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# Paper-1

## Density of any nanofluid is directly related to particle volume

fraction. It increases approximately in linear manner
with fraction volume. Density decreases with increase in temperature
of fluid in non-linear manner. The basic reason
behind non-linear trend is difference in the coefficient of thermal
expansion in base fluid and Nano particles. The density
of nano-fluids, ρnf can be simply estimated as:

## ρnf Cp,nf = (1-φ) ρf Cp,p + φρpCp,p

ρnf = mnf/volnf
=(mf +mp)/(volf+volp)
= (ρf volf + ρp volp)/ (volf+volp)
this can be determined by a simple law of mixtures which is given by:

## ρnf = (1-ϕ)ρf + ϕρp

Paper-2

Density is a very important property of a fluid and it affects the friction factor, pump loss, Reynolds
number, etc. Pak and Chao considered only the concentration variation at constant temperature
(298K) and proposed a formula to measure density of nanofluids. Vajjah et al has also investigated
on density of Al2O3, ZnO2 and Sb2O4:SnO2 EG-W based nanofluids. They compared their result with
the proposed formula of Pak and Chao and proposed a correction factor for the relation for their
investigated nanofluids. The proposed correction factor also does not reflect the temperature affect.
Khanafer and Vafai determined the density of the nanofluids at various temperatures and reported
a correlation counting both concentration and temperature. But the correlation is proposed only for
the Al2O3 water based nanofluid. As the scope of this investigation is mainly to find out the
temperature effect on the nanofluids of different concentrations the proposed correlation of
Khanafer and Vafai as represented in Equation is used for our work.

## ρeff = 1001.064 + 2738.6191 φp -0.2095 T

where ,0 ≤ φp ≤ 0.04 , 5 ≤ T(℃) ≤ 40

When the equation was compared with the experimental result and
representated it showed :

Paper-3

## In this paper they have used water–propylene glycol blend as base

fluid and density of CuO nanofluids was measured used hygrometer
which was then compared with the density coorelation equation
developed by Pak and cho for nanofluids which is stated as:

## ρnf = φρρ +(1-φ)ρbf

where ρnf is density of CuO nanofluids,kg/m^3

## φ is volume fraction of CuO nanoparticles

Now when the results are compared with the experimental results
we get:

Hence from the data we can see that both the results almost match
and thus this theoretical result is valid.
Paper-4
Density measurements of the TiO2,Al2O3 and SiO2 nanofluids over a
temperature range of 25–40°C for several particle volume
concentrations are presented. These measured results were compared
with a widely used theoretical equation, and good agreements
between the theoretical equation and measurements
were obtained for the TiO2, Al2O3 and SiO2 nanofluids.
When these results were plotted we can see that the trend lines
generated from the experimental values clearly certify the linear
relationship of density with concentration at a particular temperature.
It also validates that the density increases with the increase in
concentration.
When the pattern in change in density was analysed and the
proposed empirical formula was presented :

where a=0.03358

## This formula is derived based on Einstein’s theory.The proposed is found valid

for only for upto 2% vol concentration.
Paper-1

Specific Heat is a measure of heat energy that directly influences the heat
transfer rate of Nano-fluids. For a given
volume concentration of Nano-particles in the base fluid, the specific heat can
be found using a parallel mixture
rule:
ρnfcp,nf =(1-ϕ)ρfcp,p+ ϕρpcp,p

## Where Xnf = (ρc)nf

From the mixture formula:

## Cnf = (1-ϕ)Cf + ϕCp

Paper-2

This paper is based on the classical and statistical mechanism. Assuming that the base fluid and
the nanoparticles are in thermal equilibrium, the nano- fluid specific heat cp should be predicted
with the expression:

## Cp,nf=(φ(ρCp)n +(1-φ)(ρCp)f) / (φρn + (1-φ)ρf)

where ρ is the density. In this model, the density variations of the nanofluid, nanoparticle and base
fluid are involved. The equation has also been adopted as a base formula in many nanofluid
investigations, such as in the theoretical models of anomalous thermal conductivity, the thermal
diffusivity measurement and the heat transfer in convection.