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Fractionation Tower Top Reflux failure

Overhead Cooling
Total Condensation
Power failure
Tube Rupture 2/3 or 10/13
(Internal Failure) design pr (low - pr side/high-pr side)

Blocked Outlet Pump shut off (upstream) >

(mass balance downstream eqpt design pr
for relief rate)
Many vessels with same design pr --
BO for only most upstream PSV

Exchangers if blocked in on cold fluid

side and cold-side vap pr of liq @
hot side inlet > cold-side design pr
Control Valve Failure if fail open/inadvertent opening of
fail close can overpressure
downstream eqpt

Gas blowby failure of liquid level cv in full open pos

inadvertent opening of bypass cv
gas flows thro liq outlet line and if
design pr of downstream eqpt < design
pr of upstream eqpt
Hydraulic Expansion increase in liq vol due to inc in temp
liquid-filled eqpt, piping
liquid-fill, blocked blocked cold-side fld exposed to hot side
subsequent heating inlet temp, no phase change occurs
Fire ignited liq spill (pool fire), isolated vessel
70 feet dia circular area = pool fire area
Both shell & tube liq that can be vaporized or gas that expands
considered for relief
Interconnected piping jet fire = ignited pressurized leak
Vapors from 2nd tray from top of tower

Function of Pressure drop among other factors

dp = [ op pr on high-pr side - higher of
(critical or relieving pressure on low-pr side)]
Normal Pump flow rate
add flow rates if multiple pumps

max CV capacity -
normal outlet flows
from downstream eqpt

max cv capactiy dep on

cv and pr drop across cv
max upstream pr -
downstream relieving pr

DN (20) x DN (25)
NPS 3/4" x NPS 1"

thermal exp coeff * heat flux/ sp.gravity * cp

Heat abs = 21000 FA0.82
34500 FA0.82 (no drainage)