT suspect low fuel pressure
0 2.

Intake restriction
This condition will show a weak/low MAF signal no matter how you test
G .. .,-
it.
,.~ MAF OTC with good MAF sensor
Usually sets a "range/performance" code and
( may be caused by the following:
1. TPS problem
2. Vacuum or air intake leak
3. Oil cap or dipstick problems
4. PCV system leaks
5. Dirty/plugged air cleaner
9
(Return)

Digital MAF Sensor Case Study


97 B uick LeSabre
3800 series II
3 wire sensor
Scan Data Dirty MAF Clean MAF

• 1997 BUICK AJC • 1997 BUICK AJC


• 3.8L V6 BUICK SFI A/T • 3.8L V6 BUICK SFI A/T
0
• RPM_5699 TPS(V)_ 4.22 TPS( /o) 100 • RPM_5530 TPS(V)_ 4.22 TPS( 0/o) 100
• OPEN/CLSD LOOP_OPEN • OPEN/CLSD LOOP_OPEN
• 02 B1-51 (mV) 17 02 B1-S2(mV) 35 • 02 81-51 (mV) 946 02 B1-S2(mV) 942

0 •

ST TRIM(o/o}
MAF(gm/Sec)
0 LT TRIM(0/o}
84.1 MAF(Hz)
16
7473


ST TRIM(%}
MAF(gm/Sec)
0 LT TRIM( 0/o}
143.0 MAF(Hz)
16
8886

0 •

MAP(V}
BARO(V)
4.43 MAP("Hg}
4.64 BARO("Hg)
27.8
29.0


MAP(V}
BARO(V)
4.49 MAP("Hg}
4.64 BARO("Hg)
28.1
29.0
• COOLANT(°F) 151 INTAKE AIR(°F) 63 • COOLANT(°F) 203 INTAKE AIR(°F) 77
• IAC POSITION 120 DESIRED IDLE 775 • IAC POSITION 95 DESIRED IDLE 600
• INJ PW(mS) 11.4 FT CELL 4 • INJ PW(mS) 19.6 FT CELL 4

10
(Return)

Digital MAF Sensor Case Study (cont.)


97 B uick L..:::e-=S-=a""b""'re::;.._ _ _ _~--------
3800 seri es II I I
I I
3 wire sensor I
I 10k I
I 10k
I I
Scope Captures I
I I
I I
I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I
I I

WOT snap w ith clean
WOT snap with dirty
MAF 0 MAF 0

0 6.72k 6.84kHz 8.32k 8.52kHz

G I
I
I 10k
I
I

Digital Waveform Graphed digital waveform at


.. idle both before and after
at idle .:
... =
cleaning no change/
.. I ..•
.. I
..
• ..
..•
... 0
.
I
I ...
I . -1 2 .40k 2 .41 k Hz
5.01V 5.01VDC
11
I I
lni PWM Avg Bank 1 I I
I I

Before lni PWM Avg Bank 2 14.47 =ec


cleaning MAF 4829
sensor
rpm 0

868

ensOf v m 22
(Return)
894

ensor v 22

7665

requency z 21 15
2000 Chevy l l l 25
S-10 4.3L 3 .9
- . .
e Study

lni PWM Avg Bank 1 msec

488 4
fter cleaning
MAF senor rpm 634

981
56

994
87

8572

requency z 2429

154 23
12
s 5 .33
••• 5460 -

• '
Before ~ ngine Speea rpm 745

cleaning MAF ••• 898


n .ri
~


sensor • ~

IRl! ,,; ~ en•or l ICMl J:) m\I 22

• ~
1 4 31



ntPul• e...?ldih 10.74 msec 4 12
(Return}
• 7859 .9
• •••

MAI" frequency t=::l.9 Hz 28091

•••
.... 103 69
• •

Mat t All flow 1W.t>ll al•
6 45

••• 416
••
4.16 43
1r ~ enscwv

. . . . .. WOT -.. Redline RPM -


0 I~ ng1n e Speed



••
" \
rpm
5506

747

CD t--.
••
••

916

17 ~

After cleaning ~ensor 1 Volt 898 mV


MAF senor •• 19.68
I ••
n1 Pulse Width 18. 16 msec 2.84
•• 8783.7
••
I •
Frequency 8783.7 Hz 2821.8
;;;
•• 144 93


Mass Alf 1!'iO: 144.93 g/s 6.58

• 4.16
•••

11" Semorv 4.16 v 0.43
.. . . .. - ..
. 13
(Return> Clean I Dirty Hot Wire

14
m'7 ~ ~
Analog MAF Sensor Scope Testing
(Return)
Known Good 94 mustang 5.0 Known Good 96 altima 2.4
5
1:::::::::-1.::tru· 4.04 v ;:~~r:~s: ... 0.12 v ns 1. 49 Hz

4
Initial peak

Initial pe~
3 3

z
I~
.
z
1 ,,._1,_, , ,,_......... . . ., __ .......... ~, ..... .
1 .
.
i-.,.......,..,,.~,___,.,.._,...,.,
Initial peak was s lightly low, however there
where no drivability problems on this engine

0 0
0
<'....... 11 r~-·' I n .. •••-""•-•-1 ~.... t .. !£......_ I t\tuti•
5
J run~nw

