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## VII CBSE Physics – Motion

Instruction: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the videos
proceed.

1. Introduction

Question 1. When we are in a train, the trees seem to move backwards. But when we are standing on
ground, they appear still. How is it possible for the trees to be moving sometimes while stationary
at other times?

a. What is motion?
Motion is one of the most important topics in physics. We see a lot of objects around us which are
moving. For instance, we see cars running on roads, birds flying etc. While other objects like
buildings appear to be at rest. But the same buildings seem to be in motion if viewed from a
moving car. Don't forget that even if you appear to be standing still, the Earth is moving around
the Sun, and the Sun is moving around our galaxy. The galaxy itself is speeding around at great
speeds.
When we think of motion, the first thing that comes to our mind is that something is changing its
position with time. Of these moving bodies, some appear to move faster while others slower. But
there is much more to this motion.

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## VII CBSE Physics – Motion

Question 2. Suppose a person A is standing on the ground while persons B and C are moving on
rollers as shown.

## Observer Person Moving / At rest

A A

B A

C A

So we see that motion of a body depends on the observer or with respect to what we are observing
the motion.
 Misconception: A body can be at rest or in motion.
 Clarification: There is nothing as absolute rest or motion. This is all relative.

b. How far?
As a moving body changes position with time, there should be some measure of how far the body
has moved. And this can be measured by measuring the length of the path which is represented by
a number followed by a unit.

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## VII CBSE Physics – Motion

Question 3. In which of the following cases has the body moved more?

## Did You Know?

An instrument called odometer measures the distance travelled by vehicles.
Around 15 BC, the Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius mounted a large
wheel of known circumference in a small frame; when it was pushed along the
ground by hand, it automatically dropped a pebble into a container at each
revolution, giving a measure of the distance traveled. It was, in effect, the first
odometer.

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## VII CBSE Physics – Motion

2. Basics of Standard Units
a. Standardization: What and Why?
As we learnt, to represent the motion of a body we need a number followed by a unit. This unit
should be a standard unit which is accepted universally by all. E.g. First aid whose symbol is
universally accepted is shown below.

## Figure 1: Example of Standardization

Now we are going to strict to standardization of length only. Earlier different units were used as
units of length like length of feet, cupid etc. But these were not standard and could vary from
person to person. Even for the same person, its value changes with time. A better unit would be a
rod of given length.

Question 4. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a rod of given length as a unit of
length?

A still better way would be to define a unit based of speed of light. For example, a meter is
defined as the distance travelled by light in s. This value is not going to change and
has been accepted universally.

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## 1 meter = _________________ centimeter

1 millimeter = _________________ meter
Similarly, we also need some larger units of length to measure greater lengths. For instance, the
distance between Bangalore and Delhi is 1,740,000 m while that between Bangalore and Mysore
is 147,000 m. If we define 1 kilometer to be 1000 m, we can easily represent these distances as
1740 km and 147 km.
1 meter = _________________ kilometer

Question 6. Akash found on the internet that sounds travel 1480 m in one second in water. His friend,
Susweta argues that it travels only 1.48 km in a second. Who do you think is right? Justify your

## 3. Basics of Motion and its Types

a. Motion Basics
So what are the parameters that can be used to determine whether a body is moving or not? One
way is that if the body is moving in a straight line along the line of sight of the observer, it will
either seem to approach you (with time its size will increase) or recede away from you (its size
will decrease).

## Figure 2: Perception of Motion

Yet another way is that you have to rotate your head in order to keep looking at the body.

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## Figure 3: Another Perception of Motion

Question 7. How can you say that moon is in motion with respect to you standing on the earth?

## b. Different Types of Motion

The motion of bodies that we encounter in our daily lives can be of different types- rectilinear,
circular, periodic or any random motion.
If a body moves in a straight line, its motion is said to be rectilinear and if it moves on a circular
path, it is said to be in circular motion. However, if it repeats its motion in equal intervals of time,
the motion is said to be periodic.

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## VII CBSE Physics – Motion

Question 8. Classify each of the following motions into different types with proper justification of

##  Misconception: A car moving on a circular track is in periodic motion.

 Clarification: A car moving on a circular track need not necessarily be in
periodic motion. It might not pass the same point after equal intervals.

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## VII CBSE Physics – Motion

4. Time and Speed
a. Time
In order to better analyze the motion of a body, along with knowing how far it has moved, it is
also important to know how much time it has taken for it.
We understand what time is. However, defining time is not an easy task.

## Figure 4: An Hour Glass

Question 9. How do you think an hour glass can be used to measure time?

## Did You Know?

Galileo discovered that as long as a pendulum stays the same length
and keeps swinging, the time it takes to swing back and forth is
always the same. This makes a pendulum the ideal timekeeper.

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## VII CBSE Physics – Motion

b. Speed
Suppose a car is moving on a straight road. In some time it covered a distance .

## Figure 5: Car moving on a straight road

Then speed is the quantity that takes into account both the factors:
 How far the body has moved?
 How much time it has taken?

In fact, it gives the average speed of the car as the car can travel different distances in different
intervals of time. And such motion is called non-uniform motion. On the other hand, if a body
covers equal distances in equal intervals of time, its motion is uniform.

## Did You Know?

On Saturn, wind speeds can reach as high as 1609 km/h, which is just about as
fast as a speeding bullet. The highest wind speed ever recorded on Earth during a
hurricane was in 1996, during Tropical Cyclone Cynthia when gusts reached 408
km/h.

Question 10. A bus is in uniform motion and it covers a distance of 10 km in 1 hour. How much
distance will it cover in the next 30 minutes?

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## VII CBSE Physics – Motion

5. Motion Visualized
In order to represent motion, we need to have a reference. This is known as the origin. The paper
is moved at a constant rate towards the right and represents time. On the other hand, position is
represented perpendicular to the time.

## Question 11. What is the importance of having a negative position?

For a body moving at a constant speed, starting at time t = 0 from origin, if it moves 3 m in 2 s, it
is represented in the graph as shown below.

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## Figure 7: Body Moving at a Constant Speed

Question 12. How would the graph look like if the body had covered 4 m in the same 2 seconds?

So we see that if the body has more speed, the line is inclined at a greater angle; we say that slope
of the graph is more.

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## 1) While specifying whether a body is at rest or in motion, why do we need an observer?

2) Suppose you are in a ferry sailing across the Indian Ocean. How will its motion look like to you?
3) What is standardization? What is its importance?
4) The SI unit of length is meter. Then why are smaller and larger units of length required?
5) Which of the following bodies have greater speed? Justify your answer.

6) How can you say that a body is in motion with respect to an observer?
7) Under what conditions will the speed be equal to average speed of a body?
8) What are the different types of motion? Give examples for each.
9) What do you mean by time period of a simple pendulum? How can a simple pendulum be used to
measure time?
10) Differentiate between uniform and non-uniform motion citing proper examples.
11) The motion of a body is shown graphically. What can you conclude about its motion?

12) What do you mean by slope of a graph? What is its importance with respect to position-time
graph?
13) Akash takes 20 minutes to go from his house to a friend‘s house on a bicycle. If the bicycle has a
speed of 1 m/s, calculate the distance between their houses.

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## VII CBSE Physics – Motion

14) The motion of a body is graphically represented as shown below. What is its speed?

15) A body covers a distance of 10 m in 20 s and then another 10 m in 10 s. Represent its motion
graphically assuming the body to be in uniform motion.
16) The SI unit of time is
A) Hour C) Second
B) Minute D) None of these
17) A simple pendulum takes 2 s to move from A to B. Then its time period is

A) 2 s B) 4 s C) 6 s D) 8 s
18) The path completed for 1 complete oscillation is

A) A-B-A C) A-B-A-C-A
B) A-B-A-C D) None of these
19) Motion of moon around the earth is
A) Rectilinear C) Periodic
B) Circular D) Both circular as well as periodic
20) Why can‘t you use rod as a standard unit of length?
A) Its length can change with change in D) All of these
temperature.
B) It can corrode with time.
C) It can‘t be reproduced accurately.

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## VII CBSE Physics – Heat

Instruction: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the videos
proceed.

1. Introduction
Question 1. Your friend touches your forehead and says that you have fever. Can you definitely say
that he/she is correct?

## a. Hot and Cold Bodies

Of the various objects that we come across in day-to-day life, some seem to be hot, while others
may seem to be cold. Even out of these objects, some seem to be relatively hotter or colder. And
we generally use the perception of touch to determine this.

Body Hot/Cold

A furnace

Ice tea

Tap water

Base of an iron

Pencil

Molten wax

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## VII CBSE Physics – Heat

b. Perception of Touch
Well, our perception of touch is not a reliable method to determine whether a body is hot or cold.
It is somewhat relative; the same body may appear to be hot to one person, while cold to another.

## Figure 1: Different Perception of Same Water

2. Visualizing Heat
When it comes to visualization of heat, we are not that lucky that directly by seeing a body we can
determine whether it‘s hot or cold. However, pythons, rattlesnakes and other members of the
family known as the 'pit vipers' have a sixth sense that can sense minute temperature changes
which acts as an aid in locating warm-blooded prey such as rodents.

Question 3. At the microscopic scale, how will a hot body be different from a cold body?

We see that at the microscopic level, a hot body looks different from a cold body. When these two
bodies are brought in contact, the active atoms of the hot body collide with the relatively less
active atoms of the cold body. The more energetic atoms lose energy and slow down, while the
reverse happens for the less energetic atoms. Eventually the motion of both bodies equalizes and
they are equally hot or cold. So we can perceive hotness as the amount of motion at microscopic
level.

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## Figure 2: A Hot and a Cold Body at Microscopic Level

Till now we have qualitatively defined hotness or coldness. In quantitative terms, temperature is
the measure of random energies inside a body.

## Question 4. When does heat flow between two bodies?

Heat flows from a body at higher temperature to a body at lower temperature. If the two bodies
are at the same temperature, no heat flows between them. This is known as thermal
equilibrium.

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## VII CBSE Physics – Heat

Question 5. Suppose you have three bodies A, B and C. When A and B are brought in contact, no heat
flows between them. Now when B and C are brought in contact, heat flows from B to C until flow
of heat stops. What will happen when A and C are brought in contact?

 Misconception: Heat flow between two bodies occurs from a body with higher
heat content to a body at lower heat content.
 Clarification: Heat flow between two bodies always occurs from a body at
higher temperature to a body at lower temperature, irrespective of their heat
content.

3. Measuring Temperature
Temperature is a measure of degree of hotness or coldness of a body. Since we can‘t directly
visualize temperature, we need something that changes properties with change in temperature.
And then only we would be able to measure temperature.

## For this purpose of measuring temperature, expansion of mercury can be used.

 Mercury, being a liquid, can be put in any container.
 With an increase in temperature, it expands and with a decrease in temperature, it contracts.
 It is a good conductor of heat.

A thermometer is a device that is used to measure temperature. One of the most common types of
thermometer is the laboratory thermometer. In this type of thermometer, an expansion liquid,
usually Mercury or Alcohol, fills a glass bulb attached to a long stem. When heated, the liquid
expands up the stem until the bulb reaches thermal equilibrium with the material whose
temperature is being measured. The expansion of the liquid is such that the height it reaches in the
stem is linear with temperature. A laboratory thermometer (calibrated from -10°C to 110°C) is
shown below.

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## Did You Know?

The highest temperature ever recorded in the shade
was 57.8°C in Libya on September 13 1922.

## Question 6. How is a laboratory thermometer calibrated?

Another type of thermometer is the clinical or medical thermometer. It is used for measuring
human body temperature. It is calibrated from 35°C to 42°C as the temperature of human body
does not go below.

Question 7. Why can‘t you use a laboratory thermometer to measure the temperature of your body?
How does a clinical thermometer solve this problem?

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## Figure 5: A Clinical Thermometer

Question 8. While measuring temperature of boiling water, Susweta found the temperature to be 85°C
only. What can be the probable reason for this?

4. Messengers of Heat
Ever wondered how heat from the sun reaches the earth. Or why do you feel hot near fire, even
though you don‘t directly touch it. Or why a metallic spoon kept in tea feels hot. Well it‘s all
because of transfer of heat, although the means by which heat gets transferred is different.
Though the term "cold" has plenty of meanings in the everyday world, in physics, it does not.
Cold and heat are analogous to darkness and light: again, darkness means something in our daily
experience, but in physical terms, darkness is simply the absence of light. If you grasp an ice cube
in your hand, your hand gets cold. Our mind perceives this as a transfer of cold from the ice cube,
but, in fact, exactly the opposite happens: heat moves from your hand to the snow. And this is
what you experience as a sensation of coldness.
Basically there are three means by which heat can be transferred from one body to another:
 Conduction
 Convection
Solids, particularly metals, whose molecules are packed relatively close to each other, are the best
materials for conduction. Molecules of liquid or nonmetallic solids vary in their ability to conduct
heat, but gas is a poor conductor, because of the loose attractions between its molecules.

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##  Misconception: Cold flows from a cold to a hot body.

 Clarification: It’s always the heat that follows from hotter body to the colder
one.

Question 9. How does a conductor of heat differ from an insulator? Give examples for each.

Question 10. How does heat transfer take place by convection? Can heat transfer by convection take
place in solids?

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## Did You Know?

Convection also takes place within the Sun. Vast amounts of hot gases rise
up towards the surface of the Sun. As they do so, they become cooler and
begin to fall back down towards the center of the Sun. And the process
continues.

