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Wind Power Introduction

ESMAP—SAR—EAP
RENEWABLE ENERGY TRAINING
April 23 - 25, 2014 Thailand

Albrecht Tiedemann, Renewables Academy (RENAC) AG

www.renac.de

Project Manger Albrecht Tiedemann

ƒ Since 2009: Director and lecturer at Renewables


Academy (RENAC) AG; training programs on grid
integration of renewable energy, wind energy and
hybrid power systems; capacity building programs
ReGrid and CapREG; cerfified e-learning manager
ƒ 2003 – 2009: Project manager at German Energy
g y; grid
Agency; g integration
g of renewable energy
gy and
onshore/offshore wind energy; chairman of the German
Offshore Committee
ƒ 1989 – 2003: Scientific assistant at German Federal
Environmental Agency; offshore wind energy, offshore
gas/oil exploration, pulp and paper industry, life cycle
assessment
www.renac.de

ƒ 1989: Graduated as Engineer Environmental Protection


Technology at Technical University of Berlin

2
Agenda

1. About Renewables Academy (RENAC) AG


2. Technology overview

NDA
3. Project planning
ƒ Project development
ƒ Considerations and steps of project planning and implementation
ƒ Resource assessment

AGEN
4 Implementation
4. I l t ti
ƒ Siting and permitting: introduction to environmental issues
ƒ Transport and construction/ installation works
ƒ Wind turbine testing and certification
ƒ Operations and maintenance activities
5. www.renac.de
Financial modeling
ƒ Basic components and structure of model
ƒ Key performance metrics
ƒ Key risks

About Renewables Academy (RENAC) AG

www.renac.de

4
About RENAC

ƒ RENAC is a berlin-based training specialist for


Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency.
ƒ RENAC was founded in 2008.
ƒ RENAC is a private sector company with 24 employees.
ƒ RENAC trained more than 4000 people from over 130
countries.
ƒ RENAC’s clients are from public and private sectors.
ƒ RENAC offers
ƒ Short-term trainings (2 to 10 days)
ƒ Academic education (MBA-Renewables, GPE-New Energy)
www.renac.de
ƒ Capacity Building Services (RENAC supports third parties to
build up their own capacities for trainings)

ƒ RENAC is independent.

Technology overview

www.renac.de

6
Rotor types of wind turbines

Design with large global market share

ƒ Horizontal wind turbine with N blades


ƒ Horizontal wind turbine with 3, 2 and 1 blades
ƒ www.renac.de
Vertical wind turbine
ƒ Vertical wind turbine – Darrieux
ƒ Vertical wind turbine - Savonius

Typical tower designs for wind turbines

Steel Concrete Hybrid Wood

Cylindrical Lattice Pre-fabricate On-site Pre- Pre-


tower tower d segments concrete fabricated fabricated
(different (in situ segments segments
Also as
designs) concrete) and steel (different
guyed tower
tube designs)
www.renac.de

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Tower advantages/disadvantages

Steel
Lattice Concrete
tube
tower tower tower

+ Transport
+ Material cost + Service (rings and
slabs)

+ Assembly + High
+ Transport time and damping and
dry interior dry interior

- Assembly time - Transport


and maintenance (large - Assembly
costs elements) time
www.renac.de

Different types of foundations for wind turbines

ƒ Spread foundation
ƒ Shallow foundation

ƒ Gravity foundation
ONS FOR WIND
TURBINES, Sweden 2010; Source Gasch Twele 2010
HENRIK SVENSSON: DESIGN OF FOUNDATIO

ƒ Soil stabilization (compaction/densification methods and methods of soil


reinforcement through the introduction of additional material into the
ground)
ƒ Piled foundation
www.renac.de
ƒ Piling to bedrock
ƒ Piled-raft foundation
(combination of spread
foundation and piling).
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Foundation for offshore wind turbines

www.renac.de

Development wind turbine rotor diameter and hub height

83.5 m blade, Samsung (year 2014)


81.6 m blade, Mitsubishi
80 m blade, Vestas (year 2013)
75 m blade, Siemens (year 2012)

60 m blade, Enercon (year 2008)

www.renac.de

12
Trend towards longer rotor blades

P = ½ x ρ x A x v3
ƒ P = power of wind (watt; joule per second)
ƒ ρ = air density (kg/m3; kilogram per cubic meter)
ƒ A = area (m2; square meter)
ƒ v = wind speed (m/s; meter per second)

Advantages Disadvantages
Reduction of production costs due to Transport limitations, narrow streets

