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CHAPTER 9:

Moments of Inertia
! Moment of Inertia of Areas
! Second Moment, or Moment of Inertia, of an
Area
! Parallel-Axis Theorem
! Radius of Gyration of an Area
! Determination of the Moment of Inertia of an
Area by Integration
! Moments of Inertia of Composite Areas
! Polar Moment of Inertia
1
9.1 Moment of Inertia: Definition

I x = ∫ ( y ) 2 dA
y x A
dA=(dx)(dy)
I y = ∫ ( x) 2 dA
A

x
O

2
9.2 Parallel-Axis Theorem of an Area
y´ = Centroidal axis
I x = ∫ ( y '+ d y ) 2 dA
y dx x´ A
dA
= ∫ [( y ' ) 2 + 2( y ' )(d y ) + (d y ) 2 ]dA

x´= Centroidal axis A
CG
= ∫ ( y ' ) 2 dA + ∫ 2( y ' )(d y )dA + ∫ (d y ) 2 dA
dy A A A
0, y´ = 0

= I x + 2d y ∫ y ' dA + d y ∫ dA
2
x
O A A

2
Ix = Ix + 0 + dy A

2
I y = I y + 0 + dx A

J O = J C + Ad 2
3
9.3 Radius of Gyration of an Area
y
The radius of gyration of an area
A with respect to the x axis is
A
defined as the distance kx, where
Ix = kx A. With similar definitions for
2
the radii of gyration of A with
kx respect to the y axis and with
respect to O, we have

O x

Ix Iy JO
kx = ky = kO =
A A A
4
9.4 Determination of the Moment of Inertia of an
Area by Integration
y
The rectangular moments of inertia Ix
and Iy of an area are defined as

y
x
I x = ∫ y 2 dA I y = ∫ x 2 dA
dx x

These computations are reduced to single integrations by choosing dA to be a thin

strip parallel to one of the coordinate axes. The result is

1 3
dI x = y dx dI y = x 2 y dx
3
5
• Moment of Inertia of a Rectangular Area.

y dA = (b/2)dy
dA = bdy

h/2 dy
dy y
h x´
y
x
b b/2

I x = ∫ y 2 dA I x = I x ' = ∫ y 2 dA
A A

h h
b
= ∫ y (bdy )
2
= 4 ∫ y 2 ( dy )
0 0
2
h h/ 2
(by 3 ) b y3
= = 4( )
3 0 2 3 0

bh3 bh 3
= =
3 12 6

y b dx
x
dA = (h/2)dx
dA = hdx h/2
h x´

x
x b/2
dx

I y = ∫ x 2 dA I y = I y ' = ∫ x 2 dA
A A

b h
h
= ∫ x (hdx)
2
= 4 ∫ x 2 ( dx)
0 0
2
b b/2
(hx 3 ) h x3
= = 4( )
3 0 2 3 0

hb 3 hb 3
= =
3 12 7
y

h/2 bh 3
Ix =
12
h/2
bh 3
x Ix =
3
b

I x = I x + Ad 2

bh 3 h
= + (bh)( ) 2
12 2

bh 3 bh 3
= +
12 4

bh 3
Ix =
3
8
• Moment of Inertia of a Triangular Area.
y
Integrating dIx from y = 0 to y = h, we obtain
I x = ∫ y 2 dA
h h
h-y h− y b
=∫y b 2
dy = ∫ ( hy 2 − y 3 ) dy
h dy 0
h h0

l b y 3 y 4 h bh 3
y = [h − ]0 =
h 3 4 12
x
I x = I x + Ad 2
b/2 b/2
I x = I x − Ad 2
dIx = y2 dA dA = l dy
bh 3 bh h 2 bh 3
= − ( )( ) =
Using similar triangles, we have 12 2 3 36

l h− y h− y h− y
= l =b dA = b dy
b h h h

9
Example 9.1

Determine the moment of inertia of the shaded area shown with respect to
each of the coordinate axes.

y = kx2

b
x
a

10
• Moment of Inertia Ix.
y I x = ∫ y 2 dA
A

y = kx2 b
= ∫ y 2 ( a − x) dy
0
dA = (a-x)dy
dy b
b
a 1/ 2
= ∫ y 2 (a − y )dy
x 0
b1/ 2
a b b
a
= a ∫ y dy − 1/ 2
2
∫y
5/ 2
dy
0
b 0

Substituting x = a and y=b b b

ay 3 a 2
y = kx 2 = − 1/ 2 ( y 7 / 2 )
3 0 b 7 0
b = ka 2
ab 3 a 2
b = − 1/ 2 ( b 7 / 2 )
k= 2 3 b 7
a
ab3 2ab 3
b 2 a 1/ 2 = −
y= x or x= y 3 7
a2 b1/ 2
ab 3
= 11
21
• Moment of Inertia Iy.
y b I y = ∫ x 2 dA
y = 2 x2 A
a
a
y = kx2
= ∫ x 2 ydx
0
dA = ydx a
b b 2
= ∫ x2 ( 2
x ) dx
x a
dx 0

a b
a
= 2 ∫ x 4 dx
a 0
a
b x5
= ( 2 )( )
a 5 0
b a5
= ( 2 )( )
a 5
a 3b
=
5

12
Example 9.2

Determine the moment of inertia of the shaded area shown with respect to
each of the coordinate axes.