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## Figure 8: Sea Breeze and Land Breeze

Let us now come to the third means of heat transfer – Radiation. For instance, heat from the sun is
not dependent on any fluid medium for its transfer; it comes to the Earth by the means of
radiation. This is a form of heat transfer significantly different from the other two, because it
involves electromagnetic energy, instead of ordinary thermal energy generated by the action of
molecules. Every form of matter emits electromagnetic waves, though their presence may not be
readily perceived. Thus, when a metal rod is heated, it experiences conduction, but part of its heat
is radiated, manifested by its glow—visible light. Even when the heat in an object is not visible,
however, it may be radiating electromagnetic energy, for instance, in the form of infrared light.

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## VII CBSE Physics – Heat

Question 11. Explain an example where heat is transferred by all the three means.

## 5. Heat and Fashion

The concepts of heat even influence the types of clothes we prefer to wear during winter and
summer – Whites and light colored clothes for summer while black and dark colored clothes for
winter. Dark-colored objects absorb radiation better than the light-colored objects. That is the
reason we feel more comfortable in light-colored clothes in the summer.

## Did You Know?

The skin of a polar bear is black, which helps it to absorb
more of the heat from the sun.

Question 12. Why is it so that if you wear two thin sweaters, you will feel warmer as compared to a
single thick sweater?

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## Instructions Solve these problems after watching the videos.

1) Describe an experiment to conclude that touch is not a reliable perception of heat and
temperature.
2) How do you measure temperatures in a laboratory?
3) State the zeroth law of thermodynamics.
4) A lab thermometer, calibrated from -10°C to 110°C, is divided into 12 large divisions and each of
the large divisions is further divide into 5 small divisions. What minimum temperature can you
measure using this thermometer?
5) Why are steel utensils provided with a copper base?
6) How does heat from sun reach the earth surface?
7) We prefer to wear light colored clothes in summer. What is the reason for this?
8) When standing barefoot in a cool room having both carpet and tile flooring, the tile feels colder
than the carpet. What can be the reason for this?
9) If you hold a thermometer by its bulb, will the reading be accurate? Why/Why not?
10) Explain how land breeze and sea breeze are formed.
11) If you place your hands over a heat flame, you feel hot. How does heat reach your hand?
12) How can woolen clothes keep you warm in winters?
13) Why is there a kink provided in the clinical thermometer?
14) With the help of an experiment, show that in convection actual motion of particles takes place.
15) Whether heat will flow between two bodies depends on what factor/factors?
16) In which phase does conduction take place the fastest?
A) Solid C) Gas
B) Liquid D) Both liquid and gas
17) Which of the following is an insulator?
A) Iron C) Wood
B) Copper D) Steel
18) 5 litres of water at 20°C is mixed with 1 litre of water at 50°C. The resulting temperature will be
A) < 20°C C) Between 20°C and 50°C
B) > 50°C D) Can‘t say
19) A body A at 30°C is placed in contact with another body B at 30°C. Heat will flow from
A) A to B C) No heat will flow
B) B to A D) Can‘t say
20) The range of clinical thermometer is from
A) 32°C to 40°C
B) 35°C to 47°C
C) 32°C to 42°C
D) 35°C to 42°C

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## VII CBSE Physics – Electric Current and its Effects

Instruction: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the videos
proceed.

1. Introduction
Electricity is one of the most amazing phenomena that we encounter in our daily lives. In fact,
imagining a life without electricity is highly unimaginable!

## Question1.What is some applications where we use electricity in our daily lives?

Humans have been aware of this force for many centuries. Earlier it was believed that electricity
was some form of magic because people did not understand it. Greek philosophers noticed that
when a piece of amber was rubbed with cloth, it would attract pieces of straw. They recorded the
first references to electrical effects over 2,500 years ago.
Today we use electricity to light our homes, power our televisions, washing machines, geysers
and many more appliances. If you've ever seen a thunderstorm, with mighty lightning bolts
darting down from the sky, you'll have some idea of the power of electricity. A single lightning
bolt is enough to light 100 powerful lamps for a whole day!
Electricity has played a vital part of our past, continues to affect our present significantly and
could play a different role in our future. Let's take a closer look at electricity!

## Did You Know?

The light reaching our eye is converted into electrical
signals that the brain can interpret.

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## VII CBSE Physics – Electric Current and its Effects

Question2. What do you mean by an electric circuit?

Representing an electric circuit using actual components can be quite clumsy and cumbersome,
especially when the circuit involves multiple components. So we represent different components
of the circuit using symbols.

Component Symbol

Battery

Switch Off

Wire

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## VII CBSE Physics – Electric Current and its Effects

Question 3. Suppose you have 4 cells as shown below. How will you connect them to make a battery
with A as negative terminal and B as positive? Also show its electrical symbol with terminals
properly marked.

## Did You Know?

The voltaic pile, invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800, was the first electric
battery. Its invention can be traced back to an argument between Volta and
Luigi Galvani, Volta's fellow Italian scientist who had gained notoriety for
his experiments on frog legs. Galvani discovered how a circuit of two
metals and a frog's leg can cause the frog's leg to respond.

Using these electrical symbols, we can represent the circuit quite conveniently. When the circuit is
complete, current flows through it. For example, a simple circuit using a cell, switch, bulb and wires
is shown below where the bulb glows when current flows through it.

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## VII CBSE Physics – Electric Current and its Effects

Question4.Draw a circuit diagram for the above situation when the switch is in ―off‖ position.

##  Misconception: The electrons, which flow in the circuit, are provided by

cell/battery.
 Clarification: Batteries and cells do not create these electrons, they merely
pump them

Question5. Why do you think we require wires to connect the components? Can‘t electricity flow
through air?

## 3. Heating Effects of Electric Current

a. Electric Bulb
We have seen that a bulb glows when current flows through it. It also becomes hot. So how does
the bulb emit light and heat? The electric bulb consists of a thin wire, called the filament, which
glows when an electric current passes through it. The filament is usually made of tungsten.
When current flows through the filament, the electrons collide with the stationary atoms and they
start vibrating about their mean positions. This causes heating of the filament and is known as
Joule’s heating. As it heats up, the wire emits most of its heat as infrared radiation. Some of this
heat energy, however, is actually emitted at slightly higher frequency radiation, which we can see
as light.

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## Did You Know?

Fireflies produce light using chemical energy from their food. This
light is even more efficient than that of one light bulb. Other creatures
possess this magic too, like the deep-sea squid and glow-worms. An
electric eel on the other hand, does not glow, but it can produce strong
electric shocks.

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## VII CBSE Physics – Electric Current and its Effects

Question 7. When current flows through the filament of a bulb it gets heated to such a high
temperature that it starts glowing. However, the wires used for making electric circuits do not
normally become that hot. Why is it so?

Question8.While demonstrating the heating effect of electric current, a student used a cell in the first
case and a battery consisting of 3 cells in the second case. In which case will the heat produced be
more? Why?

But if a very large current passes through a wire the wire may become so hot that it may even
melt and break. The amount of heat produced in a wire depends on its

 Material
 Length and
 Thickness
As per our requirements we use wires of different materials, lengths and thicknesses.

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## Question9.Why CFL bulbs are preferred over incandescent bulbs?

b. Electric Fuse
Another electrical component that utilizes heating effect of electric current is the electric fuse. It is
used as a safety device in household circuits and controls the amount of current in circuits. There
is a maximum limit on the current, which can safely flow through a circuit.
If the current exceeds this safe limit due to any reason, the fuse breaks the circuit and prevents
current from flowing.

## Figure 3: An Electric Fuse

Fuse is made using wires made from some special materials having low melting point such that
they break when large electric current are passes through them. In case of current exceeding the
safe limit, the connecting wires may become overheated and cause fire. If a fuse of proper rating
is there in the circuit, it will blow off and break the circuit, hence preventing potential damage.
The excessive current can be because of following reasons:
 Short circuit

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## VII CBSE Physics – Electric Current and its Effects

c. Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB)
MCB is also a safety device, which is now being increasingly used instead of fuse. These
basically are switches, which automatically turn off when current in a circuit exceeds the safe
limit. They have to be turned on manually such that the circuit gets completed again.

## Question11.What is the advantages of using an MCB over a fuse?

Having understood the heating effects of electric current, let us now see how electricity and
magnetism, which seem to be totally unrelated, are in fact two sides of the same coin!
Topics to be covered in the next class:
 Magnetic Effects of Electric Current
 Electromagnet
 Electric Bell

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## 4. Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

To demonstrate magnetic effects of electric current, you can take a conducting wire (like copper).
Now with the help of connecting wires, attach this to the two terminals of a battery. Keep a
magnetic needle parallel to the conducting copper wire as shown in figure. When the circuit is
complete, the magnetic needle shows some deflection. However, when the current is switched off,
the needle comes back to its original position.

## Figure 5: Demonstration of Magnetic Effect of Electric Current

Question12.How does the above experiment show that electric current has magnetic effects?

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## VII CBSE Physics – Electric Current and its Effects

Question 13. What will happen if
i) Direction of current is reversed in the above case?
ii) Two batteries are used instead of one?

Thus flow of electric current through a conducting wire produces magnetic effects. In the year
1820, a scientist from Denmark named H.C. Oersted observed this effect for the first time.

## Did You Know?

Heat and the Earth’s spin keep the outer core moving. This movement
causes electrical currents in the core, which is mostly iron. The
electrical currents make the earth behave like a large bar magnet.

5. Electromagnet
We all have seen cranes picking up large cars and vehicles. How is it possible? Some might argue
that it is some magnet (similar to fridge magnets that you play with but a much stronger one),
which can attract the vehicles. But then how is it that the cranes drop the vehicles when and where
required. A permanent magnet would not lose its magnetism that easily. You need to hit it hard or
heat it so that it loses magnetism and then it won‘t be useful anymore.

Figure 6: A Crane

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## VII CBSE Physics – Electric Current and its Effects

It turns out that here we utilize magnetic effects of electric current – Electromagnet.
An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic effect is produced by an electric
current, which disappears when the current is turned off. It consists of a large number of closely
spaced turns of wire.

Figure 7: An Electromagnet

Question 14. Can an electromagnet be used to separate plastic wastes from a garbage heap? Justify

When current is being passed through the coils of an electromagnet, it behaves as a bar magnet.

## Did You Know?

The high-speed maglev trains are developed using electromagnets.
These trains float over a guide way using basic principles of magnets;
hence replacing the traditional steel wheel and track system.

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## VII CBSE Physics – Electric Current and its Effects

Question 15. Differentiate between an electromagnet and a permanent magnet.

##  Misconception: Any material can be used as a core of an electromagnet.

 Clarification: Not any material can be used as a core of an electromagnet. For
example, if hard iron core is used, it won’t lose its magnetism instantaneously
when the current is switched off. So, soft iron cores should be used.

## Electromagnets find applications in a number of fields:

 They can be used to lift very heavy loads. E.g. Electromagnetic cranes
 They can be used to separate magnetic material from the junk.
 They are used in electromagnets.
 Doctors use small electromagnets to remove pieces of magnetic material that have
accidentally fallen in the eye.
 Many toys also use electromagnets inside them.
Now let‘s look into one of the commonly used applications of electromagnets: The electric
bell.

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## VII CBSE Physics – Electric Current and its Effects

6. Electric Bell
The circuit of an electric bell is shown below:

## Figure 8: An Electric Bell

An electric bell consists of a coil of wire wound on an iron piece, which acts as an electromagnet.
A striker (which is basically an iron strip with a hammer at one end) is kept close to the
electromagnet. There is a contact screw near the iron strip. When the iron strip is in contact with
the screw and the switch is in on position current flows through the coil, which then becomes an
electromagnet. It then pulls the iron strip. In the process, the striker strikes the gong of the bell
and a sound is produced.

Question 17. How is it ensured that a repetitive sound is produced as long as the switch is in ―on‖
position?

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## There sits, in the Clarendon Laboratory at Oxford University, a bell

that has been ringing, nonstop, since 1840. It's powered by a single
battery and has rung roughly 10 billion times! However, it is not
known with certainty as what the battery is made up of!

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## 1) Why do we need symbols of electrical components? Draw the electrical symbols of

A) A bulb
B) A switch
2) How does an open circuit differ from a closed circuit? In the circuit shown below if the bulb A

3) If a battery consists of 3 cells, how many terminals will it have? Explain using a diagram.
4) How does an incandescent bulb produce light when electric current passes through it?
5) On what factors does the heat produced in a wire depend?
6) Name two devices utilizing
A) Heating effect of electric current
B) Magnetic effect of electric current
7) Why is tungsten used for making bulb filament? Why don‘t we use other materials like copper or
nichrome?
8) An incandescent lamp wastes a large amount of energy as heat. How can this be minimized?
9) Under what conditions can the current in a circuit exceed the safe limit?
10) What is an MCB? Why is it preferred over a fuse?
11) Explain an experiment demonstrating magnetic effects of electric current.
12) What are the advantages of using an electromagnet over a permanent magnet?
13) Explain using a diagram the construction and working of an electric bell.
14) An electrician while carrying out some repairs in a building replaces the fuse by a piece of wire.
Do you think he has done the right thing? Justify your answer.
15) How can the strength of an electromagnet be increased?
16) When do we use a battery instead of a cell?
A) When we require more than two
terminals.
B) When current requirement is less.
C) When current requirement is more.
D) None of these

48

## 17) A cell with A as positive terminal and B as negative terminal is represented as

A)
C)
D) None of these
B)
18) A fuse is used to prevent damage in case of
19) A soft iron core is placed inside an electromagnet to
A) Retain its magnetic properties even after the current is switched off.
B) Increase the strength of electromagnet
C) Both of these
D) None of these
20) When the switch S is closed,

## A) Both the bulbs glow simultaneously.

B) Bulb A glows first.
C) Bulb B glows first.
D) None of the bulbs glows.

50

## VII CBSE Chemistry – Acids, Bases and Salts

Instruction: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the videos
proceed.

