Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 49

B. P. Pattanaik1*, M. K. Mohanty2, B. K. Nanda1, S. K. Nayak1, R. Panua3, P. K.


School of Mechanical Engineering, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha
College of Agriculture Engineering & Technology, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, Odisha
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Agartala, Tripura

Presented at the 4th International Conference on “Advances in Energy Research (ICAER-2013)”

10 – 12 December 2013 , IIT Bombay


Development of Karanja biodiesel from neat Karanja oil by

base catalyzed transesterification method
Characterization of fuel properties of Karanja oil, Karanja
biodiesel and comparison with diesel
Preparation of test fuels in the form of biodiesel blends
ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 2
Application of the test fuels to a single cylinder low
compression ratio diesel engine
Estimation of various engine performance and emission
parameters for various test fuels and comparison of those
with that of diesel fuel
Why Alternative Energy?
Limited stock of present fossil fuel reserves which will last
for few more years to come

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 3

Increasing rate of air-pollution from automobiles using
petroleum based fuels
Alarming increase in Green House Gases in the
Reducing health standards due to excessive automobile
Continuous hike in crude petroleum prices
Causes for Promotion of Biofuels
Contribution to the Energy Security Policy

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 4

Environmental Concerns
Foreign Exchange Savings
Socio-Economic Issues Related to Rural Sector
Greater Use of Renewable Energy
Less Green House Gas Emissions
Biodiesel as a Renewable Fuel
Biodiesel is a chemically derived fuel comprised of Mono-
alkyl ester / Methyl ester of long chain fatty acids of the
triglycerides present in the straight vegetable oil (SVO) /
animal fat obtained during the transesterification Process.
It possesses almost similar fuel properties as mineral diesel
ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 5
Completely bio-degradable and non-toxic
Requires no engine modifications when used in engines
Produces less green house gas emissions as compared to
Karanja as a potential source for
biodiesel production
Suitable climatic and soil conditions for
Karanja plantation in the Indian context
Can grow in unused and infertile lands
Higher oil content in the harvested seeds
ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 6
Completely non-edible vegetable oil
Higher conversion yield potential for biodiesel production
Low cost biodiesel production

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 7

Photograph of Karanja Tree

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 8

Harvested Karanja fruits and seeds

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 9

Structure of Neat Vegetable Oil

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 10

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 11
The Transesterification Reaction

Transesterification Process
ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 12
ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 13
Biodiesel Production Methodology
Heating & Grease Removal of Vegetable oil
Acid Esterification of Vegetable oil
Reagent Mixture Preparation (KOH+CH3OH)
Base Catalyst Transesterification below 65 C
Biodiesel Separation
Methanol Recovery Glycerol
Biodiesel Collection, Washing & Purification
ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 14
Schematic diagram of a small biodiesel reactor

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 15

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 16
Process Parameters used during Transesterification
Sl No. Process parameters Description

1 Process selected Alkali catalyzed transesterification

2 Reaction temperature 55 – 60 oC

3 Sample oil used 1250 ml of neat Karanja oil

4 Methanol used 200 ml / kg of oil

5 Catalyst used (KOH) 0.5 – 1 % per kg of oil

6 Reaction time 1.5 hours

7 Settling time 8 – 10 hours

8 Water washing 8 – 24 hours

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 17

9 Stirring speed 550 – 700 rpm

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 18

Biodiesel & Glycerol Separation

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 19

Variation in viscosity of Karanja oil with temperature

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 20

Comparison in density at various stages of biodiesel

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 21

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 22
Comparison of viscosity of Karanja oil at various

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 23

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 24
Comparison in FFA composition of Karanja oil at
various stages

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 25

Biodiesel Conversion Yield
ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 26







0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140

Reaction Time (Min.)

Characterization of Fuel Properties

Properties Karanja oil Karanja biodiesel Diesel ASTM Methods

Density at 25oC (kg/m3) 910 880 860 D 1298

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 27

Kinematic Viscosity at 34.78 6.5 2.56 D 445
40oC (cSt.)

