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AIR POLLUTION

Othman Che Puan


FKA, UTM Skudai
Air Pollution

• Pollution of the atmosphere by fumes and smell


emitted by the motor vehicles makes the urban
streets extremely unpleasant.

• In situations such as in tunnels, ventilation is a major


issue.
Major Pollutants

• The major source of the pollutants is the exhaust gas emitted


by the internal combustion engine.

• Major components of exhaust gas are:


– Carbon dioxide
– Water vapour
– Unburnt petrol
– Organic compounds produced from the petrol
– Carbon monoxide
– Oxide nitrogen
– Lead compounds
– Carbon particles (smoke)
Effects of Pollutants

• Substances that are of concern from road user and


his/health’s point of view are:

• Carbon monoxide
• Oxides of nitrogen
• Lead compounds
• A small concentration of each of those pollutants
may not cause a serious threat to health – but if
presence in a considerable concentration and/or in
combination of other compounds may be hazardous.

• For example, the combination of smoke and fog can


cause hazards to driving and irritation to the eyes.
Measures for Controlling Air
Pollutions
Some possible measures are:
• Reducing pollutants at the source, which is the exhaust, the
evaporation and the crank case losses by improving vehicle
design and maintenance.
• Use of small–sized car
• Patronage of public transport system, especially railways
• Use of alternative fuels and methods of propulsion
• Staggering work hours to reduce peak hour traffic.
• Institution of parking restraint to promote public transport.
• Restraining traffic through road pricing.
• Controlling idling engines, e.g. by insisting that engines
stopped during traffic delays.
• By constructing bypasses and ring roads to reduce traffic in
the mid–town.
Raus model to estimate emissions of CO

200 COMPOSITE EMISSION FACTORS


Carbon Monoxide (CO)
at Low Altitude (1220 m and below)
180

160 -17.77oC (0oF)


Grams Per Vehicle Kilometre

140
-6.7oC (20oF)

120
4.4oC (40oF)

100

15.6oC (60oF)
80

26.7oC (80oF)
60

40

20
0 10 20 30 40 50
Kilometres Per Hour