Source: Neue Energie, 02/2014, page 24ff


scale effects (therefore rotor blade in two pieces)
Increase of energy yield per turbine Higher road construction cost in complex
and power of wind turbine wind farm terrain (hills, mountains)
www.renac.de
Increase of full load hours, capacity Challenge: high stiffness needed to avoid
credit and capacity factor of turbines collision with tower during strong gusts
Economic use of site with relatively Stronger forces at the rotor lead to
bad wind resource is possible stronger foundations/towers
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Exercise: doubling of wind speed

ƒ Let's double the wind speed and calculate what happens to


the power of the swept rotor area. Assume length of rotor
blades (radius) 25 m and air density 1.225 kg/m^3).
ƒ wind speed = 5 m wind speed = 10 m

www.renac.de

14
Rotor and nacelle mass with rotor diameter

J.liersch; KeyWindEnergy, 2009


www.renac.de

16

Upwind and downwind horizontal turbines

MW-WEC =
Megawatt wind
www.renac.de
energy converter

17
Lift and drag principle

Lift principle Drag principal


ƒ The deflection of initially parallel wind ƒ The deceleration of the
flow causes a difference in pressure perpendicular flowing wind
and therefore a lift force. causes a drag force.

www.renac.de

Quelle: Quelle: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Equal_transit-time_NASA_wrong1.gif

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Automatic yawing and blade pitch

Yawing of nacelle: to change the orientation of the rotor (towards the wind)
Blade pitch: to control the power output of the wind turbine
Quelle: www.wind-energie.de

www.renac.de

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Wind turbine power curve – pitch controlled

ƒ Power curve of a 2.1 MW turbine

www.renac.de

Cut in wind Cut off wind


speed Nominal power wind speed
speed

21

Maximal power density of wind resource, Betz limit and


power curves of real wind turbines

1000

Power density of
800
sity (W / m2)

wind resource
PWPD = ȡ/2 v3
Ideal turbine (Betz limit)
600 PWPD, Betz= 16/27 ȡ/2 v3
PWPD = power density
Power dens

(P/A = W/m2]
400
Source: KWE, 2009; amended by RENAC

A = rotor area [m2]


P = Power [W] Stall controlled
ȡ = air density [kg/m3] Pitch controlled
v = wind speed [m/s]
200 cP = power coefficient Real turbine (with losses)
PWPD, Turbine= cP ȡ/2 v3
www.renac.de
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Wind speed (m/s)

22
From turbulent winds to constant AC frequency

Optional
Wind

uency Converter,
Source: WinDrive – Large Wind Turbines without Frequ
Andreas Basteck, Voith Turbo Wind GmbH & Co. KG
Variable Variable Variable Constant
Turbulent
rotor shaft AC DC AC
wind
www.renac.de
speed speed frequency frequency

AC = alternating current, DC = direct current


24

Old / new wind turbines

Old turbines New tubines


Tower height and rotor ƒ Up to 80 m ƒ Up to 160 m
diameter
Generator ƒ Fixed speed ƒ Variable speed and
decoupling from wind
speed variations
Voltage support (static ƒ No / limited support ƒ Full fast support
and dynamic) ƒ Reactive power ƒ Reactive power
consumption generation
ƒ Fixed power factor ƒ Adjustable power factor
Frequency control ƒ No contribution ƒ Automatic control
ƒ Manageable by grid
www.renac.de
operator
Capacity factor (annual ƒ Small capacity factor ƒ High capacity factor even
energy generation/ ƒ Good at strong wind for weak wind sites (due
theoretical maximum) sites to large rotor + small
generator)
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Typology of wind tubines and typical applications

Tip speed
Principle Axis Orientation Application
ratio Ȝ, blade
direction
number z
Upwind Ȝ = 1, z = 32 Water pumping
Horizontal
rotor Downwind
Lift Ȝ = 7, z = 3
effect Electricity
Vertical Ȝ = 9, z = 2
generation
g
rotor Ȝ = 12, z = 1

On / offgrid

Drag Vertical
Ȝ < 1, z >= 3 Mill
effect rotor
www.renac.de

λTip speed ratio = VBaldeTip / VWindUpstream ; Quotient of the circumferential


speed at the blade tip (VBladeTip) to the wind speed far upwind the rotor to the
undisturbed wind velocity upstream of the rotor (VWindUpstream)
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Project development,
steps of project planning and implementation

www.renac.de

27
Identifying priority areas for wind farms

Wind energy yield simulation

patial Planning for wind farm


damentals 15.-17.02.2010
Potential areas with high wind energy yield

Excluding areas for other land uses


(settlements, airports, industry, roads, overhead lines,
military, nature protected areas, others

Source: Dr. Marie Hanusch Sp


projectsWind Energy Fund
Add buffer zones (noise and nature protection, safety, visual impact)

