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Deployment of magnetic Climbing Robot for inspection

operation

Abstract:

The maintenance and inspection of large vertical or horizontal tubes in an autonomous


manner is still an unsolved issue. This Project presents the design of the permanent magnetic
system for the wall climbing robot with permanent magnetic tracks. A proposed wall climbing
robot with permanent magnetic adhesion mechanism for inspecting pies, Ducts is briefly put
forward, including the mechanical system architecture. The permanent magnetic adhesion
mechanism and the tracked locomotive mechanism are employed in the robot system. By static
and dynamic force analysis of the robot, design parameters about adhesion mechanism are derived.
Climbing robot will equip with magnetic systems.

The objectives of the project include:

1. Development of robot climbing using locomotive mechanism

2. Wireless controlling of Robot using ZigBee technology

3. Magnetic based Climbing Operation of robot.


Introduction:

The wall climbing robot is one kind of the special mobile robots. Because the workspace
of this kind of robots is often on the vertical plane, not only does the wall climbing robot need to
have the same locomotion mechanism as mobile robots, it also needs the special adhesion
mechanism to support it to absorb on the vertical walls. Therefore, it is more challenging to develop
a wall climbing robot that a mobile robot. To increase operation efficiency and protect human’s
health and safety in hazardous tasks makes the wall climbing robot very attractive. By developing
for several decades, the climbing robot is widely applied in different industrial departments, such
as the inspection and maintenance of storage tanks in nuclear power plants and petrochemical
enterprises, ship hull welding and cleaning, rescue robots for firefighting, the cleaning of high-rise
buildings, etc. According to the locomotion mechanism, the wall climbing robot can be divided
into four groups, namely, wheeled mechanism, tracked mechanism, legged mechanism, and
locomotion based on arms and grippers. According to the adhesion mechanism, the wall climbing
robot can be divided into four groups, that is, magnetic adhesion, vacuum sucker, propeller, and
dry adhesion using nanofabrication techniques. Different adhesion mechanism and different
locomotion mechanism can be combined to form different wall climbing robots. Most of the
methods used for inspection of metal structures are accomplished manually or even worse, left
without any evaluation. The proposed solution for this issue is the robot which can be controlled
remotely, which means that it reduces any risks associated with reaching difficult-to-access zones
for plant workers. The electronic components of the robot should be able to detect the defects of
the structural units. The regular inspection of the tubes and other structures is going to decrease
the chance of failure occurrence on the plant. This preventive measure is not costly while it
precludes high expenses from the system breakdown. It is very challenging and expensive to
examine surfaces, which are difficultly accessible, such as vertical tubes in coal-fired electric
plants. Present technology of manual inspection is time consuming, costly, and regularly needs the
application of large scaffolds, influencing human safety issues. The solution for this is considered
to be automated investigation process which can be provided by a robot. Even though a significant
advancement in the robotics field, it is not still fully developed to work in the field. The robot
should be able to move in a vertical and horizontal direction and be able to inspect the tube. It
means that there should be a unique technique for the robot to climb up and down and specific
sensors that will provide an appropriate assessment of pipelines conditions. The research focuses
on creating an inexpensive prototype for external inspection of pipes and other structures. A robot
based on Arduino board makes the inspection. The key working principle of the robot is that it
uses ultrasonic sensor and camera to evaluate the pipe.

Locomotive Mechanism:

Locomotive or engine is a rail transport vehicle that provides the motive power for a train.
If a locomotive is capable of carrying a payload, it is usually rather referred to as multiple
units, motor coaches, railcars or power cars; the use of these self-propelled vehicles is increasingly
common for passenger trains, but rare for Traditionally, locomotives pulled trains from the front.
However, push-pull operation has become common, where the train may have a locomotive (or
locomotives) at the front, at the rear, or at each end.

Electric Locomotive:

An electric locomotive is a locomotive powered only by electricity. Electricity is supplied


to moving trains with a (nearly) continuous conductor running along the track that usually takes
one of three forms: an overhead line, suspended from poles or towers along the track or from
structure or tunnel ceilings; a third rail mounted at track level; or an onboard battery. Both
overhead wire and third-rail systems usually use the running rails as the return conductor but some
systems use a separate fourth rail for this purpose. The type of electrical power used is either direct
current (DC) or alternating current (AC).