Acid value (mg KOH/g) 30.8 1.12 - D 664

FFA (mg KOH/g) 15.4 0.56 - D 664

Calorific value
(MJ/kg) 36.4 40.2 44.2 D 240

Cetane number 32.22 56.64 47 D 613

Flash point (oC) 219 124 76 D 93

Fire point (oC) 228 146 78 D 93

Cloud point (oC) 9 5 -10 D 2500

Pour point (oC) 3 -2 -18 D 97

Preparation of Biodiesel Blends (Test Fuels)

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 28
B-20 (20% Biodiesel + 80% Petro Diesel) B-50
(50% Biodiesel + 50% Petro Diesel)
B-100 (100% Biodiesel)
Photograph of various test fuel samples

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 29

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 30
Schematic Presentation of the Test Engine

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 31

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 32
ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 33
Photograph of the Test Engine Setup
Test Engine Specification
Parameter Description
Make/Model Kirloskar oil engines India Ltd / AV-1
Engine type Four-Stroke diesel engine
No. of cylinder One
Bore × Stroke 80 × 110 mm2

Compression ratio 16.5:1

Injection pressure 220 bar

Injection nozzle opening 23obTDC

Rated power 6.25 kW

Rated speed 1500 rpm

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 34

Cooling type Water cooled
Lubricating oil SAE 20 W40
Dynamometer Eddy current type (10kW, 43.5 A)

Engine Performance Analysis

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 35

1. Brake Thermal Efficiency

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 36

2. Brake Specific Energy Consumption

3. Exhaust Gas Temperature

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 37
Engine Emission Analysis
ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 38
4. CO Emission

5. HC Emission
ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 39
6. CO2 Emission

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 40

7. Smoke Emission

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 41

8. NOX Emission

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 42

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 43
The BTE was found to be increasing and the BSEC found to be
decreasing with increase in engine power output. The BTE was
highest for diesel and the BSEC was highest for Karanja
biodiesel at all loads.
The CO and HC emission decrease initially at lower loads and
then increases when the load is increased above 50%. The CO
and HC emissions were also found to be higher for diesel.
The CO2 emission in g/kWh decreases with increase in engine
power and the smoke emission increases with engine power and
load. Smoke emission was higher in case of B50 and B100.

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 44

The EGT increases with increase in engine power and NOx
emission in g/kWh was found to be decreasing with increase in
engine power and load. Both EGT and NOx emission were
higher for Karanja biodiesel.
Biodiesel being more viscous than diesel may require frequent
cleaning of engine components. Use of preheated biodiesel
blends in engines may be studied.
Biodiesel if used for longer time in engines causes corrosive
effects. Studies on engine wear and corrosion due to the use of
biodiesel must be carried out.
ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 45
Biodiesel combustion causes higher combustion and exhaust
temperatures. Studies must be carried out for suitable engine
modifications resulting in low temperatute biodiesel
Higher NOx emission due to biodiesel combustion is a great
matter of environmental concern. Investigation must be
undertaken for reduction of the same using newer methods like
exhaust gas recirculation.

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 46

The authors are extremely thankful to the Department of
Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata and
the College of Agriculture Engineering & Technology,
OUAT, Bhubaneswar, Odisha for providing laboratory
facilities for conduct of the experiments.

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay 47


1. Kerschbaum, S, Rinke, G: Measurement of the temperature dependent viscosity of biodiesel fuels. Fuel 83, 287–91(2004)
2. Stavarache, C, Vinatoru, M, Nishimura, R, Maed, Y: Fatty acids methyl esters from vegetable oil by means of ultrasonic
energy. Ultrason Sonochem 12, 367–72(2005)
3. Wang YD, AZ-Shemmeri T, Eames P, McMullan J, Hewitt N, Huang Y: An experimental investigation of the
performance and gaseous exhaust emission of a diesel engine using blends of a vegetable oil. Appl Therm Eng 26,
1684–91 (2006)
4. Sundarapandian S, Devaradjane G. Experimental investigation of the performance on vegetable oil operated CI engine.
19th National Conference on I.C. engine and combustion, Annamalai University, Chidambaram, December 21–23, 87–94
5. Barnwal BK, Sharma MP. Prospects of bio-diesel production from vegetable oils in India. Renew Sust Energy Rev 9,
363–78 (2005)
6. Goff, MJ, Bauer, NS, Lopes, S, Sutterlin, WR, Suppes, GJ: Acid-catalyzed alcoholysis of soybean oil. J Am Oil Chem
Soc 200481, 415–20
7. Lotero, E, Goodwin, JG, Bruce, DA, Suwannakarn, K, Liu, Y, Lopez, DE: The catalysis of bio-diesel synthesis. Catalysis
19, 41–83 (2006)
8. Dmytryshyn, SL, Dalai AK, Chaudhari, ST, Mishra, HK, Reaney, MJ: Synthesis and characterization of vegetable oil
derived esters: evaluation for their diesel additive properties. Bioresour Technol 92, 55–64 (2004)

9. Ramadhas, AS, Jayaraj, S, Muraleedharan, C: Biodiesel production from high FFA rubber seed oil. Fuel 84, 335-340
10. Misra, RD, Murthy, MS. Performance, emission and combustion evaluation of soapnut oil- diesel blends in a
compression ignition engine. Fuel 90, 2514-2518 (2011)

ICAER 2013, IIT Bombay