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3/19/2019 Philippe B.

de l'Arc - History of the Automobile - Russia

HISTORY OF THE RUSSIAN AUTOMOTIVE


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1896

Two-seater YAKOLEV-FREZE car exhibited at the Nizhny Novgorod Industrial Fair, Russia (28.5-1.10.1896 - 9.6-13.10.1896)
Considered as the first Russian car, design Evgeniy Yakovlev and Pyotr Freze;
Workshops in St. Petersburg
Rudimentary vehicle, single-cylinder engine 2 hp rear.
Belt transmission (shift by manual movement on pairs of pulleys of different diameters), differential, two wheel shafts.
Toothed chains on drive wheels (snow).
20 km / h.

1915

In 1915, the Riabuchinski brothers began car manufacturing which was interrupted during the Great War and the October Revolution.
At the same time there was a Russian-Latvian firm that produced small quantities of cars in Riga using elements imported
from European countries.
But frontier difficulties soon arose, and only the Riabuchinskl brothers continued their production by founding AMO, which
was nationalized in 1919.

1916

Foundation of AMO (Avtomobilnoe Moskovskoe Obshchestvo), future ZIL

Russian automobile factory founded in 1916, under the name of AMO.


Eile was completely renovated from 1929 to 1931 and renamed. in 1933, Zavod Imjeni Stalina (Stalin factory) or, in short,
ZIS,
its prototypes were sold under this brand until 1956, when the name was again changed in honor of the director of the
establishment LA Likacheva .
from 1922, all manufacturing was united under the name Mosavto Zil, including a series of companies producing spare parts.
the ZIL ZIS and brands have always been synonymous, in the USSR the highest expression of automobile.
It is interesting to note that the first Soviet cars were not produced in Moscow but in Leningrad in Putilov settlements.
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The first model L 1 was built on the basis of the in-line 8 cylinders of the Buick 5 650 cm and it was produced in small
series in 1933, after which the assembly tools were transferred to Moscow in ZIS establishments. .

1919

Nationalization of AMO , the auto automobile company of the Riabuchinski brothers.

1924

First all-Russian vehicle, the AMO-F 15 pickup truck .

A second factory founded in Yaroslav is dedicated to the construction of the trucks of the YA series (initials of Yaroslav).

1928
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First issue of the magazine ZA RULEM ("Behind the Wheel"), devoted to the automobile.

1929

The first five-year plan (1929-1933) lays the foundation for industrial production.
At the end of this first five-year plan, the Molotov and Stalin factories had reached a production figure of 50,000 vehicles.
These facilities were improved during the second five-year plan (1933-1937).

MZMA (Moskovskij Zavod Malolitrajnnich Automobilei), future AZLK (Avtomobilny Zavod Imeni Leninskogo Komsomola,
Moscow) and in the factory IJ, in Ijvesk.

The MZMA (Moskovskij Zavod Malolitrajnnich Automobilei), founded in 1929, produced the first Moskvich in 1947
Russian factory, founded in 1929, originally intended for the assembly of the Gorkovsky Automobilov Zavod (GAZ), and
which, from 1932 in 1940, was used to assemble groups that were shipped to Gorky.
She assembled three complete models. inspired by the English car Ford Prefect and called Kim-10.
In 1946, the factory was renamed MZMA and the following year it began producing cars bearing the mark Moskvich.
The Moskvitch are assembled in the AZLK factory (Automobilei Zavod Imeni Leninskoho Lomsomol, Moscow) and in the IJ
factory in Ijvesk.
The first model built, the Moskvich 400, was based on pre-war Opel Kadett mechanics and was powered by a 1,071cc engine,
producing 23hp and delivering 99km / h. In 1954 was added the type 401 with 26 hp engine, with a shift lever at the wheel. In
April 1956, these cars, inspired by the Opel models, were abandoned after a production of 247,439 units, including 17,742 in
the convertible version.
They were replaced by the new type 402 (1220 cc, 35 hp, 105 km / h).
The following year saw the first Russian station wagon, the Moskvich 423, while the sedan was the base for the 410, an all-
terrain vehicle.
The Moskvich 407 appeared in 1958. It had a 1336cc, overhead valve engine with a power output of 45 hp, and reached 115
km / h. Despite a more neat finish (two-tone body paint, some extra chrome), its aesthetics were quite dubious.
At the end of the year 1962, the 403 model was released, with a new, much more successful bodywork.
It was not until 1964, however, that a fairly modern line appeared with the Type 408, a five-seater capable of reaching 120 km
/ h. Quite dull, this bodywork lent itself to various reworkings and remained in production until the mid-seventies.
On May 18, 1967, the one millionth Moskvich came out of the chains, and at the end of the year the first passenger car with a
leading camshaft engine, the Moskvich 412 (1,478cc), appeared in Russia. 75 hp, 140 km / h). This car was built in new
factories in Ishevsk, a small town on the Ish river.
In November 1968, the factory that produced Moskvich changed its name to AZLK (Automobilnij Zavod Leninskovo
Komsomola). Some of the models produced in Ishevsk were sold under the Ish brand. They were distinguished from others
by only a few small details.
Note the construction by the firm, at the same time, small transport vehicles.
Between 1967 and 1974, another million Moskvitch were produced.
In 1975, the Moskvich 1500 (83 hp) was launched. It had a similar body to the 412, but with more rounded shapes and energy
absorbing bumpers. The layout included seat belts, a de-icing bezel, headlamp wipers, recessed handles and a new interior
venting system.

AMO becomes ZIS (Zavod Imjeni Stalina - Stalin factory)


The Riabuchinski brothers then began to grow, and their factories, which became known as Stalin factories, were equipped
for an annual production of 25,000 3-ton trucks, the AMO-3s.

The Molotov factories are built in Gorky.


The construction lasts 18 months.

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1930

First car of the KIM factory on November 6, 1930 (third anniversary of the October Revolution)
KIM became MZMA (Moskovskii Zavod Malolitrajnykh Automobilei) in January 1947.
It first built the Opel Kadett 1939, plans and tools having been seized.

1932

GAS type A , directly derived from the Ford A (Gorkovski Avtomobilnij Zavod - Gorky automobile factory)

One of the largest and oldest Russian car factories.


Founded in 1932 in Gorky (now Nizhny Novgorod), an industrial city 350 km west of Moscow, GAZ began using much of
the equipment left by the German factory Ford on its transfer from Berlin in Cologne, hence the similarity of the first gas
models with those of Ford, the
logo of GAZ is a deer, animal represented on the coat of arms of the city.
Type A, which was released in 1932, was named because it was directly derived from the Ford A.

It was followed in 1936 by the four-cylinder M 1 3280 cm3 and two years later, the M 11/40, replaced in 1940 by the M11 /
73, a fairly massive sedan that was equipped with an engine six cylinders of 3,480 cc (76 hp) up to 110 km / h.
During the Second World War, besides many military vehicles, the firm manufactured the model 61, a classic sedan, four-
wheel drive, derived from the M 11/73.
After the war, the company mainly developed its production of military and industrial vehicles, without abandoning the
Manufacture of passenger cars. Thus, in 1946, she launched a new sedan (type M 20), of medium size, equipped with a self-
supporting body and a four-cylinder engine of 2 112 cm3 developing 52 hp. This model, nicknamed Pobieda (Victory), which
was produced until 1958, proved exceptionally robust (quality very appreciable because of the state of the roads of the time
and the climate of Russia), but presented the disadvantage of being quite slow and consume a lot (13 l / 100 km).
At the end of 1951, the same engineer created a new model, the Gaz M 12 (also called Zim), a six-seater limousine with a
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90hp (3500cc) six-cylinder in-line engine, allowing it to to reach 125 km / h.
The year 1953 was marked by the release of Gaz 69, an all-wheel-drive all-wheel-drive vehicle, quite similar to the American
Jeep, driven by the same engine as the Podieba (4 cylinders 2 112 cm3) and equipped with 'a gearbox with three-speed
gearbox (plus a reverse gear). Modified and improved over the years, this durable and economical model was fairly
successful commercially and even featured prominently on the European off-road market. The version presented in 1970 still
had a side valve engine, with a cylinder capacity subsequently increased to 2430 cm3. With a capacity of 72 hp SAE at 3,800
rpm, it is currently able to climb slopes of 98%. In addition, since 1971, it can be equipped with a Perkins diesel engine.
The M 21 model, better known as the Volga, was released in 1956. It was a large, classic sedan powered by a 2445cc (75hp)
four-cylinder engine. Produced beyond the seventies, the Volga undergoes many technical and aesthetic improvements. Of
rather elegant form, it is currently equipped with a more powerful engine (110 hp) making it possible to reach a maximum
speed of 135 to 140 km / h. and is now known as M 24.
Four years after the birth of the latter model appeared the largest car produced by the brand model M 13 or Cjajka, a seven-
seater limousine powered by an eight-cylinder V-shaped engine. 5,526 cc (195 hp, 160 km / h).
Over the last ten years, the production of industrial gas vehicles has developed to such an extent that for a time the Soviet
factory has been the largest European company in this field.

1933

In Gorky, the Stalin and Molotov factories were improved during the second five-year plan (1933-1937).
In 1937, 200,000 cars were assembled in the USSR and this country takes the 4th place in world production, behind the
United States, England and France.

1934

1935

1936
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GAS M 1 with four cylinders of 3,280 cm .

M1 GAS Duct

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Molotov factories specialize in the construction of trucks.

Stalin factories in Gorky launch ZIS 101

>

In 1936, the first ZIS 101 appeared, characterized by a body adapted to the lines in vogue at that time in the United States.
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Buick 90 hp 8 cylinders engine raised to 5 750 cm (increase of the bore of 1 mm).
4.8: 1 compression ratio, cast iron pistons.
3-speed automatic transmission with torque converter.

The ZIS 101 can be considered the most prestigious car that has been built so far in this country.

From a technical point of view, it introduced important new features such as double-acting dampers, dual-body carburetors,
windshield defogging, synchronized gearbox, thermostat and radio.
Despite its high weight, the car could reach 120 km / h.
Its production, actually quite limited, continued until 1940, when ZIS 101 / A was introduced.
This model, apart from an aesthetic remanufacture of the front, had a power of 116 hp and was equipped with pistons and
aluminum.

1937

In 1937, 200,000 cars were assembled in the USSR and this country takes the 4th place in world production, behind the United
States, England and France.

ZIS 102 , 145 hp, 160 km / h

Some cabriolets built on the same chassis as the 101 had the initials ZIS 102, but they were soon eliminated from production
by the beginning of the war.

1938

GAS M 11/40 (replaced in 1940 by the M11 / 73)

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Phaeton GAZ M11 / 40

ZIS 101

1940

The Molotov and Stalin factories are evacuated to the Urals during the Second World War, and passenger car chains cease their
activity because of the war effort.

3
GAZ M 11/73 , fairly massive sedan with six-cylinder engine of 3480 cm 76 hp, 110km / h.
During the Second World War, besides many military vehicles, the firm manufactured the model 61, a classic four-wheel
drive sedan, derived from the M 11/73.
She also assembles Chevrolet trucks (USSR-USA alliance against Nazi Germany).
After the war, the company mainly developed its production of military and industrial vehicles, without however abandoning
the manufacture of private cars.

ZIS 101 / A

The ZIS 101-A developed 110 hp for 130 km / h (it is produced until 1941).
Aerodynamic variant of engineer JJ Dolmatovsky, V8 air-cooled engine laced at the rear (influence of Tatra).

1941

UAZ (Ulianovskij Auttomobilnij Zavod, Ulyanovsk, Russia)

Russian industrial company founded in 1941 in Uljanovsk (formerly Samara).


