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ELECTRICAL WORKSHOP

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS


ENGINEERING
MVGR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Vizianagram
CONTENTS

S.No Title
1. INTRODUCTION OF TOOLS, ELECTRICAL MATERIALS & IDENTIFICATION
OF HOUSE WIRING ACCESSORIES
2. TO STUDY FLUORESCENT TUBE LIGHT
3. TO STUDY CEILING FAN
4. ESTIMATION OF HOUSE WIRING

Experiment-1
INTRODUCTION OF TOOLS, ELECTRICAL MATERIALS &
IDENTIFICATION OF HOUSE WIRING ACCESSORIES
AIM: To identify tools, electrical materials and house wiring accessories for application in
house wiring.

Name of the
S No Function
tool/Equipment
1 Screw driver used to loosen or tighten or to keep screws in position
2 Hammer Most commonly used in the workshop
(6 A for light), this switch was used 3-4 decade ago. It
3 Tumbler switch
is made of Bakelite.
4 MCB box Used to fit MCB
Metal conduit pipe with
5 Used as a passage for electrical house hold wires
junction box
Allow smooth movement of wires inserted through
6 Metal bend
the walls during wiring
7 PVC casing and lapping Used mainly to pass wires through walls during wiring
8 PVC bend Work similarly as metal bends
9 Batten lamp holder Used to hold electric bulbs and lamps
Through which electric current flows from wires to
10 Socket outlets
various electrical appliances. It is of 6A
Temporary wire used for both power and light but
11 Flexible cable
temporarily
Used to hold a lamp for lighting purpose
 Pendant holder: used for hanging lights up to 250
Watts
12 Lamp Holders
 Batten holder: used for wall fixing lights upto250
Watts
 Screwed holder: which are used with a bracket is
called as bracket holder and used up to 250 Watts.
13 Ceiling roses Used to provide a tapping to the pendant lamp holders
Used for tapping power from sockets also made for 5A
14 Socket outlets
and 15A load
To control the whole supply for a house or office
ICDP: Iron Clad Double Pole main switch used for
single phase supply control and is made for 15A, 30A,
60A, and 100A load and 250V.
15 Main switches ICTP: Iron Clad Triple Pole main switch used for three
phase supply control and is made for 15A, 30A, 60A,
100A, 150A, 200A and 500V. Three phase 4 wire main
switches are also available to connect neutral for fourth
link
To bear mechanical loads or electricity and
16 Wire and Cables
telecommunications signals
To protect and they are composed of an alloy which has
17 Fuses
a low melting point
Excellent for holding and inserting 1/8" brass brads in
18 Pliers
the various tape installation steps

Different Types of Electrical Wiring Systems


The types of internal wiring usually used are
 Cleat wiring
 Wooden casing and capping wiring
 CTS or TRS or PVC sheath wiring
 Lead sheathed or metal sheathed wiring
 Conduit wiring

1. Cleat Wiring
This system of wiring comprises of ordinary VIR or PVC insulated wires (occasionally, sheathed
and weather proof cable) braided and compounded held on walls or ceilings by means of
porcelain cleats, Plastic or wood.
2. Casing and capping wiring
It was famous wiring system in the past but, it is considered obsolete these days because of
Conduit and sheathed wiring system. The cables used in this kind of wiring were either VIR or
PVC or any other approved insulated cables. The cables were carried through the wooden casing
enclosures.

3. Batten Wiring (CTS or TRS)


Single core or double core or three core TRS cables with a circular oval shape cables are used in
this kind of wiring. Mostly, single core cables are preferred. The cables are held on the wooden
batten by means of tinned brass link clips (buckle clip) already fixed on the batten with brass
pins and spaced at an interval of 10cm for horizontal runs and 15cm for vertical runs.

4. Conduit Wiring
There are two additional types of conduit wiring according to pipe installation
I. Surface Conduit Wiring
II. Concealed Conduit Wiring
4.1 Surface Conduit Wiring
If conduits installed on roof or wall, it is known as surface conduit wiring. In this wiring method,
they make holes on the surface of wall on equal distances and conduit is installed then with the
help of rawal plugs.