1. Introduction
Have you ever wondered why lemon tastes sour whereas tamarind tastes tangy?
Each day, we come across numerous things which are different from each other and behave
differently. Our curiosity to understand such things led to putting various things in categories to
understand them further. On the same line, we categorized food items according to the taste it
gave us.
Taste the following substance and write the result

Substance Taste
Vinegar
Salt
Milk

You might find the taste as sour, bitter or sweet, but why do they taste differently?
In early days, these substances were distinguished as acid and bases according their taste.

## 2. Acid and Bases

Write the definition of acids and bases.

##  Acids turn blue litmus paper red

 Bases turn red litmus paper blue

Question1. If you are provided with a blue litmus paper and asked to dip it in vinegar solution, what

51

## VII CBSE Chemistry – Acids, Bases and Salts

Question3. Write one test apart from litmus test used to distinguish between an acid and a base.

3. Salts
Remember the time when you went to a beach and played in the seawater? You surely must have
complained about the seawater being too salty!
Table salt is the same salt that is present in the seawater. In chemistry, we use the same term
―salt‖ to describe such substances.
Salt is produced by the reaction of acid and base.
Acid + Base Salt

52

## VII CBSE Chemistry – Acids, Bases and Salts

Explain the concept of neutralization and how is it used in the case of toothpaste.

## Did you know?

Why animals don’t need to brush daily is because they don’t eat cooked food. They
eat raw food which needs a lot of chewing to digest it, thereby cleansing the teeth
naturally

4. Visual Indicators
What are the common ways to identify whether a substance is acidic or basic in nature?

Why do visual indicators show a change in color when introduced to an acidic or a basic medium?

53

## VII CBSE Chemistry – Acids, Bases and Salts

Magic Colour - Home activity
Try this activity at home and over the course of the activity you will be able to visualize what
universal indicators are.
Materials Required
 Universal indicator (available at chemical shop)
 Lemon Juice
 Liquid laundry detergent
 Pain brush
 Cotton swab
 Water
 3 Plastic cups
 Paper towels
 Pencil, Pen
 Scissors
 Teaspoon
 Chemical safety

Procedure: -

##  Trace the fish trout pattern on a piece of card

 Pen the following names in the three plastic cups:

## Cup 3- Laundry detergent

 Add lemon juice and laundry detergent to the cup according to the labels.
 Place about 40 drops of universal indicator solution into the cup labeled as universal indicator
 The colour of universal indicator is green. Use a paint brush to completely colour the fish
with this green solution. There might be a slight change in colour as the solution reacts with
the fish.
 Let the coloured fish dry. Then dip a cotton swab in lemon juice and paint a few stripes, dots
or other designs on the fish. Do not cover the entire fish with the designs. Observe what
happens.
 Now, dip a different cotton swab into the detergent solution. Paint some stripes or dots on the
fish and compare with what happened when the lemon juice was used to make the designs.
 Allow the fish to dry and observe what happens to the colours.
 Thoroughly clean the area and wash your hands.
What did you observe?
 Universal indicator is green in colour.
 Base- When laundry detergent is applied to it, it turns blue or purple.
 Acid- When lemon juice is added it, it turns yellowish or orange.
This activity shows how acids and bases change colour when indicator is added. This helps in
identification of the presence of acid or base.

54

## VII CBSE Chemistry – Acids, Bases and Salts

Question6. Summarize the properties of acids, bases and salts.

Acidity and basicity are two extremes of a property that describes chemicals, just like hot and
cold are two extremes of temperature. Mixing acids and bases can cancel out their extreme effects
much like mixing hot and cold water can even out the water temperature.
A substance that is neither acidic nor basic is called neutral

In chemistry, numeric scale is used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution, which
is called the pH scale.

55

## VII CBSE Chemistry – Acids, Bases and Salts

5. Application and Uses
Why do we need to study acids, bases and salts?
Acids, bases and salts are chemicals which we come across in our everyday life and studying
them can help us understand them and subsequently use them better.
Write some of the most significant application of acids and bases.

## Question8. Why are bases used as fertilizers?

Question9. Why is base applied to the affected area in the case of a bee sting?

Question10. What interests you the most in this chapter? Write the importance of acids, bases & salts
in our daily life.

57

## 1. What are the natural sources of the following acids?

 Oxalic acid
 Stearic acid
 Tannic acid
2. Classify acids on the basis of their sources with help of examples.
3. Complete and balance the following equations:
 NO2 + H2O → ___________ + ____________
 P2O5 + H2O→ __________ + ____________
4. Give reason: Curd is not stored in brass vessels.
5. Give two common uses of nitric acid.
6. Give reason: Vinegar should never be stored in a metal bottle?
7. What do you observe when vinegar reacts with sodium bicarbonate?
8. With the help of an example, explain the reaction of bases with salt solution.
9. Explain the importance of neutralization with regards to crop growth.
10. Explain how dyes synthesized from fruits and vegetables are used as indicators.
11. Classify the following substances as acids, bases and salts.
 Oil of vitriol  Green vitriol
 White vitriol  Caustic soda
12. What is the composition and use of aqua regia?
13. With the help of an example, show the action of an acid on metal carbonate and bicarbonate.
14. Give two uses of potash alum.
15. Explain how neutralization helps in disposal of factory wastes.
16. The turmeric strain on your shirt turns red when washed with soap:
(a) due to the basic nature of soap (c) due to the neutral nature of soap
(b) due to the acidic nature of soap (d) none of these
17. A natural source of ascorbic acid is:
(a) Orange (c) Citrus fruits
(b) Lemon (d) all of these
18. It is advised to rub a solution of baking soda on human skin when an ant stings as baking soda is:
(a) neutral in nature (c) basic in nature
(b) acidic in nature (d) none of these
19. Phenolphthalein is first added to some hydrochloric acid and then sodium hydroxide is added to
the solution of phenolphthalein and hydrochloric acid. The color transition occurring during this is
from_____________.
(a) colorless to pink (c) red to blue
(b) pink to colorless (d) blue to red
20. The solutions which do not change the color of either red or blue litmus solutions are known as: -
(a) neutral solutions
(b) acidic solutions
(c) basic solutions
(d) none of these

59

## VII CBSE Chemistry – Physical and Chemical Changes

Instruction: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the videos
proceed.

1. Introduction

Physically, matter can be classified into three physical states. The physical aspects cover these
states, the inter conversion and the changes it undergoes while transforming. But matter can also
be classified by its chemical composition as:

 Pure substance
 Impure substance

## 2. Pure Substances (Purity)

A matter composed of only one type of particle and having uniform composition is called pure
substance.

Question1. Is the pure milk that you get, really pure? Justify your answer.

 Elements
 Compounds

a. Elements

b. Compounds

60

## Figure 1 - Types of Pure Substances

Very few of the chemicals and substances we encounter on daily basis are in their pure form.
Most of them are mixtures.

3. Impure substance

A mixture is a combination of two or more pure substances in which each pure substance retains
its individual chemical properties. Mixture can be composed of solid, liquids or gases.

## Mixture can be defined in numerous ways and is classified as-

 Homogeneous mixture
 Heterogeneous mixture

## Define the terms, ‘homogenous and heterogeneous mixtures’.

Question3. You have one glass of water and some sugar and sand. How will you create a
homogeneous mixture?

61

## VII CBSE Chemistry – Physical and Chemical Changes

a. Solutions

Question4. Define the terms, solute and solvent. Mention the solute and solvent of a water-salt
solution.

 A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances, which may be solids, liquids, gases or
any other combination of these.
 The particles should have dimension between 0 and 2 nanometers.
 Solutions are transparent, i.e. light can pass through it. Mixtures are stable and do not change
after standing for long time

a. Colloids

## Dispersion Medium Dispersed Phase Type of Colloid Example

Solid Solid Solid sol Ruby glass
Solid Liquid Solid emulsion/gel Pearl, cheese
Solid Gas Solid foam Lava, pumice

62

## VII CBSE Chemistry – Physical and Chemical Changes

b. Suspensions

A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which solids are dispersed in liquids. The solute
particles in suspension do not dissolve but remain suspended throughout the medium.

## We all have experienced such a picture where we are able to

see the path of light. Such a phenomenon occurs when light
travels through a colloid. The phenomenon, known as the
Tyndall effect, is light scattering by particles in a colloid or
particles in a very fine suspension.

4. Concentration

A complete description of a solution, it describes what the solute is and how much solute is
dissolved in a given amount of solvent or solution. The quantitative relationship between solute
and solvent is the concentration of the solution. This concentration may be expressed using
several different methods.

63

## VII CBSE Chemistry – Physical and Chemical Changes

5. Physical and Chemical Changes

Change is a rule of nature. As the saying we all observe and wonder many changes around us in
our daily life. Change can be of many types, which we might not be aware of.

When you add sugar to the water the sugar dissolves, this is also a change.

Make a list of five changes that you observe around you in your daily life.

## Before Changes After Changes

Now we have studied both the chemical and physical states of matter. There are several
differences between the physical & chemical changes.

a. Physical Change
Changes wherein the molecule does not change its chemical makeup, but its physical appearance
might be altered.

## Figure 2 - Heat Leading to Larger Inter-molecular Space

b. Chemical Change

Question9. Would you term curd formation as a chemical change? Justify your answer.

64

## VII CBSE Chemistry – Physical and Chemical Changes

Question10. Classify the following on the basis of whether they are a chemical or physical change.

(a) Whipping of egg whites (b) Milk souring (c) Dicing the potato

## change occurs simultaneously.

Take an apple cut into two sections. Observe the exposed area immediately. After ten minutes
observe what happens to the inside colour. The oxygen in air reacted chemically with the apple
and caused a colour change.

This is also chemical change because the colour of apple will not be able to change it again.

Question12. Pour a quarter cup of vinegar into a clear plastic cup. Add a teaspoon of baking soda and
observe bubbles are formed. Can you name the type of change?

65

## VII CBSE Chemistry – Physical and Chemical Changes

6. Separation Techniques

Heterogeneous and Homogeneous mixtures are separated using different techniques based on the
type of mixture we are dealing with.

## One of earliest separating techniques was invented

by farmers who separated husk from paddy. They
allowed both of them to fall along the wind. Husk
being lighter, was carried by the wind to a longer
distance.

Sublimation

## Sublimation is a process of conversion of a solid into vapour or a vapour back to solid

state, without passing through the liquid state.

66

## VII CBSE Chemistry – Physical and Chemical Changes

a. Distillation

What is distillation? Which property of substances does this process use as a basis for separation
of components of a mixture?

## Figure 4 - Separation by Distillation

b. Centrifugation

## Question12. Explain the method of centrifugation.

Any heterogeneous mixture containing an insoluble solid in a liquid can be separated by two
methods

 Sedimentation
 Decantation

67

## VII CBSE Chemistry – Physical and Chemical Changes

c. Sedimentation

The insoluble solid substance in the solution settles down at the bottom of beaker and a clear
liquid is obtained standing above the solute. This process is called sedimentation.

## Question13. What do you understand by the process of decantation?

d. Chromatography

68

##  Misconception: Passing any water through a water-purifier makes it fit to

drink.
 Clarification: Water purifiers have special filters that keep back dust and
impurities present as particles in the solution. But these water purifiers are
unable to keep out any impurities that might be dissolved in the water.
Speaking in simple terms, water purifier only purifies the water physically,
leaving scope of chemical poisoning.

70

## 1. What do you mean by a pure substance?

3. What do you mean by a heterogeneous mixture?
4. In a homogeneous solution, the dimension of solute particles varies between:
a. 0-2 nanometer b. 2-4 nanometer
c. 4-6 nanometer d. 6-8 nanometer
5. Does light pass through a colloid without any deflection?
6. How is a suspension different from a colloid?
7. Is milk a colloid, suspension or true solution?
8. How will you separate a mixture of Iron filings and sand?
9. What is sublimation? Give examples of sublimable substances.
10. Explain the principle of distillation which is used as a separation method.
11. Explain the working of centrifugation separation technique?
12. What type of mixtures can be separated by sedimentation?
13. What do you mean by decantation?
14. A solution of water and sugar is an example of:
a. Colloid b. Suspension
c. True solution d. Pure substance
15. Mixtures of colored compounds can be separated by:
a. Distillation b. Decantation
c. Centrifugation d. Chromatography
16. What is the use of chromatography? Explain the principle behind it.
17. Light passes through _________ without any deflection.
a. solution b. colloid
c. suspension d. emulsions
18. What is meant by concentration of solution?
19. How will you separate a solution of oil and water?
20. You have two substances with a large difference in their weight. Which of the following technique
is used for the separation of the mixture?
a. Distillation b. Chromatography
c. Sublimation d. Centrifugation

72

## VII CBSE Chemistry – Water

Instruction: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the videos
proceed.

1. Introduction

Why is water considered as the most vital compound for our survival?

## There is more fresh water stored under the ground in aquifers

than there is on the earth’s surface.

Water is one of the major requirement for all forms of life without which the survival of life is
practically impossible.
The most important use of water that might come to our mind may be drinking, but do you
know that only 1% of the water on earth is drinking water.

Question1. Why is water considered essential for survival of life? Give reasons.

73

## VII CBSE Chemistry – Water

2. Sources of Water

When Neil Armstrong looked at Earth from the Moon, it appeared to him as a blue sphere! This is
because water covers more than two thirds of the Earth's surface. But still, the fresh water that we
can drink amounts to less than 0.5% of the total water on Earth

Every day we use water for cooking, bathing, cleaning and drinking, but how often do we think
about its source? Where does all this water come from?

Question2. Name the various water resources that are available on Earth.

Water is continuously moving around the Earth and constantly changing its form. It evaporates
from land and water bodies and is also consumed by all forms of life on Earth. Even though water
is constantly moving and changing its form, its total quantity on Earth‘s surface is constant.