Initially, the activity consisted of the construction of ZIS-5 and GAZ-MM type trucks, but
from 1954, the construction of the famous GAZ 69 and 69 A all-terrain vehicles was also
gradually transferred from Gorky in Uljanovsk, until in 1956 all GAZ 69 are produced by
UAZ.
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The first models received engines from the Pobieda (2 120 cm 52 hp, 90 km / h).
The 69 A model had four doors and five seats. while model 69, with two doors and eight seats, consisted of two seats of three
seats each, mounted longitudinally along the sides of the car.
In February 1965, the number of GAS 69 produced reached 250,000 units, but the production of this model was not
discontinued. On the contrary, it continued for another seven years with licensed montages in Romania and North Korea.

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1945

ZIS 110 , a luxury car, is reserved for Party dignitaries.

After the war, an important government order asked the establishment to produce a car derived from the Packard 180.
This model, slightly reworked, appeared in production in 1946, to remain there twelve years.
New features for the Soviet market include hydraulic valve lifters. the hypoid taper and the steering wheel shift.
3
The Russian Packard had an engine of 8000 cm which developed 140 hp. It was 8 m long and weighed 2,525 kg.
It consumed 27 liters per 100 km, although the fuel could be low octane, thanks to the compression ratio which was less than
7.
A bare-bones version was also used as a taxi and as an ambulance, but by the end of 1958 this model appeared outdated even
for these services.

1946

Upon the return of peace, the manufacture is reorganized.


Yaroslav factories are starting to produce trucks and tires, and new facilities are being set up in Georgia and Ukraine, Karkov
and Dnepropetrovsk.

GAZ M 20 "Pobieda" (Victory, Molotov factories, 1946-1958)

Mid-size sedan with self-supporting body.


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4 cylinder engine 2120 cm (82x100), Rv 6.2, 52 hp at 3600 rpm, side valves.
3 speed or automatic gearbox.
Self-supporting structure, front wishbone suspensions (coil springs), rear rigid axle (leaf springs).
Length 4.66 m, width 1.69, height 1.64, wheelbase 2.70, front / rear track 1.36 / 1.36, weight 1 345 kg.
105 km / h.

Copy of the Opel Kapitan (spoils of war after the capitulation of Germany, in 1945.
This model proved to be exceptionally robust (quality very appreciable because of the state of the roads of the time and the
climate of Russia, but had the disadvantage of being quite slow and consume a lot (13l / 100km ).
Produced from 1946 to 1958, license recovery by FSO from 1959 to 1982.

The KIM factory became MZMA (Moskovskii Zavod Malolitrajnykh Automobilei) in January 1947.
Russian factory, founded in 1929, originally intended for the assembly of the Gorkovsky Automobilov Zavod (GAZ), and
which, from 1932 to 1940, was used to assemble groups that were shipped to Gorky.
She assembled three complete models, inspired by the English car Ford Prefect and called Kim-10.
It first built Opel Kadett 1939, plans and tools were seized.
In 1946, the factory was renamed MZMA (Moskovskij Zavod Malolitrajnnich Automobilei) and the following year it began
producing cars bearing the mark Moskvich.

MZMA MOSKVITCH 400

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The Moskvich 400 was based on pre-war Opel Kadett mechanics.


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She was driven by an engine 1071 cm , developing 23 hp and allowing a speed of 99 km / h.
The Moskvitch is presented in Moscow in 1947
In April 1956, these cars were abandoned after a production of 247,437 units, of which 17,742 in the cabriolet version.

1948

Zvezda-1 record car

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Engine 350 cm 42 hp, 2 cylinders 2 times derived from DKW UL 350 (one combustion chamber per pair of cylinder).
Water cooling, supercooling.
Original Mercedes-Benz transmission.
Cx 0.13, 160 km / h (driver Andrei Ponizovkin)
Improved performance on the second version, 4-speed Ural transmission (motorcycle), 200 km / h.

1949

RAF (Rigas Autobusu Fabrika, Latvia, 1949-1998, 2002 -...)


RAF-251, based on GAZ-51 (1955-1958)

ZIM (Zavod Imjeni Molotova in Gorky).

Russian car brand. also called GAZ 12, produced by the Gorki automohiles (Gas) from 1950 to 1959.
The acronym ZIM is the abbreviation of Zavod Imjeni Motova Molotov factory). which was the name
worn for some time by the establishment of Gorky.

The MIZ 12 fills the existing gap between the Pobieda and 110 Z1S.

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6-cylinder engine derived from the one that propelled a gasoline truck, 3480 cm (82x110), Rv 6, 90 hp at 3600 rpm, side
valves, dual body carburetor.
3 speed gearbox.
Frame structure, front wishbone suspensions (coil springs), rear rigid axle (leaf springs).
Length 5.53 m, width 1.90, height 1.66, wheelbase 3.20, front / rear track 1.45 / 1.50, weight 1,800 kg.
125 km / h.

The MIZ was a luxurious seven-seater limousine designed according to the most classic American tradition, by Andrej
Lipgart, the father of Pobieda.
Thanks to the construction technique of the chassis and the hull, its line was perfectly up to date with that of the Cadfllac of
the same period.
Apart from some innovations, such as the hydraulic coupler and the double piston front brakes, the technique of this car was
far from innovative.
Although the car did not reach the prestige of a ZIS limousine (ZIL), because it was a little shorter (5.53 rn against the 5.80 of
the ZIS), it had a certain dmlusion thanks to the public administrations which the prefered for their services.
A limited number of MIZs were however sold on the market to private customers.
ZIM ceased production in 1959 and was replaced by a more luxurious model called "Chaika" and bearing the acronym GAZ
13.

ZIS 115 (S for Stalin), 180 hp 8-cylinder engine, 7.3 tons (shielding), 140 km / h

1950

Kharkov-1 record car

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Mechanical GAZ Pobjeda, increased to 2500 cm (modified carburetor and exhaust)
Aluminum body (separate engine and driver compartments)
Chassis derived from the M-1 GAS lacking rigidity
180 km / h (VK Nikitin pilot)

1951
3
GAZ Pobieda Sport 1951, 2500 cm 105 hp, 170 km / h

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GAZ M 12 "Zim", from the same engineer, a six-seater six-cylinder in-line limousine of 3500 cm Pobieda (Victory) and 90 hp, 125
km / h.

GAZ 69 off-road vehicle , AWD (near the American Jeep)

3
Engine 4 cylinders 2430 cm (88x100), Rv 6.5 or 6.7, 72 hp SAE at 380000 rpm, 18 mkg at 2000 rpm, camshaft side,
carburettor single body inverted
4 wheel drive, gearbox with gearbox three-speed plus reverse (1st unsynchronized), central lever.
Rigid axles, longitudinal leaf springs, globular screw steering, drum brakes.
Length 3.85 m, width 1.85, height 2.03, wheelbase 2.30, weight 1525 kg.
Tires 6.50x16, 100 km / h, slopes up to 98%.

3
The version presented in 1962 still had a 2112 cm engine with side valves, with a cylinder capacity subsequently increased
3
to 2430 cm .
Modified and improved over the years, this resistant and economical model obtained quite a commercial success and even
figured prominently on the European off-road market.
Since 1997, it can be equipped with a Perkins diesel engine.

Version 69 M for passenger transport (width 1.75 m, height 1.92 m, 1535 kg)

Kharkov-3 record car

Pobjeda gas engine at the rear, supercharged, double fuel


202 km / h

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MOSKVITCH G1 , 1100 cm 70 hp, aluminum body, 190 km / h.

1952

Kharkov-6 record car

GAS 200 hp engine Pobjeda (double overhead cam shaft, two compressors, dry sump lubrication), 280 km / h

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Project-7 Kharkov, fail: V8 AV Sirjatskogo (1974 cm , 340 hp at 6500 rpm / min), 5 speed gearbox, 350 km / h.

Kharkov-L1 record car (Edward Osipovich Lorent)

3
Two-cylinder engine 250 cm 45 hp, 4-stroke, DOHC, water-cooled, supercharged
Total weight 360 kg (use of aluminum and magnesium)
203 km / h
3
Versions 350 and 500 cm (22 km / h)

Zvezda M-NAMI Record Car

3
Derived from the Zvezda-1, engine 368 cm 64 hp, 215 km / h.

1954

Moskvitch - ZIM - Pobieda (Salon 1954, Automotive Technical Review)


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The three types of Soviet cars that appeared at the recent Lyon Fair will not be exhibited at the Paris Salon. However, we give
below the indications we have.

The Zim is a large limousine (length 5.53 m, width 1.90 m) with four doors and six seats, with two folding seats.
Its design is absolutely classic: all-steel self-supporting body, independent front suspension with anti-roll torsion bar and
telescopic dampers, six-cylinder engine with side valves and aluminum cylinder head, dry single-disc clutch, three-speed
manual gearbox controlled by lever under the steering wheel, deck rear rigid, hypoid-shaped conical torque, hydraulic
brakes.
The engine, with a capacity of 3,481cc, six-cylinder and four-stage, provides 90 hp at 3,600 rpm and a maximum speed of
120 km / h.
The characteristics indicated by the prospectus call for some comments:
The announced consumption is 15.5 liters per 100 kilometers and it is specified that this consumption is controlled upon
delivery of the car.
The interior equipment seems very complete, since it includes: ammeter, gas gauge, oil manometer, water thermometer
doubled by a warning lamp lighting in case of excessive temperature, electrical equipment including a regulator of power, a
parking brake light, an electric watch, a radio receiver, adjustable windshield wipers, self-timer off indicators, two horns, two
cigarette lighters, four ashtrays and tools on board. Surprisingly, on the other hand, there is no mention of an indoor heating
device.
The copy on display was very well finished, his painting and his chrome seemed even
The dashboard and the mirror surrounds, in painted sheet metal imitating woodwork, give the interior the look that most
American cars had before this war.

The smaller Pobieda (2.70 m wheelbase and 1.36 m track) seems to be a bit more original.
It is a four-seater, two-door, four-cylinder engine with side valves, a power of 50 hp at 3,600 rpm, ensuring a maximum speed
of 110 km / h, for a consumption of 11 liters per 100 kilometers .
The finish of this car, although much less luxurious than that of the Zim, was of good quality.

For those who had only been able to examine the imported Moskvitch in Belgium, the finish quality of these cars is
surprising.
It is fair to note that the Moskvitch is the most popular model.

Gas 17 GAS car record car , 2700 hp, 694 km / h

MOSKVITCH 401 26 hp, with shift lever at the steering wheel.

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MOSKVITCH G2 , 1400 cm 70 hp, 670 kg; 223 km / h.