G • The goa l in these captures is to see peak MAF voltage . Performed during a rapid WOT
snap to red line.
• Record both initia l peak voltage and red line peak voltage.
• To see peak MAF voltage
1. KOER with a hot engine at idle
2. Snap to WOT redline as fast as possible
3. A llow engine to fully return to idle (empty the man ifold of pressure)
4. Re-snap throttle again to red li ne
5. Record initial peak voltage and redline peak voltage
15
Analog MAF Sensor Scope Testing
(Return)
96 contour 2.0, dirt MAF 5 . ................. 96 C.C>.llt.C>ur after c leaning
,..---.,.-------""-,---""----~
.
. . ... . . . . ' . . . ..
. . ..
4 . .~ ,__
IM_a_tc_h_in_it_ia_l_v_o,...
lt_ a_
ge
_ sp
_1_
'k_e_h_e_
re_-.--~ 4 . ·: · : · · ·· ·· · · · · ( MMJ.:a~,,11~1d&i~\w~
m\~"·lf~'frlrf1T•'I'"
~. /
., : .. . . . , ..
3 3 . .. ·i · ~ ····· 1 ....• ' ;· ...• : . . . ..
..
. .
2 . . .:
: :

1 . .... .. . . . . . . . . .. .
. .
.' .......
0
'

G • The goa l in these captures is to see peak MAF voltage . Performed during a rapid WOT
snap .
• Because this engine has a rev. limiter achieving redline in park is not possible
• To see peak MAF voltage on an engine with a rev. limiter you must do the following :
1. KOER with a hot engine at idle
2. Snap to WOT as fast as possible
3. A llow engine to fully return to idle (empty the manifold of pressure)
4. Re-snap throttle again
5. Record initia l peak voltage
16
Digital MAF Scope Test
Digital Waveform Graphed Digital Waveform

' ' ' ' '


6········· ······················~··· ············~············· ··················:········ ·······~···············:·· ·····
'
'' 1
'
'' :
'
'

'
''
'
'' ' 10k


"•

0 ' ···························
·2········ ·······················~···
'
.
'
'
'
'

.
'
'
'
..
'
·'- ··············"'········· '
'
'''
' ····
··························
'

'
'
'
'''
'
.
'
'
''
''
I
I
I
I
I 0
G . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J' ••••••••••••••• 1 ••••••••••••••• 1. •••••••••••••• J'••••••••••••••• 1' .......................
~
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
.

' ' ' ' '

0 10 20
'
30
'
40 50
'
·6·······························~···············~·······························'···············~···············~·······
60
'
70
'
2.41k 2.46kHz
chA: fre uen kHz 2.037
10s

Notice the glitches in both pictures. Most of the time capturing a glitch in a digital signal is
easier when using a graphing multimeter like the picture to the right. (taken with a snap-on
vantage)
However this MAF sensor was so bad that you could actually see the glitch in the digital
waveform as well.

17
TytJes Of Fuel Injection
0
G Section 13
Two Main Types Of Fuel Injection

• Throttle body fuel injection • Multi-Port Fuel Injection (MPFI)


(TBI) - Sprays fuel at the back of the
- Sprays fuel above the throttle intake valve
plate One injector for each cylinder
One or two injectors for the High psi systems
entire engine
• 30 to 65 psi is typical
Can be low (9-1 Spsi) or high
• Helps prevent vapor lock
psi systems
0 • Some of the low psi
systems had vapor lock
- Intake is designed to carry air
only (better air flow, can be
made of lightweight material)
G problems on a hot re-start
- EFE (early fuel evaporation)
Intake is designed to carry air
systems not needed
and fuel
- Manifold tuning valves were added
- EFE (early fuel evaporation) on some intake manifolds to
systems were still used on improve low and high RPM airflow.
some Called Intake Manifold Runner
Controls (IMRC) (see pg. 3)
• These are monitored systems
using vacuum or electric
controls and position sensors.
2
Intake Manifold Runner Control (IMRC)

IMRC valve closed at low RPMs IMRC valve open at high RPMs

0
CD

3
Injector Location

TBI MPFI
Fuel is sprayed in an
Fuel is sprayed in an
atmospheric
atmospheric and
environment WIRING CONNECTOR
Fuel metering vacuum environment tTO COMPUTER)
FUEL RAIL
cover FUEL INJECTOR
(NOZZLE)

Fuel

0 metering
-,,,,,,A=~ body

0
AIR ONLY

INJECTOR
SPRAY
PATIE RN

Injecto r balance testing (see Fuel


Visual injector spray pattern testing can Injector Testing section) is done to
be done on TBI systems to check for check for flow problems. Visual 4
flow problems inspection is not easily or safely done.
Injector Designs
Mechanical Injector Electronic Injector

WIRING
Fuel line TERMINAL
connection 0-ring
COIL

I
PLUNGER WINOINGS ().RING
NEEOLE SEAL
VALVE

Filter

0 Spring
PLUNGER Sl'RING
!CLOSES NEEDLE
VALVE!
COIL
WINDINGS

G Spring loaded closed


If the inlet screen becomes restricted
Calibrated to open at a specific fuel psi
with debris, no amount of injector
• Fuel pressure is what opens the injector.
cleaner will remove it. To fix this
Injector flow is controlled by varying fuel psi
problem, remove the injector and blow
• Bosch CIS (continuous injection system) compressed shop air through the
• GM Vortec poppet nozzles injector in the reverse direction of fuel
2. Electronic flow or replace the injector.
Spring loaded closed
Electromagnetic field over comes spring psi to open the injector pintle.
Injector flow is controlled by varying the amount of time the injector solenoid is
energized. This is known as the injector pulse width. s
Multiport Injector Sequenc~·fFI~
What happens with one
shorted fuel injector?

