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# Math 106 Lecture 7

## Measures of Central Tendency

(summarizing data with a single number)
Mean, Median, Mode,
Grouped Data

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## Mean, Median, Mode

Data points: x1, x2, …., xn
Mean: x1 + x2 + ... + xn ∑ x
x= = =µ
n n
Median: list data in order: x1 < x2 < …. < xn if
n is odd, median is middle point
n is even, median is average of the two
middle points
Mode: the value of x which occurs most
often. May be more than one; may be
none.
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Example: Starting
Salaries

## Data Set - Starting Salaries of Basket-weaving Majors:

\$27000, \$27,000, \$49,500, \$37,300, \$487,000,
\$15,000, \$32,000, \$37,500, \$41,300

## What was the mean (average) starting salary?

What was the median starting salary?
What was the mode?

Example - 2

## Data Set - Starting Salaries of Basket-weaving Majors:

\$27,000 \$27,000, \$49,500, \$37,300, \$487,000,
\$15,000, \$32,000, \$37,500, \$41,300

## Mean salary? (Add the salaries and divide by 9)

\$83,733.33
Median salary? (List in order, take middle)
15.0 27.0 27.0 32.0 37.3 37.5 41.3 49.5 487
Mode? \$27,000
How useful are these numbers?
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Measure of Central Tendency

## Mean can be influenced by outliers.

useful mathematically
most useful when data is ‘continuous’

## Median also a central number. Often more meaningful.

However, it is possible there is no data point anywhere near
the mean or median (or very few)

## Mode useful when data is discrete – such as number of cars in

a family, etc.

Questions
x1 < x2 < x3 < x4 <x5 < x6 <x7 <x8 <x9< x10
calculate the mean µ = x + x + ... + x
1 2 10

10
and the median, m = x5 + x6
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Now increase the largest number by 20. What is the new
mean? The new median?
New mean =
x1 + x2 + ... + ( x10 + 20) 20
=µ+ = µ+2
10 10
The median does not change. x5 + x6
2 6

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Detour – weighted averages
Calculate the average of: 3.2, 3.2, 3.2, 4.0, 2.5, 2.5
3.2 + 3.2 + 3.2 + 4.0 + 2.5 + 2.5
6
3.2 + 3.2 + 3.2 + 4.0 + 2.5 + 2.5 3*(3.2) + 1*(4.0) + 2*(2.5)
=
6 6
3 1 2
= (3.2) + (4.0) + (2.5) = 3.10
6 6 6

## This is a weighted average.

3 1 2
The numbers , , are called the weights.
6 6 6
Note that the sum of the weights is 1.
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## A student’s test average is 3.1 and the grade on the final

exam is 2.8. If the exam is to count as 1/4 of the final
average, how is this average computed?

## The weights are 3/4 and 1/4.

3 1 3 3.1 + 1 2.8
3.1 + 2.8 = = 3.025
4 4 4

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Mean or Average of Grouped Data
Set of 17 integers
between 2 and 9 7 7

(inc)

[2, 3] 7
4
Freq
[4, 5] 3 3 3

[6, 7] 3

[8,9] 4
0
3.0 5.0 7.0 9.0
2 unnamed 9

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## Mean or Average of Grouped Data - 2

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Set of 17 numbers 7

between 2 and 9
(inc)
Use mid-interval 4

value. Freq
3 3

0
3.0 5.0 7.0 9.0
7 ⋅ 2.5 + 3 ⋅ 4.5 + 3 ⋅ 6.5 + 4 ⋅ 8.5 2 unnamed 9
x= = 4.9705..
17
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Calculating the mean from a relative
frequency (density) histogram
7 .412
7

.235
4
Freq ..176
3 .176
3

0
3.0 5.0 7.0 9.0
2 2.5 6.5
4.5unnamed 8.5 9

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## Here’s the original data

frequencies for noname.fma (column 1)
4 4

2 ... 2 4 23.53%
3 3 3
3 ... 3 3 17.65%
4 ... 4 2 11.76%
5 ... 5 1 5.88% 2
Freq
6 ... 6 3 17.65%
7 ... 7 0 1 1
8 ... 8 3 17.65%
9 ... 9 1 5.88% 0
2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0
2
6 78.08 9.0910.0
2 3 4 5unnamed 9
mean value: 4.76

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you lose.

## The next slide shows four histograms formed from the

same data. The means are listed in the center.

## they come from

Grouping Will Change the Mean!
http://www.shodor.org/interactivate/activities/histogram/index.html

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139.84
147.2
112.24
206.00

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Elevator-Simulation Examples
Number of time passengers got off at
different floors (3 passengers, 6 floors)
• List 1: (10 trials)
6, 8, 8, 6, 9, 6, 5, 7, 5, 9, 6, 6, 3, 6, 5

## • List 2: (100 trials)

56, 52, 49, 56, 50, 57, 61, 63, 56, 52, 55, 58, 49, 64,
51, 51

## • List 3: (400 trials)

213, 231, 221, 215

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Sorted Lists
List 1

3 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 8 8 9 9
Mean = Median = Mode =
List 2
49 49 50 51 51 52 52 55 56 56 56 57 58 61 63 64

## Mean = Median = Mode =

List 3
213, 215, 221, 231
Mean = Median = Mode =
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Sorted Lists
List 1

3 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 8 8 9 9
Mean = 6.33 Median = 6 Mode = 6
List 2
49 49 50 51 51 52 52 55 56 56 56 57 58 61 63 64

## Mean = 55 Median = 55.5 Mode = 56

List 3
213, 215, 221, 231
Mean = 220 Median = 218 No Mode
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## Quartiles - use with median

3 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 8 8 9 9
Median is midpoint - the number of elements below the
median equals the number above it.
First quartile: Take the median of the lower half.
Third quartile: Take the median of the upper half.

3 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 8 8 9 9

interquartile range: 8 – 5 = 3

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Interquartile Range, Box Plot, 5-number summary

## Roadhog: someone who takes his half of

the road out of the middle
The interquartile range is the width
(range) of the middle half of your data.

## 5 number summary: {3,5,6,8,9}

min first quartile median third quartile max
3 5 6 8 9

25.0% 25.0%

5 8 19

summary

## interval weight midpoint

[3,5] 1/4 4
[5,6] 1/4 5.5
[6,8] 1/4 7
[8,9] 1/4 8.5

1 1 1 1 4 + 5.5 + 7 + 8.5 25
4 + 5.5 + 7 + 8.5 = = = 6.25
4 4 4 4 4 4
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Commonly reported
statistical results
List 1: (10 trials)
6, 8, 8, 6, 9, 6, 5, 7, 5, 9, 6, 6, 3, 6, 5
6

Freq

0
3 5 6 7 8 9 10
0 unnamed 9

21

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