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1955

Kharkov-L2 record car (Edward Osipovich Lorent)

Presentation of MOSKVITCH 415 , 4x4 1400 40 hp, 105 km / h (prototype 1955, production 1959)

Moskvitch 416 4x4

MOSKVITCH 404 Sport with four carburettors

Zvezda-5 record car (engineer A. Peltsser)

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Engine 250 cm 2 stroke 50 hp (derived from DKW), supercharged, 4-speed, independent wheel suspension

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Length 3.20 m, 360 kg
200 km / h

1956

USSR - Behind the Iron Curtain (Salon 1956, Revue Technique Automobile)
Automobile production behind the Iron Curtain falls into two categories: Czechoslovak construction and that of other
democratic republics.
The first, which is represented in France, is comparable, if not in number, at least in quality, to that of other Western
countries. Elsewhere, we are reduced to approximations to try to quantify the construction, and to use scattered documents to
get an idea of the techniques used.
The Soviet automobile industry is relatively new, since it was only in 1915 that the Riabuchinski brothers began
manufacturing which was interrupted during the Great War and the October Revolution.
At the same time there was a Russian-Latvian firm that produced small quantities of cars in Riga using elements imported
from European countries.
But frontier difficulties soon arose, and only the Riabuchinskl brothers continued their production by founding the AMO
company, which was nationalized in 1919.
In 1924 the first entirely Russian vehicle, the AMO-F 15, was built for a second factory founded in Yaroslav was dedicated to
the construction of YA series trucks (Yaroslav initials).
But the methods of work remain very artisanal until the first five-year plan (1929-1933), at which time the bases of an
industrial production were laid.
The Riabuchinski brothers then began to grow, and their factories, which became known as Stalin factories, were equipped
for an annual production of 25,000 3-ton trucks, the AMO-3s.
At the same time, the Molotov factories were built in Gorky, whose construction lasted 18 months.
At the end of this first five-year plan, the Molotov and Stalin factories had reached a production figure of 50,000 vehicles.
These facilities were improved during the second five-year plan (1933-1937).
The Stalin factories started ZIS 101, while the Molotov factories specialized in the construction of trucks.
By 1937, 200,000 cars had been assembled in the USSR and this country was ranked 4th in world production, behind the
United States, England and France.
The factories were evacuated to the Urals during World War II, and the chains of passenger cars ceased their activity
because of the war effort.
Upon the return of peace, the manufacture was reorganized.
Yaroslav's factories began to produce trucks and tires, and new facilities were established in Georgia and Ukraine, Karkov
and Dnepropetrovsk.
In 1947 Moscow was presented with a medium-displacement car, the Moskvitch, a disturbing reminder of the German Oplel
of the time.
In the same year, the Molotov factories started the Pobieda, comparable to a 1500 Fiat.
Then, in a higher category, the ZIM, implemented in 1949, filled the gap between the Pobieda and the Z1S.110, the latter,
luxury car, being reserved for Party dignitaries.
One of our colleagues who interviewed Deputy Minister of Industry Maiboroda obtained the annual production figures:
445,000 vehicles, which will become 650,000 on 1960, including 200,000 passenger cars.

The Deputy Minister also announced the replacement of the Pobieda with a new model, the Volga, which will be released in
two versions: one with rear-wheel drive, the other with front-wheel drive, the latter being more specifically designed for the
countryside.

Similarly, MIZ will now be equipped with a more powerful engine, and the ZIS has been reworked and modernized. The new
model is called ZIS111.

We also know that the USSR now has an experimental model, the NAMI-103, with an advanced cab, which is reminiscent of
the Fiat Multipla.

But the event of the Soviet automobile year is undoubtedly the making of the new Moskvitch. Externally, she has a certain
kinship with the current Oppel Rekord, although it seems heavy and gives a stronger impression of construction. On this
Opel, the front fenders have a taste of Ford Taunus 12 M, while the American Nash leaves traces on the design of the rear.
The engine of the new Moskvitch cube 1,220 cc and develops 35 hp at 4,200 rpm, a specific power of 28.5 hp / l, quite low in
itself, but corresponding to that of most Western cars. The top speed would be around 105 km / h, and the average fuel
consumption would not exceed 7 liters of fuel per 100 km.

Of course, Soviet cars are rare in the West. From the copies we have met on various occasions, we must say that they are not
designed to arouse delusional enthusiasm ...
We recognize, however, that they are perfectly adapted to the traffic as we imagine it in the USSR. Apart from modern
sections, the roads do not have the reputation of being better maintained and require cars of solid foolproofness. As for
getting very high efficiency engines, this can hardly be the case in climates where temperature differences of 70 ° between
winter and summer are not uncommon. And the garages certainly do not abound on the lines of communication ...
We must also say that according to all the cars that we had the opportunity to examine, it is certain that the care brought to
their execution and the concern finishing that they reveal are a credit to Russian construction.

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GAS M 21 "Volga" (river running through Gorky).
Announced, in 1956, in two versions: one with rear propulsion, the other with front wheel drive, the latter being more
specifically intended for campaigns.

3
2245 cm (92x92) 4 cylinder engine , Rv 7.5, 80 hp at 4,000 rpm, overflow valves.
3 speed or automatic gearbox.
Self-supporting structure, front wishbone suspensions (coil springs), rear rigid axle (leaf springs).
Length 4.38 m, width 1.80, height 1.62, wheelbase 2.70, front / rear track 1.42 / 1.41, weight 1 400 kg.
130 km / h.

Produced beyond the seventies, the Volga undergoes many technical and aesthetic improvements.

MOSKVITCH 402

The event of the Soviet automobile year is undoubtedly the making of the new Moskvitch. Externally, she has a certain
kinship with the current Oppel Rekord, although it seems heavy and gives a stronger impression of construction. On this
Opel, the front fenders have a taste of Ford Taunus 12 M, while the American Nash leaves traces on the design of the rear.
3
The engine of the new Moskvitch cube 1.220 cm and develops 35 hp at 4,200 rpm, a specific power of 28.5 ch / l, quite low
in itself, but corresponding to that of most Western cars. The top speed would be around 105 km / h, and the average fuel
consumption would not exceed 7 liters of fuel per 100 km.

MOSKVITCH 403

Experimental car NAMI-103 , advanced cab.

Since 1956, the SMZ factory (Serpukovskii Moto Zavod) has been manufacturing cars for the disabled.

Presentation of the ZIS 111 Mokva


ZIS 110 (1945) reworked and modernized.

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For political reasons, it was produced in 1957 under the umbrella of ZIL 111.

ZIS (Zavod Imjeni Stalina or Stalin factory) became ZIL (Zavod Imeni Lihacheva), in honor of the director of the
establishment IA Likhacheva.
Russian automobile factory founded in 1916, under the name of AMO.
It was completely renovated from 1929 to 1931 and renamed, in 1933, Zavod Imjeni Stalina (Stalin factory) or, in short, ZIS.
Its prototypes were sold under this brand until 1956, when the name was once again changed in honor of the director of the
establishment IA Likhacheva. From 1972 onwards all the products were assembled under the name of Mosavto Zil, including
a series of companies producing spare parts.
The brands ZIS and ZIL have always been synonymous in the USSR with the highest expression of cars. It is interesting to
note that the first Soviet cars were not produced in Moscow but in Leningrad in Putilov settlements.
The first model L1 was built on the basis of the in-line 8 cylinder cylinder of 5 650 cm3 and it was produced in small series in
1933, after which the assembly tools were transferred to Moscow in the establishments of ZIS.
Three years later, the first ZIS 101 appeared, characterized by a body adapted to the lines in vogue at that time in the United
States. The engine was still the 8-cylinder Buick, but its engine capacity had been raised to 5,750cc by increasing the bore by
1mm, the compression ratio being 4.8: 1, while the pistons were still cast iron. The power reached about 90 hp. The ZIS 101
can be considered the most prestigious car that has been built so far in this country. From the technical point of view. it
introduced important new features such as double-acting dampers, dual-body carburetors, windshield defogger, synchronized
gearbox, thermostat and radio. Despite its high weight, the car could reach 120 km / h. His production, actually quite limited,
continued until 1940, when your ZIS 101 / A was introduced. This model, apart from an aesthetic rearrangement of the front,
had a power of 116 hp and was equipped with aluminum pistons.
Some cabriolets built on the same frame bore the initials ZIS 102, but were soon eliminated from production by the beginning
of the war.
After the war, an important order of the government asked the establishment to produce a car derived from the Packard 180.
This model, slightly reworked, appeared in production in 1946, to remain there twelve years. New features for the Soviet
market include hydraulic valve lifters, hypoid taper and steering wheel shifting. The Russian Packard had an 8,000cc engine
that produced 140hp, was 8m long and weighed 2,525kg, and consumed 27 liters per 100km, although the fuel could be low
octane, thanks to the compression ratio that was less than 7. A stripped version was also used as a taxi and as an ambulance
but, by the end of 1958, this model appeared outdated even for these services,
It was in that year that the first ZIL 111 appeared and a number of V8 engines were built under the Moskova brand. The first
limousine of this type had a 5,980cc engine and respectable power of 200hp at 4,200rpm. It was equipped with a two-speed
automatic gearbox quite similar to the Powerlite system.
On the 111 A version of 1959, the air conditioning system was installed for the first time. This car was kept for four more
years, then in 1963 it underwent an aesthetic renovation of the front with the double lighthouses.
However, the most important of the modifications was introduced in 1967, with the ZIL 114 version in which the wheelbase
and bodywork had been lengthened, while the old cast iron engine had been replaced by a new light alloy group. The engine
capacity was raised to 6,959 cm3 and the power to 300 hp. The novelty for the Soviet production was materialized by the
ventilated disc brakes, the adjustable steering column, a mechanism of closing of the doors centralized control and the
electronic ignition.
In 1972, the limousine ZIL 114. was added a new sedan with 5 seats, called ZIL 117, with a wheelbase of 3.30 m.
The ZIL are the prestige cars of the USSR and their construction is particularly neat. Each engine is tested for thirty-two
hours and each complete car performs a 2,000 km acceptance test.

1957

MOSKVITCH 423 , the first Russian station wagon and 410 off-road vehicle, based on the sedan.

ZIL 111 , formerly ZIS 111

3
V8 5 980 cm (100x95), Rv 9, 220 hp at 4,200 rpm, valves overturned.
Two-speed automatic transmission quite similar to the Powerlite system.
Frame structure, front wishbone suspensions (coil springs), rear rigid axle (leaf springs).
Length 6.03 m, width 2.03, height 1.64, wheelbase 3.76, front / rear track 1.57 / 1.65, weight 2575 kg.
160 km / h.

A number of V8 engines were mounted under: the Moskova brand.


On the 1959 ZIL 111 A, the air conditioner was installed for the first time.

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This car suffered, in 1963, under the name ZIL 11 G, an aesthetic renovation of the front: the double headlights.

Zvezda-6 record car

Engine 54 hp, 420 kg, 220 km / h

1958

GAS M 13 "Tchaika" seven-seater limousine , replacing the GAS 12 "ZIM".

3
V8 5330 cm (100x88), Rv 8.5, 195 hp SAE at 4200 rpm, 40.8 mkg, central camshaft, carburettor quadruple body
Propulsion, automatic gearbox.
Front wishbone suspensions (coil springs), rear rigid axle (leaf springs), screw and roller direction, drum brakes.
Length 5.60 m, width 2.00, height 1.62, wheelbase 3.25, weight 2000 kg.
Tires 8.20x15, 160 km / h.

Great limousine copied on American cars, reserved for the first circle of the Soviet ruling class.

MOSKVITCH 407 , with overhead valve engine

3
4 cylinders 1358 cm (76x75), Rv 7, 43 hp at 4,300 rpm, valves overturned.
3 speed gearbox.
Self-supporting structure, front wishbone suspensions (coil springs), rear rigid axle (leaf springs).
Length 4.05 m, width 1.54, height 1.56, wheelbase 2.37, front / rear track 1.23 / 1.22, weight 980 kg.
115 km / h.

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Despite a more neat finish (two-tone body paint, some extra chrome), its aesthetics were quite dubious.

4x4 MOSKVITCH 410 (35 hp) and 410 H (45 hp and 95 km / h).

NAMI-048 car or IZH Ogonyok (designed by the NAMI research institute, produced by IZH - Izhevsky mekhanichesky Zavod)
Design B. Fitterman, V. Mironov and Y. Dolmatovsky.
3
Flat-twin 750 cm motor of the motouri Ural M 72, 22 hp.
4x4, 75 km / h.
The car was never produced in series.
The zhevsky mekhanichesky Zavod is a waved weapons factory in 1807 (11 million weapons manufactured during the Second
World War).
Producer of the Kalashnikov.