## Question3. By percentage, how much of the human body consists of water?

Question4. Is the water that you get for cooking and washing purposes fit for drinking? If not, how
should we treat it?

74

## Figure 1 - Distribution of Water on Earth

There are two main sources of water: surface water and ground water.
Surface water comprises of water found in lakes, rivers, oceans and reservoirs.
Ground water is found lying under the surface of land, where it travels through layers and fills up
the openings in the rocks. The rocks that store and transmit groundwater are called as aquifers.
Ground water must be pumped from an aquifer to the Earth's surface for use.

3. Water Depletion

All the materials and energy essential for the survival and welfare of living beings, including
humans, are provided by nature. But due to his unending greed, man has destroyed nature for
his own convenience and has made himself the master of nature. On account of such ruthless
exploitation, the human society has vastly modified the ecosystem in different parts of the
world and has brought undesirable changes in various natural habitats.

## Did you know?

The World Water day is marked on 22nd March every year. It's a day when
people across the globe spread awareness about the depletion and pollution of
water and other water related issues. Join the movement, spread awareness
and make a difference.

75

## 2. Effects of Water Depletion

Water is the one of the most important element of our biosphere which is essential for the
existence of all forms of life. Water is precious, but are we aware of this? The water present under
the surface of the Earth, known as ground water, is what we extract for our day to day purposes.
This storing of ground water occurs over large periods of time with the passage of water
molecules through the intermolecular spaces between the soil, rock, sand and gravel particles. The
downward flow of water stops when it catches the rock. These water molecules which get
collected is of good quality and it can be used for drinking.

But this underground water source is slowly getting depleted due to over use of pumping,
bore well, dug wells, etc.

76

## VII CBSE Chemistry – Water

Question6. How can you prevent ground water depletion?

## Question7. What can we do to save water from pollution?

3. Water Management

## What do you understand by water management?

We have come up with various methods to conserve water, which are reliable and can be easily
adopted but the real problem lies with its execution. These methods can help preserve water at
household levels and also at industries. The main problem that we are facing is that not enough of
us are aware about the depletion and pollution of water.

## Did you know?

It takes around 700 gallons of water to make a cotton shirt, and 2,600 gallons to
make a pair of jeans — most of them to grow the cotton.

77

## VII CBSE Chemistry – Water

Question8. Mention any one method for conservation of water and how the conserved water can be
used?

Question9. What are the causes of water pollution and how do they contribute to water depletion?

79

## 1. What is the relative molecular mass of water?

2. Write two important uses of water.
3. Classify natural water based on its degree of impurity.
4. Explain the importance of water cycle in our nature.
5. Briefly explain the different types of impurities found in water.
6. Give two uses of distilled water.
7. Explain electrolysis of water in brief.
8. Give reason: Sea water does not freeze easily as compared to pure water.
9. Give reason: Water acts as a cooling agent.
10. Explain how anomalous expansion of water plays an important role in the sustenance of aquatic
life in cold places.
11. Why water is often referred to as a universal solvent?
12. With the help of an example, explain the reaction of water with a metal.
13. Differentiate between temporary hard water and permanent hard water.
14. Briefly explain three causes of water pollution.
15. Give some measures by which we can save water.
16. Plants give out water in ________ state of matter:
a) vapour b) solids
c) liquid d) gaseous
17. Which among the following is not a natural source of water?
a) Ponds b) Canal
c) River d) Rains
18. An example of water in its purest form is __________.
a) sub soil water b) lake water
c) rain water d) spring water
19. During purification of water to obtain adequate quantity of portable water, which among the
following steps is carried out first?
a) Filtration b) Sedimentation
c) Aeration d) Sterilization
20. Water scarcity is experienced widely during which of the following seasons?
a) Winter season b) Autumn season
c) Spring season d) Summer season

81

## VII CBSE Biology – Nutrition in Plants

Instruction: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the videos
proceed.

1. Introduction

## Question1. What do you mean by being alive?

Living organisms exhibit certain characters which make them unique and differentiate them from
non-living things. It is a unique and complex organization of molecules expressing it through
reproduction. Cells are the basic structural and functional units of life. Cells comprise of many
organelles such as nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, etc. to carry out different life functions.

## a. Classification of Living Organisms

The process of obtaining food and utilizing it is called nutrition. A nutrient can be defined as a
substance which an organism obtains from its surroundings and uses it as a source of energy or
for the biosynthesis of its body constituents. There are mainly two modes of nutrition –
autotrophic and heterotrophic.

82

## VII CBSE Biology – Nutrition in Plants

2. Photosynthesis

During photosynthesis light energy is converted into chemical energy and is stored in the form of
sugar. Light energy is trapped by chlorophyll and with the help of carbon dioxide, carbohydrate is
prepared. This process occurs in plants and some algae. Plants need only light energy, CO 2 and
H2O to make sugar. The process of photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts. The total
energy fixed is around 1 % of the total energy available. The gaseous exchange in plants takes
place through tiny pores, present on the surface of leaves, called stomata.

## Figure 2: Cross - Section of a Leaf

Equation-

Sunlight
6CO2 + 6H2O __________________ + 6O2
Chlorophyll

83

## VII CBSE Biology – Nutrition in Plants

 Misconception: Release of oxygen during photosynthesis is due to break down
of CO2 molecule.
 Clarification: In photosynthesis light is used to split hydrogen from water and
uses it to change carbon dioxide into a simple carbohydrate. The byproduct is
oxygen, which is released as gas. Some bacteria can perform the same thing
using hydrogen sulphide. Heat energy is used to drive this process. The
byproduct is pure sulphur and is probably the source of most of this mineral.
It is thought that the first forms of life on earth used geothermal energy to
make carbohydrates using hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. This process
still continues deep underground and at the bottom of the ocean around
hydrothermal vents.

Question4. How will you prove that chlorophyll is required for photosynthesis to take place?

84

## VII CBSE Biology – Nutrition in Plants

Question6. There are some leaves which do not have green colour. How do they prepare their food?

Question7. In case of cactus plants the leaves are modified into spines. Why is it so? And how do
these plants fulfill their nutritional requirement?

## 3. Other Mode of Nutrition

Along with carbohydrates which are synthesized during photosynthesis, plants require some other
nutrients as well. Such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium etc. the nutrients that are
required in large amount are called macro nutrient. Soil is the source of nutrient for these plants.
In case these nutrients are not present in sufficient amount plants adopt for some other ways for it.
Let‘s discuss these ways in detail.

## (i) Saprophytic Nutrition

In this type of nutrition, an organism lives upon dead organic sources such as dead plants and
dead animals. These usually secrete digesting enzymes on food and absorb the liquidified
molecules so formed e.g.; yeast, bread moulds and dung moulds etc.

85

## VII CBSE Biology – Nutrition in Plants

Question8. When a slice of moist bread is kept in open for few days‘ fungal growth is observed as
shown in the following diagram. From where does this fungus come on the bread slice?

## (ii) Parasitic Nutrition

In this type of nutrition, an organism lives totally at the expense of other and derives its food
material and shelter from the other organism. These organisms which derive food material are
called parasites and the organism from which food is derived is called a host. This type of
nutrition is termed as parasitic nutrition.

86

## VII CBSE Biology – Nutrition in Plants

Question9. Rafflesia arnoldii, the world‘s largest individual flower, is kind of nasty. Found in the
forests of Malaysia and Indonesia, its giant red-brown blossom is nearly 1 meter (3.3 feet) in
diameter and weighs up to 11 kg (24 pounds). It cannot photosynthesize; it depends on nutrients
that it steals from the roots of neighboring Tetrastigma vines. Identify the host and the parasite in
this relationship.

## (iii) Insectivirous Plants

Question10. Pitcher plant and venous fly trap can photosynthesize but still they trap insects and digest
them hence, they are called insectivorous plants. What is the need for adapting to this kind of
nutrition by these plants?

87

## VII CBSE Biology – Nutrition in Plants

4. Nutrients Being Replenished in the Soil

Plants use the nutrients present in the soil as a result the amount of nutrient keeps depleting in the
soil. So, it is needed that these nutrients are replenished in the soil either naturally or artificially.
Nitrogen is one of the major nutrients required by the plants for synthesis proteins. Plants cannot
use atmospheric nitrogen directly.

## Question11. Why do farmers use fertilizers?

Question12. Given below is the picture of root nodule in leguminous plants. Explain its significance
for the plant.

89

## 1. Which of these components of food can be synthesised by plants?

a. Carbohydrates c. Fats
b. Proteins d. All of these
2. Which gas is released during photosynthesis?
a. SO2 b. CO2 c. NO2 d. N2O
3. Amarbel is an example of
a. Autotroph c. Saprotroph
b. Parasite d. Host
4. Nitrogen of the atmosphere is absorbed by
a. Autotrophs c. Insectivorous plant
b. Leguminous plants d. None of these
5. Which of these is not an insectivorous plant?
a. China rose c. Pitcher plant
b. Mistle toe d. None of these
6. Why are algae green in colour?
7. What is a host and parasite relationship?
8. How can you test the presence of starch in leaves?
9. Why is it said that whether directly or indirectly all living things depend on green plants for food?
10. Can we call an insectivorous plant as carnivorous? Why or why not?
11. Why is the number of stomata more on the lower side of leaves?
12. Write the function of spines of cactus.
13. Why do plants need nutrition?
14. Which is the ultimate source of energy?
15. What is the end product of photosynthesis?
16. Differentiate between parasite and saprophyte.
17. What is the mode of nutrition in fungi?
18. How are nutrients replenished in soil?
19. What is the function of stomata?
20. What grows on a moist piece of bread?

91

## VII CBSE Biology – Nutrition in Animals

Instruction: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the videos
proceed.

1. Introduction

Question1. What will happen if you are kept on fast for a number of days? Give reason for your

a. Calorie

A calorie is defined as the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1
°C. In a popular use of the term calorie, dietitians loosely use it to mean the kilocalorie,
sometimes called the kilogram calorie, or large Calorie (equal to 1,000 calories), in measuring the
calorific, heating, or metabolizing value of foods.

## b. Components of Food and Their Function

The food which we eat has different components. These components of food that an organism uses to
survive and grow are called nutrients.

## Question2. Match the following.

Nutrients Function
i. Carbohydrates a. Body building food
ii. Proteins b. Necessary for growth and development
of bones and teeth
iii. Fats c. Add bulk to our food
iv. Vitamins d. Helps in removal of waste
v. Minerals e. Needed for proper growth and good
health
vi. Roughage f. Energy bank

92

## VII CBSE Biology – Nutrition in Animals

Other than these six our body also needs substantial amount of water. Water is required for a
number of functions - it helps in transport of nutrients, regulation of body temperature and
eliminating waste from the body.

## 2. Different ways of taking in Food

Recall different organisms in your surroundings, do they all eat food in same way as you do? The
answer will be an obvious ‗no‘. This mode of taking in food depends upon a number of factors
such as the environment in which they live, availability of food etc. for example a spider wraps
the insect in their spider silk which is what the web is made from. Then the spider injects the
insect with venom that either paralyzes or kills the insect. Then the spider eats it.

## Question3. How the following organisms take their food?

1. Snake

2. Frog

3. Humming bird

4. Human infants

3. Nutrition in Humans

Human beings have holozoic mode of nutrition. They take solid food in and this food is gradually
digested as it moves down the alimentary canal. The alimentary canal is basically a long tube
extending from the mouth to the anus. Various parts of alimentary canal are specialized to
perform different functions. Let‘s see this process in detail. The process of digestion takes place
in four different stages – Ingestion, Digestion, Absorption and Egestion.

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## VII CBSE Biology – Nutrition in Animals

Question4. Label the different parts of digestive system given below.

## Figure 1: Digestive System in Humans

a. Mouth

The mouth is the first site of digestion. The role of the teeth, tongue and saliva is to break down
food into smaller particles which are more manageable to digest. Digestion begins at the mouth
itself. Smell and taste are senses intimately related to digestion. Taste and smell help us
distinguish food that is good to eat from poisonous and spoilt food. Moreover, these senses help in
signaling the brain about the arrival of food so that it can prepare the rest of the digestive system

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## VII CBSE Biology – Nutrition in Animals

(i)Teeth

The intake of food is followed by breaking the food into small pieces by the process of chewing.
The chewing machinery of the human body includes the teeth, supporting muscles and saliva.
Humans have two sets of teeth- Milk teeth or deciduous teeth and permanent teeth. Humans along
with most of the mammals have different types of teeth.

## (ii) Canines (b)Grinding

(iii)Premolars (c)Chopping

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## VII CBSE Biology – Nutrition in Animals

(ii) Saliva

The next thing that food encounters in the mouth is saliva. Saliva is a viscous mixture of
water and electrolytes secreted by salivary glands. It is slightly acidic with a pH of 6.8 and
contains salivary amylase and lysozyme (antibacterial) enzymes.

## Question8. Justify this statement ―Digestion of food begins in the mouth‖.

Question9. Rice is a rich source of starch and iodine gives blue black colour with starch. If you add
iodine solution to chewed rice, what colour will it give?

(iii)Oesophagus

Saliva along with the action of teeth aids in the formation of circular masses of food
particles called bolus which can then easily enter the oesophagus or food pipe. Food
then moves down the oesophagus by involuntary, alternate contraction and relaxation
of muscles called the peristalsis.

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## Figure 4: Peristalsis in Oesophagus

b. The Stomach

The stomach‘s primary role is to break down food into even smaller chunks, destroy bacteria and
begin the process of chemical digestion. Its digestive enzymes help in breakdown of food and
provide an environment to help in that process. The stomach walls release gastric juices
containing enzymes and hydrochloric acid as well as mucus from structures called pits. The
stomach is lined with muscles to produce strong contractions that can mix the food with gastric
juices. The enzymes are secreted in an inactive state in the stomach.