Various collection methods exist: a trolley pole, which is a long flexible pole that engages the line
with a wheel or shoe; a bow collector, which is a frame that holds a long collecting rod against the
wire; a pantograph, which is a hinged frame that holds the collecting shoes against the wire in a
fixed geometry; or a contact shoe, which is a shoe in contact with the third rail. Of the three, the
pantograph method is best suited for high-speed operation.

Electric locomotives almost universally use axle-hung traction motors, with one motor for each
powered axle. In this arrangement, one side of the motor housing is supported by plain bearings
riding on a ground and polished journal that is integral to the axle. The other side of the housing
has a tongue-shaped protuberance that engages a matching slot in the truck (bogie) bolster, its
purpose being to act as a torque reaction device, as well as a support. Power transfer from motor
to axle is effected by spur gearing, in which a pinion on the motor shaft engages a bull gear on the
axle. Both gears are enclosed in a liquid-tight housing containing lubricating oil. The type of
service in which the locomotive is used dictates the gear ratio employed. Numerically high ratios
are commonly found on freight units, whereas numerically low ratios are typical of passenger
engines.

Electricity is typically generated in large and relatively efficient generating stations, transmitted to
the railway network and distributed to the trains. Some electric railways have their own dedicated
generating stations and transmission lines but most purchase power from an electric utility. The
railway usually provides its own distribution lines, switches and transformers.

External Pipe Inspection Robot:


External climbing robots became more and more significant in the engineering industry
over the last twenty years. The area of utilization of these robots increases with their capability to
traverse on different surfaces and to operate faster and more detailed. Currently, climbing robots
are examined to support the investigation, maintenance and building tasks everywhere due to new
locomotion types and adhesion principles. One of the main aspects is safety, which considers the
ability of robots to inspect dangerous constructions of human beings to perform the requested
tasks, climbing robots as all other technical systems have to accomplish several fulfilments which
depend on the area of application. However, commonly accepted requirements can be figured
applicable for practically all climbing robots in the range of investigation and support.

Adhesive Principle:

This fundamental technique for climbing robots includes electromagnets and permanent
magnets, which are placed on the surface or held at a specific distance. This method is very reliable
on ferromagnetic structures, and it can produce high adhesion forces on a limited surface area.

Historical Background:
A lot of research has been done with wall climbing robots and various types of
experimental models have been already proposed. Different types of wall climbing robots are made
based on different mechanism like legged mechanisms, sliding mechanisms and tracked wheel
mechanisms. Legged mechanism is used to build such robots that can overcome uneven surfaces.
Due to their heavy weight and complicated control system, these results in low speed and
discontinuous motion. Meanwhile, the sliding mechanism is relatively simple in comparison with
legged mechanisms, but the problem remains with discontinuous motion. In searching to the
solution of this problem, many research has been devoted on Tracked wheel mechanism for faster
and continuous motion. In recent years, several different approaches have been taken to develop
robots that have the ability to climb vertical surfaces against the gravitational force like, Wallbots,
Stickybots etc. Wallbots used magnetic force to run on the vertical planes. The Stanford Research
Institute (Also known as, SRI Technology) creates Shakey the first mobile robot to know and react
to its own actions. A research group of Dr. Li Hiu has recently successfully developed the bionic
robot; which are also called gecko robots, named”Speedy Freelander”. This gecko robot can
instantly climb up and down in a variety of building walls, walking upside down on the ceiling or,
ground and vertical wall fissure. In 2007, Researchers at the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon
University (CMU) have created a robot that can run up a wall as smooth as glass and onto the
ceiling at a rate of six centimeters a second which uses fibers that are twice as adhesive as those
used by geckos . At the 2008 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA
2008), engineers presented their wall climbing bot which inspired from geckos. The robot could
scale buildings or creep up windows, secretly spying for hours. They could also be used for search-
andrescue operations. More benignly, they could inspect and repair the hard-to-reach parts of
airplanes, spacecraft, and bridges. In collaboration between Disney Research Zurich and ETH, a
wall climbing robot named Vertigo was built. The robot has two tillable propellers that provide
thrust onto the wall, and four wheels. One pair of wheels is steerable, and each propeller has two
degrees of freedom for adjusting the direction of thrust. By transitioning from the ground to a wall
and back again, Vertigo extends the ability of robots to travel through urban and indoor
environments. Hao Yangand Rong Liu proposed in this paper the vibration suction method(VSM)
which is a another kind of suction strategy for wall climbing robots. Stephen Paul Linder have
designed a low cost robot to climb in inclined surface using computer vision .The paper by Jason
Gu proposed a research on wall climbing robot with permanent magnetic tracks where mechanical
system architecture is also described in the paper. ShangingWu proposed wireless distributed wall
climbing robotic system for reconnaissance purpose. Design and control of a lightweight magnetic
climbing robot for vessel inspection by Markus Eich and Thomas Vogele is proposed for the
solution for inspection of marine vessels. Houxiang Zhangs paper presented three different kinds
of robots for cleaning the curtain walls of high structural building.
Literature Review:

