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Most of the fastening devices used in clothing today, like the shoelace, the button, and the

safely pin, have existed in some form in various cultures for thousands of years. But the zipper was
the brainchild of one American inventor, namely Whitcomb Judson of Chicago. At the end of the
19th century, Judson was already a successful inventor, with a dozen patents to his credit for
mechanical items such as improvements to motors and railroad braking systems.

He then turned his mind to creation a replacement for the lengthy shoelaces which were then
used in both men's and women's boots. On August 29th 1893, he won another patent, for what he
called the "clasp-locker". Though the prototype was somewhat clumsy, and frequently jammed, it
did work: in fact, Judson and his business associate Lewis Walker had sewn the device into their
own boots. Although Judson displayed his clasp-locker at the World's Fair held in Chicago in 1893,
the public largely ignored it. The company founded by Judson and Walker, Universal Fastener,
despite further refinements, never really succeeded in marketing the device.

The earliest zip fasteners were being used in the apparel industry by 1905, but it was only in
1913, after a Swedish-American engineer, Gideon Sundbach, had remodeled Judson's fastener into
a more streamlined and reliable form, that the zipper was a success. The US Army applied zippers
to the clothing and gear of the troops of World War ‡T. By the late 1920s, zippers could be found
in all kinds of clothing, footwear, and carrying cases; by the mid-1930s, zippers had even been
embraced by the fashion industry.
The term "zipper" was coined as onomatopoeia ( resembling the sound it makes ) by B. F.
Goodrich, whose company started marketing galoshes featuring the fastener in 1923. Regrettably,
Whitcomb Judson died in 1909, and never heard the term, or saw the success by which his
invention would become ubiquitous.

1. The zipper differs from the other three fastening devices mentioned in paragraph 1 in which
(a) it has been used in many more ways
(b) it is more recent
(c) it can be used in place of the other three
(d) it is usually made from different materials

2. The word “prototype” in line 8 is closest in meaning to

(a) device
(b) design
(c) model
(d) original

3. What is the author’s main point in the second paragraph?

(a) despite being a successful inventor, Judson failed with the clasp-locker
(b) Judson lacked marketing skills
(c) Judson was a poor businessman
(d) Although Judson invented a workable product, it did not appeal to the public

4. The word “it” in line 11 refers to

(a) Judson
(b) Clasp-locker
(c) World•fs Fair
(d) The public

5. The word “refinements” in line 12 is closest in meaning to

(a) improvements
(b) changes
(c) promotion
(d) additions

6. According to the passage, zippers did not really become a success until
(a) they were used in the apparel industry after 1905
(b) in 1913 after being remodeled
(c) the Army used them in World War I
(d) be the late 1920s

7. The word “gear” in line 16 is closest in meaning to

(a) boots
(b) luggage
(c) equipment
(d) tents

8. According to the passage, by the late 1920s zippers could be found in all of the following
industries EXCEPT
(a) footwear
(b) luggage
(c) tents
(d) fashion

9. The word “embraced” in line 18 is closest in meaning to

(a) welcomed
(b) considered
(c) discarded
(d) promoted

10. According to the passage, the zipper got its name

(a) when used in clothing
(b) in 1909
(c) from Judson
(d) because of its sound

11. Which of the following descriptions best describes the author’s last comments about Judson?
(a) admire
(b) sad
(c) envy
(d) celebrate

12. Which of the following statements can best be inferred from the passage about zippers?
(a) the imaginative name was a major factor in its success
(b) a successful model had been developed commercially before Sundbach’s version because it
was used in the apparel industry by 1905
(c) Judson was an inventor, not a business man
(d) If Judson had still been alive by World War I his company would have been more successful

The renowned Boston Symphony Orchestra gave its inaugural concert on October 22, 1881. It
has continued to uphold the vision of its founder, the philanthropist, Civil War veteran, and
amateur musician Henry Lee Higginson, who dreamed of founding a great and permanent
orchestra in Boston for many years. The first concert was given under the direction of conductor
Georg Henschel, who remained music director until 1884. For nearly twenty years, concerts were
held in the Old Boston Music Hall, then in Symphony Hall from 1900, one of the world's most
highly regarded concert halls. Henschel was succeeded by a series of German born and trained
conductors: Wilhelm Gericke, Arthur Nikisch, Emil Paur, and Max Fiedler - culminating in the
appointment of the legendary Karl Muck, who served two terms as music director, 1906 - 08 and
1912 - 18.

Meanwhile, in July 1885, the musicians of the Boston Symphony Orchestra had given their first
"Promenade " , concert, offering both music and refreshments. This fulfilled Major Higginson's
with to give "concerts of a lighter kind of music." These concerts, soon to be given in the
springtime and renamed, first "Popular " and then "Pops" , fast became a tradition. Recording,
began with the Victor Talking Maching Company ( predecessor to RCA Victor ) in 1917, and
continued with increasing frequency, as did radio broadcasts.

In 1918 Henri Rabaud was engaged as conductor; he was succeeded a year later by Pierre
Monteux. There appointments marked the beginning of a French-oriented tradition which was
maintained, even during the Russian-born Serge Koussevitzky's time from 1924, with the
employment of many French-trained musicians. Koussevitzky's extraordinary musicianship and
electric personality proved so enduring that he served an unprecedented term of twenty-five
years. Regular radio broadcasts of Boston Symphony concerts began during Koussevitzky's years as
music director. In 1936 Koussevitzky led the orchestra's first concerts in the Berkshires; a year later
he and the players took up annual summer residence at Tanglewood. Koussevitzky passionately
shared Majoy Higginson's dream of " a good honest school for musicians, " and in 1940 that dream
was realized with the founding of the Berkshire Music Center ( now called the Tanglewood Music

13. In the first paragraph, Henry Lee Higginson is described as

(a) an amateur conductor
(b) a war historian
(c) a visionary
(d) a philanthropist

14. The word “inaugural” in line 1 is closet in meaning to

(a) demonstration
(b) practice
(c) first
(d) official

15. The word “legendary” in line 9 is closest in meaning to

(a) notorious
(b) fabulous
(c) lengthy
(d) talented

16. According to the passage, the first promenade concert was

(a) conducted by Georg Henschel
(b) held in Symphony Hall
(c) held in the springtime
(d) held with refreshments

17. The word “did” in line 15 refers to

(a) recording
(b) began
(c) continued
(d) radio broadcasts

18. The word “unprecedented” in line 20 is closest in meaning to

(a) unique
(b) remarkable
(c) important
(d) continuous
19. Which of the following musical directors served the longest?
(a) Georg Henschel
(b) Serge Koussevitsky
(c) Karl Muck
(d) Pierre Monteux

20. What did Koussevitsky and Higginson have in common?

(a) they were both conductors
(b) they both served as musical directors for a long time
(c) neither was American born
(d) they both wanted a school for musicians


1.B 2.C 3.D 4.B 5.A 6.B 7.C 8.C 9.A 10.D 11.B 12.B 13.D 14.C 15.B 16. 17.C 18.A 19.B