4.2 Concealed Conduit wiring


If the conduits are hidden inside the wall slots with the help of plastering, it is called concealed
conduit wiring. In other words, the electrical wiring system inside wall, roof or floor with the
help of plastic or metallic piping is called concealed conduit wiring. It is the most popular,
beautiful, stronger and common electrical wiring system nowadays.

Accessories:

Switch Batten type holder Pendant type holder


Ceiling Rose Socket Outlet

Iron Clad Double Pole Main Switch


Experiment-2
FLUORESCENT TUBE
Aim: To understand the operation of florescent lamp circuit.
Objective: To study the principle of operation and function of fluorescent lamp.
Circuit diagram:

Theory:
Principle of operation: Fluorescent materials, when subjected to electromagnetic radiation of
particular wave length, get excited and in turn give out radiations at some other length.
Phosphorescent materials, on the other hand, persist in giving out radiation even if exciting
radiations are removed.
Lamps basically classified as (i) Incandescent lamps
(ii) Discharge lamps.
Discharge lamps are further classified as, Low discharge lamps (Eg: Fluorescent lamps) and
High discharge lamps ( Eg: Mercury vapor, Sodium Vapor, Halide lamps etc.)
Discharge means conduction. In fluorescent lamps discharge takes place between two filaments
located at two ends of tube, which are ignited by high voltage surge at starting. Voltage surge
can be produced by Choke (inductive coil) connected in series with the circuit. Starter is used to
interrupt the inductive circuit at starting, and then high voltage surge is produced as per the
formula, . At , . This is the maximum voltage produced (Usually in the
order of 1000 V). This will give Kick to the filament of tube light. Then discharge takes place
between filaments of tube light. Heat energy converted to light energy through fluorescent coated
tube to emitted surface.
Florescent lamp consists of glass tube provided with two pin cap at both ends and oxide coated
tungsten filament. Tube contains Argon or Krypton gas to ease starting with small quantity of
mercury under low pressure. At start, current is passed through filaments which get heated up
and emit electrons. This is achieved by the use of Choke in conjunction with Starter.
Advantages:
1. High luminous efficiency when compared with sodium vapor lamps.
2. High life under normal operating conditions (three times of filament lamps)
Experiment-3
CEILING FAN
Aim: To study ceiling fan circuit
Apparatus required:
Sl. no Apparatus required Rating Quantity
1 Ceiling fan 80 W 1
2 Electronic regulator 5A 1
3 SPST switch 5A 1
4 Wires 1/18 SWG 3m

Theory:
Ceiling fan is a Single phase Induction motor. Generally it is a capacitor run single phase AC
motor.
Principle: Based on Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, this law states that whenever
current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field it experiences force.
Motor mainly consists of two parts (a) stator (b) rotor
Stator consists of stator winding, rotor houses rotor winding.
Stator: It is supplied by single phase voltage; current will be produced in the stator winding-so
consequently magnetic field is created. But AC motor needs a rotating magnetic field in order
turn the motor shaft (fan blades) to rotate. This is done by applying voltage with different phases
to different windings. In a single phase system (like ceiling fan) there is only one voltage phase.
The capacitor is used to provide a phase shift (i.e. a time offset between currents) in the stator
winding of the motor, making it appear that the motor is operating as a two phase system. In
simple terms we can say that a single phase is split into a two phase motor. Now we have a
rotating magnetic field. Because of Induction, voltage will develop in rotor. Since rotor forms a
closed circuit current will flow and the rotor will rotate according to motor principle.

Fig. 2.1: Ceiling fan circuit diagram


Experiment-4
ESTIMATION OF HOUSE WIRING
Aim: Estimation of house wiring
Objective: To estimate the size, type of equipment required and to calculate the cost involved in
house wiring.

Steps To Estimate Internal Wiring:


I. Determination of number of sub circuits
II. Determination of size of the conductor
III. Determination of size and length of the conduit / battern
IV. Determination of length of conductor cable
V. Determination of earth wire
VI. Determination of labor cost
VII. Estimate of materials and their cost

Write down the problem explained in class


on estimation of house wiring from here.