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LIST OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER.NO TITLES PAGE NO.


ABSTRACT 1
LIST OF FIGURES 2
LIST OF GRAPHS 3
1 INTRODUCTION 4
1.1 INTRODUCTION OF LATHE 4
1.2. LATHE MAIN PARTS 5
1.3 CONSTRUCTION 6
1.4 WORKING 9
2 2.1 INTRODUCTION OF MILLING 10
2.2 MAIN PARTS 11
2.3 CONSTRUCTION 12
2.4 WORKING 14
3 TYPES OF MILLING CUTTER 15
4 MANUFACTURING MATERIAL OF EQUIPMENT 17
5 DESIGN DIAGRAM 21
6 MAIN PARTS 22
7 MAIN PARTS EXPLANATION 23
8 CONSTRUCTION 26
9 WORKING 27
10 ADVANTAGE 28
11 DISADVANTAGE 29
12 APPLICATION 30
13 PHOTO COPY 31
14. CONCLUTION 32

1
ABSTRACT

In lathe machine operation there should be the turning operation that should done. Now
in our project keyway cut in the flat surface that has been done in our lathe machine. Our
equipment is used as for work holding device in using for lathe machine. The flat surface
materials that should be holded, and through the horizontal and vertical motion the operation
that has to been done. Through the rotational movement of the handle by human feed, it is
converted into the linear movement of the work piece. This equipment has placed on the lathe
bed and through the milling cutter is attached to the lathe chuck the work of keyway cut has to
been done. The number of part machine under one step is also important in order to assess the
cost of step time. If a great number of part machine cost per part can be very insignificant. Long
lead time, required to design and manufacture several special fixtures for conventional. Milling
machine is used for rotary cutter for remove the material. The cutter into the workpiece at a
certain direction held at an angle. The cutting surface of the milling cutter are generally made
hard and temperature resistant material

2
LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE NO

1 LATHE MACHINE 6

2 MILLING MACHINE 10

3 MILLING CUTTER 15

4 SLITTING CUTTER 16

5 GEAR CUTTER 17

6 END CUTTER 17

3
LIST OF GRAPH

GRAPH NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

1 IRON CORBON 19

2 CAST IRON 19

3 MILD STEEL 20

4 ALLOY MATERIAL 20

4
CHAPTER - 1

1.1 INDRODUCTION OF LATHE

Lathe is a machine tool used to remove unwanted material from a given workpiece to get
desired shape. It is generally used for machining cylindrical workpieces. This article gives you a
short introduction to lathe and explains its working.

Origin of Lathe:

The origins of lathe can be traced back to Ancient Egypt and ancient Greece. In ancient Egypt,
two-person lathes were extensively used. In a two-person lathe, one person would turn the wood
(work piece) and the other person would cut the wood with a single point cutting tool. Cutting
operation in this lathe, involved a lot of manual labour and consumed a large amount of time.

In Ancient Rome, the Egyptian Design was modified. A turning bow was used to turn the
workpiece.

In the medieval period, pedals were used to turn and cut the workpiece. The pedals were
operated by human legs.

The origin of modern lathe can be traced back to the time when the Industrial Revolution took
place. The Industrial Revolution brought a lot of changes to the world of machines. During that
golden period, a number of mechanisms were introduced to lathe. These mechanisms enabled
humans to operate lathe semi-automatically. Power generated from steam engines were used to
drive lathes.

The introduction of Numerical Control (NC) and Computer Numerical Control (CNC) in the
twentieth century, made lathe a versatile, automatically functioning machine tool.

Today, lathe is one of the basic machine tools widely used in industries.

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Working of a Lathe:

A typical lathe consists of bed, head stock, tail stock, tool post, carriage and feeding
mechanism. Lathe is capable of performing a number of operations. The simplest operation
performed on a lathe is straight turning. The working of lathe can be easily understood if we
understand straight turning.