1. Pair fired -------------------------------------------- Two cylinder misfire


One driver for two injectors
2. Bank fired ------------------------------------------ Entire bank misfire
One driver for each cylinder head
3. Group fired ----------------------------------------- No Sta rt
https:/lwww. you tube.com/watch ?v=KF9viLxwJ Nc

0 https:/lwww. youtube.com/watch ?v=3g TL Y6vsxMg


https:/lwww.youtube.com/watch ?v=vmutNjx 7QD Y See Fuel Injector Testing
section for more details
G One driver for the entire engine
4. Sequential fired ----------------------------------- Single Cylinder Misfire
One driver for each injector
To determine injection design, look at a wiring diagram and count the number of injector
control wires. If there is a separate control wire for each injector it is a sequential type
system. See example on the next page.
Note: Early GMs used two control wires for their V6 and VB engines. Although these
looked like a bank fired system they were actually group fired. (One driver for the entire
engine)
Bank Fired System Sequential Fired
System PCM
To ES
If one injector shorts none of the
IGN ---4\J------- injectors will fire on this bank. This is
because the transistor will enter
current limiting mode to protect itself
which causes the other injectors to
not function.

INJ 1
fuse

0
IGN

INJ 2
fuse
0 PCM fuse
One transistor -~ B4 EST
(10 A)
"driver" for
each bank c One transistor
es Refere....., 6 separate cont ~

. B "driver" for
wires ~

each cylinder
Computer
Two control wires
Controlled
Coil Ignition
Set timing (C31) module
connector

7
Other Injection Designs
Bosch Continuous Injection GM Central Port Injection
System (CIS) (CPI) Half electrical half
mechanical system
Fuel
Throttle Plate Distributor

Poppet Valve

0
0
Injector Fuel
Control
Plunger
lnje or
Cylinder Head Air Sensor
Plate
CFI
Air Sensor
Ann
Fuel pressure must be at least SO psi to force open
the poppet nozzles so a no start condition will occur
with less than SO psi . Normal operating pressure is
SS-6S, with psi being closer to 6S during cranking. 8
Fuel Delivery Designs
0
G Section 14
Introduction

The main purpose in understanding fuel delivery designs is in troubleshooting


fuel pressure problems. There are design differences that will a affect your
approach and direction .
For example with a no fuel pressure problem , you would treat the mechanical
return and mechanical returnless systems the same. However the electronic
returnless system has more components that must be checked before
condemning a bad fuel pump.
0
G

2
Mechanical Return Type
Fuel loop
V.t<'''''''
St.llll t.t~

Press Lire
Ga Lige
Pr essL1re
1 -...... RegLiln ror

0 FL1el
Fi I rer
R etLI r11
Li 11 e
0 I 11jec rors

l11le;>I

3
Mechanical Returnless m~

Pressure Pressure
G.1uge G.1uge

0 Fuel
Fi lrer
Fuel
Filter/Psi
Regulator
G lnjecrors Injecrors

Fuel Pressure Regulator

Fud rump rud Pump

lult'I
Fuel Tank

Technically there is still a return , its just not


attached to the fuel rail. 4
Electronic Return less ffivr ~

PCM
Monitors and controls
PressL1re fuel rail pressure
G<1L1ge

Fuel Pressur
Sensor

Pulse width modulates


0 FL1 el
Fi Irer D FuelPu mp
Driver Module
the pump based on PCM
command
0 I 11jec t ors

Vari able S peed

lt1lt.'l
tT.11 llt'I

5
Major Components Of The Fuel ~§iterfiJ ~
• Fuel Pump
- Capable of around 2 times system psi.
- Contains a one-way check valve to prevent fuel from running back to the tan k
• Pulsator
Eliminates pressu re pulses created by the fuel pump and injectors.
Located in the tank or on the fuel rail
• Psi Line
- Should have equal psi all the way thoug h it
- Starts at the FP and ends at the psi reg . (Return type only)
- Always contains the fuel filter
• Injectors
Have a constant supply of fuel under pressure which must be maintained under all

0 •
conditions
Fuel Rail
Holds the fuel injectors
G - Contains the psi. reg. (Return type only)
- Contains a fuel pressu re sensor (Electronic return less only}
• Pressure Regulator
Determines system psi. by opening and closing a "dump" port to the return line.
- Closed =psi increases
- Open =psi decreases
- Vacuum assist regulator has roug hly a 10 psi difference from no vacuum to full vacuum
Located on the fuel ra il, in the fuel tan k, or as pa rt of the fuel filter
• Return Line
Retu rns fuel to the tank, un-pressu rized
• In Tank Strainer
Filters out any debris in the fuel tank before it enters the fuel pump 6
Typical Electric Fuel Pump

Note the pump check valve


which closes and prevents fuel
from running back into the tank
through the pressure line on
shut down.