Definition of minimum wind farm size

Case by case review of theoretical wind farm area


www.renac.de

Priority / suitable areas Pre-project planning and Project licensing (project


for wind power wind measurement specific EIA and grid
development campaign (>1 year) connection analysis)

28

Example: priority / suitable areas for wind power


development - Buffer around settlements / buildings

wind farm projectsWind


17.02.2010
Dr. Marie Hanusch Spatial Planning for w
Energy Fundamentals 15.-1

www.renac.de

29
Example: priority / suitable areas for wind power
development - buffer around nature protected areas

wind farm projectsWind


17.02.2010
Dr. Marie Hanusch Spatial Planning for w
Energy Fundamentals 15.-1
www.renac.de

30

Example: priority / suitable areas for wind power


development - forest biotope network areas

wind farm projectsWind


17.02.2010
Dr. Marie Hanusch Spatial Planning for w
Energy Fundamentals 15.-1

www.renac.de

31
Example: priority / suitable areas for wind power
development – summary with low conflict areas (blue)

wind farm projectsWind


2.2010, changed
Dr. Marie Hanusch Spatial Planning for w
Energy Fundamentals 15.-17.02
www.renac.de

32

Example: priority / suitable areas for wind power


development - selected priority areas for wind (green)

wind farm projectsWind


2.2010, changed
Dr. Marie Hanusch Spatial Planning for w
Energy Fundamentals 15.-17.02

www.renac.de

33
The most problematic obstacle for a wind turbine is a
wind turbine

ƒ Downwind of a wind turbine the wind


speed is reduced (less energy in the
wind, up to 40 %)
ƒ Back-row wind turbines losing power
relative to the front row
ƒ Wind turbines with unfavorable
distances between them and with
unfavorable wind directions cause
increased loads and reduced yield
ƒ Wind farm efficiency always lower
than of single wind turbine

www.renac.de

Source: KWE, 2009

34

Rules of thumb to estimate the distance between


wind turbines

5 rotor
diameters

Legend:

Predominant wind direction


Position of wind turbine to be
www.renac.de installed

One rotor diameter in order to


determine best position to
install the desired wind
turbines
7 rotor diameters
35
Software tools for micro siting

ƒ To find the most efficient configuration and to optimize the


production of a specified number of turbines within limited area
software tools are necessary, like for example:

ƒ WAsP –Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program


from Wind Energy Division, Risø, DTU, Denmark PC

ƒ WindFarmer by energy consultant Garrad Hassan

ƒ WindPRO, by energy consultant EMD International A/S

ƒ openWind®, created by AWS Truepower


www.renac.de

36

The life cycle of a wind farm project

Phase Duration

Pre-planning phase (including wind >1 + x years


resource assessment)

Project development (including grid 6 months to 1 year


connection layout)

Permission and contracts ½ year to x years

Construction and commissioning some weeks + x***


Operation 20 + x years

Dismantling some weeks + x***


www.renac.de

*** depending on size and complexity of the project as well as


number of teams working in parallel

37
Main processes during planning / permission and
contracts from the developers point of view

Technical • Pre-feasibility study


• Feasibility study (including wind measurements)
• Basic design

Administrative • Government and municipalities


• Environmental (birds, landscape, noise, shadow, etc.)
• Grid access / grid connection
• Public information
• Use of resources and infrastructure (water
(water, roads
roads,
affected plots, etc.)

Contractual • Tendering process


• EPC and O&M contracts
• Shareholders and financing agreements
• Land Lease Agreement , Power Purchase Agreement
www.renac.de
• Main supplies agreements

Consulting • Consulting and advisory (legal, technical, insurance,


market, financial)
• Due Diligence (legal, technical, insurance, market,
financial)
38

Main processes during construction / commissioning


from the developers point of view

Start • Road access / construction


• Groundbreaking and earthworks

Engineering • Review of basic engineering (re-evaluation)


• Performing of detailed Engineering

Procurement • Issuing of request for quotation, purchase orders


• Manufacturing (monitoring of procedures-
procedures QA)
• Check at reception of equipment condition and
packing lists

Construction • Civil works


• Electrical and mechanical works
• Instrumentation and control works
www.renac.de • Pre-commissioning of components and sub-systems

Start-up • Commissioning
• Provisional acceptance tests

39
Resource assessment

www.renac.de

40

Wind measuring campaign

ƒ Because PWind ~ v3 small wind speed measurement errors


have large effects on predicted power output Æ monitor
at least for 1 year - to be on the safe site (some projects
measure for several years)
ƒ Monitor wind speed, wind direction, temperature,
humidity, ambient air pressure and more…
ƒ Correlate the data with other nearby sites is useful
ƒ High quality wind measurement is extremely important for
ƒ Site selection for wind farm
ƒ Micro-siting of individual turbines
ƒ Choosing the best wind turbine for a specific site
www.renac.de

