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1. How did you determine the cloud/pour points?

I looked at the schematic in the standards documents 1,2,3 along with the description
of the procedures to identify the constituent components of each equipment. Many of
the devices were universal to many experiments (e.g. thermometer, IR sensor,
heater) and thus information on their working could be found readily in many Energy
and Experimental books. The equipment specific to the setup (such as the cooling
bath and pressure pulses) required studying the data sheets of apparatus used to
perform the experiment and cross-checking the principles with Energy and
Experimental books

2. Why is the shape of diesel wax relevant?

Large crystals can be disruptive to filter systems and can cause blockage. 4 Larger
crystals can also be more disruptive to the flow of fuel due to the higher mass
transportation requirement. 5 (The same idea applies to clusters of crystals vs.
dispersed crystals.) Streamlined crystals travel more readily in the fuel while irregular
crystal edges have a greater erosion potential (e.g. to pipe surfaces). Thus, the size,
shape and edge structure are crucial in determining the operating properties as it
helps govern the fuel flow rate, likelihood of clogging the pipes or filters and the
ability of the wax to erode the contact surfaces.

Formally, this is shown by Stoke’s law, as the rate of settling of wax is directly
proportional to the square of their diameter x the difference between their density
and the fuel density.4

3. How do additives impact cloud/pour points?

According to 4, additives can be added as stabilisers, cold flow improvers, cetane
and combustion improvers. The cold flow improvers are relevant for the cloud/pour
points and work as anti-wax settling agents by altering crystal shapes (making them
smaller to improve performance according to Stoke’s law). They use olefin-ester
copolymers of ethylene and vinyl acetate to cause multi-axial needle crystals to form
(smaller and more streamlined). 4 The additive molecules also tend to be present
between crystal molecules to prevent clumping. However, they will still pass through
coarse filters such as wire gauze strainers and thus require fine filters to prevent
their widespread travel in the fuel system.
1. ASTM International, D2500-17a, Standard Test Methods for Cloud Point of
Petroleum Products and Liquid Fuels, 2017, 1-6.

2. ASTM International, D5949-16, Standard Test Methods for Pour Point of

Petroleum Products (Automatic Pressure Pulsing Method), 2016, 1-6.

3. ASTM International, D93-16a, Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by

Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester, 2016, 1-18.

4. Song, C., Hsu, C. and Mochida, I. Introduction to Chemistry of Diesel Fuels.

In: Chemistry of Diesel Fuels, Taylor and Francis, New York, 2000, 3-46.

5. Karim, G. Fuels Classification. In: Fuels, Energy and the Environment

Springer, New York, 2012, 8-34.