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To Ch 26-Limit State Design – RC –8th Edition under preparation- © Dr Ashok K Jain

Example 26.7

Design cross-section of a beam 500x1750 mm which is subjected to the following forces at


ultimate:

Bending moment = 7500 kNm


Shear force = 450 kN
Torsion = 175 kNm

Solution

Let us assume M30 concrete and Fe500D grade steel. Clear cover to reinforcement = 35 mm.

Design for Flexure

Let effective cover to longitudinal steel = 75 mm, effective depth d = 1750 – 75 = 1675 mm

𝑀 7500𝑥106
 𝑏𝑑𝑢2 = 500𝑥16752 = 5.35

Using SP16- Table 56, pt = 1.47% and pc = 0.36%

Thus, At = 12300 mm2 and Asc = 3015 mm2

Provide 16-32 mm bars in tension and 10-20 mm bars in compression.


𝜎𝑐𝑡𝑚
Minimum longitudinal steel At,min = 0.26 𝑏𝑤 𝑑 (Clause 16.5.1.1)
𝜎𝑦𝑘
where,

For M30 concrete, ctm = 2.5 MPa (Table 6.5)


2.5
 At,min = 0.26 500 × 500 × 1675 = 1088 mm2

< 12300 mm2 OK


Maximum longitudinal steel = 2.5%
> 1.47% OK

Also, pt + pc = 1.47 + 0.36 = 1.83 % < 4% OK

Design for Shear

In the present case of non prestressed beam, cp = 0

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To Ch 26-Limit State Design – RC –8th Edition under preparation- © Dr Ashok K Jain

200
K = 1 + √1675 = 1.35 <2 OK
Shear resistance of M30 concrete

VRd,c = 0.12𝐾 (100 𝑝𝑡 0.8 𝜎𝑐𝑘 )1/3 𝑏𝑤 𝑑 (Clause 10.3.2)

= 0.12* 1.35 *(100*(1.47/100)*0.8*30)1/3*500*1675 = 440 kN

Design shear force = 450 kN  440 kN,  shear reinforcement is required.

Maximum shear resistance of M30 concrete


𝜎𝑐𝑑
VRd,max = ∝𝑐𝑤 𝑏𝑤 𝑧 𝜈1 (Clause 10.3.3.2)
(cot 𝜗+tan 𝜗)

VRd,max = 1*500*0.9*1675*0.6*0.446*30/2 = 3025 kN

Maximum shear reinforcement is given by the following equation:

𝐴𝑠𝑤,𝑚𝑎𝑥 1 𝛼𝑐𝑤 𝜈1 𝜎𝑐𝑑


≥ 𝑏𝑤
𝑥 2 𝜎𝑦𝑤𝑑
(Eq. 10.10 of Clause 10.3.3.2)

0.5×1×0.6×0.446×30×500
= = 4.61 mm2/mm
0.80×500

Minimum shear reinforcement is given by the following equation:

0.072 √𝜎𝑐𝑘 0.072 × √30


𝐴𝑠𝑤,𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 𝑏𝑤 𝑑 = x 500x1650 = 650 mm2
𝜎𝑦𝑘 500

(Eq. 10.20 of Clause 10.3.3.5)

The shear reinforcement to just resist design shear force is given by the following equation:

𝐴𝑠𝑤 𝑉𝐸𝑑

𝑥 𝑧 𝜎𝑦𝑤𝑑 cot 𝜃
(Eq. 10.7 of Clause 10.3.3.2)

450×1000
≥ = 0.746 mm2/mm < 4.61 mm2/mm OK
0.9×1675×(0.80×500)×1

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To Ch 26-Limit State Design – RC –8th Edition under preparation- © Dr Ashok K Jain

Design for Torsion 500 – 67 – 67


= 366 mm
Clear cover = 35 mm
Shear stirrups dia = 16 mm
Main bar dia = 32 mm
Effective cover to main reinforcement = 35 + 16 + 32/2 = 67 mm