ƒ Annual energy production prediction


ƒ Cash flow analysis and
ƒ Bankable wind report

41
Wind monitoring equipment

ƒ Standard height
30 m to 85 m
ƒ Advanced:
100 m to 125 m

L)
Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL
Source: windtest grevenbroich gmbh

J.liersch; KeyWindEnergy, 2009


www.renac.de

42

Sonic / light detection and ranging (SODAR/LIDAR)

ƒ Emits sound up and


measures the Measurements
sound/light that is up to 200 m
reflected back Measuring towers
with hight up to
ƒ The reflected sound 120 m
changes its frequency
proportional to the wind sweapt rotor
speed along the sound area
propagation path,
according to the
‘Doppler Effect’
ƒ SODAR and LIDAR are
used in addition to
www.renac.de
measuring towers

Source: „Measuring Wind Speeds using SoDAR technology: Engaging farmers in NS COMFIT for small wind” Adam Wile, Kenny Corscadden

43
Result: measured wind speed data

ƒ Wind speed data of one year (ore more)


are classified (wind speed bands)
ƒ Approximation of wind speed distribution
with a Weibull-curve

ƒ With:
ƒ hw(v) = Wind speed distribution
ƒ k = Shape factor (dimensionless)
hw(v)

ƒ A = Scaling factor (in m/s)

J.liersch; KeyWindEnergy, 2009


www.renac.de

44

Wind direction

Wind direction
in % for each
sector

5% 10%

www.renac.de

45
Calculation scheme for annual energy production

Ei = Pi(vi) x ti
EΣ = E1 + E2 +…+ En
ƒ EΣ = Energy yield over one year
ƒ Ei = Annual energy yield of wind class
[Wh, watthours], i = 1, 2, 3 …n
ƒ ti = duration of wind speeds at wind
class [h/a, hours/year]
ƒ Pi(vi) = Power of wind class vi of wind
turbine power curve [Watt; joule per
second]
ƒ vi = wind class [m/s]
ƒ PN = Nominal power of WEC [kW] at
nominal wind class vi [m/s]

J.liersch; KeyWindEnergy, 2009


ƒ hi = relative wind class frequency in %
www.renac.de

46

Siting and permitting: introduction to


environmental issues

www.renac.de

47
Radar tracks of birds/bird flocks

es, Published by DONG Energy, Vattenfall, Th e


ƒ Radar tracks of birds migrating southwards (left) and northwards
(right) at the offshore wind farm Horns Rev during 2003-2005

ure Agency, November 2006


Source: Danish Off shore Wind, – Key Environmental Issue
Danish Energy Authority, and Th e Danish Forest and Natu
www.renac.de

48

Breeding birds and bird collision

ƒ With some exception most of the birds use the immediate


surroundings of wind turbines, which often amount to minimal
Sources: Helterlein et al, Vilm, 2008; Hötker, Repowerring und Windenergie, 2006
distances over 100 meters
ƒ Wind energy has no statistically significant evident negative
impact on most of breeding bird populations.
ƒ Measured disturbance distance (data from Germany):
Number of
Number of

studies
studies

www.renac.de

Distance (m) Distance (m)

49
Estimation of bird collision mortality / risk

ƒ Results from German wind farms (analysis of


collision rate measurements in 45 wind farms)

Foto: Tiedemann
ƒ 0 to over 64 victims per turbine per year
ƒ mean 6.9 casualties per turbine per year
ƒ Results of US wind farms 2005 (0,5 to 1.5 MW)
ƒ 0.6
0 6 to 7
7.7
7 birds per turbine per year
ƒ 1 to 11.7 birds per MW per year
ƒ Particularly high collision occurs on barren mountain
ridge (USA, Spain) and on wetlands.
ƒ Birds are more likely to collide with structures during
poor visibility in rain or fog.
www.renac.de

Sources: Drewitt and Langston 2006, Huppop et al. 2006) ; Dr. Hermann Hötker, Michael-Otto-Institut imNABU: Repowering im
KontextNaturschutzfachlicher Ziele, 2008

How to avoid collisions of birds with wind turbines?

ƒ Avoid alignment perpendicular to main flight paths and


to provide corridors between clusters
ƒ Free migration corridors by leaving several kilometers
Foto: Tiedemann

between wind farms; turbines should not be placed


within frequently used flight paths
ƒ Increase the visibility of rotor blades
sity
development in Maine: a literature review, BioDivers

ƒ White or green flashing lights (strobes) appear to be


Sources: Drewitt and Langston 2006, Hüppop et al.

better than red lights?