Straight Turning:

A cylindrical workpiece is mounted on a suitable work holding device (e.g: chucks, centres). A
single point cutting tool is mounted on the tool post. The workpiece is rotated continuously by
rotating the head stock spindle. The single point cutting tool is fed against the circumferential
area of the workpiece. Unwanted material is removed and a cylindrical job with smooth surface
finish is obtained.

Apart from straight turning, a number of turning operations can be performed using lathe. The
following video explains some common forms of turning:

Fig 1.

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1.2 MAIN PARTS OF LATHE

1. Bed

2. Tool post

3. Chuck

4. Head stock

5. Tail stock

6. Lead screw

7. Legs

8. Carriage

9. Apron

10. Chips pan

11. Guide ways

12. Speed controller

13. Spindle

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1.3 CONSTRUCTION

This invention relates to keyway and gear cutting attachments for lathes, and has for the
primary object the provision of a portable power driven device of this character which may be
readily attached to a tool post holder of any lathe of a conventional construction, whereby the
lathe and almost all of the usual equipment thereon may be operated or used without
interference from the attachment and in conjunction therewith if desired, that is, the work. to be
cut by the present attachment may be supported and fed by the lathe, the attachment being
easily adjusted relative to the work for varying the cut made therein, so that keyways or splines
may be cut with minute accuracy or if desired, gears may be cut by using on the attachment gear
cutters.

With these and other objects in view, the invention consists in certain novel features of
construction, combination and arrangement of parts to be hereinafter more fully described and
claimed.

For a complete understanding of my invention, reference is to be had to the following


description and accompanying drawings, in which: Figure 1 is a fragmentary elevational view
showing a portion of a lathe and a tool post holder thereof with the present attachment mounted
thereon.

Referring in detail to the drawings, the numeral 10 indicates a fragmentary portion of a lathe
showing thereon a carriage 11 on which is mounted the usual tool post holder 12 on which is
attached the present invention for the purpose of cutting splines, keyways or the like in work
carried by the lathe in the usual manner, or if desired, the present device may be successfully
employed for cutting gears from stock carried by the lathe through the use of gear cutters (not
shown).

A substantially U-shaped bracket 13 includes a vertically arranged connecting portion 14 and


superimposed parallel portions 15, one of which slidably supports a tubular post 16 and the

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1.4 WORKING OF LATHE

Lathe machine is used to cut the metal from cylindrical work piece, and convert it into desire
shape. It turns the cylindrical work piece, and during turning a sharp edge cutting tool
introduce, which cuts the metal. Its working can be described as follow.

1. A cylindrical work piece fixed to the chuck. A chuck may have three jaw or for jaw
according to the requirement. The work piece is at the center or some eccentric according to the
process perform.

2. The spindle starts to rotate and set it at desire speed. The spindle speed plays a huge role
during cutting. The spindle rotates the chuck and work piece.

3. Now check the work piece is turning properly. If it not set the work piece using dial gauge.

4. Now set the tool at desire feed by moving the tool post and carriage. The feed also play main
role during cutting. Large feed may cause unwanted temperature increase.

5. After it tool is introduce between moving work piece at desire feed rate. It cut the metal from
work piece. The feed rate is set at the cutting condition.

6. Now all unwanted metal is removed by moving the carriage form horizontally and vertically
as desire according to the job requirement. After complete all process we

7. Lathe can perform turning, boring, chamfering, shaping, facing, drilling knurling, grooving
as shown in figure.

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CHAPTER - 2

2.1 INTRODUCTION OF MILLING MACHINE

Milling is a process performed with a machine in which the cutters rotate to remove the
material from the work piece present in the direction of the angle with the tool axis. With the
help of the milling machines one can perform many operations and functions starting from
small objects to large ones.

Milling machining is one of the very common manufacturing processes used in


machinery shops and industries to manufacture high precision products and parts in different
shapes and sizes.