1) Olivier Kermorgant: In this paper we present the mechanical and control design of a magnetic
tracked mobile robot. The robot is designed to move on vertical steel ship hulls and to be able to
carry 100 kg payload, including its own weight. The mechanical components are presented and
the sizing of the magnetic tracks is detailed. All computation is embedded in order to reduce time
delays between processes and to keep the robot functional even in case of signal loss with the
ground station. The main sensor of the robot is a 2D laser scanner that gives information on the
hull surface and is used for several tasks. We focus on the welding task and expose the control
algorithm that allows the robot to follow a straight line for the welding process.

2) Hwang Kim, Dongmok Kim, Hojoon Yang, Kyouhee Lee, Kunchan Seo, Doyoung Chang
and Jongwon Kim: In this paper, a new concept of a wall-climbing robot able to climb a vertical
plane is presented. A continuous locomotive motion with a high climbing speed of 15m/min is
realized by adopting a series chain on two tracked wheels on which 24 suction pads are installed.
While each tracked wheel rotates, the suction pads which attach to the vertical plane are activated
in sequence by specially designed mechanical valves. The engineering analysis and detailed
mechanism design of the tracked wheel, including mechanical valves and the overall features, are
described in this paper. It is a self-contained robot in which a vacuum pump and a power supply
are integrated and is controlled remotely. The climbing performance, using the proposed
mechanism, is evaluated on a vertical steel plate. Finally, the procedures are presented for an
optimization experiment using Taguchi methodology to maximize vacuum pressure which is a
critical factor for suction force.

3) Riad Hossain Faisal, Nafiz Ahmed Chisty: It has been a long time that scientists are trying to
move vehicles both in the vertical and horizontal plane simultaneously by the same machine.
Working against gravity made it difficult to roll the wheels in a surface that is very steeply inclined
to the ground plane. This paper work deals with the design and implementation of a wireless
controlled motor vehicle with the ability to move in both vertical and horizontal plane.
Aerodynamic techniques have been used to hold the vehicle in any inclined vertical plane. The
paper work covers both electrical and mechanical portions. The mechanical portion has been
designed using Solid works and 3D studio MAX while the electrical parts has been designed and
simulated using Proteus VSM tool.

4) Wei Song, Hongjian Jiang, TaoWang, Daxiong Ji and Shiqiang Zhu: This article has
proposed a permanent magnetic wheel type adhesion-locomotion system for water-jetting wall-
climbing robot, which comprises of an annular sector shaped magnetic adhesion system and a
pneumatic tire. This type of adhesion-locomotion system could produce a large adhesive force and
a large friction force with a small mass. Meanwhile, the coupling inter relationship between
magnetic adhesion system and pneumatic tire brings difficulty to determine the values of initial air
gap and inflation pressure, which is important for adhesion-locomotion system normally operating
in the robot. Combining simulations and experiments, dimension optimization of magnetic
component and determination of values of initial air gap and inflation pressure are completed.
According to the tests in the lab, the adhesion-locomotion system makes robot prototype climb
well with a maximum payload of 62.9 kg, an average velocity of 4m/min, and an obstacle-crossing
capability 6mm on the surface. Finally, robot prototype is tested in the shipyard, which proves the
design of adhesion-locomotion system feasible.