2006)ari; Birds, bats and coastal wind farms

ƒ Intermittent lights less attractive to birds than constant


light.
ƒ Learn from post-development monitoring programme
Research Institute, 2008a

www.renac.de

51
Bats

ƒ Wind turbines may be a significant


hazard to bats
ƒ Direct strikes during migration
ƒ Pulmonary lesions caused by
pressure changes around turbine

Source: Kunz et al. 2007, Arnett et al. 2007, (Baerwalld 2008).


ƒ Bats can detect turbines through
g
echolocation, this same ability offers Source: de.wikipedia.org
no protection toward pressure drops
ƒ Of all bats that encountered turbines,
100% had pulmonary lesions and
nearly all had internal hemorrhaging,
regardless of external wounds
www.renac.de

Quiet or noisy ? ~ distance & type of noise

ƒ Sound power level:


ƒ describes noise emission and the
strength of the source
ƒ typical values for wind turbines
90-105 dB(A)
ƒ Sound pressure level:
ƒ describes noise imission and how
Source: Dr. Colin Kestell, Wind Turbine Noise and Vibration

much recipients may hear


ƒ typical limit values for 45 dB (A) at day
wind turbines < 45dB(A) 35 dB(A) at night
at day and 35 dB (A) at night for
residential areas / neighbours
www.renac.de

ƒ Measurement according to IEC


61400-11

53
Mapping wind farm noise imission

dB(A)
0 – 35 ƒ The sound pressure decreases by
35 – 40 approx. 6dB(A) every time the
40 – 45 distance to the source of the
45 – 50 sound is doubled
50 – 55

_decibel.pdf, 2010
55 – 100 Distance from source (m)
0 250 500 750 1000

vel
-20
20

Sound pressure lev

Source: http://www.emd.dk/WindPRO_odules/PDF/UK/EN_
change dB(A)
-30
-40
-50
-60
-70
www.renac.de

-80

54

Effects of the rotating shadows of the blades

p/pdf/AL-PRO-brochure.pdf
Source:http://video.aol.co.uk/video-detail/abenteuer--wissen-windkraft-ohne-
grenzen/1675288588 and Source: www.al-pro.de/hp

www.renac.de

55
From an aesthetic point of view?

ƒ A few large wind turbines are an advantage in the landscape, because


ƒ of lower rotational speed (rounds per minute) compared to small turbines
ƒ they not attract the eye the way fast-moving objects generally do
www.renac.de

ƒ 10 x 3 MW turbines have much lower visual impact than 50 x 600 MW


turbines although the installed capacity is the same

56

Permits for wind power plants: details to consider and


decisions to make

ƒ A decision to take: approve or reject an application


ƒ Topics to consider:
ƒ Land-use planning
ƒ Construction requirements (statics, distances, ice, turbulences)
ƒ Maintenance of occupational and industrial safety
ƒ Air traffic
ƒ Directional radio line and other communications facilities
ƒ Emission control: noise and shadow (monitoring)
ƒ Water pollution control and soil protection, waste handling
ƒ Preservation of sites of historic interest
www.renac.de

ƒ Nature protection
ƒ Environmental impact assessment
Source: Sander, 2010

57
Transport and construction (installation works)

www.renac.de

58

Road constrution

www.renac.de

J.liersch; KeyWindEnergy, 2009

59
Piled foundation

J.liersch; KeyWindEnergy, 2009

www.renac.de

60

Transport of large wind turbines

_axis;
Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_turbine#Horizontal_
BWE: wind-energie.de

www.renac.de

61
Tower and rotor blade transport

© Heiko Jessena

Foto: Steil Kranarbeiten, Stefan Dürr

www.renac.de

© Heiko Jessen

62

Crane works

www.renac.de
BWE

63
Rotor hub

Source: BWE

www.renac.de

Source: BWE
Source: BWE

64

Telescopic crane

Foto: Steil Kranarbeiten, Stefan Dürr

www.renac.de

ƒ Crane LTM 1500


ƒ 75m maximum hub height of wind turbines
ƒ 50 t maximum weight of rotor or nacelle

65
www.renac.de
www.renac.de
Foto: Steil Kranarbeiten, Stefan Dürr
Crane work, Enercon E66 (1.8 MW)

Foto: Steil Kranarbeiten, Stefan Dürr

67
66

Wind farm in France © Nordex SE / Francis Cormon


www.renac.de
www.renac.de

Guy wires and turnbuckles


Base pad construction for small wind turbines

69
68

Source: Bergey Windpower Co. “Small Wind Systems”; Pho


oto courtesy of Pine Ridge Products, Great
falls, MT Source: Bergey Windpower Co. “Small Wind Systems”; Photos courtesy of Pine Ridge Products, Great falls, MT
www.renac.de
www.renac.de
Turbine assembly

