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MASS RELATIONSHIP IN CHEMICAL REACTIONS (Percent yield, Theoretical yield, Limiting reagent, Excess reagent)


• Theoretical yield – is the calculated amount of product that would be obtained if all of the reactant were
converted to products.

• Percent yield – is the value of the actual yield in grams or moles.

• Mathematically, percent yield can be calculated using this equation:

% yield = actual yield x 100%

theoretical yield


• Limiting reagent – limits the amount of product that can be formed.

• Excess reagent – refers to the reactant in the chemical reaction that remains when a reaction stops.

In calculating theoretical and percent yield:

• Create a balance chemical equation.

• Find moles/mass of limiting reagent

• Calculate moles/mass of product

• Convert moles of product to grams

• Calculate % yield = actual yield x 100%

theoretical yield

In calculating limiting reagent:

• Create a balance chemical equation for the reaction.

• Calculate the molar mass (mass ratio).
• Calculate the number of moles (mole ratio).
• Calculate how much product is produced by each reactant.

Sample Problems:
• In the reaction: CS2 + O2  CO2 + SO2. What is the percent yield if 25.50 grams of CS2 reacts with 45.0 grams of
oxygen and 22.5 grams of SO2 is produced?
• 32grams of C3H8 burns in air to produce 75 grams of CO2. Calculate the theoretical and percent yield of CO2.
The reaction is: C3H8 + O2  CO2 + H2O
• A 3.00 grams sample of ammonia is mixed with 5.oo grams of oxygen. Which is the limiting reactant and how
much excess reactant remains after the reaction has stopped?
Unbalanced reaction is: NH3 + O2  NO + H2O

Still consider this Calculation diagram:


To calculate for the mass ratios for a reaction (amount of reactant needed or amount of product formed in
terms of moles or mass).

Steps/Points to remember:

1. The chemical equation should be balanced and correct.

2. The coefficients in balancing chemical equation can be interpreted both as relative numbers of molecules and
number of moles.
ex: 2H2 + O2  2H2O can be interpreted as:

2 moles of H2 + 1 mole of O2  2 moles of H2O ------ mole ratio- 2:1:2

2 x 2(1.008g) H2 + 2(15.999g) of O2  2 x 2(1.008g H2) + 15.999g of O

4.032 g H2 + 31.998 g O2  36.030 g H2O ------ mass ratio – 4.032 g H2: 31.998g O2: 36.030 g H2O

3. The stoichiometric relationships derived from balanced equations can be used.

Ex: How many moles of H2O would be produced from 1.57 moles of O2?

1.57 mol O2 x 2 mol H2O = 3.14 mol H2O

1 mol O2
4. To convert mass to mole and vice versa, this calculation diagram can be used:

Conversion factor: Conversion factor: Conversion factor:

Grams of A X X X Mol B to g B X Grams of B
g A to mol A g A to mol B

Sample problems to solve:

1. In the Haber process for producing ammonia, NH3, nitrogen reacts with hydrogen at high temperature and

a. Write a balanced chemical equation of the Haber process.

b. How many moles of NH3 would be formed from 4.8 mol H2?

c. How much hydrogen (in grams)is needed to yield 907kg of ammonia by the Haber process?

d. How many moles of H2 would be produced from 2224.5 grams of NH3?

2. How many moles of Al can be will be produced when decomposing 9.8grams of Al2O3?

3. Hematite, Fe2O3, is an important ore of iron. The free metal is obtained by reacting hematite with carbon monoxide,
CO, in a blast furnace. Carbon monoxide is formed in the furnace by partial combustion of carbon.
The reaction is: Fe2O3 + 3CO  2Fe + 3CO2

a. How many grams of iron can be produced from 1.00 kg Fe2O3?

b. How many moles of CO2 would be formed from 1.5 kg of CO?