y
(a,b)

y2 = x2

y1 = x

13
• Moment of Inertia Ix.

y
(a,b) I x = ∫ y 2 dA
A
b
= ∫ y 2 ( x 2 − x1 )dy
y2 = x2 0
b
dy
= ∫ y 2 ( y1/ 2 − y )dy
y1 = x
dA = (x2 - x1)dy 0
b b
x = ∫(y 5/ 2
) dy − ∫ ( y 3 ) dy
0 0

b 4 b
2 7/2 y
= y −
7 0 4 0

2 7 / 2 b4
= b −
7 4

14
• Moment of Inertia Iy.

y
(a,b) I y = ∫ x 2 dA
A
dx a
= ∫ x 2 ( y1 − y 2 )dx
y2 = x2 0
a
dA = (y1 - y2)dx
= ∫ x 2 ( x − x 2 )dx
y1 = x 0
a a
x = ∫ ( x )dx − ∫ ( x 4 ) dx
3

0 0
a a
x4 x5
= −
4 0 5 0

a 4 a5
= −
4 5

15
9.5 Moment of Inertia of Composite Areas
A similar theorem can be used with
c the polar moment of inertia. The
polar moment of inertia
JO of an area about O and the polar
d moment of inertia JC of the area

o
centroid are related to the distance d between points C and O by the relationship

J O = J C + Ad 2

The parallel-axis theorem is used very effectively to compute the moment of

inertia of a composite area with respect to a given axis.
16
Example 9.3

Compute the moment of inertia of the composite area shown.

100 mm

25 mm 75 mm

75 mm
x

17
SOLUTION
100 mm

25 mm 75 mm

75 mm = (dy)Cir
x

bh 3 2
Ix = ( ) Re ct − ( I x + Ad y ) Cir
3
1 1
= [ (100)(150) 3 ]Re ct − [ π ( 25) 4 + (π × 252 )(75) 2 ]Cir
3 4

= 101x106 mm4

18
Example 9.4

Determine the moments of inertia of the beam’s cross-sectional area

shown about the x and y centroidal axes.

y
100

400
100 x
C 400

100
600

Dimension in mm

19
SOLUTION y
100
A
400 dyA
100 B x
C dyD 400
D
100
600
Dimension in mm
0
2 2 2
I x = ( I x + Ad y ) A + ( I x + Ad y ) B + ( I x + Ad y ) C

1 1
= [ (100)(300) 3 + (100 × 300)(200) 2 ] + [ (600)(100) 3 + 0]
12 12
1
+ [ (100)(300) 3 + (100 × 300)(200) 2 ]
12
= 2.9x109 mm4
20
y
100
A
dxA
400
100 x
C 400
dxD
D
100
600
Dimension in mm
0
2 2 2
I y = ( I y + Ad x ) A + ( I y + Ad x ) B + ( I y + Ad x ) C

1 1
= [ (300)(100) 3 + (100 × 300)(250) 2 ] A + [ (100)(600) 3 + 0]B
12 12
1
+ [ (300)(100) 3 + (100 × 300)(250) 2 ]C
12
= 5.6x109 mm4
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Example 9.5 (Problem 9.31,33)

Determine the moments of inertia and the radius of gyration of the

shaded area with respect to the x and y axes.

y
12 mm 12 mm

6 mm
8 mm
24 mm

O x
24 mm

6 mm

24 mm 24 mm

22
SOLUTION 0
2 2 2
y I x = ( I x + Ad y ) A + ( I x + Ad y ) B + ( I x + Ad y ) C
12 mm 12 mm
1
= [ (24)(6)3 + ( 24 × 6)(27) 2 ] A
A 6 mm 12
8 mm 1
dyA 24 mm + [ (8)(48) 3 + 0]B
12
x 1
O + [ ( 48)(6) 3 + (48 × 6)(27) 2 ]C
B dyC 24 mm 12
C 6 mm Ix = 390x103 mm4
24 mm 24 mm
Ix 390 × 103
kx = = = 21.9 mm
A [(24 × 6) + (8 × 48) + (48 × 6)]
0 0 0
2 2 2
I y = ( I y + Ad x ) A + ( I y + Ad x ) B + ( I y + Ad x ) C
1 1 1
= [ (6)(24) 3 ] A + [ ( 48)(8) 3 ]B + [ (6)(48) 3 ]C
12 12 12
Iy = 64.3x103 mm4 Iy 64.3 × 103
ky = = = 8.87 mm
A [(24 × 6) + (8 × 48) + ( 48 × 6)] 23
Example 9.6 (Problem 9.32,34)