Effective wall thickness tef,i = A/u

Where
A = 500*1750 mm2
u = 2*(500+1750) mm

tef,i = A/u

= 500*1750/2*(500+1750) = 194.45  195 mm

≮ 2*(35 + 16 + 32/2) = 134 mm OK

Lateral reinforcement for torsion


𝐴𝑠𝑡 𝑇𝐸𝑑
= 2𝐴 (Alternative form of Eq. 10.46 of Clause 10.5.2.1)
𝑥𝑡 𝑘 𝜎𝑦𝑑 cot 𝜃

Ak = (500 – 195)*(1750 – 195) = 474250 mm2

uk = 2*(500-195+1750-195) = 3720 mm

𝐴𝑠𝑡 175×106
= = 0.424 mm2/mm
𝑥𝑡 2×474250×0.87×500

Total shear reinforcement = due to shear force + due to torsion

= 0.746 + 0.424 = 1.17 mm2/mm

If x = 350 mm, Ast = 1.17*350 = 409 mm2

Provide 2 legged 16 mm str @ 350 mm c/c

Crushing Resistance for Torsion

TRd, max = 2 𝜈1 𝛼𝑐 𝜎𝑐𝑑 𝐴𝑘 𝑡𝑒𝑓 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 (Eq. 10.48 of Clause 10.5.2.1)

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To Ch 26-Limit State Design – RC –8th Edition under preparation- © Dr Ashok K Jain

= 2*0.6*1*(0.446*30)*474250*195*(1/S2)*(1/S2) = 742.4 kNm


> 175 kNm OK
Also,
𝑇𝐸𝑑 𝑉𝐸𝑑
+ <1 (Eq. 10.47 of Clause 10.5.2.1)
𝑇𝑅𝑑,𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑉𝑅𝑑,𝑚𝑎𝑥

Or,
175 450
+ = 0.384 < 1 OK
742.4 3025

Longitudinal Reinforcement for Torsion

Σ𝐴𝑠𝑙 𝑇𝐸𝑑
= cot 𝜃 (a)
𝑢𝑘 2 𝐴𝑘 𝜎𝑦𝑑

175×106 ×3720
Or, Asl = 2×474250×0.87×500 × 1 = 1580 mm2

Alternatively,
𝐴𝑠𝑙 𝑇𝐸𝑑
= cot 𝜃 = 0.424 mm2/mm (b)
𝑥𝑘 2 𝐴𝑘 𝜎𝑦𝑑

If xk is taken as 175 mm, Asl = 0.424x175 = 74.2 mm2 . It means provide a 10 mm bar @ 175
mm in the cross-section along the perimeter.

The total perimeter is 3720 mm.

Hence, number of bars = 3720/175 = 21.25  22 bars

Thus, total area of longitudinal bars provided = 22x78.5 = 1727 mm2 > 1580 mm2 computed
earlier.

Thus, Eqs (a) and (b) lead to the same value of longitudinal steel.

The issue arises how to distribute this steel. Normally, the torsion steel should be provided at
the four corners of the section. However, in the present case, the depth of the section is quite
large. Therefore, there is a need to provide reinforcement along the periphery of the web to
control cracking in accordance with Clause 16.5.4.

Asur ≰ 0.01Act,ext (segoe UI symbol)

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To Ch 26-Limit State Design – RC –8th Edition under preparation- © Dr Ashok K Jain

where,
Asur = surface area of steel
Act,ext = area of cover portion outside the shear stirrups.
= 2[35*(1750)+35*(500-35-35)] = 152600 mm2
 Asur > 0.01*152600 = 1526 mm2

In the present case, the area of surface steel is nearly equal to the area of steel required for
torsion. Let us provide 5-16 mm bars on each face vertically to take care of the surface steel.

Thus, total surface steel provided = 2*200*5 = 2000 mm2 > Asur required OK

Total tension steel = due to bending moment + due to torsion


= 12300 mm2
Total compression steel = 3015 mm2
Provide 16 – 32 mm bars in tension and 10 – 20 mm bars in compression.

500

10-20 mm

5- 16 mm each
1750 mm face

16 mm str @ 350 c/c

16- 32 mm