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ENGLISH

FOR STUDENTS OF CHEMISTRY









Vo Thang Nguyen, Dr
UNIT 1. CHEMICAL ELEMENTS and THE PERIODIC TABLE
1.1. Chemical Elements and the Periodic Table
READING
1.1.1. The Periodic Table
After reading the text, match the highlighted terms (1-9) in the text to the given definitions
(a-i).
The Periodic Table of Elements categorizes like elements together. Dmitri Mendeleev, a
Russian scientist, was the first to create a widely accepted arrangement of the elements in 1869.
Mendeleev believed that when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic mass,
certain sets of properties recur periodically. Although most modern periodic tables are arranged
in eighteen groups (columns) of elements, Mendeleev's original periodic table had the elements
organized into eight groups and twelve periods (rows).
On the periodic table, elements that have similar properties are in the same groups
(vertical). From left to right, the atomic number (z) of the elements increases from one period
to the next (horizontal). The groups are numbered at the top of each column and the periods on
the left next to each row. The main group elements are groups 1,2 and 13 through 18. These
groups contain the most naturally abundant elements, and are the most important for life. The
elements shaded in light pink in the table above are known as transition metals. The two rows
of elements starting at z=58, are sometimes called inner transition metals and have that have
been extracted and placed at the bottom of the table, because they would make the table too
wide if kept continuous. The 14 elements following lanthanum (z=57) are called lanthanides,
and the 14 following actinium (z=89) are called actinides.
Elements in the periodic table can be placed into two broad categories, metals and
nonmetals. Most metals are good conductors of heat and electricity, are malleable and ductile,
and are moderate to high melting points. In general, nonmetals are nonconductors of heat and
electricity, are nonmalleable solids, and many are gases at room temperature. Just as shown in
the table above, metals and nonmetals on the periodic table are often separated by a stairstep
diagonal line, and several elements near this line are often called metalloids (Si, Ge, As, Sb,
Te, and At). Metalloids are elements that look like metals and in some ways behave like metals
but also have some nonmetallic properties. The group to the farthest right of the table, shaded
orange, is known as the noble gases. Noble gases are treated as a special group of nonmetals.

a. one of a group of metallic elements in which the members have the filling of
1. mass the outermost shell to 8 electrons interrupted to bring the penultimate shell from
8 to 18 or 32 electrons

b. gases in group 0 of the periodic table; they are monatomic and, with limited
2. properties
exceptions, chemically inert

3.atomic c. elements whose properties are intermediate between those of metals and non-
number metals

4.abundant d. the amount of material in sg

5.transition
e. existing or available in large quantities so that there is more than enough
metals

6.malleable f. sg that can be pressed or pulled into shape without needing to be heated

7.ductile g. sg that is easy to press or pull into a new shape

8.metalloids h. the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

9.noble gases i. a quality or power that belongs naturally to sg

SPEAKING
Discuss with a partner what words come to your mind in connection with the periodic
table and chemical elements. Agree on a list of 10 words and start discussing each of them.

LANGUAGE USE

The words in the three sentences below are jumbled up. Your task is to form the correct
sentence. Each sentence has been removed from the text above.
1. of elements the Periodic together Table like elements categorizes.
2. the periodic are table that groups have similar elements properties in the on same.
3. and metals elements in placed the periodic broad nonmetals table can into categories,
two periodic be.

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT
It is very useful to know how we can form different parts of speech. Insert the missing
forms of the words in the table. All the words are taken from the text above.

VERB NOUN ADJECTIVE ADVERB

categorizes

- periodic

- naturally

conductor -

electricity

- metalloid -

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT
1.1.2. The Importance of the Periodic Table
Match the words highlighted in green (1-9) in the text below to their synonyms (a-i).

The modern periodic table has changed since Mendeleev's original table, yet both the
first tables and the modern table are important for the same reason: The periodic table
organizes elements according to similar properties so you can tell the characteristics of an
element just by looking at its position on the table.

