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# UNIT-II (2 marks)

## 1.Define duty cycle?

The ratio of high output period and low output period is given by mathematical parameter called
duty cycle. It is defined as the ratio of ON time(high output) to the total time of one cycle.
W= time for output is high
T= time for one cycle
D= duty cycle=W/T
%D=W/T*100

## 2. Explain the principle of free running multivibrator with its relations?

Astable multivibrator is also called as free runnig multivibrator. The principle of generation of
square wave output is to force an op-amp to operate in the saturation region.
T1=RC ln (1+β/1-β)
T= 2T1
If R1=R2 then
T= 2RC
F0=1/2RC

## 3.Why bistable is not possible in 555 timer? Explain

 A negative pulse to pin 2 turns the output positive
 A negative pulse to pin 4 turns the output negative
 The timer is stable in each of these sates. Its run time has become infinite

4.What is the time constant for the design of monostable multivibrator?
The time constant is given by
T= RC ln (1+ VD/ V sat)/ (1-β)
If R1=R2 then
T= 0.69 RC

## 7. State the conditions of RS flipflop with a neat table?

Qn Qn+1 R S

0 0 don’t care 0

0 1 0 1

1 0 1 0

1 0 0 don’t care
When S=1 & R=0, set condition
When S=0 & R=1, reset condition
When S=1 & R=0, set condition

## 8. What is the capacitor connected to pin number 5 of 555 timer?

 If the control voltage function is not used a 0.001 µF capacitor should be connected between pin
5 & ground.
 This will filter any electrical noise from entering pin 5
9. What are the possible modes of operation for 555 timer?
 Astable
 Monostable

10. Does 555 timer is compatible for TTL. CMOS, RTL, IIL and other logic families
The 555 timer can be used with supply voltage in the range of +5 V to +18 V and can drive load
upto 200 mA. It is compatible with both TTL and CMOS logic circuits.

11. Explain the function of reset terminal of 555 in Monostable and Astable modes
Monostable mode:
If a negative going reset pulse is applied to the reset terminal (pin-4) during the timing cycle,
transistor Q2. Q1 becomes on and the external timing capacitor is immediately discharged.
Astable mode:
The reset terminal of IC-timer(pin 4) should be tied to Vcc in the normal circumstances. More
precisely voltage at pin 4 should be greater then 0.8v. A voltage less than that resets the output. Whether
you have connected the timer in the monoshot or astable mode of operation the output goes low the
moment you being the reset terminal below 0.8v.

## 12. What is VCO?

A voltage controlled oscillator(VCO) is an oscillator circuit in which the frequency of oscillations
can be controlled by an externally applied voltage. The VCO provides the linear relationship between the
applied voltage and the oscillation frequency.

## 13. What is capture range and lock in range?

Capture range:
The range of frequencies over which the PLL can acquire lock with an input signal is called the
capture range. This parameter is expressed as percentage of f0

Lock in range:
The range of frequencies over which the PLL can maintain lock with the incoming signal is called lock in
range. The lock range is expressed as a percentage of f0, the VCO frequency

## 14. Define pull in time?

The total time taken by the PLL to establish lock is called pull in time. This depends on the initial
phase and frequency difference between the 2 signals as well as on the overall loop gain and loop
characteristics

## 15. Define voltage to frequency conversion factor?

The voltage to frequency conversion factor is determined by Kv= Δf0/ΔVc

Where ΔVc is the change in modulating signal required to produce a corresponding shift,
Δfo in frequency

## 16. State few applications of PLL

 Frequency multiplier
 Frequency translation
 AM detection
 FM demodulation
 Frequency shift keying demodulator
17. what are the two standard frequencies used for FSK flipflop?
1070 hz & 1270 hz

## 18.Write the basic equation for D/A conversion

The basic aquatio for D/A conversion
V0 = KVFS (d1 2-1 + d2 2-2 +………+ dn 2-n)
V0 = output voltage
VFS = full scale output voltage
K = scaling factor usually adjustable to unity
D1,d2…….dn= n bit binaray fractional word with decimal point located at the shift.

##  Weighted resistor DAC

 Multiplier DACs
 Monolithic DACs

## 20.What are the various A/D conversions?

 Parallel comparator A/D converter
 Counter type A/D converter
 Servo tracking A/D converter
 Successive approximation converter

## 21. Define resolution, linearity, accuracy, stability:

Resolution:
The resolution of a converter is the smallest change in voltage which may be produced at the output of the
converter

## Resolution ( in volts)= VFS/2n-1

Linearity:
Linearity of an A/D or D/A converter shows us how close the converter output is to its ideal transfer
characteristics

In actual DAC equal increment in the digital input should produce equal increment in the analog output
and the transfer curve should be linear and the transfer curve should be linear

The static performance of a DAC is determined by fitting a straight line through the measured output
points.

Accuracy:
Absolute accuracy is the maximum deviation between the actual converter output and the ideal converter
output. Relative accuracy is the maximum deviation after gain and offset errors have been removed.

Stability:
The performance of converter changes with temperature, age and power supply variations. So all the
relevant parameters such as offset, gain, linearity error and monotonicity must be specified over the full
temperature and power supply ranges.