Raising tower & turbine, crane works

71
70

Source: Bergey Windpower Co. “Small Wind Systems”; Photo courttesy of Pine Ridge Products, Great falls, MT Source: Bergey Windpower Co. “Small Wind Systems”; Photo courttesy of Pine Ridge Products, Great falls, MT
Erecting small wind turbines

ƒ Aerosmart 5
www.renac.de

ƒ 5.1m hub height, 20m2 swept area, 5.7 kW

http://www.oeko-energie.de/downloads/aerosmart.pdf

72

Using a pickup to raise and lower a monopole tower

www.renac.de

Source: Skystream: “Siting Wind Generators“

73
Tiltable towers for small wind turbines

ƒ for maintenance
ƒ for tropical wind conditions

onsortium
Source; SWIIS (Small Wind Industry Implementation Strategy) Co
www.renac.de

74

Wind turbine testing and certification

www.renac.de

75
Type certification and project specific assessment

ƒ Wind turbine type certification

Design Implementation in QM Prototype


assessment manufacturing System test

Final assessment

Type certificate

ƒ IEC 61400 standards for wind power certification


ƒ Wind farm specific assessment (complex site conditions)
ƒ www.renac.de
Due diligence of wind farm (applicability of design assumptions,
energy yield prognosis, prospective guarantee and service
concepts)

76

Certification of power output of wind turbines

ƒ Measurement of the power curve (power performance):

Source: windtest grevenbroich gmbh


ƒ IEC 61400 Wind turbines – Part 12-1: Power
performance measurements of electricity producing
wind turbines
ƒ Provide a uniform methodology that will ensure
consistency, accuracy and reproducibility in the
measurement and analysis of power performance by
wind turbines
ƒ Testing of wind turbine prototype in
a wind farm under realistic conditions
ƒ Key element of power performance
testing is the measurement
www.renac.de
of wind speed.
ƒ IEC 61400 Wind turbines-part 12-1
prescribes the use of cup anemometers
to measure the wind speed
77
Rotor blade testing

ƒ Materials
ƒ Blade sub-components
ƒ Whole blades
ƒ Ultimate load testing
ƒ Fatigue testing of new rotor
blade designs

Source: LM Glasfiber
www.renac.de
Blade testing at LM Glasfiber, which have
long been the world’s largest independent
blade supplier.

78

Standards for certification

ƒ IEC 61400
ƒ IEC 61400-1 Design requirements
ƒ IEC 61400-2 Design requirements for small wind turbines
ƒ IEC 61400-3 Design requirements for offshore wind turbines
ƒ IEC 61400-4 Gears
ƒ IEC 61400-5 Wind turbine rotor blades
ƒ IEC 61400-11 Acoustic noise measurement techniques
ƒ IEC 61400-12 Wind turbine power performance testing
ƒ IEC 61400
61400-13
13 Measurement of mechanical loads
ƒ IEC 61400-14 Declaration of apparent sound power level and tonality values
ƒ IEC 61400-21 Measurement and assessment of power quality characteristics of grid
connected wind turbines
ƒ IEC 61400-22 Conformity testing and certification
ƒ IEC 61400-23 Full-scale structural testing of rotor blades
ƒ IEC 61400-24 Lightning protection
ƒ IEC 61400-25 Communication protocol
ƒ www.renac.de
Guidelines for certification of wind turbines by Germanischer Lloyd
ƒ Guidelines for design of wind turbines by Det Norske Veritas
ƒ Regulation for wind energy conversion systems, actions and verification of
structural integrity for tower and foundation by German Institute for Civil
Engineering (DIBt)
79
Operation and maintenance

www.renac.de

80

Reliability and downtime of large wind turbines

Data source: ISET, IWET - last update: Okt 2010

www.renac.de

81
Long-term view on O&M

ƒ Project finance requires a long-term view an the project


ƒ Manufacturer traditional offer two to five years warranty periods
ƒ After end of this contract an end-of-warranty inspection is
necessary but what happens after that time?
ƒ Continuous O&M is needed to cover years six to ten and
y from year
more importantly y ten out to the end of the loan
period
ƒ Banks want to see that there is technical experience and
financial backing behind the maintenance concept
ƒ Full service contract with manufacturer, covering all
eventualities with one single long-term contract, 12 -17 years
up to lifetime
www.renac.de

82

O&M tasks of the technical wind farm management

ƒ First rule of operating wind farms: “keep them spinning…”

eration and Maintenance of wind fams


ƒ Tasks of the technical management from the view of the
owner:
ƒ High (energetic) availability of wind turbines
ƒ Reduction of costs for service / repair
ƒ Long life time of wind turbines
Source: KWE „Onshore Wind Energy Fundamentals, Ope