ZAZ (Zaporojetz Automobilnij Zavod, Zaporozhye, Russia)

Russian car manufacturing company, founded in 1958 in Zaporozhye and using the factory "Komunar", a factory of tractors,
According to the initial project, it was to become the construction house of the most popular Russian car, which would be
produced under license of Volkswagen, Fiat or Renault. Instead, she has always worked on her own projects.
3
Since 1955, several prototypes were under consideration, including a motor 750 cm four-cylinder opposed in pairs, air
cooled, and a 4-cylinder V 90 °. The second type was chosen for maintenance reasons and because of its better suitability in
the harsh climates of this country.
The first copies of the Zaporojetz were made in 1959 and put on the market the following year

ZIL Sport , 230 hp, 260 km / h

1960

4 doors MOSKVITCH Pilot

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VAZ (Volzhskij Automobilnij Zavod, Togliattigrad, Russia)

Important Fiat factory installed in 1960 in Russia.


Zhiguli brand in Russia, Lada export.

ZAZ 965 (22.11.1960-1969)

The model called ZAZ 965 was equipped with a body that was inspired by the Fiat 600 and Nuova 500. It had a wheelbase of
2.02 m and a length of 3.33 m.
Since the front suspensions were of the drawbar type, almost entirely copied from those of Volkswagen, the nickname that
was attributed to this car was "Volkswagen Fiatovitch Zaporoshets".
3
The engine, a V4, had a displacement of 746 cm and developed 23 hp at 4000 rpm, just like the prototypes initially
experienced by the factory. The power, however, was insufficient for the car, whose weight exceeded 600 kg (maximum
speed 75 km / h).
3
This is why, in October 1962, the displacement of the 965A model was increased to 887 cm , with a power gain of 4 hp (80
km / h).

The next model, 965B, received an electromagnetic clutch. This car was the only one on the Soviet market that was suitable
for war invalids. ZAZ is specialized in this type of production.

1961

Pioneer-2 record car (Kharkov)

3
Engine 250 cm replaced by two turbines of 135 hp each
Body and chassis of the Kharkov-L1, magnesium wheels
485 kg, 310 km / h

The Moskvitch went up in Belgium under the name of SCALDIA-Volga , near Antwerp

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It can receive a Perkins diesel engine

1962

MOSKVITCH 403 , with a new bodywork.

1963

KADI-3 record car from KADI Research Institute Kharkov

Drawing T.Utemov, under the direction of VK Nikitin


3
Jazwa-ESO single cylinder (motorcycle), 500 cm 36 hp, box 4;
Length 4 m, width 0.67 m, height 0.50 m, 180 kg

MOSKVITCH G4 92 hp

Limousine ZIL 111 G


ZIL 111 remodeled from the front (double headlights), presented as ZIS 111 Mokva in 1956, replacing the ZIS 110 of 1945

ZIS 101 / A cabriolet, 6.7 liters 19 hp

1964
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KADI-4 record car from KADI Research Institute Kharkov

3
3000 cm engine
Accidented after a high-speed tire burst (pilot unscathed)

Sedan MOSKVITCH 408 presented in autumn 1964, station wagon 426

3
4 cylinders 1357 cm (76x75), Rv 7, 60.5 hp SAE at 4750 rpm, 11 mkg at 2750 rpm, side camshaft, carburettor double
inverted body.
Classic transmission, 4-speed gearbox, 1st non-synchronized, with steering wheel lever.
Front wishbone suspensions (coil springs), rear rigid axle (leaf springs), screw and roller direction, drum brakes.
Length 4.09 m, width 1.55, height 1.48, wheelbase 2.40, weight 990 kg.
Tires 6.00x13, 120 km / h

Quite dull, this new body, on the unchanged mechanics of the 407, lent itself to various reworkings and remained in
production until the mid-seventies.
3
UZAM engine (manufacturer of aircraft engines) 1400 cm .
Grill with rectangular headlights (like the 412) since 1970.

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The coupe was produced in only 500 copies.

Prototype IZH TE "VNITE" (Russian Design Institute)

1965

LUAZ 969 A

3
Longitudinal front engine, V4 air cooled, 1197 cm (76x66), 40 hp DIN at 4600 rpm, 6 mkg at 2800 rpm, Rv 7.2, 3-stage
crankshaft, central camshaft,
4-wheel inverted carburetor drive, 4-speed gearbox
Chassis chassis, independent front wheels (torsion bars), independent rear wheels (torsion bars), screw and roller steering,
155x13 tires.
Drum brakes front and rear
Length 3.39 m, width 1.77, height 1.78, wheelbase 1.80.
Weight 980 kg, 85 km / h

MOSKVITCH G5 1965, 8 cylinders, 200 hp at 10,500 rpm

3-door sedan ZAZ 966 and 966-V Zaporojetz

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3
966: V4 air-cooled, 887 cm (75x54.5) Rv 6.5, 27 bhp at 5600 rev / min, 5.3 kgm at 2400 rev / min, central camshaft,
reversed carburettor.
3
966 V: V4 air cooled, 1196 cm (76x66), Rv 7.2, 40 hp DIN at 4400 rpm, 7.8 mkg at 2900 rpm, central camshaft, inverted
carburetor.
Everything in the back, 4-speed gearbox, 1st unsynchronized, lever on the floor.
Front wishbone suspensions (torsion bars), independent rear wheels (coil springs), screw and roller steering, drum brakes.
Length 3.73 m, width 1.64, height 1.37, wheelbase 2.16, weight 780 kg.
Tires 5.20x13, 100 and 110 km / h

Prototype in 1961, serial release in 1965.


New bodywork, 40 cm longer.
It reproduced the aesthetic lines of the NSU Prinz 4-door sedan with aesthetic details of the Ford Falcon, such as, for
example, the mounting of the front traffic lights, the flank line and the two cigar-shaped protrusions that ended at the rear by
the taillights.
3
This model was equipped with a 750 cc engine of 30 hp and modified front suspension and rear.
3
Engine 750 cm then 900 and 1200 in 1966.
Its body was characterized by improved habitability and sufficient space for luggage, space that was completely nonexistent
in the previous model.
Among the standard accessories particularly appreciated by the Russian public, there was a powerful heater, the radio, the
ashtray and the cigarette lighter.
The name of this car was ZAZ 966 B.
From the mechanical point of view, it is interesting to note that the front suspensions were equipped with additional helical
springs in addition to the torsion bars, while the stopped suspensions were with longitudinal swingarm and their Behavior was
decidedly better than that of previous suspensions with a transverse arm (whose movement caused the camber to vary
considerably).

1966

KADI-5 record car from KADI Research Institute Kharkov

3
Gas engines M-21 Volga or 3000 cm 126 hp of the Kadi-
4,550 kg, 290 km / h

KADI-7 record car , derived from the Kharkov-7 project

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Turbine gas 400 hp helicopter GTD-350


350 km / h

MOSKVITCH 408 Sedan (Elite Deluxe) and 426 Station Wagon (Paket Elite)

Moskvitch imported by SCALDIA , 66 900 F

ZIL 130 Truck

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1967

On May 18, 1967, the millionth MOSKVITCH comes out of the chains.
At the same time, the firm was building small transport vehicles.
Between 1967 and 1974, another million Moskvitch were produced.

GA M M 24 Volga , evolution of the M 21, presented in December 1967

3
4 cylinders 2445 cm (92x92), Rv 6.7, 7.8 or 8.5, 95, 105 or 110 hp SAE at 4500 rpm, 19.5 to 21 mkg at 2400 rpm, side
camshaft, dual body carburettor
Propulsion, box 4 synchronized speeds with lever on the floor.
Front wishbone suspensions (coil springs), rear rigid axle (leaf springs), screw and roller direction, drum brakes. .
Length 4.74 m, width 1.80, height 1.49, wheelbase 2.80, weight 1300 kg.
Tires 7.35x15, 145 km / h (110 hp).

Versions 3102 (new bodywork, 1978), 3110, 31105 and 3111 (new bodywork, 2001).
Equipped with a Rover or Indenor diesel engine (since January 1972) by the Belgian importer "Scaldia Volga SA, in Brussels)

The production of industrial gas vehicles developed to a point where for a time the Soviet factory was the largest European
company in this field.

GAZ M 24 Diesel Scaldia (Scaldia-Volga SA, Belgium)


3
Rover 4 cylinder engine, 2286 cm (90.5x88.9), Rv 23, 62 hp SAE at 4000 rpm, 21.4 mkg at 1750 rpm

IZH 412
3
Engine 1360 cm to overhead cam shaft driven by pinions 50 c.
Engine raised to 1472 cm <SUP> 3 and 75 hp (overhead camshaft controlled by chain)

MOSKVITCH 412 sedan and 427 station wagon (Ijevsk factory, according to Renault guidelines)

3
4 cylinders 1419 cm (82x70), Rv 8.8, 80 hp SAE at 5800 rpm, 11.4 mkg at 3000 rpm, overhead camshaft, carburettor
double inverted body.
Classic transmission, 4-speed gearbox synchronized with lever on the floor.
Front wishbone suspensions (coil springs), rear rigid axle (leaf springs), screw and roller direction, drum brakes, power brake

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Length 4.09 m, width 1.55, height 1.48, wheelbase 2.40, weight 1040 kg.
Tires 6.45x13, 140 km / h.

The 412 is the first Russian car equipped with a light alloy engine with overhead camshaft.

Rectangular headlights (round on 408/426), sleeper seats and seat belts.


They are imported in Belgium under the name of Scaldia, in Normal finish, LS, Elita and Rally.

ZIL 114 in November 1967

114 seater limousine and 5 seater sedan 117.


3
Front longitudinal engine, V8, 6 959 cm (108x95), 5-stage crankshaft, central camshaft, quadruple body carburetor.
Rv 9, 230 hp SAE at 4200 rpm, 52 mkg at 2200 rpm.
Rv 9.5, 300 hp SAE at 4400 rpm, 57 mkg at 2800 rpm.
Rear wheel drive, automatic transmission
Chassis chassis, independent front wheels (torsion bars), rigid rear axle (semi-elliptical springs), ball steering with servo
assistance, 235x380 tires.
Front and rear disc brakes with servo wheel
Length 6.285 m (5.785), width 2.07, height 1.51, wheelbase 3.76 (3.26), front / rear track 1.57 / 1.62.
Weight 2800 to 3175 kg, 190 km / h

ZIL 114 version, in which the wheelbase and bodywork had been lengthened, while the old cast iron engine had been
replaced by a new light alloy group.
3
The engine capacity was increased to 6 959 cm and the power to 300 hp.
The novelty for the Soviet production was materialized by the ventilated disc brakes, the adjustable steering column, a
mechanism of closing of the doors centralized control and the electronic ignition.
At the end of 1971, the ZIL 114 limousine was joined by a new 5-passenger sedan. denominated ZlL 117, with a wheelbase
of 3.30 m.
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The ZIL are the prestige cars of the USSR and their construction is particularly neat. Each engine is tested for thirty two
hours and each completed car carries out a test of reception of 2,000 km.

1968

In November 1968, the factory that produced the Moskvich changed its name to AZLK (Autotatohilnij ZavodLeninskovo
Komsomola).
Some of the models produced at Shevsk were sold under the lsh brand.
They were distinguished from each other only by a few small details.
The firm also builds small transport vehicles.
The millionth Moskvitch was released on May 18, 1967, and between 1967 and 1974 another million Moskvich were
produced.