0
0

7
Pu lsator/Dam pen er

• The Pulsator is also known as a pulse


Fuel out
dampener
• Can be located in the fuel tank or on
the fuel rail itself.
• Dampeners mounted on the fuel rail Pulsator
may have a vacuum hose attached to ••••. 1/4" G ap
.....
it wh ich prevents fuel spillage in the

0 case of a torn diaphragm. These look


like and can be mistaken for a fuel Fuel

0 pressure regulator. pump Diaphragm

- To determine if a rail mounted


component is a pulsator or a Fuel from
Fuel inlet outlet of pump
pressure regulator, check to see Strainer/filter
if there is a return line. If there is
no return line then it is NOT a
fuel pressure regulator.

8
Typical Vacuum Type Fuel P~s'Sur® ~ 0

Regulator
A leak here will
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - cause long crank
times and rich

No Vacuum Vacuumexhaust conditions

Applied Applied-

0
G
A leak here
will just
cause a long
crank time
due to rest
pressure not
holding
There are two places a regulator can leak. The diaphragm and the seat
area. 9
Fuel Pump Electrical
Circuits
0 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rqtfrx-HeDO

G Section 15
• Fuel pump operation m'V Ff
During initial key on , the PCM will energize the fuel pump relay for 1-2 seconds on
f$?A1
most systems . After this event the pump w ill shut off until the PCM receives an RPM
signal. This is a safety feature designed into the fuel pump circuit. Fuel pumps should
NEVER run continuously with just the key on . There must be a RPM signa l with the
exception of the 7-wire VAF design early Toyotas used.
• Common components
1. Chrysler ASD Relay (Auto Shutdown Relay) (see page 3)
1. Provides power to Fuel pump , 02 heater, Ignition coil , Injectors, Alternator field.
2. Newer systems used a separate ASD and Fuel Pump Relay, however the PCM
controls both with the same driver.
2. Ford EEC Pow er Relay (Electronic Engine Control) (see page 4)
1. Controls power to injectors , MAF, ignition coil(s), PCM , control side of fuel pump
relay, and various solenoids .
2. The control side of this relay is grounded all the time and fed power from the
ignition switch (non computer controlled relay) which takes the load off of the

0 3.
ignition switch run circuit.
Inertia switch (see page 5)
1. Interrupts power feed to the fuel pump in case of an accident. Ford and Hyundai
G use these devices extensively.
4. GM oil pressure switch (see page 6)
1. Is used as a bypass to provide power to the fuel pump in case of fuel pump relay
failure . Not to shut the fuel pump off if oil pressure is low!
2. Contains a hydraulic switch that closes above 4 psi of oil pressure.
3. If the FP relay fails, the car will have extremely long crank times, especially cold.
4. The fuel pump CANNOT be disabled on these systems by unplugging the FP
relay.
5. Circuit opening relay (see page 7)
1. Used by Toyota to control the fuel pump.
2. Contains two separate control circuits . One is energized during cranking and the 2
other when the engine is running . Th is relay was developed originally because
the ECM did NOT control the relay. The VAF did.
(Return)
Chrysler ASD Relay

ASD Relay~ Fused B+

PCM

~-- Power to:


0 6
Injectors
_ _ _ _ _.. 02 Heaters
Ignition Coils
G Generator
Fuel Pump (older designs)

What's important to remember when dealing with Chryslers, is the power to the
injectors and ignition coil(s) will NOT be there with just the key on. These circuits
are tied into the fuel pump circuit and operate off of the same principles. There
must be an RPM signal for this relay to stay energized.

3
(Return) Ford Fuel Pump Diagra r1W~
HOT IN START OR RUN
HOT AT ALL TIMES
18
FUSE 0: FUSE
O BLOCK o LINK
~:::J > POWER AC INPUT S151
DI 361

I
":I'!
0 R

840 I RfT z
361 R FROM
C222 A/CHEATER
640 I RfY

I{-- -3 l~~ITY
37 y
347ilBK/Y

Il
I
640 RfY H C105 C126

TACHOMETER 940 RfY


WARNING 1
1
381 R 787~K/BK 361 R

INDICATORS
UPSHIFT
1

37 y
:rr.
787Ji"K/BK
C256
97 TILG
361 R
I
INDICATOR 1
I
940 I RfY C300 347 : BK 347 : BK/Y

TI
I

0
787 PK/BK 1
C254 C255 C254
INERTIA~ - ~·- - -
I
I}-------}l!~~A\R SWITCHI 19
OPENS
ON
11
SOLID STATE
12 2

J
0 T
I
IMPACTL 1_ ....!.. - - -
ELECTRONIC
CONTROL
ASSEMBLY
I 57 BK
EEC
POWER DIODE
787 PK/BK
RELAY
57: BK 57 BK

I ELECTRIC
57 BK
I FUEL
I T PUMP
L-~-..:
S~1S-3~~~~~B~K~~__J
57

f S153 S7IBK BATTERY


57 BK

57: BK

I SEE GROUND
t
571 BK
fi7
BK
57 BK
C125

AT RIGHT 4
.A. GRD .*.0101 G107
(Return)
Inertia Switch
Open
Don't forget to check this
device when you have a no Closed - .... , ·-------...- switch
fuel pressure problem from switch - --- - Lever
no power to the fuel pump.
0
Overcentering _.;..- Ball
spring