Milling Machine

The milling machines are also known as the multi-tasking machines (MTMs) which are
multi-purpose machines capable of milling and turning the materials as well. The milling
machine has got the cutter installed up on it which helps in removing the material from the
surface of the work piece. When the material gets cooled down then it is removed from the
milling machine.

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Fig.2

2.2 MAIN PARTS OF MILLING MACHINE

1. Base
2. Column
3. Knee
4. Saddle
5. Table
6. Overhanging arm
7. Spindle
8. Arbor
9. Arbor Supports
10.Milling head
11.Ram

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2.3 CONSTRUCTION OF MILLING MACHINE

Base:

It is the foundation part of a milling machine. All other parts are jointed on it. It carries the
entire load so it should have high compressive strength so it is made by cast iron. It also works
as reservoir of cutting fluid.

Column:

Column is another foundation part of milling machine. It is mountain vertically on the base. It
supports the knee, table etc. Work as housing for the all the other driving member.it is a hollow
member which contains driving gears and sometimes motor for spindle and the table.

Knee:

Knee is the first moving part of milling machine. If is mounted on the column and moves along
the slideways situated over the column. It is made by cast iron and moves vertically on
slideways It moves up and down on sideways which change the distance between tool and
workpiece It is driven by mechanically or hydraulically.

Saddle:

It is placed between table and the knee and work as intermediate part between them. It can
moves transversally to the column face. It slides over the guide ways provided situated on the
knee which is perpendicular to the column face. The main function of it is to provide motion in
horizontal direction to work piece. It is also made by cast iron.

Table:

Table is situated over the knee. It is the part of machine which holds the work piece while
machining. It is made by cast iron and have T slot cut over it. The work piece clamp over it by

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using clamping bolts. The one end of clamping bolt fix into this slot and other is fix to work
piece which hold the work piece. It can provide three degree of freedom to work piece.

Overhanging arm:

It is situated over the column on horizontal milling machine. It is overhang over the column
surface and other end supports the arbor. It is made by cast iron.

Spindle:

Spindle is the main part of the machine which hold tool at right place in vertical milling
machine and hold arbor in horizontal milling machine. It is a moving part which is in rotary
motion. It is motor driven and drives the tool. It has a slot on the front end of it. The cutting tool
fix in that slot.

Arbor:

It is a mechanical part on which is used as extension part of the spindle in horizontal milling
machine. It is fitted on the spindle whenever required. It holds the tool and moves it in correct
direction.

Arbor Supports:
This are used to support arbor at right place. One end of this support is jointed at the
overhanging arm and another is jointed with arbor.

Milling head:

It is upper section of vertical milling machine. It consist spindle, driving motor and other
controlling mechanism.

Ram:
Ram is work as overhanging arm in vertical milling machine. One end of the arm is attached to
the column and other end to the milling head.
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2.4 WOKRING OF MILLING MACHINE

A milling is a versatile machine which is used to form different shapes by metal cutting.
The working of milling machine is as follow.

1. First the cutting tool is set at the arbor which is connected to the spindle.

2. The knee is moved downward.

3. Now the work piece is clamped on the table by using clamping screw.

4. All the controlling points are set to zero like knee position, saddle position etc.

5. Now the spindle starts to rotate which further rotates the cutting tool.

6. As the tool is moving, we move the work piece as required by moving the knee, saddle and
table.

7. The controlling axis move the work piece and cut the desire shape on it. The tool remains
stationary and only in rotary motion.

14
CHAPTER - 3

TYPES OF MILLING CUTTER


Milling Cutter

Fig . 3

Slitting Cutter

Fig.4

15
Gear Cutter

Fig.5

End Cutter

Fig.6

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CHAPTER - 4

MANUFACTURING MATERIAL OF EQUIPMENT

CAST IRON

Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.[1] Its
usefulness derives from its relatively low melting temperature. The alloy constituents affect its
colour when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities which allow cracks to pass straight
through, grey cast iron has graphite flakes which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless
new cracks as the material breaks, and ductile cast iron has spherical graphite "nodules" which
stop the crack from further progressing.