1969

VAZ 2101 Zhiguli - LADA 1200 (Togliattigrad), derived from the Fiat 124 (reinforced structure)

Sedan in November 1969, station wagon in February 1971


3
4 cylinders 1198 cm (76x66), Rv 8.8, 62 hp DIN at 5600 rpm, 8.9 mkg at 3400 rpm, overhead camshaft, double body
carburetor.
Classy transmission, synchronized 4-speed gearbox, lever on the floor.
Front wishbone suspensions (coil springs), rear rigid axle (leaf springs), screw and roller steering, front disc brakes, rear
drums.
Length 4.07 m, width 1.61, height 1.44, wheelbase 2.42, weight 890 kg.
155x13 tires, 140 km / h

1970

Russian ERPI-1 (2.1970)


For two years, the research and studies section of the Yerevan Polytechnic Institute (Soviet Armenia) has been working on the
problems of creating the electric car.
Three principle variants have been developed.
The first has two rear-wheel drive wheels, each driven by a motor. The use of thyristors in the control system allows large
savings of current. The energy of the 18 accumulators is pulsed, which allows a regulation of the running without loss of
current.
Recently, the "ErPi-1" made 70 km on the Yerevan-Sevan mountain route, at an average speed of 50 km / h.
"ErPi-1" is mounted on an OUAZ-451 automobile chassis.
Variants are being tested:
1 ° AC motors
2 ° Combined engine system: A small blast motor to recharge the accumulators while driving. (APN)

FIAT production in the USSR ( VAZ-Lada )

Appearance of the LUAZ acronym (ZAZ production of Lutsky,

The model ZAZ 969, introduced in 1970, inaugurated the series of cars produced in the new facility of Lutsky, Ukraine.
In order to distinguish the production of Zaporozhye from that of Lutsky, the cars manufactured in that city bore the initials
LUAZ: for example, LUAZ 969.

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The 969 was presented in the form of a prototype in 1965 and at the show in Brussels in 1980.

The LUNOKHOD 1 crawler lands on the moon, in the Sea of Rains on 17.11.1970.

Luna missions 17 to 24
collection of lunar rocks and examination of soil properties.
Lunokhod rolls 10.5 km on the moon.

Prototype MOSKVITCH 3-5-3

MOSKVITCH 412

MOSKVITCH 412 IJ

Produced in the Izhevsk factory, it stands out with its two-head grille and wheel covers.

3
Prototype MOSKVITCH 2150 , 1500 cm

UAZ 469 Tundra (Tundra 469 on some foreign markets)

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4-wheel drive vehicle studied for 12 years at the Ulyanovsk factory, derived from the UAZ 452 van.
The third generation of Soviet jeeps was launched in 1972 with the model UAZ-469 B.
The first was the GAZ 67 B , called in Ivari-Willys military jargon. that is to say the jeep that had made the Second World
War.
The UAZ 469 were equipped with powerful Volga M24 GAZ engines.
The 469 reducer model was able to withstand ramps at 80%, a feature that made it particularly suitable for rough terrain.

ZAZ 968 Zaporojetz in September 1970 (Zaporozhye Automobilny Zavod, factory Kommunar of Zaporoje, USSR)

3
Longitudinal rear engine, V4 air cooled, 1197 cm (76x66), 39 hp DIN at 4600 rpm, 6 mkg at 2800 rpm, Rv 7.2, 3-stage
crankshaft, central camshaft, inverted carburettor
Rear wheels drive, 4-speed gearbox
Monocoque chassis, independent front wheels (torsion bars), independent rear wheels (coil springs), screw and roller steering,
155x13 tires.
Drum brakes front and rear
Length 3.73 m, width 1.57, height 1.37, wheelbase 2.16, front / rear track 1.22 / 1.20.
Weight 840 kg, 118 km / h

3
ZAZ 968 pickup truck Renault 954 cm

3
Presented in October 1961, model of large series in 1965, 750 and 900 cm
Mini powered car, V4 1.2 air-cooled engine (inspired by the NSU Prinz)
Simplified grille and redrawn turn signals
Produced until 1984
At the same time , the Zaporozhye factory started a small series of all-terrain vehicles similar to the Haflinger models. They
were pulling on all four wheels with a mechanism derived from ZAZ utilities,

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1971

New MOSKVITCH factory in Izhevsk


Implantation, architecture and means of production designed by Renault

2-volume sedan MOSKVITCH - IZH 2125 , presented in May 1973 at the Ijvesk factory.

Semi-break 6 glasses, variant of Moskvich 412

SMZ SZD presented in January 1971.

Since 1956, the SMZ factory (Serpukovskii Moto Zavod) has been manufacturing cars for the disabled.
3
Rear engine single cylinder 346 cm 12 hp.

New 5-passenger sedan ZlL 117 , with a wheelbase of 3.30 m.

3
V8 engine 6959 cm , 300 hp at 4400 rpm, 200 km / h.

1972

GAZ M 24 Diesel Scaldia Indenor in January 1972 (Scaldia-Volga SA, Belgium)


3
Indenor engine 4 cylinders, 2112 cm (90x83), Rv 22.2, 65 hp SAE at 4500 rpm, 12.6 mkg at 2000 rpm.

Large capacity GAZ 24-02 Volga Break in January 1972

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Height 1.51 m, 1500 kg, tires 7.75 x 14.

1972 MOSKVITCH range

MOSKVITCH Scaldia 412 and 427

Break VAZ 2102 - LADA 1200 , derived from the 2101 sedan (February 1972)

165x13 tires, 980 kg.

In 1972, the ZAZ 966 B version was eliminated and replaced by the ZAZ 968, whose 40 hp engine was able to operate with an
exceptionally low octane gasoline (76 NO). The export version, however, was set to run on gasoline at 93 NO (45 hp),

The ZIL 114 limousine is complemented by a new 5-passenger sedan, called ZIL 117, with a wheelbase of 3.30 m.
The ZIL are the prestige cars of the USSR and their construction is particularly neat.
Each engine is tested for thirty-two hours and each complete car performs a 2,000 km acceptance test.

1973

MOSKVITCH 412 1973

2-volume sedan MOSKVITCH IJ 2125 , presented in May 1973 at the Ijvesk factory.

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6-glass semi-break, variant of the Moskvitch 412
3
4 cylinders 1479 cm (82x70), Rv 8.8, 80 hp at 5800 rpm, 11.4 mkg at 3000 rpm, camshaft at the head.
Classic transmission, 4 speed gearbox, floor lever.
Self-supporting structure, front wishbone suspensions (coil springs), rear rigid axle (leaf springs), screw and roller steering,
drum brakes, brake booster.
Length 4.12 m, width 1.55, height 1.48, wheelbase 2.40, weight 1015 kg.
Tires 6.45x13, 140 km / h.

MOSKVITVH IJ 2125 Combi , in production at Izhevsk in May 1973.

3
Prototype MOSKVITCH 3-5-6 1800 cm 103 hp

VAZ 2103 - LADA 1500 (January 1973)

3
4 cylinders 1451 cm (76x80), Rv 8.8, 75 hp DIN at 5600 rpm, 10.8 mkg at 3500 rpm, overhead camshaft, double body
carburetor.
Classy transmission, synchronized 4-speed gearbox, lever on the floor.
Front wishbone suspensions (coil springs), rear rigid axle (leaf springs), screw and roller steering, front disc brakes, rear
drums, brake booster.
Length 4.11 m, width 1.61, height 1.44, wheelbase 2.42, weight 965 kg.
165x13 tires, 155 km / h

Derived from the 2101, it retains the short wheelbase of the Fiat 124.

1974

MOSKVITCH 1500

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VAZ 21011 Zhiguli - LADA 1300 (August 1974)


New bumpers.
3
4 cylinders 1294 cm (79x66), 68 hp DIN at 5400 rpm, 10.8 mkg at 3500 rpm.
955 kg, tires 155x13, 148 km / h.

The year 1974 brought an aesthetic reworking of the ZAZ range .


The front was simplified and made more modern. The laminated glass windshield was adopted, along with the anchor points
for the seat belts, the deformable steering column and the lock.

New ZIL 117 B convertible , intended for the official processions.

1975

Park in the USSR at 1.1.1975


1,500,000 passenger cars, 4,500,000 commercial vehicles, a total of 6,000,000 (4,000,000 as of 1.1.1974)

1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975


Production 800,700 844,300 920,000 1,142,000 1,380,000 1,600,000 1,860,000 2,000,000
of which VP - - - - - 915,000 1,110,000 1,200,000
VAZ-Lada - - - - - 550,000 650,000 690,000
AZLK-Moskvitch - - - - - 200,000 200,000 300,000
ZAZ-Zaporozhetz - - - - - 80,000 120,000 130,000
GAZ Volga - - - - - 75,000 80,000 80,000
various - - - - - 10,000 60,000 0
of which VI - - - - - 685,000 750,000 800 000

MOSKVITCH 213 (March 1975)


3
4 cylinders 1357 cm (76x75), Rv 7, 50 hp at 4750 rpm, 11 mkg at 2750 rpm, camshaft side, carburettor double reverse body
Classic transmission, 4-speed gearbox.
Independent front wheels (coil springs), rear rigid axle (leaf springs), screw and roller steering, front and rear drum brakes.
Length 4.25 m, width 1.55 m, height 1.48 m, wheelbase 2.4, weight 1080 kg
Tires 6.45x13, 130 km / h

Sedan 4 doors 2130, 2140 and 1500 Sl, 5-door station 2136 and 2137.
Bodywork similar to the 412, but with more rounded shapes and energy absorbing bumpers. The layout included seat belts, a
de-icing bezel, headlamp wipers, recessed handles and a new interior venting system.

4-door station MOSKVITCH 2136


3
4 cylinders 1357 cm (76x75), Rv 7, 50 hp at 4750 rpm, 11 mkg at 2750 rpm, camshaft side, carburettor double reverse body
Classic transmission, 4-speed gearbox.
Independent front wheels (coil springs), rear rigid axle (leaf springs), screw and roller steering, front and rear drum brakes.

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Length 4.21 m, width 1.55 m, height 1.52 m, wheelbase 2.4, weight 1120 kg
Tires 6.00x13, 120 km / h

MOSKVITCH 2140 (March 1975)

3
4 cylinders 1479 cm (82x70), Rv 8.8, 75 hp at 5800 rpm, 11.6 mkg at 3200 rpm, overhead camshaft, carburettor double
reverse body
Classic transmission, 4-speed gearbox.
Independent front wheels (coil springs), rear rigid axle (leaf springs), screw and roller steering, front disc brakes, rear drums.,
Brake booster
Length 4.25 m, width 1.55 m, height 1.48 m , wheelbase 2.4, weight 1080 kg
Tires 6.45x13, 142 km / h
Removable folder motor for easy maintenance.
Belgian importer Scaldia-Volga (Brussels) equips a Perkins diesel engine.

MOSKVITCH 2137 4-door Estate (March 1975)


3
4 cylinders 1479 cm (82x70), Rv 8.8, 75 hp at 5800 rpm, 11.6 mkg at 3200 rpm, overhead camshaft, carburettor double
reverse body
Classic transmission, 4-speed gearbox.
Independent front wheels (coil springs), rear rigid axle (leaf springs), screw and roller steering, front disc brakes, rear drums.,
Brake booster
Length 4.21 m, width 1.55 m, height 1.52 m , wheelbase 2.4, weight 1120 kg
Tires 6,40x13 or 6.95x13, 135 km / h

In 1975, UAZ production included, in addition to jeeps, small trucks and buses.