Question10. Why do you think it is necessary for the stomach to close its openings at both ends
during digestion?

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## VII CBSE Biology – Nutrition in Animals

Question11. Why is protein digesting enzymes in the stomach released as inactive enzymes or
zymogens?

Question12. Why the acid in stomach does not digest the stomach itself?

## Did you know?

A man with a hole in his stomach provided a window into digestion. In 1822, a
fur trapper accidentally shot a 19 years old man named Alexis St. Martin.
Army surgeon William Beaumont successfully patched up St. Martin, but he
was left with a hole in his stomach's abdominal wall, which is called a fistula.
The fistula allowed Beaumont to investigate the workings of
the stomach in entirely new ways.

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## VII CBSE Biology – Nutrition in Animals

c. The Small Intestine

The small intestine is almost 10 feet long but only 1 inch thick. Its main function is to
digest and absorb nutrients. The structure of the intestine optimizes this function. The
digestion in the small intestine is aided by secretions of the pancreas and liver. Secretions
from liver are stored in the gall bladder before being released into the small intestine. The
small intestine‘s internal surface is covered by bumps known as villi. Each villus is in
turn covered by microvilli. The liver plays a role in packaging and segregating absorbed
nutrients. It also repurposes enzymes and gastric juices absorbed in the intestine.

## Did you know?

Laundry detergents take cues from the digestive system. Laundry
detergents often contain several different classes of enzymes, including proteases,
amylases and lipases. The human digestive system also contains such enzymes.

Question13. What do you mean by accessory digestive glands? Name the accessory digestive glands

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## VII CBSE Biology – Nutrition in Animals

Question14. Bile and pancreatic juices change the pH of the chyme in small intestine. What change
occurs in the pH? Can you explain the requirement of changing the pH from the perspective of
enzyme requirements?

## d. The Large Intestine

The large intestine performs the final absorption of nutrients and water. Water is reabsorbed from
the chyme to make it more semisolid and easy to defecate. The chyme in the large intestine is
called faeces. The large intestine also stores the faeces so that it can be defecated at one go.

100

## Did you know?

Flatulence gets its smell from bacteria. Intestinal gas, or flatus, is a combination of
swallowed air and the gases produced by the fermentation of bacteria in the
gastrointestinal tract. The digestive system cannot tract, and makes their way into the
large intestine. Hordes of intestinal bacteria get to work, releasing a variety of gases
in the process, including carbon dioxide, hydrogen, methane and hydrogen sulfide
(which gives flatulence its rotten-egg stench).

Question16. Do you think the microorganisms in the large intestine have a role other than producing
odour in the faeces?

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## VII CBSE Biology – Nutrition in Animals

4. Nutrition in Grass Eating Animals

You must have noticed that grass eating animals keep on chewing something. They do this to
digest cellulose as their diet mostly contains leaves of plants which are rich in roughage. The
grass eating animals digest their food in two steps. Their stomach is divided into four chamber the
__________________________, _____________________, _____________________________
and _____________________.

Question 18. Label the parts of digestive system of cow in the given figure.

## Figure 5: Digestive System in Grass Eating Animals

The half chewed food is swallowed and it then goes from mouth to the rumen. Here, bacteria act
on food and digest the cellulose. This half-digested food sent to the second muscular chamber; the
reticulum. From the reticulum the food is sent back to the mouth as cud. Chewing of the cud is
called rumination and such animals are called ruminants. Cow, goat, buffaloes, sheep, bison, etc.
are good example of ruminating animals. The re-chewed food is swallowed for the second time.
After passing the first two chambers it enters the third chamber; the omasum. Here the food is
further broken down into smaller pieces and finally enters the fourth chamber, the abomasum.
Here, all enzymes act upon the food and the digestion is completed.

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## VII CBSE Biology – Nutrition in Animals

5. Nutrition in Amoeba

Amoeba is a unicellular animal, so it doesn‘t have a mouth for ingestion of food. Amoeba ingests
the food by encircling it with the help of pseudopodia. When the food is completely encircled, the
food is engulfed in the form of a bag called food vacuole. Several digestive enzymes react on the
food present in the food vacuoles and break it down into simple and soluble molecules. The food
digested by digestive enzymes is then absorbed in the cytoplasm by the process of diffusion. The

food absorbed by the cytoplasm is used to obtain energy, growth and repair. Undigested food in
the food vacuole is thrown out of the body by exocytosis.

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## 1. The walls of the large intestine absorb

a. Cellulose c. Proteins
b. Water d. Digested food
2. Fat is completely digested in the
a. Stomach c. Mouth
b. Small intestine d. Large intestine
3. The first four teeth in each jaw are called
a. Canines c. Premolars
b. Molars d. Incisors
4. The function of the digestive juices present in the stomach is to breakdown
a. the proteins into simpler substances c. Fats into juices
b. Starch into sugars d. Food into gases
5. The largest gland in the human body is
a. Oesophagus c. Liver
b. Salivary gland d. Villi
6. Why does bread taste sweet when chewed for some time?
7. Which acid is present in the stomach? Why does it not harm our own body?
8. Pancreas is a part of our digestive system. Justify
9. What is the function of the salivary amylase?
10. Where is the bile produced? Which component of the food does it digest?
11. Can we survive only on raw, leafy vegetables/grass? Discuss.
12. Why do we get instant energy from glucose?
13. Write one similarity and one difference between the nutrition in amoeba and human beings.
14. Which carbohydrate can be digested by ruminants but not by humans?
15. Large intestine is longer than the small intestine. (True/False)
16. Villi are present in the large intestine. (True/False)
17. What are the simplest digestive products of carbohydrates, fats and proteins?
18. Name the sphincter which regulates the exit of food from the stomach.
19. Why do different animals have different types of digestive systems?
20. What is the difference between defecation and excretion?

107

## VII CBSE Biology – Transportation in Animals and Plants

Instruction: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the videos
proceed.

1. Introduction

Humans and plants require oxygen, food, water and nutrients for their various life processes.
Transportation system carries these substances to all the cells, collect wastes from the cells and
deposit it in the parts from where they can be removed.

## The systems involved in the process of transportation of substances are _______________

and____________________.
2. Circulatory System

It is the system which carries out the transportation of various substances throughout the body.

Question1. When you are injured, a red liquid starts coming out of the injured part. What is this
liquid?

The transportation of nutrients, carbon dioxide, oxygen, enzymes, hormones and waste products is
carried out by two major fluids in our body – blood and lymph. Let us now discuss about the
various components of the circulatory system in humans.

a. Blood

Blood is a constantly circulating fluid providing the body with nutrition, oxygen and waste
removal. The fluid part of blood is __________.

Another important component of blood is red blood cell. Its main function is
___________________________. It is red in colour due to the presence of
_______________. The ability of blood to reach the corners of our body aids in the
repair of cells and defense of body against microorganisms. These cells which protect our

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## VII CBSE Biology – Transportation in Animals and Plants

body against disease causing germs is white blood cells. When we get injured, blood stops
coming out of the wound after sometime. This is due to clotting which occurs due to the
presence of _____________.

Question2. Write about the characteristic features and functions of the fluid part of the blood?

## Did you know?

Crabs and lobsters have a pigment called
haemocyanin instead of haemoglobin because of
which their blood is blue instead of red.

b. Blood Vessels

Unlike lower creatures which have open circulatory system, we humans have a well-defined
network of closed channels for carrying the blood around. These channels are called blood
vessels. The two main types of blood vessels are arteries and veins.

(i) Arteries – They carry oxygen rich blood from the heart to all parts of the body.

(ii) Veins- They carry carbon dioxide rich blood from all parts of the body back to the heart.

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## VII CBSE Biology – Transportation in Animals and Plants

Question3. When we are asked to make a coloured diagram of arteries and veins, we usually make
arteries red and veins blue. Why is it so? Is the colour of blood that flows in veins blue?

The arteries on reaching the tissues, break down into smaller vessels called arterioles. They also
help in regulation of blood flow. The arterioles further branch to form capillaries which are the
narrowest vessels. They help in the exchange of gases as diffusion is easy through their thin
membrane. The capillaries then lead to comparatively thicker vessels called the venules. These
are almost as narrow as the arterioles but have comparatively thinner walls.

## Figure 1: Blood Vessels

 Misconception: Arteries are usually defined as vessels which carry oxygenated
blood and veins are usually defined as vessels which carry deoxygenated
blood.
 Clarification: Arteries are the vessels which carry blood away from the heart
and veins are the vessels which carry blood to the heart. Most of the arteries
carry oxygenated blood except pulmonary artery, which carried deoxygenated
blood from the heart to the lungs. Similarly, most of the veins carry
deoxygenated blood except pulmonary vein which carries oxygenated blood
from the lungs to the heart.

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## VII CBSE Biology – Transportation in Animals and Plants

c. Heart

It is the pumping organ of the body. This organ along with the blood vessels makes up the
circulatory system. We human beings have a four chambered heart which is important for
avoiding the mixing up of oxygenated blood with deoxygenated blood. Our heart consists
of two atria and two ventricles. The atria form the upper chambers and the ventricles form
the lower chambers. Our heart __________ while receiving blood and ___________while
pumping blood.

## Question4. Label the following diagram correctly.

Question5. Explain the process of circulation of blood in the heart and in the body.

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## VII CBSE Biology – Transportation in Animals and Plants

Our body has valves to keep the flow of blood unidirectional. The opening and closing of these
valves make the rhythmic lub - dub sound. Stethoscope is used by doctors to listen to the
heartbeat.

## Did you know?

Our heart pumps about 5000 litres of
blood in an hour and we have
just 5 litres of blood in our body.

d. Pulmonary Circuit

Pulmonary system consists of the right side of the heart which is involved in the oxygenation
of the blood. It receives deoxygenated blood from the body and sends it to the lungs to pick
oxygen and release carbon dioxide. This circulation from right side of heart to lungs and back
to the heart completes the pulmonary circuit. The exchange of gases in the lungs takes place
in the balloon shaped structures called_______________.

e. Systemic Circuit

Blood that comes from the lungs is received by the left side of the heart and then circulated to
the rest of the body. This circulation from the left side of the heart to the body cells and back
to the heart completes the systemic circuit.

Both pulmonary and systemic circulation results in double circulation of blood in the body.

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## VII CBSE Biology – Transportation in Animals and Plants

Figure 2: Double circulation

## Question6. What happens in a heart attack?

f. Pulse

When the heart pumps blood, it moves into the arteries with pressure. This causes the arteries
to expand creating a pulse. We can feel this when we touch our wrist or neck. It is felt only at
a few places of our body because arteries are usually buried deep in our body. The number of
times the heart beats per minute is pulse rate. Pulse rate in a normal resting person is
_________________beats per minute.

Activity: Gently place two fingers of your right hand on the inside of your left wrist, below your
thumb. When you feel your pulse, count the number of beats in 15 seconds. Multiply this number
by 4 to calculate your beats a minute.

Question7. Write about the mechanism of transportation of substances in the organism shown in
the picture below.

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## VII CBSE Biology – Transportation in Animals and Plants

3. Transportation in Plants

Plants require a transportation system to transport the components required for photosynthesis
to the specified site; also to carry the food produced to different parts of the plant. Plants take
in water and nutrients by a process called osmosis. In this process, water moves from a region
of its _____________concentration to a region of its ______________concentration.
Vascular tissues are present in plants for the transportation purpose. These tissues comprise of
xylem and phloem.

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## VII CBSE Biology – Transportation in Animals and Plants

Question9. Phloem cells provide a passage for two way movement of food- both downwards and
upwards. What is the need to transport the food in upward direction?

## Figure 3: Vascular Tissues

Question10. If a potted plant is covered with a glass jar, water vapours appear on the wall of glass jar.
Explain why?

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## VII CBSE Biology – Transportation in Animals and Plants

Another process in which water moves up in plants is transpiration. In this, water is lost as vapours
from the aerial parts. This creates a suction force due to which more water is pulled up by the tubes of
xylem to the leaves to replace the water that is lost.

Figure 4: Transpiration

Question11. Why do you feel comfortable when you sit under a tree in a hot summer afternoon?

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## VII CBSE Biology – Transportation in Animals and Plants

4. Excretory System

During the various life processes carried out in our body, a number of waste products are
generated. The removal of these metabolic wastes from the system is known as excretion.
Humans have a specialized excretory system to carry out excretion. The major waste products
are carbon dioxide, faeces and urea. The human excretory system is made up of a pair of
kidneys, a pair of ureters, a urinary bladder and a urethra. Various nitrogenous wastes like
urea or uric acid are removed from the blood in kidneys.

## Question13. Label the following diagram of human excretory system.

Nephrons form the basic unit of filtration in kidneys. Kidneys eliminate the nitrogenous waste
from the body in the form of urine. The urine formed in the kidneys undergoes various levels of
filtration as it passes through the nephron. Various useful substances like glucose, amino acids
and salts are absorbed from the urine by the tubes in nephrons. The urine thus formed at the end is
passed on to the _________ and then stored in the urinary bladder until the bladder is full and we
get the urge to urinate.

In case of kidney failure, we need treatment to replace the work our kidneys used to do. Unless
we have a kidney transplant, we will need a treatment called dialysis.

In dialysis, the patient‘s blood is lead from the radial artery in his arm through the machine where
urea and excess salts are removed and the purified blood is returned to a vein in the same arm.

117

## Question14. Fill in the table with appropriate words.

Structures Functions
Ureters

Urethra

Question15. Write the main excretory product in the organisms given below.