0 Electrical~
contacts Magnet
0
0

Terminals

5
(Return) ffiV'~ @~ ID
GM Fuel Pump Circuit with Oil Pressure S-witch

- Fuel Pump
Relay

0 To Oil
Light/ ---·
Gauge
0
Hydraulic
switch that - -
closes with 4 Fuel Pump
psi of oil psi Test Lead

-
6
(Return) Toyota Fuel Pump Circuw~~
KOE O, jump these two pins
together to force the fuel pump to
run
_, ~ ~ §fl3:£
EFI 1111~1 M ein Relay
15 A /
- ~

- 8
'- _.... '" I I
Oaca Link Connect or 1

lGN Fuol Pump


lgn 11on S\vrtc h 75 A -•
-
~ ~r
AM2
11 ·2 Clu tch Stan
-
AM 1 -
- I , Sw itch (M IT)
-
•AM1 *B
0 AM2
JOA
40 A

~ ALT
- "o
Park/ Neutral -
-...--
....
-
~
FP

Cucu•I
Opening
0 '
100 A
Pos111on SWJtch
--- Rolav
ST MAIN STA E1 FC
MAIN 30 A
FL To ECM IFCJ
l : Start01 or VAF on older
j ) Relay
T systems
• Bateery
.,._
- -
-- -- •
ST
10 A --
-- ---
7
1992 Jeep Cherokee Fuel Pump Circuit

With the engine


cranking or running the
:LLJ'~':,> ASD and Fuel Pump
Relavs

will be
energized


Too only pt1rpose for 1his destgn
was to reduce the noise of the fuel .....
•;;.;W
;;;;.c......, - ~'""-"D _1_~•:.tiDll.D ~~
T •tL LTS) C'00....'4 C..C)
"
pump. During cranking and WOT the GMO>UNO I LM»*W •109

0 fuel pump was provided full battery


voltage. All other times voltage v1as
reduced through die ballast resistor.
OOw...) ~MIS&OK•91
N SzEb O

G This was a poor design and only -+...a..~~----.:::"":.:z::•:.,...tto:::.:::._:..:


1..1secl In a fev1 years. •
°"" • u.J
'--+--+--ti--..:;-..::..:=:..~ ...-r
aCL.a~• -EL~K
ViltlT
CllCC-- au<
••• I A8T
. . . . . .'T1Qft

~Vilh the Ballast Resistor Relay


To 02 Heaier • , off lhe fuel pump ii; Jed pm\-er
• lhrough 'he ballast resistor
• mich drops volt.age to 11ie
pump. VV!th this relay on, lhe
balatit resistor i!!. bypassed
and the pump is supplied ful
battery voltage
8
mV'~ @
1997 Pontiac Grand Prix 3800 VIN 1 Engine Fuel Pump
Circuit

~------ --- ~~~--- ----


PUMP
With both relays
l FU SE.,___ __
1C>A (
_
"on", the fuel pump
is fed power
through the resistor.
With just the fuel
LTGRN A(!?-~ l pump relay "on",

GRY B-{ I?--'


I 2 J--0 Ii~i:.;C>NT the resistor is
bypassed and full
0 FUEL PUMP
RESISTOR L ... 1..-
z
- -
- 3
""'- ~
--
c;
- :s;~L..-.I_
s;;: __,o
_ll
~"T~
_ ,.L _. 1 ~
..,....e ,,,. r.> /
battery voltage is
applied .
0 (RIGHT FRONT
FRAMER.All,
FUeL
PUM~
PRlrvtE ~ ~
~
~
""'
~
<O
l2~
~ ll,.Q
1~~
ca-.
~ .._
FORWARD OF ~ .... !::> !::>

...
::R rvt f'tA.L &
FR ON T\MiEE~ .....
- ..
• .e.r:~------~-----+------:------4-----1--4--'

-

n~M Y
~

,___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
~ __ .._..~R V

PCM control -...-.


5t._!,~~RN
,..______________,. __ ,_ ,_ ---- GR'( 8 L- ---,
C I
I M I
11
1-I_ __ BU<
_~ c( I :
PCM control Ln.e:_F\.I~
ruEL 'IAllK

9
1998 Pontiac Bonneville 3800 VIN 1 Engine tlJaiM:>urrii] ~ · 0

Circuit
This is an updated version of the last example with the
resistor being eliminated . This is still a variable speed FRct-1Fl.El.J\Jl\f'
pump using PWM principles. FUSE&
f Ul:i. (DIAGAA\4 1Cf 41
...J
Pl.Ml:l
a..~z
~
:::>
,.:;a..
11.
c..
~
a..
(L.

--
:II
Q.
..JO
)I
::> 0
IL 0
c~mcx.
MCOULf
(\Im 1)
IP - - - ~
JUt>CTION I ~
------------
...J ~
~ ~b ~J: w
...J S'
(FRCHT !HT [10CV I ...
... i ...... ~~
,
11.l
_w
1:1 ... ...J SIDE~ I .----..--------,..--. I
.;• ~
...
•..J LUG(IA';E 'i ' FLIS I
':.::" rr~em I ________ (::: I
ID Cl)

~ z > iil £in I •.