LADA 900 , November 1975


xxx

LADA 1300S

VAZ 2106 - LADA 1600 (December 1975)

3
4 cylinders 1568 cm (90x79), Rv 8.8, 78 hp at 5200 rpm, 12.5 mkg at 3400 rpm, overhead camshaft, carburettor double
inverted body
Classic transmission, 4-speed gearbox.
Independent front wheels (coil springs), rear rigid axle (leaf springs), screw-and-roller steering, front disc brakes, rear drums.,
Power booster
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Length 4.09 m, width 1.61 m, height 1.44 m , wheelbase 2.4, weight 1044 kg
Tires 165x330, 155 km / h

ZAZ's 1975 production sees the basic 968 A model produced in various versions with various new safety features: dual brake
system, reclining seats, new door handles, which were now fitted with locks.
The Zaporoshets were undoubtedly old-fashioned cars, but they were still the most sold on the Soviet market, thanks to their
price and low maintenance costs, which made them more accessible than a Moskvich or a Zhiguli,

1976

VAZ 2121 - LADA Niva (February 1976)

3
4 cylinders 1568 cm (90x79), Rv 8.8, 80 hp at 5200 rpm, 12.5 mkg at 3400 rpm, overhead camshaft, twin carburettor
reverse
4-wheel drive, 4-speed gearbox .
Independent front wheels (coil springs), rear rigid axle (leaf springs), screw and roller steering, front and rear drum brakes.
Length 3.59 m, width 1.68 m, height 1.64 m, wheelbase 2.2, weight 1150 kg
Tires 6.40x15, 130 km / h

"Plein Soleil" version realized by Lebranchu for the French importer Poch, seen at the Paris Salon 1982.

1977

Range MOSKVITCH 412 1977, Normal, LS, Elita and Rally, and Break 427

AZLK MOSKVITCH 2138 (Komsomol Leninist Automobile Factory); 1.4 50 hp

MOSKVITCH 2140 Diesel


3
4 cylinders Perkins 1760 cm (79.4x88.9), Rv 22, 50 hp at 4000 rpm, 11 mkg at 2200 rpm, overhead camshaft.
Classic transmission, 4-speed gearbox.
Independent front wheels (coil springs), rear rigid axle (leaf springs), screw and roller steering, front disc brakes, rear drums.,
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Brake booster
Length 4.25 m, width 1.55 m, height 1.48 m , wheelbase 2.4, weight 1130 kg
Tires 6.45x13, 120 km / h

ZIL 115 , bodywork modernized in spring 1977

1978

GAS 14 Tchaika

3
V8 5526 cm (100x88), Rv 8.5, 220 hp at 4200 rpm, 46 mkg at 2500rpm, central camshaft, carburettor quadruple body.
Automatic transmission, automatic transmission
Independent front wheels (coil springs), rear rigid axle (leaf springs), power steering w / roller, front disc brakes, rear drums,
brake booster
Length 6,11 m, width 2, 02 m, height 1,52 m, wheelbase 3,45, weight 2,500 kg
Tires 9.35-15, 175 km / h

The Tchaika is a large luxury saloon used by administrations

1979

GAZ 3102 in tests in 1979 and 1980 (evolution of GAZ 24)

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In tests in 1979 and 1980, it replaces the GAZ 24,


Engine 4 cylinders 2.5 105 hp.

3
LUAZ 969 M , 1200 cm 34 hp

1980

VAZ - LADA 2105 (1980 - 1989 in the USSR)

It derives from the Lada 1200 (Fiat 124), front and rear parts modernized.
3
4 cylinders 1294 cm (79x66), Rv 8.5, 65 hp at 5600 rpm, 9.6 mkg at 3400 rpm, overhead camshaft, carburettor double
inverted body
Classic transmission, 4-speed gearbox.
Independent front wheels (coil springs), rear rigid axle (leaf springs), screw and roller steering, front and rear drum brakes.
Length 4.12 m, width 1.62 m, height 1.44 m, wheelbase 2.42, weight 1060 kg
Tires 165 SR 13, 145 km / h

Launched on the Soviet market in 1980, presented to the West in February 1981 and exported in 1981.

nineteen eighty one


3
VAZ - LADA 2107 1430 cm announced in October 1981, presented at the 1983 Geneva Motor Show

1982

GAZ 31-02 Volga presented in Brussels in January 1982


Same base as the 24, grille and rear raised, side glazed area enlarged by the removal of the front baffle, new door handles.
xxxxx

VAZ 21018 with 75hp Wankel engine (Lada) presented at an exhibition in Moscow during the summer of 1982
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Bodywork of the VAZ 2101

1983

Park in the USSR at 1.1.1983


9,500,000 passenger cars, 8,000,000 commercial vehicles, a total of 17,500,000 (15,550,000 as of 1.1.1982)

1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 nineteen eighty one 1982 1983
Production 2,025,000 2,080,000 2,134,000 2,165,000 2,195,000 2,230,000 2,160,000 2,120,000
of which VP - - - - - 1,350,000 1,285,000 1,250,000
VAZ-Lada 710,000 725,000 740,000 830,000 825,000 830,000 800 000 780,000
AZLK-Moskvitch 315,000 320,000 320,000 325,000 230,000 235,000 205,000 200,000
ZAZ-Zaporozhetz 145,000 145,000 100,000 115,000 125,000 130,000 130,000 125,000
GAZ Volga 98,000 100,000 100,000 115,000 125,000 130,000 130,000 125,000
various - - - - - 25,000 20,000 20,000
of which VI - - - - - 880,000 875,000 870,000

VAZ 2107 at the Frankfurt show)


The Lada 1500/2107 appears at the 1983 Geneva Motor Show
xxxxx

1984

IZH 14 , similar to Lada Niva


Only the Niva project was retained.

LADA Samara , 40.5 hp / 55 kW

1985

LADA amphibious military Niva

1987

IZH 2126 Orbita , started production in 1991 (name Orbit or Oda)


1500 UZAM
Cx 0.36 engine
Oda 4x4 version (components from the Lada Niva)
Subsequently, Nika version, better equipped.

LADA 1200 S
3
4 cylinders, 1198 cm (76x66), Rv 8.5, 60 hp at 5500 rpm, 8.5 mkg at 3400 rpm, overhead camshaft
Classic transmission, 4
independent front wheels (coil springs), independent rear wheels (coil springs), steering gear, front disc brakes, rear drums
Length 4.07 m, width 1.61 m, height 1.4 m, wheelbase 2.42 m, weight 955 kg.
155 SR 13 tires, 140 km / h.

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LADA 2105 - 1300
3
4 cylinders, 1294 cm (79x66), Rv 8.5, 70 hp at 5600 rpm, 9.5 mkg at 3400 rpm, overhead camshaft
Classic transmission, 4
independent front wheels (coil springs), independent rear wheels (coil springs), steering gear, front disc brakes, rear drums
Length 4,12 m, width 1,62 m, height 1,44 m, wheelbase 2,42 m, weight 1010 kg.
Tires 165 SR 13, 150 km / h.

LADA 2107 - 1500


3
4 cylinders, 1451 cm (76x80), Rv 8.5, 77 hp at 5600 rpm, 12 mkg at 3400 rpm, overhead camshaft
Classic transmission, 4
independent front wheels (coil springs), rear wheels independent (coil springs), steering gear, front disc brakes, rear drums
Length 4,14 m, width 1,62 m, height 1,44 m, wheelbase 2,42 m, weight 1060 kg.
175/70 SR 13 tires, 155 km / h.

LADA Samara 1300


3
4 cylinders, 1288 cm (76x71), Rv 9.6, 65 hp at 5600 rpm, 9.6 mkg at 3400 rpm, overhead camshaft
Traction, box 4/5
independent front wheels (coil springs) , rear independent wheels (coil springs), steering gear, front disc brakes, rear drums
Length 4 m, width 1.62 m, height 1.33 m, wheelbase 2.46 m, weight 920 kg.
Tires 165/70 SR 13, 150 km / h.

LADA 2104 - Estate 1500


3
4 cylinders, 1451 cm (76x80), Rv 8.5, 77 hp at 5600 rpm, 12 mkg at 3400 rpm, overhead camshaft
Classic transmission, 5 box
Independent front wheels (coil springs), rear wheels independent (coil springs), steering gear, front disc brakes, rear drums
Length 4,14 m, width 1,62 m, height 1,44 m, wheelbase 2,42 m, weight 1080 kg.
175/70 SR 13 tires, 155 km / h.

LADA Niva 4x4


3
4 cylinders, 1568 cm (79x80), Rv 8.5, 76 hp at 5400 rpm, 12 mkg at 3200 rpm,
4x4 overhead camshaft , 5
independent front wheels (coil springs), independent rear wheels (coil springs), steering gear, front disc brakes, rear drums
Length 3.72 m, width 1.68 m, height 1.59 m, wheelbase 2.2 m, weight 1150 kg.
175 SR 16 tires, 130 km / h.

GAZ 2410 , derived from GAZ 24


Engine 2.4 91 hp or Diesel 2.0 and 2.3 Peugeot.

GAZ 3102
Front section redesigned in 1981.
Engine 2,4 105 hp with 3 valves / cylinders

Saloon 2 volumes 5 doors MOSKVITCH 2141


Engine 1500 72 hp or 1600 80 hp, wheelbase 2.58 m.
Saloon 2 volumes 5 doors IZH 2126 with engine 1500 cm3

VAZ Kama-Oka 1111


3
Front wheel drive 700 cm transverse.

ZAZ 1102 Tavria


3
Front wheel drive, 1100 cm transversal engine, 45 hp, Cx 0.37, 145 km / h

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ZAZ Tavria Sedan and Lagoda

ZIL 4104 , V8 engine 7.7 liters 315 hp.

1991

VAZ - LADA with Wankel engine

1992

GAS Prototypes at the 1992 Brussels Motor Show, intended to replace the Volga and Chaika.

1993

Creation of LADA France (1.01); CEO Oiuri Lebanidze

LADA Natacha
Autovaz, factory of Togliatti privatized 80% (30% of the shares on the free market), 700,000 vehicles / year
cabriolet on basis Samara 2 doors, designed by EBS (Belgium, cabriolets R 5), marketed in France 06.1993
3
1099 and 1499 cm , 53 and 67 hp, 140 and 156 km / h

LADA Niva Diesel (8)


1st transformation proposed by Jean-Jacques Poch (Lada importer until 1992) to the Soviet Toglioatti plant (PSA XUD
engines), not retained (not provided for in the plan)
Autovaz-Lada and PSA collaboration, mounting the engine in Tchekov near of Moscow
3
engine XUD-9L 1905 cm , 64 hp at 4600 rpm, 11.8 daNm at 2070 rpm, Lucas rotary pump
permanent all-wheel drive, 3-station mechanical gearbox (4th in direct drive), transfer box to range slow
vacuum servo-brake (vacuum pump)
127 km / h, maximum slope 58%

1995

LADA 110 presented in January 1995

4-door saloon, length 4.27 m, width 1.68 m, height 1.43 m


Engine 1. 5 (71 hp / 6 hp) 4 cylinders 1 ACT
Front wheel drive, 5-speed manual transmission
165 km / h

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LADA Samara Diesel (June 1995)
PSA engine TUD5 (AX, 106 and Rover series 100)
3
1527 cm , 57 hp DIN at 5000 rpm, 9.5 mdaN at 2250 rpm, bv Lada
3 and 5 doors

1998

GAZ agreement with Fiat: production of more than 150,000 copies of Marea and Palio (agreement broken following the economic
crisis of 1998 and the failure of the Palio).

