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Precipitating Factors Predisposing Factors

 Infection  Being male
 Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) bacteria  Having a weakened immune system
 Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus)  Lacking adequate vaccination
 Streptococcus A, B and C
 Staphylococcus aureus
 Injury Diagnostic Test
 direct blow to the throat  Throat examination
 burns from drinking very hot or caustic liquids  Chest or neck X-ray
 Swallow a chemical that burns your throat  Throat culture and blood tests
 Swallow a foreign object
 Smoke drugs, such as crack cocaine Nursing Diagnosis
 Ineffective Airway Clearance: Inability to clear secretions or
obstructions from the respiratory tract to maintain a clear airway
Organ Involved: Epiglottis related to obstruction associated with edema and excessive
mucus production in the upper airways
 Respiratory failure Nursing Independent Interventions
 Spreading infection Signs and Symptoms  Assess oxygen status and vital signs
 Abnormal breathing position (tripod)  Keep child with parent and on lap during treatments, if
 Dysphagia…leads to drooling possible
 Difficulty speaking (muffled/soft)  Don’t restrain child
 Never leave child alone
 Apprehension  Provide a calm environment
 Increased temperature (HIGH)  Prevent doing things that make the child cry
 Rapid onset  Allow the child to be in a comfortable positon that allows
them to breathe (NO SUPINE because it impedes respiratory
 Nasal flaring effort).
 Using accessory muscles  Keep the child nothing by mouth.
 Retractions (chest)
 Stridor (inspiratory) Nursing Dependent Interventions
 Enlarged epiglottis  Medications per MD order: IV fluids, antibiotics,
antipyretics, corticosteroids (decreases swelling)