[Bl:!fMl LEf en ..,
11:
~ I
0
rl.
14CI< Pllt~a 0 e 0
..."' ·-..."' ...._~-----.'---' I
TRIM A.J.TE)
~1{1]
~
~ ..
~
~l
(Ill

-
I .a
----
_m _ _ _ _ I
-
G
~ I
T "1N 1 ,!., VINY.
ct
I ...~
-r--- u
2
r \

~I ~I
Ill 0

mI I M I • S273
I LFUElF\JhP~
'- - - ~ •. - l~L!A'T~ ~ i: -
C~C.,rut ~I (FRONTOFENJ,I
I D(MfR SfCIRINI
-!- G125
,~or...A u -
t
PCM control signal
10
2002 Ford Taurus Electronic Returnless FuWS~ter® ~ .o
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - · · - - -,a,... l 't'MY INlllt'llAAICL
l'\JCl fU,. 6 I .11.•..:-nOP< llflll'Ofr
~ • " "CH

----- -\ l'ICLA~
"''"""'
SJA
1 •C9<
1~•10
I ""°~
-'
..
• . 'ra.~~fA
-UAllll.)
..-"' ,.. ... -~
. .r. . :
..
0

·1- --..! .. --i.. ---- -; ---J <


--- .,. - -
22 f ,
L
~ ::i ji

..• -•• ""


.........." ' 7 'ii
~
--3 i:
......,. , ® - -
2 •
- -·---· ~

- "'s .:,
,;r
• • tA ;
.. ,
o .,
(ON:A~llle •- t- ~

-"" ----
~
~
!<
I! ~
I -
r: .j_ •CA or nin.~ .....~ ~ 1 : e

- -
~

"•• 010?
".
l ai3l
- - ;;;

-
• - !51
(Uf'T MCAA 0 r 0«11. . CQl.Jl>T)
-"'
'''"°
~

~
--+
OOCk.ll;G
r"'1l,l1'Tf}"
-· g:oo~~

a>
lbWTrf•011t
I r OolOltC c i;.A'T) !ICE
I C0>..9Tj ~-£

-
-
• •4•::U OBH 1 ••
'
I
• ,. 1'11!0 , Pm
'
u t»'"~
• .
..'
~
Ut o.Mt.w.'HT

"'"~'"
,,..,_.o 0
C.'4..
.....
.. ,
~.......,

~
. _.... (!O
..... ,

I I II
0 Fuel Pressure Sensor (Electronic Retumless Fuel System)
~
I l i I

G Electronic rctunlless fuel system docs oot me a f'ud pressure regulator Electronic rctumlcss fuel svstcm uses a Fuel Rail Pressure (FRP) SCllSor to sense fuel Jl!C$SU!'C
FRP sensor is locmed in fud injet:tion ~ly mruiifold as~o!Ulbly. FRP ~ iapttt sigpal is used by tht PCM to vary tht duty cyclt output ro ~ Fud Pump Dri\'cr
.Module (FPO~ to compensate for \'aryiog loads. FPO~ thto modulates voltage to fud pump to achle\-e proper fuel prtSS\11~ Engioe Fuel Tewpmll.A't (EFI) sa1SOf
input sigaal ls ilho U5td by PC.M to vary fuel prtssure to a\'oid fuel systtw vapoiiwion..
http ://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rwve61Xri04 (Part 1)
Fuel Rilll Pulu Dilm~r
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u3421RRJ5bk&feature=relmfu (Part 2)
NOTE: Fuel rail pulse damper used on mechanlcal returnless fuel systems should not be confused with a fuel pressure
regulator. Both are vlsually slmnar, but the fuel rail pulse damper does not regulate fuel pressure. Damper Is used to
reduce fuel system noise.

Fuel rail pubc ~is kx:atcd on tht fuel ln)('l;tion supply II1ilWfold Bild reducCl fuel system noise call5Cd by the pulsmg of fuel injectors \'aarum PQft OD f'ud rail pul:ic
d.'!lllpCI' is coonectcd to manifold \"aCUIJlll to avoid fud spillage ifd"mpo:r diiipbrngm ruptures.
11
2000 Ford Contour Electronic Returnl~'7s9=ue'1 ~·
0

System
FUSE
----------------,
FUSE FUSE
11 41
I
9 I
20A 20A 15A
1 3 2 3
I
I
POv1 FUEL I
PO\ll.ER P LtvP
RELAY RELAY I
3:---- I
I
2 5 1 5 I
---- ---- ----- -- ______ J
C>
u.J
a::
~
...
::.:
~
~
u.J
~
=
a::
...
::.:
~
::::>
~

Ee
=
a:: =
(!)
a::
Q
a:: a::
(!) (!) (!)

0
(!)

S3003 •

G Fue l P ump Module Control


and F-dbaek S i gnals. Botti
of t h e - ~res go to ttie PCM
on pins 40 and 80

0 0
a::: a::
Q Q
= =
1 '
I C a::
0 0

--
.,.-,,
All of the following scope
pictures relate to this system.