118

120

## 1. How many chambers does the heart have?

a. One c. Three
b. Two d. Four
2. Why does blood turn dark red as it circulates through the body?
a. It starts to clot
b. It gets old and dirty flowing through the body
c. The oxygen in it is replaced with carbon dioxide
d. The farther blood is from the heart, the more dark red it is
3. The watery part of the blood is:
a. Veins c. Plasma
b. Platelets d. RBCs
4. Blood that returns to the lungs from the body is:
a. Oxygenated c. Mixed
b. Deoxygenated d. None of these
5. Water absorption through roots can be increased by keeping the plants:
a. In shade c. Under the fan
b. In dim light d. Covered with a polythene bag
6. What makes the blood look red?
7. What are the four blood groups found in humans?
8. Why do animals like sponges and hydra do not possess a circulatory fluid like blood?
9. How the urine is removed from the body?
10. Why is transport of materials necessary in plants and animals? Explain.
11. What is the use of stethoscope?
12. Is clotting of blood dependent on exposure of blood to air?
13. Is there any relationship between the size of the body and rate of heartbeat? If yes, how?
14. Why do we urinate fewer times in summer than in winter?
15. How are kidney stones formed?
16. What is dialysis?
17. Why is the excretory product different in different animals?
18. Why do we need blood vessels?
19. What is pulse rate?
20. What is the difference between arteries and veins?

122

## VII CBSE Physics – Light

Instruction: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the videos
proceed.

1. Introduction

a. What is Light?

Question 1. Alex argued that light is not necessary for seeing objects, rather our eyes are. Do you
agree with him?

We humans are lucky to have the sense of vision. We see the beauty of nature around us,
wonder at the various creations – it is all because of light. Light is a form of energy,
which enables us to see objects around us. We are able to see objects around us when
light from it reaches our eyes. This light can be produced by the body itself or can be
produced by something else. So we can say that having eyes alone cannot ensure vision.
Presence of light is also necessary. That is why we are unable to see anything in a dark
room.

Light is a very fast traveler. The speed of light in vacuum is about m/s. It is a
universal constant and is denoted by letter ‗c‘.

## Did You Know?

If the sun were suddenly snuffed, we on Earth would not notice until 8
minutes and 17 seconds – the time it takes sunlight to reach Earth.

b. Sources of Light

An object that is capable of giving out light is known as a source of light. Broadly the
sources of light can be classified as – Natural and Man-made or artificial.

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## VII CBSE Physics – Light

Question 2.Which of the following is a source of light? If they are then, classify them following as
natural or man-made source of light.

## Natural Source of Light Artificial Source of Light

A body that emits its own light is known as a luminous body; else it is called non-
luminous body.

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## VII CBSE Physics – Light

Question 3.Can a body be luminous at some point of time and non-luminous at others?

Question 4. A luminous body emits light of its own that enables us to see them. How is it possible to
see the non-luminous bodies, which don‘t emit any light?

## Did You Know?

Humans are bioluminescent from metabolic reactions, but our glow is
1,000 times weaker than the naked eye can register.

Any medium through which light can pass partially or completely is called an optical
medium. Based on how light behaves when it falls on a medium, materials can be
classified as transparent, translucent and opaque.

125

## Transparent Glass, Water

Translucent Partially

Opaque

## c. Rectilinear Propagation of Light

To explain various phenomena involving light, we take the path along which light travels
as a ray. A large number of rays, moving in one direction, form a beam of light.

Parallel Beam

Divergent Beam

In a given medium, light travels in a straight line. This property is known as rectilinear
propagation of light.

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## VII CBSE Physics – Light

Question 5.Using the figure below as a hint, explain the experiment to demonstrate rectilinear
propagation of light.

d. Pinhole Camera

A pinhole camera is a device, which can help us to understand the rectilinear propagation
of light.

127

## Characteristics of image formed:

 Real image i.e. formed on a screen
 Inverted image
 Generally smaller

Magnification is the ratio of the size of the image to that of the object.

i.e.

When an opaque object is placed between a light source and a screen, the passage of light
is blocked. The dark patch thus formed is called shadow of the opaque object.

When there is a point source of light, umbra region (completely dark) is formed.
Whereas for extended sources both umbra and penumbra (partially dark) regions are
formed.

128

## Figure 6: Shadow due to Point Source

Penumbra is that region around the umbra where the shadow is only partial, or imperfect. You get
these when the light source is larger than a single point. These form because the shadowing object
blocks some of the light from the source, not all of it does. If you are in the penumbra looking towards
the light source, you will see part of it visible, and part of it blocked. Point light sources will either be
all visible or all blocked, but an extended source can be partially viewable beyond the edge of the
shadowing object. The same is true of multiple sources.

## Figure 7: Shadow due to Extended Source

f. Eclipse

An eclipse is the partial or complete hiding of one heavenly body by the shadow of another.
In this chapter, we are going to focus on lunar and solar eclipse.

Lunar Eclipse: When the earth is between the sun and the moon

129

## Question 7.How is a solar eclipse formed? Explain with a diagram.

Now that we have a fair idea of light, let us examine reflection of light in details.

2. Reflection of Light

Question 8.What possibilities can arise when a light beam strikes a surface?

## a. Reflection and Laws of Reflection

The phenomenon of bouncing back of light, when it hits a surface is known as reflection
of light. From the earliest recorded history, humans have been fascinated by reflections.
People were bewitched by their own reflection in a pool of water and reflections were so
extraordinary that magic powers were ascribed to mirrors in fairy tales.

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## VII CBSE Physics – Light

Question 9.We all know that mirrors reflect light falling on them. But do other objects like table,
chair also reflect light? Give proper reasons.

This phenomenon of reflection of light was found to obey two rules or laws.

## There is a phenomenon called the photic sneeze reflex, which causes

uncontrollable sneezing in the presence of bright light. It affects roughly
18-35% of the human population, though nobody is sure why? One
suggested cure: Wear sunglasses.

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## VII CBSE Physics – Light

Question 11.What happens to a light ray that is incident normally on a surface? What are the angle of
incidence and the angle of reflection?

b. Types of Reflection

## There are two types of reflection:

 Regular reflection

## Figure 10: Regular Reflection

 Irregular/Diffused reflection

##  Misconception: The laws of reflection don’t hold true for diffused

reflection.
 Clarification: Laws of reflection are always valid – be it regular
reflection or diffused reflection.

132

3. Images

a. Plane Mirrors

## An image is an optical reproduction of a body. It is formed when rays of light, which

originate from a point, meet again at another point. Mirrors form images of bodies placed
in front of it. The most commonly used mirror is plane mirror, which has a plane-polished
surface.

## Did You Know?

Only a few animal species have been shown to have the ability to
recognize themselves in a mirror, most of them being mammals!

There are two types of images that can form after reflection from a mirror: real image
and virtual image.

##  Misconception: A shadow is an image (reproduction) of an object.

 Clarification: A shadow is not an image, but absence of light.

133

## Characteristics of image formed by a plane mirror:

 At same distance from mirror as the object
 Same size
 Erect
 Virtual

Question 13.Why is it so that if you can see another person in a mirror, he/she can also see you?

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## VII CBSE Physics – Light

4. Right or Left!

The image produced by a plane mirror is horizontally inverted - that is reversed left to right.
Look at yourself in a plane mirror and raise your right hand - your image raises its left hand.
This is called lateral inversion. But why is it that the image is flipped only horizontally but
not vertically?

## Question 14.What is the cause of lateral inversion?

Question 15.A famous artist and scientist, Leonardo da Vinci, hid all of his ideas and inventions by
writing all of his work backward. Use your mirror to decipher Leonardo‘s secret code:

Now that we have seen reflections in case of a plane mirror which was quite simple, let us
complicate things and see the kind of images formed due to curved kind of mirrors.

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## VII CBSE Physics – Light

5. Spherical Mirrors

Spherical mirrors are broadly classified as – Concave mirrors and Convex mirrors.

## Figure 13: Types of Spherical Mirrors

Concave mirror is also known as converging mirror and convex mirror is also known as
diverging mirror.

136

image is formed.

## Question 17. Give some applications of concave and convex mirrors.

6. Lenses

A lens is a transparent medium, usually made up of glass or plastic. When light enters from
one transparent medium to another, it bends. This is known as refraction of light.

137

## Did You Know?

Lenses don’t always have to be made of plastic or glass. In the 1700s,
spherical glass bottles filled with water were used to focus candlelight
for fine work such as lace making, surgery etc.

A concave lens is also known as a diverging lens, while a convex lens as converging lens.
This bending of light happens due to the fact that light has different speeds in different
media.

Convex Lens

Concave Lens

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## VII CBSE Physics – Light

7. Does Sunlight Have Colors?

We all have mesmerized at the beauty of rainbows. Ever wondered how a rainbow is formed?
Rainbow is formed when white light passes through water droplets suspended in atmosphere
(under certain conditions) and split into seven colors.

Similar results are seen when white light passes through a prism. When it passes through a
prism, it is separated into its component colors – Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange
and Red (VIBGYOR). Violet bends the most while red the least. This phenomenon is known
as dispersion of light.

## Figure 13: Dispersion through a Glass Prism

Question 18. Does the prism produce these colors? If yes, how does it produce? If no, then how is the
band of colors obtained?

140

## 1) How do we see objects around us?

2) What do you mean by reflection of light? What are the two laws of reflection?
3) At night, we get light from the moon then why isn‘t it considered as a luminous body?
4) Why don‘t letters like A, H, V show lateral inversion?
5) How does regular reflection differ from irregular reflection?
6) What are the necessary conditions for a shadow to be formed?
7) Demonstrate an activity using which you can verify rectilinear propagation of light.
8) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a pinhole camera?
9) What do you mean by partial lunar eclipse and total lunar eclipse? Explain with a well labeled
diagram.
10) Using a diagram show the characteristics of an image formed by a plane mirror.
11) What do you mean by dispersion? How can you show that sunlight is made up of seven
colors?
12) How is spherical mirror used to converge a beam of sunlight? Name the type of mirror used.
13) A lens forms a virtual and enlarged image of a body. Can you say what type of lens is used?
14) A boy is observing his image in a plane mirror. The distance between the mirror and his
image is 6 m. If he moves 2 m away from the mirror, what will be the distance between the
boy and his image?
15) List down the differences between a real image and a virtual image.
16) As the angle of incidence is increased for a ray incident on a reflecting surface, the angle
between the incident and reflected rays ultimately approaches what value?
(a) 0°

(b) 45°

(c) 90°

(d) 180°

17) If two plane mirrors are perpendicular to each other and θ1 = 40°, then find the value of θ2.

a) 40°
b) 50°
c) 30°
d) 90°

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## VII CBSE Physics – Light

18) A candle (height=20 cm) is kept 5 cm away from a plane mirror. What would the height of
the image be?
(a) < 20 cm
(b) > 20 cm
(c) = 20 cm
(d) Can‘t be said

## 19) Why can‘t we see in dark?

(a) Because eyes don‘t work in dark.
(b) Because there is no light to reflect from the objects.
(c) Both a and b
(d) Power of eye is reduced.

20) If a ray of light is incident at an angle of 60° to the normal, then the angle formed by the
reflected ray with the normal is equal to?
(a) 30°
(b) 90°
(c) 60°
(d) 180°

143

## VII CBSE Biology – Weather, climate and adaptation

Instruction: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the videos
proceed.

## Gita - ― it is very hot and sunny today.‖

Who is talking about weather and who is talking about climate? Justify.

2. Weather

## It is something that we experience on a daily basis. It is determined by the temperature,

humidity, rainfall, wind speed, cloudiness, visibility, etc. Sun drives the changes in weather.
Weather helps us to decide what we should wear for the day or what to bring on an upcoming
getaway in the next week. Weather is a prediction based upon a variety of data collected in a
variety of ways from ground stations to radars and weather maps are created to help us
understand what to expect based on the evidence compiled by meteorologists.

Question 2. Earth is not the only planet that exhibits weather conditions. What is required for a planet
to support weather systems?

Atmospheric pressure is the force of ____________ pressing down towards the surface. It
varies with location. The difference in air pressure causes wind to move and in severe cases
result in cyclones. The amount of moisture in air is called_____________________. Moisture
present in air condenses to form clouds and its precipitation results in rain.

144

## VII CBSE Biology – Weather, climate and adaptation

Question 3. Why do weather forecasters use clouds to help predict the weather?

Question 4. Calculate the average maximum temperature and maximum humidity of a given place
from the table given below.

## Date Max. Temp. Min. Temp. Max. Humidity Min. Humidity

(◦C) (◦C) (%) (%)
23-10-14 35 15 45 30
24-10-14 40 14 48 32
25-10-14 42 10 40 35
26-10-14 39 18 42 37

3. Climate

It allows us to see long term patterns in weather data collected over time. Climate can tell us
many things from seasonal information and planting zones to increases in global temperatures
or carbon dioxide. The factors which determine climate are temperature, precipitation,
altitude, latitude, geography, topography.

145

## VII CBSE Biology – Weather, climate and adaptation

Question 5. Fill the table with appropriate words.

## Factor Condition Temperature

Altitude High altitude more

bodies

## Topography High mountain areas

The Earth is divided into three zones based on average temperature. They are - Tropical,
Temperate and Polar zones.

Question 6. Label the given diagram representing the different zones of the Earth.

Tropic Zone

Tropic Zone

146

## VII CBSE Biology – Weather, climate and adaptation

Climate of a place has an effect on the organisms living there. Animals adapt to the climate of
the place they live in order to survive.

Let us study about the adaptations of different animals living in some specific regions on
earth.

a. Polar regions

Polar Regions are the areas that surround the earth‘s geographic north and south poles.
The area surrounding the North Pole is called the Arctic region while the area
surrounding the South Pole is called the Antarctic region. These regions are very cold and
are covered with snow for most part of the year. Let us look at the adaptations in some of
the animals living in these regions.