5) Md. Hazrat Ali, Temirlan Zharakhmet, Mazghzhan Atykhan, Adil Yerbolat and
Shaheidula Batai: This research contributes to the field of tube inspection in petroleum industries.
There were two main challenges: i) decide on tube climbing technology, and ii) suggest a sensor
system for defect identification. For the first challenge, duct fan based method was selected due to
its effectiveness, cost, and simplicity. It has enough trust force to hold itself to the surface on a
vertical wall. The cost of the prototype does not exceed $300. Concerning the second problem, the
external inspection, which is also significant to perform, is possible to accomplish with the
presented prototype. It uses the ultrasonic sensor to measure the distance until the surface. The
reference signal shows the distance when the exterior part is proper, i.e., without any defect. If the
signal differs from the reference, it can be concluded that that the surface has a defect. Moreover,
one more proposed alternative is to use the camera and check the structure by observing the image
of it. Another area of application is various structures that are subjected to risk of failures such as
bridges, tunnels, tanks, ships, walls, windows and ventilation systems. Since the robot can work
with the camera, it can check any surface with appropriate curvature for the defects. As some areas
to inspect manually can be challenging to reach, a robot should substitute the human in those
difficult to reach zones. In conclusion, the key objectives of this research are achieved; the
prototype with the electronic and mechanical components is built and tested. The preliminary
results of this work provide an excellent framework for the future advancement in this field.

6) International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 5, Issue 7, and July-
2014: The project aims in designing a pipe climbing Robot which is operated using computer
wirelessly from a remote location wirelessly using ZigBee modules. The advent of new high-speed
technology and the growing computer Capacity provide realistic opportunity for new robot
controls and realization of new methods of control theory. This technical improvement together
with the need for high performance robots created faster, more accurate and more intelligent robots
using new robots control devices, new drivers and advanced control algorithms. This project
describes a new economical solution of robot control systems. The presented robot control system
can be used for different sophisticated robotic applications.

7) Hwang Kim, Dongmok Kim, Hojoon Yang, Kyouhee Lee, Kunchan Seo, Doyoung Chang
and Jongwon Kim: In this paper, a wall-climbing robot using a tracked wheel mechanism was
presented. Continuous locomotive motion with high climbing speed is achieved by employing
tracked wheels on which suction pads are installed. The engineering analysis and detailed
mechanism design of the tracked wheel, including mechanical valves, was described. The climbing
performance on a vertical steel plate using the proposed mechanism was evaluated. Finally, the
procedures of an optimization experiment using Taguchi methodology to maximize vacuum
pressure were introduced. From this experiment, performance related to suction force was
improved and design parameters were optimized. Now, a new research to develop a novel climbing
robot able to adhere to rough surfaces and climb a 3- dimensional complex wall is in progress.

8) A. Albagul1, A. Asseni, and O. Khalifa: A wall climbing robot is a robot with the capability
of climbing vertical surfaces. This paper describes the design and fabrication of a quadruped
climbing robot. We are required to design and create a wall climbing robot which uses suction as
a means of sticking to the wall. The robot will be controlled using Basic Stamp and the movement
of its legs will generated by two servo motors. Each servo motor will control legs which are located
on the left and right side of the robot. The leg rotations mimic stepping motions through the use of
a slider and crank. The suction force will be supplied by two vacuum pumps that will turn on
intermittently. The main body of the robot will carry all the components except for the compressor
thus making it mobile. Currently the robot is only designed for linear movement. However plans
to incorporate maneuverability and other functions can be implemented after the first stage of the
development achieves success.