Determine the moments of inertia and the radius of gyration of the

shaded area with respect to the x and y axes.

y
2m 2m
0.5 m 0.5 m

2m

1m
O x
1m
1m
1m
0.5 m 0.5 m

24
y
0
0.5 m 2m 2m 0.5 m 2 2 2
I x = ( I x + Ad y ) A5×6 − ( I x + Ad y ) B 4×2 − ( I x + Ad y ) C 4×1

B 2m 1 1
dyB =[ (5)(6) 3 + 0] A − [ (4)(2) 3 + ( 2 × 4)(2) 2 ]B
12 12
1m 1
A O x − [ ( 4)(1) 3 + (4 × 1)(1.5) 2 ]C
dyC 1m 12
C 1m
Ix = 46 m4
1m
0.5 m 0.5 m Ix 46
kx = = = 1.599 m
A [(5 × 6) − ( 4 × 2) − (4 × 1)]
0 0 0
2 2 2
I y = ( I y + Ad x ) A − ( I y + Ad x ) B − ( I y + Ad x ) C

1 1 1
=[ (6)(5) 3 ] A − [ ( 2)(4) 3 ]B − [ (1)(4) 3 ]C
12 12 12

Iy = 46.5 m4

Iy 46.5
ky = = = 1.607 m 25
A [(5 × 6) − ( 4 × 2) − (4 × 1)]
Example 9.7

Determine the moments of inertia and the radius of gyration of the

shaded area with respect to the x and y axes and at the centroidal axes.

y
1 cm 1 cm

5 cm

1 cm
x
5 cm

26
y
1 cm 1 cm • Moments of inertia about centroid
2
I x = I x − Ad y
2 = 145 − (15)(2.5) 2
= 51.25 cm 4
5 cm CG
OR
3.5 Y 1
1 cm I x = 2[( (1)(5) 3 + (5 ×1)(1) 2 ]
0.5 x 12
1
5 cm + [( (5)(1) 3 + (5 ×1)(2) 2 ]
12
Y ∑ A = ∑ yA = 51.25 cm 4

2[(3.5)(5 ×1)] + (0.5)(1× 5)

Y = 1 1
3(5 ×1) I y = I y = 2[( (5)(1) 3 + (5 × 1)(2) 2 ] + (1)(5) 3
12 12
= 2.5 cm = 51.25 cm 4
• Moments of inertia about x axis
1 1 Ix 51.25
I x = 2[( (1)(5) 3 + (5 × 1)(3.5) 2 ] + (5)(1) 3 kx = ky = = = 1.848 cm
12 3 A 15
= 145 cm 4 27
Example 9.8

The strength of a W360 x 57 rolled-steel beam is increased by attaching a

229 mm x 19 mm plate to its upper flange as shown. Determine the
moment of inertia and the radius of gyration of the composite section with
respect to an axis which is parallel to the plate and passes through the
centroid C of the section.

229 mm

19 mm

C
358 mm

172 mm

28
SOLUTION • Moment of Inertia
19 mm 229 mm I x ' = ( I x ' ) plate + ( I x ' ) wide − flange

= ( I x ' + Ad 2 ) plate + ( I x ' + AY 2 ) wide − flange

d
1 
C x´ 188.5 mm =  ( 229)(19) 3 + ( 4351)(188.5 − 70.8) 2 
Y 12 
x
358 mm
O [
+ 160.2 ×106 + (7230)(70.8) 2 ]
= 256.8 ×106 mm 4

I x ' = 257 × 10 6 mm 4
172 mm
• Centroid
The wide-flange shape of W360 x 57
found by referring to Fig. 9.13 I x' 256.8 × 10 6
k =
2
x' =
A = 7230 mm2 I x = 160.2 mm 4 A (4351 + 7230)

Aplate = (229)(19) = 4351 mm2

k x ' = 149 mm
Y ΣA = Σy A
Y (4351 + 7230) = (188.5)(4351) + (0)(7230)
29
Y = 70.8 mm
9.6 Polar Moment of Inertia
y
The polar moment of inertia of
an area A with respect to the pole
dA
O is defined as

r
y

O x x J O = ∫ r 2 dA

The distance from O to the element of area dA is r. Observing that r 2 =x 2 + y 2 , we

established the relation

JO = I x + I y
30
Example 9.9

(a) Determine the centroidal polar moment of inertia of a circular area by

direct integration. (b) Using the result of part a, determine the moment of
inertia of a circular area with respect to a diameter.

x
O

31
SOLUTION
y a. Polar Moment of Inertia.

dJ O = u 2 dA dA = 2πu du
r du r r
u J O = ∫ dJ O = ∫ u ( 2πu du ) = 2π ∫ u 3 du
2
x
O 0 0

π
JO = r4
2

b. Moment of Inertia with Respect to a Diameter.

J O = I x + I y = 2I x
π
r 4 = 2I x
2
π
I diameter = I x = r4
4

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