ƒ Conservation of evidence for negotiation with manufacturer


and insurance
ƒ Prompt acquisition of basic data for controlling purposes and
transparent presentation of improvement actions to share
holders / owners
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83
O&M tasks of the technical wind farm management

ƒ From the point of view of the technical operator:


ƒ Optimization of time based availability by short reaction time in

ation and Maintenance of wind fams


case of failures
ƒ Early detection of problems by own and independent inspections
ƒ Schedule inspections and preventive maintenance
ƒ Visual inspections 2 - 4 times a year with changing aspects

Source: KWE „Onshore Wind Energy Fundamentals, Opera


ƒ Periodic inspections should be done twice a year. Wind
turbines larger than 500 kW every 3 months
ƒ Shift necessary measures that need shutting down the wind
turbine, i.e. that reduce availability (e.g. service on wind turbine to
a time of low predicted yield)
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ƒ Acquisition and statistical analysis of all available operating data


of the wind turbine

84

O&M costs and payment

ƒ Overall onshore wind O&M costs are the range of 10 – 20


US$/MWh (onshore wind, offshore wind is factor 2 – 3 higher)
ƒ Payment of an annual fee for the provision of the base services
ƒ generally include the cost of all consumables and spare
parts required as part of the scheduled and unscheduled
maintenance
ƒ exceptions apply e.g. if a spare part is required due force
majeure
ƒ In addition incentive payments where the annual average
availability of the wind farm exceeds a pre
ƒ Warranted minimum level of availability for the WTGs within the
wind farm
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85
Basic components and structure of cash flow
model

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86

Investment costs for a 1 MW wind turbine (example)

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Source: EWEA, 2013

87
Input to wind cash flow model

ƒ EBITDA = earnings before interest, taxes,


depreciation and amortization
ƒ EUR = Euro
ƒ MWh = Megawatt hours
ƒ MWh@P90 = Probabilities of exceeding
gy yyield levels. It can be
certain energy
derived from the annual energy
production´s distribution curve taking into
account uncertainties.

Source: Boensch, Enertrag, 2010a


ƒ p(90): Annual energy production exceeded
with a probability of 90 %

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ƒ p(75): Annual energy production exceeded
with a probability of 75 %
ƒ p(50): Annual energy production exceeded
with a probability of 50 %

88

Input to wind cash flow model

ƒ DSRA = The Debt Service


Reserve Account works as an
additional security measure for
lenders as it is generally a
deposit equal to a given
number of months projected
debt service obligations.
ƒ DSCR = The debt service
coverage ratio, also known as
"debt coverage ratio," (DCR)
Source: Boensch, Enertrag, 2010a

is the ratio of cash available


for debt servicing to interest,
principal and lease payments.
ƒ Overall uncertainty: takes into
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account errors calculating the


annual energy yield

89
Wind farm in France, cash flow forecast year 1–9

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90

Credit decision-making

ƒ Essential prerequisites for a credit decision are usually


ƒ two independently and accurately performed wind
resource assessments for the proposed wind site from
certified consultants,
ƒ a full-information cash flow forecast (incl. business plan)
for the duration of the project,
ƒ a recourse-free building permit and a full set of valid project
rights and contracts allowing turnkey-ready installation
ƒ Due diligence: before financial close is achieved and the
first drawdown from the credit facility can be made, the bank,
Source: Aleander Boensch 2014

and respectively its consultants, perform a legal, technical


and financial due diligence of the whole project to
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ensure that all major risks have been addressed
ƒ Based on these information, the credit analyst will assign a
rating to the project

91
The costs of wind energy as a function of wind
resource quality and discount rate

€cent / kWh

Source: Alexander Boensch, 2014


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Number of full load hours

92

Key performance indicators

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93
What is "availability" or "availability factor“?

Operation and Maintenance of wind fams


ƒ Availability factor (or just "availability") is a measurement of the
reliability of a wind turbine (or other power plant).
ƒ It refers to the percentage
ƒ of time that a plant is ready to generate (that is, not out of
service for maintenance or repairs) or
ƒ of the theoretical maximum energygy output (wind
( is above

Source: KWE „Onshore Wind Energy Fundamentals, O


cut-in and lower than cut-off wind speed).
ƒ Downtime rate of wind farms results in loss of energy. If
availability is low during times with high wind speeds the
energy yield is reduced significantly (due to power curve
characteristics).
ƒ www.renac.de
At high wind speeds repair of components such as blades can
be delayed. This can cause long turbine downtime.
ƒ Wind turbines can have an availability of more than 98%.