9) Wolfgang Fischer, Fabien Tâche, and Roland Siegwart: fragile surfaces was developed, with
the capability to work in all inclinations of the surface, to pass two types of difficult obstacles and
to turn on spot. Due to optimizations in structure and components, its mass will be around 10kg,
which also allows for going in fragile environments without destroying them. The size will be
around 200x200x300mm³ – small enough to fit well in the environment, but big enough to pass
ridges of 40mm height. As only 10 actuators are used (instead of 26 in the most similar robot that
was found in the state of the art [7]), cost, complexity and reliability will be limited to a reasonable
range. Due to measurements on already built parts (magnetic wheels and actuators), calculations
and simulations, we could prove that all actuators will be strong enough and that the robot will not
slip or lose contact at any time. Even for the most critical case – the risk of slipping in the 135°-
transitions – the calculated required friction coefficient (μ required=0.37) lies significantly below
the minimum value that was measured with a real wheel (μ measured ≥ 0.5). Thus, it is assured
that the concept will work well in the specified application – an environment that was impossible
to be accessed by previous climbing robots.

However, when our industrial partners analyzed again the environment in these gas tanks,
it resulted that the specifications that formed the base for developing this concept were not
complete: On the largest part of the surface – except the last 500mm up to the neighboring walls
(Fig. 1 grey area) – the sheet thickness is only 0.7mm instead of 1.5mm, resulting in a significant
loss of magnetic force there. After doing more detailed stress tests, it also resulted that on these
sheets the allowed mass should be only 5kg – instead of 10kg as it was specified before. However,
on the thick surface even 20kg could be allowed. With these changed specifications, a safe
operation could not be assured any more with the design described above. Thus, for dealing with
these changed specifications, the whole concept had to be adapted. The advanced design has
already been started and will be realized soon. It is based on the same obstacle passing mechanism,
but uses the additional idea to separate the whole system into two robots instead of going
everywhere with only one big and complex one: The bigger robot passes the obstacles and always
stays on the thick surface where the magnetic attraction is strong and 20kg of robot mass is
allowed. For the horizontal paths (no obstacles, but only 5 kg allowed), it sends out a smaller and
simpler robot with only one degree of freedom. For the bigger one, the same obstacle-passing
mechanism will be reused, on a structure that is optimized to the now changed requirements: No
turning, but carrying the smaller robot.

10) Weimin Shen and Jason Gu, Yanjun Shen: This paper presents the design of the permanent
magnetic system for the wall climbing robot with permanent magnetic tracks. A proposed wall
climbing robot with permanent magnetic adhesion mechanism for inspecting the oil tanks is briefly
put forward, including the mechanical system architecture. The permanent magnetic adhesion
mechanism and the tracked locomotion mechanism are employed in the robot system. By static
and dynamic force analysis of the robot, design parameters about adhesion mechanism are derived.
Two types of the structures of the permanent magnetic units are given in the paper. The analysis
of those two types of structure is also detailed. Finally, two wall climbing robots equipped with
those two different magnetic systems are discussed and the experiments are included in the paper.
List of Component to be used:
1. DC Gear motor
2. Dust sensor
3. Gas sensor
4. Microwave sensor
5. Arduino board
6. Camera
7. Bevel Gear

1. DC motor:

Every DC motor has six basic parts -- axle, rotor (armature), stator, commutator,
field magnet(s), and brushes. In most common DC motors (and all that Beamers will see),
the external magnetic field is produced by high-strength permanent magnets. The stator is
the stationary part of the motor -- this includes the motor casing, as well as two or more
permanent magnet pole pieces. The rotor (together with the axle and attached commutator)
rotates with respect to the stator. The rotor consists of windings (generally on a core), the
windings being electrically connected to the commutator with the rotor inside the stator
(field) magnets.
Specification of DC motor:

 10 RPM 12V DC motors with Gearbox


 6mm shaft diameter with internal hole
 125gm weight
 Stall Torque = 2 kg.m torque
 No-load current = 60 mA(Max), Load current = 300 mA(Max)

2. Arduino controller

An Arduino board comprises of an Atmel 8-bit AVR microcontroller with integral


segments that encourage programming and joining into different circuits. A critical part of the
Arduino is its standard connectors, which gives clients a chance to associate the CPU board to an
assortment of compatible extra modules known as shields. The Arduino board uncovered the vast
majority of the microcontroller's I/O pins for use by different circuits. The Decimals and current
Uno give 14 computerized I/O pins, six of which can deliver beat width balanced signs, and six
simple inputs, which can likewise be utilized as six advanced I/O pins.