RCla IAFlJIA FlJIEI PltctlP FlJFI "YANK


SHUT-OFF t«JOl.9 E l.9'C"T 12
SWTot (lEFTFRONr (UNDER
v v v v
20
. . .
• • • • • • - . · • • • • • • • • • • • •1• • • • • • • • • • • • -~ • • • • • • • • • • • • ,. • • • • • • • • • • • • 9 • • • • • • • • • • • • T • • • • • • • • • • • • ~ • • • • • • • • • • • • -.- • • • • • • • • • • • •1• • • • • • • • • • • • -~ • • • • • •

• 'KO
' EO '' · '' '' · '' ''

-- --- -.... --- ---- --- --·- --- --- --- --... -- --- --- --- -.. - --- --- --- --• - --- --- --- --• --- --- --- --- ~ -- --- --- --- -.... --- ---- --- --·- --- --- --- --... -- --- . 16

_________......___......__...,.._..,....,_____
2.0 - -- - -- ~ ------------
-----------<.--- - -- - -- - -- ~ -- - -- - -- -·F-

''
I
'
..
I I I I I I
12

1.6

20------~-' . --. -.. --. ---
Fuel Pump Prime :
'
-----------: ------------.--- \•
:
' .
:
'
: : :
'
-------:- ---------Air ·p-icr.:fres··tak-E!n:·al lfle ·fp----------·: ----·· '
8
I I I I I I I

module iri the trunk. The module


' I I I I I I I

1.2 l 6-. -. K~y· Olf .... -- ·· ··· ··· ··-:· ·· ··· ··· ··· · ·· ··· ···· ·!· ··· ··· ··· j s' ·ted ·Jj(jWer·tro·rr.-:·ttf e ·Fp · te1ay·-· --·:· ·· -·· ·20 4
• I I I I I I

ttiru the inertia switch. The
I I I I I

12-- --- - ~- --- ---. --. - -:-ll>'---+--~-+l - --------. -: . --. --. --·module-s uppties ·ii owe r to· ttre---. ---~ -. ---·16

0
0.8 0

.
. ' ' ' ~
fuel pump KOEO and KOER and :
' '

0.4 .
8~------.-------------· '
· · · · -· ---~ · · · · · · · · · · · -~ · · · · · · · · · · · ·; · · · · · -·
' '
--·c(>ntro·ls-t:ne--FP ·g t ottn·d
'
-to:-co
'
ntrol~ -· -·· -12
. -4
G ' '

0.0 8 -8

-0.4 o-..... ,_• .......... . 4 -12


.4 _ _,;__ _ _..J='.:_-:_..,.__,..,_..,.__,..,_..,.__,..,_.:;_,,..,_..,.__,..,_..,.__,.,_..,.__,..,_..,.__,;,,..,.__,..,_..,.__,..,_..,.__,..,_..,.__,..,_.;.._!--:_..,.__,..,_..,.__,..,_..,.__,..,..!
_ -f- · - --- --- --- , -- --- --- --- - ~ - --- ---- --- -"-."" __..._...______...._-~' -- --- ·O
- _..,._.,..
-0.8
' . ' ' . '
-16

-1.2 ·20
-0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 s
A = Fuel Pump Current (1 OOmv/1 amp) B = Fuel Pump Ground Voltage
=
C and D PCM to FP Modul e control and feedback signals
The FP module controls pump ground. Initial KO prime.
13
JIGI ~ X 500 ms/div • x20 A t. 2 V DC • xl C :t20 V xl

Bf t20 V :::J[ciC::]fxl:::J DI:t 20 v DC• fx1:::J


v v v v
r- - -- - - -·- - - -?· · - - - ··· --- · ~ · ---- · ·---- - ~ ----- - -- - ---,-------------,------------- r - • •---- · ·---r •• ---- ··· ---r •• ·-- ··· ----· · ---- ·· ----- ~ 20
Fue l Pump Turne .'
d
.~ .~ \: .l I: .~
,' ............ ;' ....K.ey. 0 J'1' .H er.e ..... ;' .........Q.R;. Hen!· ······;'.............•.......
' I n i ·la I· Al"ln;lA
.~
. . ·········;'............ ;'
,."t"
.... . . , . .l 16
zobmed oh the ~
·~- ············:· ···········-~ ·······tu r¥.- ·on····- ~ ············'············~
0 I I 0 I I I I I

2.0 '
,------------ '
,------------ ------------,---------- 12
I + I 1 ,11 1 I I

1.6
' . ''
20:- --- --- --- --- ~-- -- --- --- -- :--- ---- ---- - ---- -- ---- - ------------ -:----- --------:---- --- ------ ------ --- ---1--
• --- --- --- - 8

' ' ' 0 I I I

1.2 16:- --- --- --- ---i- --- --- --- -- ' ··· --- ----- . , . --- --- --- - - • • • • • -:- • - • • • • • • • - • • :- • • • • • • • - • • • • r • • • • • • • • • • • ·; - • • • • - • • • • • • t ••• •••• ••• •- ·2 0 4

0.8 ' . ' '


1 2~ -- --- ---- -- -! -· -- -. - --- -- ~ --- --.. --- --~ --- -... --.. --

0
0

0.4 8'" -.. ........ ........................ ................... ........ ..... .


t

I
I

I
I

I
I

I -4
0 I I I

..' __ _ __ _
0.0 ·' •' ·8
'
0

·0.4 o-. ................. . ............. .. .. .. ............. ...... .


' '
.. . .:.i
'
-12

' . . ' '


·0.8 •
.
.4·'~~~~~~~~~~~~~- -~' - - -- -- - - -- - - ' - ----------- ~- -- - -- - -- - -- ~--
+
- -- - -- - -- - -~' - -- - --------~---
'
- -- - - -- -- •~ -- - -- - -- - -- - ·-
'
- -- -- - - -- - - :.n
'
·16

•1.2 ..8............................................................................................................................................................................... -..