## Figure 1: Polar bear

 They have white fur which protects them from predators and helps them
catch their prey by making them less visible in the snowy white
background.
 They have two thick layers of fur and a layer of fat under their skin in
order to keep them warm.
 They have wide and large paws which help them in swimming and
walking in snow.

147

## VII CBSE Biology – Weather, climate and adaptation

Question 8. If a polar bear was adapted to live in a desert, would it still have thick fur? What would
be its colour in order to camouflage?

(ii) Penguins

Figure 2: Penguin

 They are white which makes them less visible in the snowy white
background.
 They have thick skin and fat under their skin to keep them warm in the
cold climate.
 They have streamlined body and webbed feet which make them good
swimmers.

Other animals in these regions are fishes, musk oxen, reindeers, foxes, seals, whales and
birds. Birds migrate to ____________ areas during winters and come back when winter is
over.

b. Tropical rainforests

These areas are generally hot because of their location near the equator and receive plenty
of rainfall. Days and nights are almost equal in length throughout the year. They are
found in Western Ghats and Assam in India, Southeast Asia, Central America and Central
Africa. Some of the animals living in these regions and their adaptations are as follows:

148

## Did you know?

Tropical rainforests are known as the lungs of the planet for the role they
play in absorbing carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Rainforests act as
huge carbon sinks, taking in a major portion of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse
gas and storing it in their roots, stems, leaves and branches.

Question9. Which of the following beaks allows birds to drink nectar from deep within flowers?

## Figure 3: Red-eyed frog

 They have sticky pads on their foot which helps them to climb trees.

149

## VII CBSE Biology – Weather, climate and adaptation

Question 10. How do the red eyes of the red-eyed frog help in protecting it from its predators?

(ii) Monkey

Figure 4: Monkey

 They have long tail for maintaining balance and grasping branches. Their
hands and feet are adapted to easily hold on to the branches.

(iii) Birds

150

## VII CBSE Biology – Weather, climate and adaptation

Question 12. Identify the organism in the picture and write about the various adaptive features which
help in its survival.

## (iv) Big cats

Figure 5: Lion
 They have thick skin and sensitive hearing capacity.
 Their body colour helps them to camouflage with the dry grass.

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## VII CBSE Biology – Weather, climate and adaptation

(v) Lion-tailed macaque

##  It has silver white mane around its head.

 It is a good climber and spends a majority of its life on trees.
 It feeds mainly on fruits. It also eats seeds, young leaves, stems, flowers
and buds.

(vi) Elephants

Figure 7: Elephant

 It uses its trunk as nose and has a strong sense of smell. The trunk is also
used for picking up objects.
 Its long tusks are modified teeth and help in tearing the bark of trees.
 Its large ears help in listening very soft distinct sounds.

152

## VII CBSE Biology – Weather, climate and adaptation

Question 13. Are the tusks the only teeth that elephants have? If no, explain.

154

## VII CBSE Biology – Weather, climate and adaptation

Instructions: Solve these problems after watching the videos.

## 1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words.

Animal Habitat
(i) Red Eyed Frog _____________
(ii) Beard ape _____________
(iii) Penguins _____________
2. In Polar Regions, the Sun does not set for ____________ months.
a. 2
b. 4
c. 6
d. 9
3. Tropical regions generally have ____________ temperature and are located near the
___________.
a. Low, polar region
b. Hot, equator
c. Low, south pole
d. Low, north pole
4. __________________ does not guide the birds while migrating.
a. Sense of direction
b. Magnetic field of Earth
c. Flight ability
d. Sun and stars
5. Example of an animal that hibernates is
a. Woodchuck
b. Cockroach
c. Cat
d. All of these
6. What is camouflage? Give an example.
7. What will happen if forests disappear?
8. What is the main reason that some places on Earth are warmer than the others?
9. What kind of climate does north-east India have?
10. During summer season sometimes we feel very uneasy due to continuous sweating. What is the
reason of this continuous sweating?
11. How are clouds formed?
12. What are climate zones?
13. What is the importance of air pressure?
14. Why do some birds migrate during day and some choose to migrate during night?
15. Why do tropical rainforests contain more species than any other ecosystem?
16. Why are coral reefs known as the rainforests of the sea?
17. Why do penguins have dark coloured feathers on the back surface of their body?
18. What is the need of hibernation?
19. List some advantages of wetlands.
20. Write the differences between weather and climate.

156

## VII CBSE Chemistry – Fibre to Fabric

Instruction: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the videos
proceed.

1. Introduction

Clothing in India and all over the globe varies with the ethnicity, geography, climate and
cultural traditions of the people in that region.

Historically, the fibres man used were those that he could harvest from the nature: cotton, silk
and wool, all of which had their limitations. To overcome these limitations, humans applied
technology, techniques and knowledge in the processing and manufacturing of synthetic
fibres.

## 2. Natural and synthetic fibres

Natural fibres can be defined as a substance produced by plants and animals that can be spun
into filament, thread or rope and then woven into fabrics.

157

## VII CBSE Chemistry – Fibre to Fabric

a. Natural Fibres

## Natural fibres can be classified as:

 Silk
 Jute
 Flax

i. Silk

Almost all of the greatest break-through which humans have made, starting from the
discovery of fire in early Stone Age to the discovery of sub-atomic particles in
modern times, has all been the result of human curiosity. This curiosity led to a
gradual learning curve of our environment and even silk was a product of this human
curiosity. Learning what silk was and what were its uses eventually led to the
extraction of silk from silkworms.

158

## Question 4. Where did silk originate from?

ii. Jute

Jute fibres are composed primarily of the plant materials: cellulose and lignin. These
Jute fibres are 100% biodegradable and are thus environmental friendly.

iii. Flax

Flax fibre is extracted from the stems of the flax plants and was an important textile
material before the discovery of wool and cotton.

b. Synthetic fibres

 Rayon
 Nylon
 Polyester
 Acrylic

i. Rayon

## Rayon is a nature-based material manufactured from the cellulose of wood pulp.

The natural base gives it many advantages like: low cost, diversity and availability
that led to its popularity and success.

159

## Did you know?

Flax is the earliest known natural textile fabric seen used in about 5000 BC. Flax is the
material used to make linen which is seeing a huge come back today in drapery and
upholstery.

ii. Nylon

Nylon is another synthetic fibre made without the use of natural raw material. It is
prepared by using coal, water and air.

iii. Polyester

## Polyester is a general term often defined as long chains of polymers chemically

composed of at least 85% by weight of an ester, an alcohol and an acid

Characteristics of polyester

##  Polyester fabrics and fibres are extremely strong

 Polyester are wrinkle resistant even when washed and dried

Uses of polyester

Polyester clothes were very popular due to its strength. It was also used to make ropes
in industries. Today, PET bottles are one of the most popular uses of polyester

iv. Acrylic

## Acrylic fibres are synthetic fibres created from polymer of polyacrylonitrile. It is a

combination of vinyl acetate and methyl acetate. The DuPont Corporation created the
first acrylic fibres in 1941

160

## Question 8. What are the properties of acrylic fibre?

3. Plastic

Plastic is a synthetic material made from a wide range of organic polymers such as
polyethylene, PVC, nylon, etc, that can be moulded into shapes while soft, and then set into
rigid or slight elastic form.

a. Thermosetting plastic

Thermosetting plastics are materials which act as liquids or are generally malleable at low
temperatures. These plastics are modified at low temperature to get the desired shape and
then heated to high temperatures where they become irreversibly hard.

b. Thermoplastic

Plastic which gets deformed on heating and hard on cooling are called thermoplastics.
PVC and polythene are examples of thermoplastic

161

163

## 1. What are fibres?

3. An expensive fabric which originated in China is ________.
a. Wool
b. Nylon
c. Cotton
d. Silk
4. Which of the below aren‘t natural fibres?
a. Cotton and Jute
b. Jute and Nylon
c. Nylon and cotton
d. Nylon and Rayon
5. Write a short note on rayon.
6. What are some uses of nylon?
7. What are PET bottles made up of?
8. Which kind of clothes shouldn‘t be worn in kitchens and laboratories?
9. Which fabric will you prefer if you are going for outdoor sports activities?
10. What was the need of artificial fibres?
11. What are some negatives of artificial fibres?
12. Example(s) of artificial fibres is(are):
a. Rayon
b. Nylon
c. Polyester
d. All of these
13. What are monomers and polymers?
14. What are artificial fibres mostly used in and why?
15. Is plastic a good conductor of electricity?
16. What are thermoplastics?
17. Define thermosetting plastics.
19. Plastics are discouraged because of:
a. Durability
b. Poor conductivity
d. Light-weight
20. What is the 4R principle?

165

## VII CBSE Biology – Respiration in Organisms

Instruction: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the videos
proceed.

1. Introduction

Question 1. The world record for holding breath under water is 22 minutes and 22 seconds. How
long you can hold your breath? Why can‘t you hold your breath for a long time?

Breathing is necessary because it provides oxygen for the various cellular reactions. Higher
carbon dioxide levels trigger the urge to breathe. The process of acquiring oxygen and
expelling carbon dioxide is known as respiration. The process of external respiration is also
known as breathing. Both respiratory and circulatory systems are essential for respiration. The
circulatory system is responsible for transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from
cells.

2. Respiration

All organisms need energy to do work. Glucose is broken down in cells using oxygen to
release energy that can be used for cellular processes. As the name says this process takes
place inside the cell.
In presence of oxygen
Glucose ------------------------------------->Carbon dioxide + Water + Energy

## 3. Aerobic vs Anaerobic Respiration

As the name suggests aerobic respiration requires air, more precisely oxygen and anaerobic
respiration takes place in absence of air (oxygen).

166

## VII CBSE Biology – Respiration in Organisms

Question 3. List out the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration.

Question 4. Name the type of respiration that takes place during sprinting and during endurance
running.

4. Breathing Vs Respiration

##  Misconception: Breathing and respiration are often considered the same.

 Clarification: Respiration is the release of energy from the breakdown of
glucose. Respiration takes place in every living cell and all cells need to respire
to produce energy. Breathing is the process of getting oxygen into the lungs
and carbon dioxide out of the lungs. It allows gas exchange to take place so
that oxygen can be absorbed from the lungs into the blood and carbon dioxide
is removed from the blood and breathed out from the lungs.

167

## VII CBSE Biology – Respiration in Organisms

5. How do we Breathe?

So far we have discussed that we breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide. Now,
let‘s try to understand this mechanism of it.

## (i) Nose and Nasal Cavity:

The nose and nasal cavity constitute the main external opening of the respiratory
system. They represent entry to the respiratory tract – a passage in the body through
which air travels in order to reach the lungs. Although the nose is typically credited as
being the main external breathing apparatus, its role is actually to provide support and
protection to the nasal cavity.

168

## VII CBSE Biology – Respiration in Organisms

Question 6. What is the significance of the presence of mucus and hair in nasal cavity?

(ii) Pharynx
The pharynx is the next component of the respiratory tract, even though most people
refer it simply as the throat, it resembles a funnel made out of muscles that acts as an
intermediary between nasal cavity, larynx and the esophagus.

(iii) Larynx
The larynx is the next component, but represents only a small section of the
respiratory tract that connects the pharynx to the trachea. It is commonly referred to
as the voice box, and is located near the anterior section of the neck.

(iv) Trachea
The trachea is a longer section of the respiratory tract, shaped like a tube and
approximately 5 inches in length. It has several C-shaped cartilage rings which are
lined with tracheal epithelium.

## Question 7 .What is the importance of rings of cartilage in trachea? Why it is C- shaped?

(v) Bronchi
The lower end of the trachea splits the respiratory tract into two branches that are
named as primary bronchi. These first run into each of the lungs before further
branching off into smaller bronchi. These secondary bronchi continue carrying the air

169

## VII CBSE Biology – Respiration in Organisms

to the lobes of the lungs, and then further split into tertiary bronchi. The tertiary
bronchi then split into even smaller sections called bronchioles that spread throughout
the lungs.
(vi) Lungs
The lungs are the primary organs of respiration in humans and in most other air
breathing vertebrates.

## Question 8. List the importance of presence of lungs in our body.

b. Stages of Respiration

The process of respiration can be divided into three stages- External respiration, Internal
respiration and Cellular respiration. External respiration involves breathing and gaseous
exchange in lungs. Internal respiration involves the transport of oxygen from the lungs to
different cells and the transportation of carbon dioxide from cells to the lungs. Cellular
respiration refers to utilization of oxygen in breakdown of glucose to release energy.

## (i) External respiration

Breathing is the first step of respiration which includes inflow (inspiration) and outflow
(expiration) of air between atmosphere and the lungs.

Question 9. Fill up the blanks to complete the path of air travelling in human respiratory system.

## Primary Bronchioles_____________________________ Tertiary Bronchioles

_________________

170

## Did you know?

The lungs are the only organs that can float on water. Medical examiners use
the so-called "lung float test" during autopsies to determine if a baby was
stillborn (died in the womb). If the lungs float, the baby was born alive; if the
lungs don't float, the baby was stillborn.

Alveoli

The main site for gaseous exchange in lungs is the alveoli. Alveoli are made up of single
celled epithelium and are supplied with blood capillaries which are also made up of single
celled epithelium

## (ii) Mechanism of Breathing

The process of breathing involves the combined action of ribs, lungs, intercostal muscles
and diaphragm. It involves two stages - inhalation and exhalation. It utilizes the principle
of the movement of air from high pressure to low pressure.

171

## VII CBSE Biology – Respiration in Organisms

Figure 2: Movement of intercostal muscles and diaphragm during inhalation and exhalation

Question 11. Write the events that takes place during inhalation and exhalation.