94

Time and energy weighted availability of wind turbines

Assets, www.awstruepower.com
Source: AWS Truepower, Take Control of Your A

ƒ Difference between time and


energy weighted availability:
ƒ Time weighted > energy weighted
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95
LCOE sensitivities for capacity factor, installed cost,
O&M, and target IRR by financing structure

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Source: Wind Levelized Cost of Energy: A Comparison of Technical and Financing Input Variables Karlynn Cory and Paul
Schwabe , Prepared under Task No. WER9.3550 , National Renewable Energy Laboratory

96

NREL- study results on LCOE

ƒ Changes in a project’s capacity factor and installed cost have


such a significant impact on the LCOE that small improvements
through
ƒ improved R&D
ƒ manufacturing and
ƒ operation and maintenance improvements
can yield major benefits.
ƒ Targeted internal rate of return (IRR) can have an moderate
influence on the LCOE

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97
Key risks

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98

Completion risk

Risk Potential Mitigation

ƒ Late completion ƒ Contract incl. penalties for late completion with


solvent plant manufacturer /experienced
management
ƒ Completion with ƒ Fixed price contract with solvent plant
higher costs manufacturer

ƒ Completion with ƒ Performance guarantees (power curve,


underperforming availability etc.) with solvent manufacturer
parameters ƒ Damage payment
ƒ Turn-key contract including completion
guarantee and respective penalties with
ƒ Non-completion
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ƒ Insurances are available to cover costs of late
completion

99
Operation and management risk

Risk Potential Mitigation


ƒ Operation & management (O&M) contract
with an experienced company – preferably
with one of the project participants
ƒ All risks during
(manufacturer)
operation which
might lead to under- ƒ Project life time O&M contract
performance ƒ Incentives and penalties for contractor
ƒ Interruption or ƒ Availability definition: related to energy yield
standstill of the and wind resource (kWh/year) instead of
wind farm related to time (h/year)
ƒ Insurances (damage, financial loss of
revenue cased by machinery damage)
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100

Technology (functional) risk

Risk Potential Mitigation

ƒ Only a proven technology with a respective


track record should be chosen
ƒ Technology might ƒ Performance warranties on equipment
not achieve the ƒ Certified turbines according to IEC 61400
expected standards ((International Electrotechnical
performance Commission), i.a. “Wind turbines - Part 12-1:
parameters (power Power performance measurements of
curve, availability, electricity producing wind turbines”
etc.) ƒ IEC-Certification carried out only by an
independent institution in accordance with
certain quality management standard
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101
Market and distribution risk

Risk Potential Mitigation


ƒ The electricity cannot be sold in the ƒ Long-term contracts with
expected amount and/or price solvent buyer
ƒ Downtime of transmission lines ƒ Fixed feed-in tariff
ƒ Transmission line overload, congestion (provides the best risk
and curtailment of production mitigation)
ƒ Resource availability reduces firm ƒ Self consumption / own
capacity grid / storage
ƒ Value of green certificates changes ƒ Virtual power station,
pooling with other
ƒ Inflation risk
renewables

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102

Resources risk

Risk Potential Mitigation

ƒ Thorough independent assessment of


wind study
ƒ Wind speed distribution ƒ Wind measurement at hub height
differs from wind resource instead extrapolated data
study ƒ Correlation of data with long term
ƒ Lower wind speed than weather trends
expected ƒ P50/75/90 approach, uncertainty
ƒ Extreme winds analysis
ƒ Wind turbine layout according to
extreme winds (50/100 years wind)
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103
regulatory framework &political stability

Risk Potential Mitigation

ƒ For investors: investment only in


ƒ Change of framework
countries with a reliable political
conditions (e.g. feed-in
framework
tariffs, tax breaks, quota
etc ) during the life time of a
etc.) ƒ For governments: provide reliable
project. conditions to attract investments and
to enable development of industry
ƒ Legal uncertainty
ƒ Investment in projects with short pay-
ƒ Unclear ownership rights
back time

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104

Understanding risks

ƒ The greater the risk the greater the returns that


banks and investors require
ƒ Wind farm project risk summary:
ƒ Most important: wind resource and annual energy production forecast
ƒ Medium importance: quality of technology
ƒ Low importance: others (if political framework is stable and little inflation /
currency risks are expected)
14
Return %

12

10
8
6
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2
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Risk %

105
Thank you!

Albrecht Tiedemann
Renewables Academy (RENAC)
Schönhauser Allee 10-11
D-10119 Berlin
Tel: +49 30 52 689 58-71
Fax: +49 30 52 689 58-99
info@renac.de ǁǁǁ͘ƌĞŶĂĐ͘ĚĞ