Carbon (C) ranging from 1.8–4 wt%, and silicon (Si) 1–3 wt% are the main alloying elements
of cast iron. Iron alloys with lower carbon content (~0.8%) are known as steel. While this
technically makes the Fe–C–Si system ternary, the principle of cast iron solidification can be
understood from the simpler binary iron–carbon phase diagram. Since the compositions of most
cast irons are around the eutectic point (lowest liquid point) of the iron–carbon system, the
melting temperatures usually range from 1,150 to 1,200 °C (2,100 to 2,190 °F), which is about
300 °C (540 °F) lower than the melting point of pure iron of 1,535 °C (2,795 °F).

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Cast iron tends to be brittle, except for malleable cast irons. With its relatively low melting
point, good fluidity, castability, excellent machinability, resistance to deformation and wear
resistance, cast irons have become an engineering material with a wide range of applications
and are used in pipes, machines and automotive industry parts, such as cylinder heads
(declining usage), cylinder blocks and gearbox cases (declining usage). It is resistant to
destruction and weakening by oxidation.

The earliest cast-iron artifacts date to the 5th century BC, and were discovered by
archaeologists in what is now Jiangsu in China. Cast iron was used in ancient China for warfare,
agriculture, and architecture.[2] During the 15th century, cast iron became utilized for cannon in
Burgundy, France, and in England during the Reformation. The amounts of cast iron used for
cannon required large scale production.

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GRAPH – 1

GRAPH – 2

19
GRAPH – 3

GRAPH – 4

20
CHAPTER – 5

DESIGN DIAGRAM

KEY WAY ATTACHMENT IN LATHE MACHINE

Fig.7

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CHAPTER - 6

MAIN PARTS

1. Base
2. Horizontal column
3. Vertical column
4. Column support
5. Rotating handle
6. Horizontal work holder
7. Nuts
8. Bolts
9. Straight handle
10.Liner screw stem
11.Horizontal screw stem
12.Vice holder
13.Vise base

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CHAPTER - 7

MAIN PARTS EXPLANATION

BASE

The base is made up of the cast iron material. The base is in the structure of H shaped
design. The base that should carried the whole weight of the equipment. That should also gives
the stability to the equipment to stand steady while in the working operations. The base act as
the important role in the all of the devices in mechanical field and some other elso.

HORIZONTAL COLUMN

The horizontal column also same as made up of the cast iron materials. The cast iron has the
more stability to absorbs the shock. Through the horizontal column the horizontal movement of
the vice that should be controlled. Through the rotating handle movement the horizontal
movement that should be adjusted. The horizontal feed that should be given to this equipment is
manually. Through the manual operation the feed of the column is designed.

VERTICAL COLUMNN

The vertical column is made up of the cast iron materials. Because of the cast iron
materials that it would withstand more loads. And it also carries the more vibration. Through
the vertical column the vertical movement of the vice that should controlled. That by rotating of
the vertical moment is controlled manually. The vertical moment of the vice that should
controlled. The small handle is fitted with the rotating handle the rotational movement that
should controlled easily.

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COLUMN SUPPORT

There are two circular shafts that should consist in the horizontal column and vertical
column. This circular shaft that controlled the moves the vice in the smooth operation. The
more friction that should be avoided while introducing the shaft. This is made up of the steel
material or any of the alloy materials. This gives the big support to both of the horizontal
column and the vertical column.

ROTATING HANDLE

The rotating handle is the which is controlled by manually ob our equipments. The
rotating handle is the device which is used to control the the horizontal movement of the
column and the vertical movement of the column. This converts the rotational movement into
the linear movement of the column. That the both the column movements that should consists
of the fixing of the vise fixture which consists of the workpiece holding.