## (iii) Internal Respiration

Exchange of gases takes place by the movement of gaseous molecules from a region of its
higher concentration to a region of its lower concentration by the process of
___________________. Movement of gases from lungs into the blood stream is the
process of internal respiration. A higher concentration of oxygen in lungs enables
hemoglobin in RBCs to bind to the oxygen to be transported. At the cell‘s site, higher
concentration of oxygen in blood causes it to diffuse into cells. Similarly, a high
concentration of carbon dioxide in cells causes it to diffuse into the blood. Most of the
carbon dioxide is transported as bicarbonates in blood plasma. A small portion (~20%)
can bind directly to hemoglobin.

172

## (iv) Cellular Respiration

As the name suggests cellular respiration takes place in all living cells to generate energy
for cellular functions.

## C6H12O6 +________ ------------------------------>_________ + H2O + ATP

The above equation represents cellular respiration and its main goal is to release energy in
the form of ATP. ATP is a high energy molecule with three phosphate groups. Three
phosphates together are highly unstable. Breaking of these bonds provides us with the
desired energy. In this process ATP is converted to ADP.

## 6. Breathing in Other Organisms

Nature exhibits great diversity with respect to the way in which exchange of gases take place
in different organisms.

## (a) Bacterium (i) Skin

(b) Earthworm (ii) Spiracles
(c) Insect (iii) Cell membrane
(d) Amphibians (iv) Gills
(e) Fishes (v) Lungs and skin

a. Insects

Insects do not have a well-developed respiratory system as ours instead they have small
holes present on the sides of their body called spiracles. The air rich in oxygen enters into
the body of insects through these holes followed by fine tube like structures called
trachea. Gaseous exchange takes place between the cells of the body and tracheal tubes.

173

## Figure 4: Diagram showing single spiracle and trachea associated with it

Question 14. Identify the position of trachea and spiracle in the given figure.

## Figure 5: Respiratory System of Cockroach

b. Earthworm

In earthworms respiration process takes place through its moist, thin and highly vascular
skin. The oxygen gas absorbed by the skin diffuses into the body fluid and is transported
to all the cells of the body.

c. Fish

Lungs cannot be used underwater. In order to extract oxygen from water fishes have a
pair of gills present in either side of the head.

174

## VII CBSE Biology – Respiration in Organisms

Question 15. Explain the processes of gaseous exchange in fishes.

## Process involved in gaseous exchange in plants is diffusion. Direction of diffusion depends on

two things viz. Environmental conditions and requirement of the plant. In day time, carbon
dioxide given out during respiration by most animals is used for photosynthesis. Therefore,
only oxygen is released; which is a major activity during the day. During night time only
respiration takes place. Therefore only carbon dioxide is released. The gaseous exchange
occurs through the stomatal pores.

Question16. Stomata is absent in roots and stems of woody plants. How does gaseous exchange take
place in these parts of a plant?

176

## Instructions: Solve these problems after watching the videos.

1. The process of breakdown of food in the cell with the release of energy is called ________.
a. Respiration
b. Inhalation
c. Exhalation
d. Breathing
2. In man, which of the following structures is analogous to gills in fishes?
a. Lungs
b. Alveoli
c. Nostrils
d. Bronchioles
3. During heavy exercise, we get cramps in the legs due to the accumulation of
a. Carbon dioxide
b. Alcohol
c. Lactic acid
d. Water
4. During exhalation, the ribs
a. Trachea
b. Lungs
c. Alveoli
d. Nose
5. Exchange of gases takes place in
a. Trachea
b. Lungs
c. Alveoli
d. Nose
6. Name the muscular structure which forms the floor of the chest cavity.
7. Why should we not talk while eating?
8. How does exchange of gases take place in earthworm?
9. Why can you not hold your breath for a long time?
10. Anaerobic respiration produces more energy than aerobic respiration. (True/False)
11. What is the difference between breathing and respiration?
12. Why are the respiratory organs different in different organisms?
13. Why is it said that we should not sleep under trees at night?
14. Do we breathe out only carbon dioxide during exhalation and breathe in only oxygen during
inhalation?
15. The air that we breathe in contains a lot of nitrogen. What happens to that nitrogen in our body?
16. What are the respiratory organs in aquatic mammals?
17. What is the difference between bronchi and bronchioles?
18. How does hot water bath and massage help in case of body ache?
19. Why is it told to cover your nose and mouth while sneezing?
20. Why is respiration an essential life process?

178

## VII CBSE Biology – Reproduction in Organisms

Instruction: This booklet can be used while watching videos. Keep filling the sheet as the videos
proceed.

1. Introduction

Reproduction is the process in which new organisms are produced from their parents. It is
essential for the survival of species. All living things ensure that they pass down their genes
through reproduction.

## Question 1. How is sexual reproduction advantageous over asexual reproduction?

2. Fission

It is a type of asexual reproduction in which reproduction occurs by splitting the body into
parts. Fission is of two types- Binary and Multiple.
Binary fission results in formation of ______________cells from a single parent while
multiple fission results in formation of ________________ cells. Fission requires replication
and division of genetic material. Most bacteria and protozoa divide along a specific plane
during division. For amoeba, this can occur along any plane. Multiple fission usually occurs
during ______________________ conditions producing many daughter cells within a
protective covering called cyst. When conditions become more_________________, the cyst
breaks and daughter cells are liberated.

179

## VII CBSE Biology – Reproduction in Organisms

Question 2. Identify whether binary fission occurs on a single plane or along any plane in the
organisms shown below?

3. Fragmentation

## Fragmentation occurs in colonial organisms or simple multi-cellular organisms. Organism

split into fragments and each fragment develops into new organism which is a clone of the
parent. Splitting may be intentional or accidental. Examples of organisms that can undergo
fragmentation are ________________________________________________.

180

## VII CBSE Biology – Reproduction in Organisms

Regeneration is the process in which a part of an organism can completely generate an entire
individual or some parts of its body. Regeneration is used as a mode of reproduction only by
simple organisms with less complexity of organization. Starfish, lizards, planaria and hydra
all exhibit some form of regeneration. More complex organisms only have limited
regeneration capacity.

## Question 3. How is regeneration different from fragmentation?

When organisms are born they start with a single cell. This cell can grow into any cell in the
body. Such cells are called________________________. The process in which stem cells
become specialized cells is called ___________________________ .

4. Budding

Budding generally results in offspring that is smaller than its parent. Budding is possible in
both unicellular and multi-cellular organisms. A new offspring results when a bud breaks
away from its parent.

Parent hydra Hydra with bud Bud grows into a new hydra New hydra detaches

181

## VII CBSE Biology – Reproduction in Organisms

Question 4. Differentiate between budding and binary fission.

182

## VII CBSE Biology – Reproduction in Organisms

5. Spore Formation

Spore formation occurs in simple multicellular organisms. In algae, the protoplast divides to
form small motile spores known as ___________________. These spores when released in
the surrounding develop into new individuals. The process is same in case of bread moulds.
Thread –like structures appear on the surface of the bread when it is moist. These structures
are called___________. At the end of these structures, sporangia are present which contain
____________ that can develop into new rhizopus.

## Question 6. Why are spores covered in a protective layer?

6. Vegetative Propagation

## Vegetative propagation is a type of ______________________ reproduction in plants in

which a new plant can develop from vegetative parts of parent. It can be natural or artificial.

a. Natural Methods

This occurs naturally in which new plant comes from roots, stems or leaves of the
existing plant for example buds on root of sweet potato grow into new plants. Stems can
also bear buds such as in grasses. Leaves and tubers also bear buds in many plants.

183

## Did you know?

During the 1600s, tulips were so valuable in Holland that their bulbs
were worth more than gold. The craze was called tulip mania, or
tulipomania, and caused the crash of the Dutch economy.
Tulips can continue to grow as much as an inch per day after being cut.

b. Artificial methods

(i) Grafting

Grafting involves taking two plants of different breeds and producing superior quality
plant. The plant whose root system is taken is called _____________________ and
the plant whose shoot system is taken is called ________________________.

184

## Figure 21: Method of Grafting

Question 8. Is it possible to graft different species of plants together? If yes, what should be the
characteristics of the two species? If no, why not?

## (ii) Stem cutting

Stems with nodes and internodes are planted in soil which grow roots and become
fully fledged individuals.

185

## VII CBSE Biology – Reproduction in Organisms

Question 9. Apples, pears, avocados, oranges and roses are commonly grown by stem cutting. Why
this method is is preferable as compared to using seeds obtained by sexual reproduction?

(iii) Layering

In layering a stem is buried in the soil while it is still attached to the parent plant.
Roots develop in the buried stem and can grow into individual plants. E.g.
______________. In air layering the bark from a small part of stem is removed,
covered with soil and wrapped with a cloth. Water is sprinkled on this part regularly.
When the stem develops root it is cut from the parent plant and planted as a new
plant.

## (iii) Tissue Culture

A small tissue, generally from a bud or growing area, is cut from a plant and kept in a
dish containing aseptic growing medium. The tissue soon develops a mass of cells
known as a callus. The callus is then placed in a medium that causes it to differentiate
and produce baby plants. Orchids, chrysanthemum, asparagus, carnations, etc. are
usually grown by this method.

186

## VII CBSE Biology – Reproduction in Organisms

Question 10. What are the advantages of tissue culture? How is it better than stem cutting?

## 7. Sexual Reproduction in Plants

The flower is a reproductive organ of plant. Most plants have both male and female
reproductive organs in the same flower. Others may produce different male and female
flowers.

a. Structure of Flower

187

## VII CBSE Biology – Reproduction in Organisms

The male part of the flower is __________________________________. The female part of the
flower is _________________________. The male gametes of the plant are known as
______________________ and are contained within the _______________________. The stigma
receives pollen grains in a process known as _____________________. The style bears the stigma
and the ovary. Ovary contains ovules. Ovules are structures where embryo sacs develop and mature
into seed.

## Did you know?

Saffron is used as a flavoring agent in cooking.
It is harvested from the stigmas of a type of fall-blooming
crocus, Crocus sativus.

b. Pollination

The transfer of pollens from anther to stigma of flowers is called pollination. Pollination
can be self-pollination or cross pollination.

## Question 12. Identify the type of pollination in each case.

A B

c. Fertilization

The pollen grain grows a pollen tube in the stigma and style releasing the male gametes.
The tip of the pollen tube ruptures in the ovule to release two male gametes. One of the
male gametes fertilizes the egg cell in the ovule to form a zygote. The second gamete
fuses with the secondary nucleus to form the endosperm nucleus. The zygote forms a

188

## VII CBSE Biology – Reproduction in Organisms

________________. The endosperm nucleus becomes the endosperm of seed. The ovule
forms the _______________.

## Figure 24: Growth of pollen tube

 Misconception: In the life cycle of a flowering plant, the fruit develops before
the seeds.
 Clarification: Upon union of the female gamete (in the ovule) with the male
gamete (from the pollen), the seed is formed, and only after that, the fruit
develops from the ovary. In other words, the fruit is developed only after the
process of fertilization which results in the seed formation, as a by-product of
the reproductive process. The fruit develops to protect the seeds, and in some
cases, develop to become "attractive" to animals that will be the agents of seed
dispersal.
Question 13. Some plants like apple and pear have flowers that do not develop into seeds unless
cross fertilized. What advantages does such a mechanism provide? Can it be a disadvantage?

189

## VII CBSE Biology – Reproduction in Organisms

8. Dispersal of Seeds

Seed dispersal is the movement or transport of seeds away from the parent plant. Plants have
very limited mobility and consequently rely upon a variety of dispersal vectors to transport
their propagules, including both abiotic and biotic vectors.

Question 14. Seeds bear the future plants within them. These future plants are children of the parent
plant. Dispersal of seeds is nature‘s injustice to the plant as their children are separated from them.
Do you agree with this statement? Why or Why not?

## Question 15. Match the following.

Seeds Dispersed by

## i. Drumstick and maple

ii. Madar and sunflower a. water
iii. Xanthium b. wind
iv. Pea c. Animal

191

## 1. Which of the following is not a stage in sexual reproduction?

a. Photosynthesis
b. Pollination
c. Fertilization
d. Germination
2. Choose the correct order of occurrence of the following processes.
a. Pollination, seed formation, fertilization, germination, seed dispersal
b. Germination, pollination, seed dispersal, fertilization, seed formation
c. Fertilization, pollination, germination, seed dispersal, seed formation
d. Pollination, fertilization, seed formation, dispersal, germination
3. Pollination is
a. Transfer of female gametes from stigma to anther
b. Transfer of male gametes from stigma to anther
c. Transfer of male gametes from anther to stigma
d. Transfer of female gametes from stigma to anther
4. Choose the correct statement.
a. Stamen is the male part of the flower
b. Stamen is the female part of the flower
c. Carpel is the male part of the flower
d. Corolla is the male part of the flower
5. In grafting, the root cutting is called stock while the stem cutting is called
a. Transplant
b. Bud graft
c. Scion
d. Shoot stock
6. What is the difference between cutting and grafting?
7. Write about the different ways in which seeds can be dispersed.
8. What is common among earthworm, leech and sponge?
9. How is reproduction in hydra different from that in humans?
10. Differentiate between budding and binary fission.
11. Explain binary fission in amoeba with the help of a diagram.
12. In which plant buds are present on the margins of leaves?
13. How is regeneration different from fragmentation? Explain with the help of examples.
14. How can stem cells be used in the field of medicine?
15. Why is asexual reproduction in plants called vegetative propagation?
16. What are buds?
17. Why do we use artificial methods of vegetative propagation?
18. What is differentiation?
19. Why do some fruits have only one seed while some have more?
20. What is the fate of the floral parts after fertilization?