From 1998, GAZ equips its Volga with Rover and Toyota engines.

Volga Limousine

2001

Since 2001, GAZ belongs to the Sibal conglomerate, RusPromAvto division.

In February, agreement between LADA and GENERAL MOTORS to found a joint venture (production as early as 2002)

LADA 112 5-door with tailgate

2002

On September 23, 2002, General Motors officially launches its joint venture with Russian AvtoVAZ (Lada).
They invested 332 million euros to produce a sports and leisure vehicle called Chevy Niva. This agreement aims to produce
35,000 vehicles in 2003 in a plant with a capacity of 75,000 annual units, located in the complex of Togliatti, on the Volga.

2004

Creation of DERWAYS Automobile Company , January 27, 2004

Cowboy original off-road vehicle (types 313101, 313102 and


313105, Aro chassis, Peugeot and Mitsubishi engines)
All-terrain vehicles manufactured under license: Saladin
(types 3131410 and 313170, Nissan Pathfinder), Aurora
(313150, Ssangyong Rexton), Land Crown (313130, Toyota
Land Cruiser) and Dadi Shuttle (313120, modified Toyota
Land Cruiser).

LADA Niva 2004

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3
4-cylinder engine Opel Ecotec 16V 1796 cm , 125 hp at 5600 rev / min, 167 Nm at 4600 rev / min.
5-speed gearbox, 215/65 R16 tires.
Length 4048 mm, width 1770 mm, height 1652 mm, wheelbase 2450 mm, ground clearance 200 mm.
Operating weight 1450 kg (1850 kg max)
165 km / h, consumption 90 km / h / 120 km / h / urban 7,5 / 9,8 / 10,0 l / 100 km.

LADA Kalina presented at the 2004 Paris Motor Show

Production in a new factory built in the Togliatti complex at the end of 2006 (220,000 models per year)

LADA prototype at the Paris Motor Show 2004

LADA Antel 2 fuel cell at the Paris Motor Show 2004

The Lada Antel 2 is a prototype vehicle equipped with a fuel cell generator.
The base of the generator set is an alkaline hydrogen-electrochemical air generator.
The capacity of transforming chemical energy into electricity at the generator is 60% on average.

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The fuel (hydrogen) is stored in special high pressure cylinders (40 mPa), providing a range of 350 km.
The fuel cells are supplied with purified air of its carbon dioxide gas via a compressor whose flow rate reaches 100 kg / h at a
pressure of 0.33 mPa.
The wheels are driven by an electric motor of 60 kW with efficiency higher than 90% and weighing 32 kg.
The generator set includes a high absorption nickel-metal hydride buffer battery that works in conjunction with the
electrochemical generator to improve vehicle performance at acceleration.
The battery is charged with braking by kinetic energy recovery.
In addition, the battery is used for reheating and starting the electrochemical generator.

The Lada Antel 2 is derived from the Lada 111 estate.


All genset and control system assemblies are installed in the engine compartment and under the floor, allowing 5 people to be
placed in the passenger compartment and to keep the luggage compartment full.

Technical characteristics

Number of places: 2
Dimensions: length 4284 mm, width 1676 mm, height 1495 mm
Dry weight in running order 1280 kg, total running weight (MTR): 1660 kg
3
Luggage compartment capacity: 350 dm
Max. : 100 km / h
Walking time: 350 km

Electrochemical hydrogen-air generator


Output voltage 240 V, max power: 25 kW
Hydrogen fuel, fuel reserve 2.4 kg; capacity of hydrogen cylinders 90 l
AC electric motor
Maximum power 60 kW, maximum torque 280 Nm, speed 10,000 rpm
Engine weight: 32 kg
Transistor electric motor control system
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2005

AVTOFRAMOS (Moscow)
Assembly of Renault Logan in 2005
60,000 cars planned per year initially then 120,000 / year thereafter.

Avtotor
Starting the manufacture of the American Hummer in 2005

GAZ refocuses its production of heavy vehicles (more profitable)

All Terrain GAZ Tiger 197 ch.

Hyundai takes over part of ISH's capital in 2005

2006

GAZ Buys manufacturer LDV van (Birmingham, England) in July 2006.

Agreement GAS with Renault Trucks (Volvo AB group) in early 2006 for the production of truck engines.

New VOLGA 2.3 130 hp and 2.5 160 hp.

2007

On December 8, 2007, Renault acquires 25% of AVTOVAZ (Russian public holding company Rosoboronexport), manufacturer of
Lada and 1st Russian manufacturer (70% of domestic production), for more than one billion dollars (657 million euros ), with a
market value of $ 5.7 billion
Renault has been operating in Russia since 1907 and has been present since 1998 with Avtoframos (a Russian company
owned equally by Renault and the City of Moscow, via the manufacturer Moskvitch).
In 2003, Avtoframos invested 230 million euros for the production and marketing of Logan.

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In 2005, a factory, dedicated to the Logan, is built.
In 2006, Renault controlled 94.1% of Avtoframos, represented by 74 dealers and 91 points of sale in Russia.
72,500 vehicles were sold in 2006, representing 3.8% of the market.

Signature of a "Memorandum of Understanding" in Togliatti, Russia


Rosoboronexport retains a blocking minority of more than 25%. The Russian public company Russian Technologiesalso
owns 25% of AvtoVAZ and the broker Troika Dialog is the third largest shareholder.

Objectives:
- increase production, in terms of volumes sold (" Contract 2009 " plan), of the order of 800,000 between 2005 and 2009,
with the maintenance of an operating margin of 6% (Dacia, Renault and Nissan cars) )
- accelerate the growth of AvtoVAZ, renewing and expanding its range (launch of a $ 15,000 car, Lada brand on the Russian
market)
- to develop the Lada brand and allow it to maintain its leading position in the Russian market
- bring the presence on the Russian market to 40% (Renault, Nissan, Dacia and Lada)
- exchanging know-how and technologies, particularly in manufacturing and marketing.

VOLGA 2007 on Dodge base

Gas buys from Daimler-Chrysler the Dodge Stratus and the Chrysler Sebring, models at the end of production in the United
States (trasfert production tools).
Projected production of 65,000 units per year from late 2007 or early 2008.

ZIL 4112

2009

AvtoVAZ Lada Niva 4x4 2121/2131, Samara 21083/21093/210993, 110 21101/21104, Kalina 11170/11190 and Priora 21700 (VAZ
- Voljskiy Avtomobilny Zavod then AvtoVAZ since 1993)

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1st national car manufacturer Russian


City of Togliatti, on the Volga

AZLK Moskvich 2141 Aleko, 2142, 2335 and 2901 (Avtomobilny Zavod imeni Leninskogo Komsomola, ex-MZMA - Moskovsky
Zavod Malolitrazhnykh Avtomobiley)

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DERWAYS Lifan, Plutus, Aurora and Shuttle

ERAZ Minivans (Erevaniski Avtomobilniy Zavod, Yerevan Russia)

Types 762, 762A, 762B, 3218 and 3730

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GAZ 31105 Volga, 3102 Volga and Volga Wagon (Gorkovski Avtomobilny Zavod, former AvtoGAZ)

City of Nizhny Novgorod, former Gorky


2nd car manufacturer in Russia, 1st truck manufacturer
Property of SibAl since 2001, after the acquisition of RusPromAvto, renamed GAZ Group in 2005
Subsidiaries: GolAZ, LiAZ, KAVZ and PAZ (bus), LDV (vans, Birmingham), KAZ ert UralAZ (trucks), YaZDA and Avtodizel
(engines), YaZTA
Production shutdown of the Volga in December 2005
GAZ Siber in April 2006, ex-Dodge Stratus / Chrysler Sebring.

GAZ Group is Russia's largest automotive manufacturer of light commercial vehicles, trucks, nozzles, buses, diesel engines, power
train components and road construction equipment.
- GAZ Group was established in 2005 with the restructuring of RusPromAuto's production assets
- GAZ Group including 18 leading automotive and machine building producers in Russia and LDV Group in the UK.
- GAZ Group sales volume in 2007 totaled over 6 trillion USD
- GAZ Group's Main Manufacturing Rentals and Brands:
Commercial Vehicle Plant (Nizhny Novgorod) is Russia's leading manufacturer of light commercial vehicles and manufactures the
GAZelle and Sobol range of light commercial vehicles.
Pavlovo Bus Plant is Russia's leading producer of urban, suburban and intercity nozzles and manufactures the PAZ range of nozzles.
LDV Van Plant (Birmingham, UK) is the UK's leading manufacturer of light commercial vehicles.
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Likino Bus Plant build the LiAZ range of nozzles.
Avtodizel (Yaroslavl city) is Russia's leading diesel engine manufacturer producing the YaMZ diesel engines.
Ural Truck Plant manufactures the URAL heavy-duty and off-road all-wheel drive (AWD) cargo trucks.

IZhMASh Spectra, Trio and Sorento (Izhevsk Mechanical Works, Kia)

Trucks and buses KAMAZ (Kamskiy avtomobilny zavod)


In mid-sixties of the 20th century the fleet did not satisfy all needs of the USSR economy. Even if the output volume had been sharply
increased, it would not have been helpful.
It was necessary to produce a new comfortable, powerful, multipurpose, efficient under any climatic and road conditions truck of 8 to
20 tons payload. None of the country's automobile automobile plants was able to perform such a task.
In August 1969 the USSR Council of Ministers made a decision to establish a complex of plants producing heavy-duty vehicles in
Naberezhnye Chelny. The city is located in the heart of the country. The navigable Kamaz and Volga rivers and proximity to the
railway. According to the project, it had to produce 150 thousand heavy-duty vehicles and 250 thousand engines per year.
On December 13, 1969 the first bucket of earth was dug out on the building ground of the Kama auto plant.
May 1974: The first engine was assembled in the design manager's development shop of KAMAZ.
December 1975: No1 power unit was assembled at the engine plant.
February 16, 1976: The first Kama truck comes out of the automobile plant.
December 29, 1976: The State Commission headed by the USSR Minister of Automotive Industry VN Polyakov signed a document
about the start-up of the first line of the Kama complex of heavy-duty truck production plants.
1987: Oka minicar production was set up. On 21 December of the same year the first Kama Oka-VAZ-1111 minicar cam off the
assembly line. In 1994 there was established an Oka minicar plant intended for output of 75000 vehicles per year.
1988: According to experts' estimates, from the first days of production of KAMAZ vehicles the country realized a profit of about 8
billion rubles from their operation. Thus, already for the first ten years of work KAMAZ completely made up all state capital
investments in its construction.
1990: On 23 August the State Government made a decision to establish KAMAZ joint-stock company on the basis of property
production association. The articles of KAMAZ were approved at the general meeting on August 11, 1990. KAMAZ JSC is the first
joint-stock company established in the Soviet Union of the post-perestroika period.
1993: On 14 April at the beginning of the day, a few minutes ago. An engineering building was almost completely burnt down; the
most complicated process equipment was destroyed. Fire damage repair included restoration of 100 thousand engines production
capacities and set-up of power unit production on the basis of up-to-date process equipment. Thanks to support of Russia's and
Tatarstan's governments, KAMAZ employees managed to restore the business for less than a year. Already in December 1993 the
engine is turned into the first production after the fire.
1999: On 30 August the 1,600,000th heavy-duty vehicle came off the assembly line. Over 2 million diesel engines are produced.
2000: Euro-2 ecological requirements were developed.
2003: More than 1.7 million trucks and 2.3 million engines are produced; Production of medium tonnage trucks of 3-5 tons payload
was mastered; The 250,000th Oka minicar was produced; The first model of the NEFAZ bus of the "Tourist" class on KAMAZ chassis
was developed; There were produced KAMAZ-65226 all-wheel drive truck tractors of 97 tons GVW with 27 tons allowable load on the
fifth wheel.
2004: The corresponding engine with Euro-3 ecological standards was certified; KAMAZ made its debut at one of the most
prestigious exhibitions in the world - International Motor Show in Hanover (Germany). Modern production facilities for new
generation engines were created at the enterprise.
2005: KAMAZ Inc. was put on the list of the country's strategic companies; A gearbox production company was created jointly with
Zahnrad Fabrik (Germany); Oka motor car production was sold to Severstal-Avto (now Sollers); KAMAZ-Engineering Joint Venture
was created in Kokshetau (Kazakhstan).
2006: A general contract was concluded with Dürr Systems Engineering (Germany) in the sphere of technical development and
reengineering of the KAMAZ Group till 2010; Production of engines of B series (140-275 hp) was established jointly with Cummins
Company (USA); Sergey Kogoghin, Director General of KAMAZ Inc. was elected Chairman of the Board of Russian Automakers
(OAR); There was a realization of a program for renewal of the company's service network; The KAMAZ-master team won the
seventh (fifth in succession) victory at the Dakar International off-road rallies.
2007: 52650 KAMAZ trucks and 63200 engines and power units were produced in the last 13 years. With more sophisticated design of
vehicles, their more sophisticated production technology and, of course, labor-intensiveness, the level of workload of the last years of
the pre-market epoch was reached; The 1.8-millionth KAMAZ vehicle comes off the line of the automobile plant; The Ministry of
Economic Development and Trade of the Russian Federation for the 9th time running named KAMAZ Inc. "The Best Exporter of the
Russian Federation" in the automotive industry. There are realized 13444 units of KAMAZ equipment, the record number for the
whole history of export; Kogoghin, Director General of KAMAZ Inc., The Order of Friendship;
2008: There is signed an agreement to establish Federal Mogul Naberezhnye Chelny automotive components production joint venture;
There is signed an agreement to establish farm tractors production joint venture; Sergey Chemezov, Director General of