Before all the naturally occurring elements were discovered, the periodic table was used
to predict the chemical and physical properties of elements in the gaps on the table. Today, the
table can be used to predict properties of elements yet to be discovered, although these new
elements are all highly radioactive and break down into more familiar elements almost
instantly.
The table is useful for modern students and scientists because it helps predict the types
of chemical reactions that are likely for an element. Rather than memorize facts and figures
for each element, a quick glance at the table reveals a lot about the reactivity of an element,
whether it is likely to conduct electricity, whether it is hard or soft, and many other
characteristics.
Elements in the same column as each other (groups) share similar properties. For
example, the elements in the first column (the alkali metals) are all metals that usually carry a
1+ charge in reactions, react vigorously with water, and combine readily with nonmetals.
Elements in the same row as each other (periods) share highest unexcited electron energy
level.
Another useful feature of the periodic table is that most table provide all the information
you need to balance chemical reactions at a glance. The table tells an element’s atomic number
and usually its atomic weight. The usual charge on an element is indicated by an element's
group.

1. characteristics a like

2.predict b give

3.although c showed

4. figures d numbers

5. glance e foretell

6.similar f despite

7. vigorously g qualities

8. provide h look

9. indicated i forcefully

SPEAKING
After reading the text above discuss the importance of the periodic table. The following
questions might assist you in this activity.
• How do you think the modern periodic table has changed since Mendeleev's original
table?
• What was the periodic table used for before all the naturally occurring elements were
discovered?
LISTENING and SPEAKING
1.1.3. Trends or Periodicity

Using the information below, discuss the periodic trends with a partner or in a small
group. The following video may help you in doing so :
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XK-WTYncldA
The periodic table is organized according to trends in element properties:
Moving Left to Right Across the Row
• Atomic Radius Decreases
• Ionization Energy Increases
• Electron Affinity Generally Increases (except Noble Gases)
• Electronegativity Increases
Moving Top to Bottom Down a Column
• Atomic Radius Increases
• Ionization Energy Decreases
• Electron Affinity Usually Decreases Moving Down a Group
• Electronegativity Decreases

Figure 11: Courtesy of wikipedia for releasing this image into the public domain
READING
1.1.4. Grouping of the Elements
Add a heading to each paragraph.
Metalloids, Transition Metals, Alkali Metals, Halogens, Lanthanides and Actinides,
Alkali Earth Metals, Noble Gases
..........
The .......... are comprised of group 1A of the periodic table and consist of Lithium,
Sodium, Rubidium, Caesium, and Francium. These metals are highly reactive and form ionic
compounds (when a nonmetal and a metal come together) as well as many other compounds.
.......... all have a charge of +1 and have the largest atom sizes than any of the other elements
on each of their respective periods.
..........
.......... are located in group 2A and consist of Bereyllium, Magnesium, Calcium,
Strontium, Barium, and Radium. Unlike the Alkali metals, the earth metals have a smaller atom
size and are not as reactive. These metals may also form ionic and other compounds and have
a charge of +2.
..........
The .......... range from groups IIIB to XIIB on the periodic table. These metals form
positively charged ions, are very hard, and have very high melting and boiling points. ..........
are also good conductors of electricity and are malleable.
..........
.......... (shown in row ** in chart above on page 2) and .......... (shown in row * in chart
above on page 2), form the block of two rows that are placed at the bottom of the periodic table
for space issues. These are also considered to be transition metals. .......... form the top row of
this block and are very soft metals with high boiling and melting points. .......... form the bottom
row and are radioactive. They also form compounds with most nonmetals.
..........
As mentioned in the introduction, .......... are located along the staircase separating the
metals from the nonmetals on the periodic table. Boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony,
and tellurium all have metal and nonmetal properties. For example, Silicon has a metallic luster
but is brittle and is an inefficient conductor of electricity like a nonmetal. As the .......... have a
combination of both metallic and nonmetal characteristics, they are intermediate conductors of
electricity or "semiconductors".
..........
.......... are comprised of the five nonmetal elements Flourine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine,
and Astatine. They are located on group 17 of the periodic table and have a charge of -1. The
term
".........." means "salt-former" and compounds that contain one of the ........... are salts.
The physical properties of .......... vary significantly as they can exist as solids, liquids, and
gases at room temperature. However in general, .......... are very reactive, especially with the
alkali metals and earth metals of groups 1 and 2 with which they form ionic compounds.
..........
The..........consist of group 18 (sometimes reffered to as group O) of the periodic table of
elements. The .......... have very low boiling and melting points and are all gases at room
temperature. They are also very nonreactive as they already have a full valence shell with 8
electrons. Therefore,