3. Dust sensor:

It is an optical air quality sensor, or May also known as optical dust sensor, is designed to
sense dust particles. An infrared emitting diode and a phototransistor are diagonally arranged into
this device, to allow it to detect the reflected light of dust in air. It is especially effective in detecting
very fine particles like cigarette smoke, and is commonly used in air purifier systems.

To interface with this sensor, you need to connect to its 6-pin, 1.5mm pitch connector by using
mating connector.
4. Gas Detector:

A gas detector is a device that detects the presence of gases in an area, often as part of
a safety system. This type of equipment is used to detect a gas leak or other emissions and can
interface with a control system so a process can be automatically shut down. A gas detector can
sound an alarm to operators in the area where the leak is occurring, giving them the opportunity to
leave. This type of device is important because there are many gases that can be harmful to organic
life, such as humans or animals.

Gas detectors can be used to detect combustible, flammable and toxic gases,
and oxygen depletion. This type of device is used widely in industry and can be found in locations,
such as on oil rigs, to monitor manufacture processes and emerging technologies such
as photovoltaic. They may be used in firefighting.

Gas leak detection is the process of identifying potentially hazardous gas leaks by sensors. These
sensors usually employ an audible alarm to alert people when a dangerous gas has been detected.
Exposure to toxic gases can also occur in operations such as painting, fumigation, fuel filling,
construction, excavation of contaminated soils, landfill operations, entering confined spaces, etc.
Common sensors include combustible gas sensors, photoionization detectors, infrared point
sensors, ultrasonic sensors, electrochemical gas sensors, and semiconductor sensors. More
recently, infrared imaging sensors have come into use. All of these sensors are used for a wide
range of applications and can be found in industrial plants, refineries, pharmaceutical
manufacturing, fumigation facilities, paper pulp mills, aircraft and shipbuilding facilities, hazmat
operations, waste-water treatment facilities, vehicles, indoor air quality testing and homes.

5. Microwave sensor:

Microwave sensors, also known as Radar, RF or Doppler sensors, detect walking, running
or crawling human targets in an outdoor environment. Southwest Microwave developed the
industry’s first bi-static microwave sensor in 1971, and has pioneered the development of flexible,
reliable microwave links and transceivers for the protection of open areas, gates or entryways and
rooftop or wall applications.
Microwave sensors generate an electromagnetic (RF) field between transmitter and receiver,
creating an invisible volumetric detection zone. When an intruder enters the detection zone,
changes to the field are registered and an alarm occurs.

Our microwave sensors are easy to install, provide high probability of detection, low nuisance
alarms and resistance to rain, fog, wind, dust, falling snow and temperature extremes. Most operate
at K-Band frequency, maximizing detection performance and minimizing interference from
external radar sources.

6. Camera:

A webcam is a video camera that feeds or streams its image in real time to or through
a computer to a computer network. When "captured" by the computer, the video stream may be
saved, viewed or sent on to other networks travelling through systems such as the internet, and e-
mailed as an attachment. When sent to a remote location, the video stream may be saved, viewed
or on sent there. Unlike an IP camera (which connects using Ethernet or Wi-Fi), a webcam is
generally connected by a USB cable, or similar cable, or built into computer hardware, such as
laptops.

The term "webcam" (a clipped compound) may also be used in its original sense of a video
camera connected to the Web continuously for an indefinite time, rather than for a particular
session, generally supplying a view for anyone who visits its web page over the Internet. Some of
them, for example, those used as online traffic cameras, are expensive, rugged professional video
cameras.