HORIZONTAL WORK HOLDER:

The vice is also known as the horizontal work holder. The flat surface of the workpiece is
should be holded with this type of the workholding device. That with the help of the bolt the
workpiece that should be holded. The tightness of the workpiece that should be given with the
manual operation. Thus also various types of the workpiece that may be holded for different
kind of the operations.

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BOLT

The bolt is the device that should presented in the vice fixture. Which is used as for the
fixing of the workpiece tightly within the vice. While in the cutting operation the milling cutter
is fixed with the lathe chuck. That when the cutter that touches the workpiece the workpiece
that should vibrated. To avoid the vibrations the bolt is used in the vice device for holding.

SRAIGHT HANDLE

The straight handle is fixed with the rotating handle which is used to rotate in the rotating
handle. The straight handle is fixed which gives the excess support to the handler to operate
easily. And this also gives more stability to the worker for handling this equipment.

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CHAPTER - 8

CONSTRUCTION

This invention relates to keyway and gear cutting attachments for lathes, and has for the
primary object the provision of a portable power driven device of this character which may be
readily attached to a tool post holder of any lathe of a conventional construction, whereby the
lathe and almost all of the usual equipment thereon may be operated or used without
interference from the attachment and in conjunction therewith if desired, that is, the work. to be
cut by the present attachment may be supported and fed by the lathe, the attachment being
easily adjusted relative to the work for varying the cut made therein, so that keyways or splines
may be cut with minute accuracy or if desired, gears may be cut by using on the attachment gear
cutters.

With these and other objects in view, the invention consists in certain novel features of
construction, combination and arrangement of parts to be hereinafter more fully described and
claimed.

For a complete understanding of my invention, reference is to be had to the following


description and accompanying drawings, in which: Figure 1 is a fragmentary elevational view
showing a portion of a lathe and a tool post holder thereof with the present attachment mounted
thereon.

Referring in detail to the drawings, the numeral 10 indicates a fragmentary portion of a lathe
showing thereon a carriage 11 on which is mounted the usual tool post holder 12 on which is
attached the present invention for the purpose of cutting splines, keyways or the like in work
carried by the lathe in the usual manner, or if desired, the present device may be successfully
employed for cutting gears from stock carried by the lathe through the use of gear cutters (not
shown).

26
CHAPTER - 9

WORKING

1. This type of the work holding device is used for the holding of the equipment

2. Through the horizontal movement and the vertical movement the work piece movement

that should be controlled

3. The flat surface work materials that should be holded in the vice of the work holder

4. Through the nut the work that should hold

5. The horizontal movement Is controlled by the horizontal handle

6. The vertical movement that should of the work is controlled by the vertical handle

7. The base that should carry the whole weight of the equipment

8. By the easy manufacturing and operating process this is easy to handle

9. This it is easy to operate

27
CHAPTER - 10

ADVANTAGE

1. It simple in design.

2. It is easy in operation

3. Its is simple in construction

4. There should not required the high skilled labour

5. The maintanance of the equipment is less

6. The size of the equipment is less

7. It is compactable

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CHAPTER - 11

DISADVANTAGE

1. It is made up of cast iron so the rust can occur

2. The total weight of the machine that should increased

3. Thus it required little much skill required

4. There should be less weight in base so the fixing of the equipment is necessary

29
CHAPTER - 12

APPLICATION

1. The straight keyway that should be produced

2. The flat surface operation that should held

3. The producing of the single slot is produced easy

4. The square shape of the work piece is can handle easy

5. Through the changing of the vice the different operation that should held

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CHAPTER – 13

PHOTO COPY

31
CHAPTER - 14

CONCLUSION

Thus at finally this project that produce the additional attachment to the lathe machine

operation. The excess attachment that should produce the increasing of the number of the

operation .

Due to the made up of the castiron the material should be more strong and easy to handle

The machine is attached in the lathe for using many operations for the any work

Most of the operatin is the groove and slot cut that should operated

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