1 0 I I 0 t I I I I ' •
-20
-50 -25 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 ms
A =Fuel Pump Current (1OOmv/1 amp) B =Fu el Pump Ground Voltage
C and D = PCM to FP Modul e control and f eedback signal s
The FP module controls pump ground. Initial KO prime .
14
J~ ~ x 500 ms/div•- x20 ...
- A :t2 v
-
... DC• xl
-
... c :t20 v ...
- DC• xl
- -
...
Bj:t20 V ..:ll! Dc ·lfx13 DJ:t20 v
v v v v
r------------,------------ , ------------,------------,-------------,-------------~------------r------------r------------,------------, 20
Initial Prirhe, Zodmed ori the
'~ --------t urrn- .'
'' G ff----{------------ .~-' -----------~-'' ------------:-' ----------- -.~ ------------'~ ------------'~ -----------.. .
' ' . ' ' ' . ' ' . .
; ------------{ 16

2.0 . .
'r ············ 'r············i············ i ···········-,' ·············,·············r············
' .
'r ············ 'r ············ t ············' .. 12
Pui!n p off
I I I ' I
'
1.6 20 L
I
• •••••••••••• iI . . . . . . . . . . . . Jt •••••••••••• JI ••
•••••••••••• 1
··········!············-~·-·····-~-~ -- - : : 8

1.2 '
16f·-··-··-··-· ' . '
------------ 1------------,------------1---- ,i~~~~~~m~~~~lf~~·~.
ll, ' .
-.. -f. -.. -.. -----f------------l-------------~ o
' ' . .
4

0. 8
' ' .
1 2•,~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-' ---- - ---:- - -----------~ ------------~---------- -- ~---- - ----- --! --- -- ------- 1 6
' ' . . 0
.
0 0.4
.
~~Y&~f/1l1V~~i~\'lllf~~~~wq~1WN/i~t~'ti81~~1IW/1l1Wl1\l·~~m1
1 1
.
1
'

8'.. --.. --.. -.................... -.... -.. --.. --.. --.. -.... --.. --.. -... -. "'"
' .............. - ....
' - ... -.. --
!
2~ lo Du ty C~c le
0

'
I

' .
'

.
-... --.. -. .. -.................. . - ... -... -.. --... -.. --.. --.. --.. -..12
I
-4


0.0 4•' ' -8
'

·0.4 o~
'
•' ,_
' ..' .• . -1 2
'

·0.8 -4· . . .. . .. . .. . .• . .. . .. . .. . - -----·-------- - -- - ~- - -- - -- - -- - --·- -- · -- · -- - -- - ~------------·- - -- - -- - -- - -· - -- · -- · -- - --·----- - ------ ~ -16


.
+
' ' I I I I I I f

'

·1.2 .
50°1• Du ty Cycle
.9! ............ ! ............ : ............ :' .............' ............ .'.............•............. ! ............ ! ............ ! ............ : 4 -20
925 950 975 1000 1025 1050 1075 1100 1125 1150 1175ms
A =Fuel Pump Cu rrent (1 OOmv/1amp) B =Fuel Pump Ground Voltage
C and D =PCM to FP Modu le control and fe edback signals
The FP module controls pump ground. Initial KO prime.
15
v v v v
,------------·------------~ ------------~ ------------~- -----·B-oth ·PeM ·s~gnals ·on·th·e ·gre·e n ·and-plrrple 20
.
• '
'
'
'
+
' .• '
'
'
' ' .
• '
'
2.0 l. _____________ .__ .__ .___ L___________ j_______ .__ ._j_ ____ . _!r_~_q_~-~- -~r~ _~-~ .?.9~(~_ -~-~~Y. -~Y.9.'-~-·-_I_~J~~ !~ _~h~!j 16
~ : : : you: should:see on :these "'1ires wit~ the :
1.6 ~ ------------:--·: --------;. ----------.;.-----------~- ------en~i-r1e ·eFa~ki ng· aftEi -at·w<!r:r:·If. ·y0i:i·.EJo;·tt-1~ 12
1 Cra~k1ng, ~oom~d 1 corilmand i~ there for the pump tolrun at f(Jll
1.2 20: ··out .. during · ·no ;;start ····· :············~-············: ············ : ············ : ············:············ : 8
.. . , . '
.
'
.
. speed.. .' .' .' .
. .'
0.8 1s:' __ f-rom:.
0
' Iow-f-U-e•
I
' I - PSJ. • ' . ' ' ' .
--------·-;------------ ~-------------~------------~------------~---·--·----- : ____________ no
0 I
'
I I I 0 ~,_ 4
I I I I t 0 I I I I I

0.4 12
. . ' ' ' . ' ' ' . '
rs 0
. . . . .
0 0.0

-0.4 4
.
I

0
0
I
.
I

I
0
0
'
I

'
I
I
I
'
I

'
I
I
I
I

'+
I
t
.
0

t
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I

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I
I
I
'
I

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I
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'
I

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I
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0

I
t
I
.
'
I

8i- - ---- --- --- - i - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -:- - - - - - - - - - - - -:- - - - - - - - - - - - -:- - - - - - - - - - - - - :- - - - - - - - - - - - - :- - - - - - - - - - - - - i - - - - - - - - - - - - 2


~ ~ -~
'
I
I
I

'
8
-4

-8
G ''