7. Bevel Gear:
Bevel gears are gears where the axes of the two shafts intersect and the tooth-
bearing faces of the gears themselves are conically shaped. Bevel gears are most often
mounted on shafts that are 90 degrees apart, but can be designed to work at other angles as
well.[1] The pitch surface of bevel gears is a cone. Two important concepts in gearing are
pitch surface and pitch angle. The pitch surface of a gear is the imaginary toothless surface
that you would have by averaging out the peaks and valleys of the individual teeth. The
pitch surface of an ordinary gear is the shape of a cylinder. The pitch angle of a gear is the
angle between the face of the pitch surface and the axis. The most familiar kinds of bevel
gears have pitch angles of less than 90 degrees and therefore are cone-shaped. This type of
bevel gear is called external because the gear teeth point outward. The pitch surfaces of
meshed external bevel gears are coaxial with the gear shafts; the apexes of the two surfaces
are at the point of intersection of the shaft axes. Bevel gears that have pitch angles of greater
than ninety degrees have teeth that point inward and are called internal bevel gears. Bevel
gears that have pitch angles of exactly 90 degrees have teeth that point outward parallel
with the axis and resemble the points on a crown. That's why this type of bevel gear is
called a crown gear.
3D Design:
Robot Design:

Robot design determines the inherent capabilities of a robot. It is therefore a fundamental step in
building a new robot system. A good design can increase the performance of the robot and may
often make other issues like control and planning easier. Robot design requires making trades
among many factors, such as functional capability and complexity, weight and strength of
mechanical parts, weight and power of actuators, cost and performance of sensors, and so on. It is
a complicated process that has not a single optimal solution. There is no standard method to
comparatively evaluate the end result. The high-level guideline that we used throughout our work
is to achieve the functions needed for free-climbing with the simplest possible design.

Kinematic design;

The kinematic design of Capuchin required us to consider several important issues, in


particular: number of limbs, number of degrees of freedom (DOFs) in each limb and body,
distribution of these DOFs over the robot structure, and detailed specification of each link of the
limbs and body. After resolving these issues, our work focused on the detailed design of each part.
During the initial phase of the process, we loosely used the body structure of humans and animals
that are good at climbing as a source of inspiration. We then ran more formal and quantitative
simulations to evaluate key capabilities, like workspace reachability.

Working Principle:
Each of the 4 cranks is connected with the slider part and sucking cup. Only 2 legs will
generate motion of the slider crank mechanism while 2 legs remain fixed at a certain position. The
numbers of DOF are the number of components of motion that are required in order to generate
the motion. The formula of DOF of any planar mechanism through number of moving links (n),
number and types of joints (f1 and f2) can be expressed as:

F = 3*n – 2*f1 – f2
Where, f1 is the number of one DOF joint and f2 is the number of two DOF joint. The DOF for
the slider-crank mechanism of the robot leg can be calculated.

No. of links = 3

No. of one DOF = 4 (3 joints and 1 slider)

F = 3*3 – 2*4 – 0

=1
References:

 Olivier Kermorgant ,"A magnetic climbing robot to perform autonomous welding in


the shipbuilding industry", Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, April
16, 2018.

 Hwang Kim, Dongmok Kim, Hojoon Yang, Kyouhee Lee, Kunchan Seo, Doyoung
Chang and Jongwon Kim, "Development of a wall-climbing robot using a tracked
wheel mechanism", Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 22 (2008).

 Riad Hossain Faisal, Nafiz Ahmed Chisty, "Design and Implementation of a Wall
Climbing Robot", International Journal of Computer Applications, January 2018.

 Wei Song, Hongjian Jiang, TaoWang, Daxiong Ji and Shiqiang Zhu, "Design of
permanent magnetic wheel-type adhesion-locomotion system for water-jetting wall-
climbing robot", Advances in Mechanical Engineering 2018.

 Md. Hazrat Ali, Temirlan Zharakhmet, Mazghzhan Atykhan, Adil Yerbolat and
Shaheidula Batai, "Development of a Robot for Boiler Tube Inspection".

 DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF PIPE LINE CLIMBING ROBOT, International


Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 5, Issue 7, July-2014.

 Abdulgani Albagul, Othman O. Khalifa, "Wall climbing robot: Mechanical design and
implementation", Recent Advances in Circuits, Systems, Signal and
Telecommunications, 2014.

 Wolfgang Fischer, Fabien Tâche, Roland Siegwart, "Magnetic Wall Climbing Robot
for Thin Surfaces with Specific Obstacles", hal, Dec 2007.

 Weimin Shen and Jason Gu, Yanjun Shen, "Permanent Magnetic System Design for
the Wall-climbing Robot", International Conference on Mechatronics & Automation,
Niagara Falls, Canada, July 2005.