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Rostekhnologii State Corporation, was elected Chairman of KAMAZ Board of Directors.

Trucks and buses KAvZ (Kurgansky Avtobusny Zavod)


Over 45 years "Kurgansky Bus Production Plant" (OAO) has been one of the largest bus manufacturing companies in Russia. The
Plant was founded on January 14, 1958, as a bus manufacturing facility specializing on small size (21 -30 passenger seats) bus
production. Up to 20,000 different bus versions have been manufactured every year.
First Phase (1958 - 1967)
This phase is the initial period of development of the Plant. Production buildings were constructed and new tools, substandard
equipment, and blanking workshops were arranged. Compressed-air plant and electroplating site, equipped with nickel coating and
chromium coating machines, were also commissioned. The Plant was being equipped with tools and machinery, while the bus-
manufacturing technology was being streamlined. Bus production plan was raised, too.
For the first year of the year, 5,000 nozzles, and by 1967 50,000 nozzles had been manufactured.
Second phase (1967 - 1977)
This phase covers the next decade of the plant's history. Reengineering of the Plant was completed. First and second lines of blanking
workshop and a power plant were commissioned. All this enabled to increase production output, improve the bus quality, and cut
production costs. KAVZ - 651 and KAVZ - 685 bus makes.
Since 1977 manufacturing facilities had been prepared for annual production of 20,000 buses with the annual output increase by
2,000 nozzles.
Third Phase (1978 - 1990)
This is the period of the overall revamping and reengineering of the Plant, introduction of the new machinery, equipment and
processes, and employing advanced labor management.
In 1981 preparations for manufacturing big suburban KAVZ - 52561 bus make started. Over ten pilot versions were made, however,
Ministry of Automotive Industry suspended production.
Fourth Phase (1992 - 2001)
For the period of 1992 - 1993 "KAVZ" Bus Production Company subsequently completed construction and installation activities on
assembly and painting facilities and on low-volume production workshop. Standby production facilities with total area of more than
30,000 m2 were completed, as well.
By 1993 the plant had finished preparation works, and opened the door to a new family of full body (waggon-type) nozzles with
passenger capacity of 24 seats. Annual production output of these aggregate assembled nozzles was 150 - 200 nozzles. "Vika" OOO,
Low-volume production facility ("KAVZ" AK branch company) was established for manufacturing new pilot bus makes.
First KAVZ - 3275, KAVZ - 32784 and KAVZ - 3278 waggon-type nozzles were manufactured in 1992 there. Those nozzles were more
comfortable and met international safety requirements.
First Russian camper, based on GAZ - 3302 chassis, was made by designers of "Vika" OOO in 1991.
In 1996 "Vika" produces the first pilot version of KAVZ - 3244 small bus on ZIL - 5301 (Bytchok) chassis.
In 1990, the economy of the economy, including agriculture, demand for small busses, and the state of the economy. The Russian
market shifted to big-size bus production ...

LiAZ Bus (Likinskij Avtobusnyj Zavod, Likino, Russia)


RusAvtoProm corporation since 2000, GAZ group since 2005.

LUAZ (Lutsky Avtomobilny Zavod VAT, Ukraine)

NEFAZ

PAZ bus (Pavlovsky Avtobusny Zavod, Pavlovo, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast)


JSC "Pavlovo Bus" started its history as a factory, producing car-and-tractor instrument (ZATI) for Gorkyi Automobile Plant.
Building of the plant began on August 5th, 1930.
In 1930 the building was finished. Mass production of ZATI instruments began in October, 1932.
1952 became the year of second berth of the plant. On the 24th of April the plan of reconstruction of the plant and production of 10
thousand busses was confirmed. On the 5th of August, 1952 the first five of PAZ brand were produced.
PAZ-652 of a vagon layout. The construction was worked out by the PAZ engineers. The serial production began in 1960.
In 1967 PAZ-655T was marked off with The Big Silver Medal of Tourist Commissariat, France and with the medal of Motorshow.
In 1969 on the International Saloon Contest in Nice, France, PAZ was awarded an honorary prize of the 19th International Contest -
Big Cup and the prize "Golden Nika".
On the 12th of November, 1968 the new model - PAZ-672 was started in production. PAZ-72C and PAZ-3202C (northern version);
PAZ-3201 of improved cross-country ability; PAZ-6724 of tropic version; PAZ-6729 for highlands.
On the 11th of February, the plant was rewarded with the Order of the Red Banner for the successful development of the technology.
On the 24th of September, the plant was rewarded with the Badge of Honor for the contribution to the cause of developing the home
bus industry.
In 1989 the plant started the serial production of PAZ-3205.
On the 30th of July, 1998 the 500th bus PAZ brand was produced. In that day the production of big city was announced.
On the 30th of August, 1999 JSC "Pavlovo Bus" was rewarded with the special prize of the International Motorshow-99 in Moscow
for working on some models: PAZ-3209 "Aurora" and city busses PAZ-5271 and PAZ-5272 .

RAF (Rigas Autobusu Fabrika, Latvia, 1949-1998, 2002 -...)

SeAZ -11116 "Oka" (Serpukhovsky Avtomobilny Zavod)


OAO "Serpukhov Motor-car Factory" is the biggest engineering plant in Moscow region. The factory is specialized in "Oka" cars
production and sale, as well as their spare parts.
Nowadays OAO "SeAZ" countinues the glorious working traditions of many generations, being supported by its long-term experience,

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and starts realizing new projects with confidence.
The "Serpukhov motor-car factory" was founded July 7th, 1939.
That day two orders were signed by the People's Commissar of General Engineering
Industry and the head of "Glavmotoveloprom", concerning production of small
capacity motorcycles.
From 1939 to 1995 the factory produced motorcycle-cars of different modifications.
From the beginning of 1980th the factory entered the period of its development: new
car prototype was designed and produced, and it got "Oka" name and anticipated the
car produced nowadays.
In 1985, the USSR Council of Ministers issued a new version of the AVTAVAZ "and"
KamAZ "corporations and at Serpukhov Motor-car Factory, all owned by the USSR Automotive Industry Ministry ".
The Serpukhov factory was significantly rebuilt for the new tasks. Durr, Bollhoff and PPG are the leading companies in the world. In
1989 in the context of this program, the factory started assembly of the first cars of the extra-small class. At the time the factory
entered "AvtoVAZ" corporation.
In the middle of 1995 "AvtoVAZ" corporation fully transferred the "Oka" assembly to "SMZ". The factory was changed to "Serpukhov
Motor-car Factory" ("Serpukhovsky Avtomobilny Zavod" - SeAZ).
In 2005 OAO "SeAZ" became a member of the "Avtokom" industrial group.

Sollers JSC (Severstal-Auto OAO, Naberezhnye Chelny, Russia)


Production of SsangYong Rexton (12.2004), Fiat Palio, dAlbea and Doblo (12.2004) and Isuzu trucks (11.7.2006)

TagAZ

Trucks URAL AZ (GAZ group)

UAZ Patriot and Hunter (Ulyanovsky Avtomobilny Zavod, Sollers)

ZAZ (Zaporozhskiy avtomobil'nyi zavod, Ukraine)


Zaporizhzhia Automobile Building Plant went down in the history of Ukraine as a first-of-a-kind of domestic-building, then it became
the first company in the country, which mastered manufacturing of small class vehicles. The plant has been growing, constructing,
rising from the ruins, modernizing, re-profiling, retraining, but kept going forward, following the main course of directing for
manufacturing of high-quality domestic vehicle.
1863: The Chronicle of Zaporizhia Automotive Building Plant started when the colonist Abraham Koop, Dutchman by birth,
established a company specialized in agricultural machinery and equipment.
1908: Melitopol Engine Plant was established for stationary internal-combustion engines (today it is the structural subdivision of
CJSC "ZAZ").
1923: Zaporizhzhia Plant with "Kommunar" name started manufacturing grain combines and other agricultural machinery.
1959: Beginning of passenger cars manufacturing in Ukraine. Totally (from 1960 to 1994) there were 3,422,444 "Zaporozhets"
vehicles manufactured in Zaporizhia and engines with air-cooling in Melitopol.
1988: Serial production of "Tavria" was started in Zaporizhia and manufacturing of engines with liquid cooling - in Melitopol.
1998: The Joint Ukrainian-Korean Venture with Foreign Investment in the Form of a Closed Joint Stock Company "AvtoZAZ-
DAEWOO" was registered. Manufacturing of a new "Tavria-nova" because was started. "Lanos", "Nubira", "Leganza" was started in
Illichivsk Plant of Automobile Units (SSS "IPAU").
2003: The plant changed the form of ownership and became the Joint Stock Company with Foreign Investment "Zaporizhzhia
Automobile Building Plant".
2004: Significantly new production has been created in the company. Full-scale manufacturing of VAZ -21093 and VAZ-21099,
"Lanos (T-150)", "Opel Astra G" cars was started.
2005: "ZAZ" designers developed Lanos-pick-up car; Production facilities of the SSS "IPAU" were prepared for manufacturing of "I-

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VAN" nozzles on the basis of "TATA" vehicle chassis.

ZIL 41047 Limousine and 41041 Sedan (Zavod imeni Likhacheva)

ZIL Automobile Plant was established in 1916. Today, we manufacture 3 to 8 ton capacity trucks, as well as vans, nozzles and
limousines. We also manufacture a variety of specialized vehicles and equipment, such as: ambulance cars, fire-fighting vehicles,
combined road sweeping vehicles, dump and cross-country 4x4 and 6x6 trucks etc.

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