the .......... have little tendency to lose or gain electrons.

READING and VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT


1.1.4. Electron Configuration and the Table
You are going to read a text about the relationship between electron configuration and
the table. Fill the gaps in the text with words from the box.
common, thus, either, randomly, takes up, affects, determining, picture, therefore, increases,
similar, much

The "periodic" nature of chemical properties that Mendeleev had discovered is related to
the electron configuration of the atoms of the elements. In other words, the way in which an
atom's electrons are arranged around its nucleus .......... the properties of the atom.
Bohr's theory of the atom tells us that electrons are not located .......... around an atom's
nucleus, but they occur in specific electron shells. Each shell has a limited capacity for
electrons. As lower shells are filled, additional electrons reside in more-distant shells.
The capacity of the first electron shell is two electrons and for the second shell the
capacity is eight. ........, oxygen , with eight protons and eight electrons, carries two electrons
in its first shell and six in its second shell. Fluorine, with nine electrons, carries two in its first
shell and seven in the second. Neon, with ten electrons, carries two in the first and eight in the
second. Because the number of electrons in the second shell .......... , we can begin to imagine
why the chemical properties gradually change as we move from oxygen to fluorine to neon.
Sodium has eleven electrons. Two fit in its first shell, but remember that the second shell
can only carry eight electrons. Sodium's eleventh electron cannot fit into .......... its first or its
second shell. This electron .......... residence in yet another orbit, a third electron shell in sodium.
The reason that there is a dramatic shift in chemical properties when moving from neon to
sodium is because there is a dramatic shift in electron configuration between the two elements.
But why is sodium .......... to lithium? Let's look at the electron configurations of these elements.

Group IA VIA VIIA VIIIA

Lithium Oxygen Fluorine Neon

Sodium

Electron Configurations for Selected Elements

As you can see in the illustration, while sodium has three electron shells and lithium two,
the characteristic
As you they while
can see in the illustration, share in ..........
sodium is thatshells
has three electron theyand both have
lithium two, the only one electron in their outermost
electron shell. These outer-shell electrons (called valence electrons)
characteristic they share in ………. is that they both have only one electron in their outermost electron are important in .......... the
shell. These outer-shell electrons (called valence electrons) are important in ………. the chemical
chemical
properties ofproperties
the elements. of the elements.

An element's chemical properties are determined by the way in which its atoms interact
An element's chemical properties are determined by the way in which its atoms interact with other
atoms. If we ………. the outer (valence) electron shell of an atom as a sphere encompassing
with other atoms. If we .......... the outer (valence) electron shell of an atom as a sphere
everything inside, then it is only the valence shell that can interact with other atoms - ………. the same
encompassing everything inside, then it is only the valence shell that can interact with other
way as it is only the paint on the exterior of your house that "interacts" with, and gets wet by, rain
water.
atoms - .......... the same way as it is only the paint on the exterior of your house that "interacts"
with, and gets wet by, rain water.
17
Lithium Sodium

An atom's valence shell


"covers" inner electron shells

The valence shell electrons in an atom determine the way it will interact with neighboring
atoms, and .......... determine its chemical properties. Since both sodium and lithium have one
The valence shell electrons in an atom determine the way it will interact with neighboring atoms, and
………. determinevalence
its chemicalelectron, they
properties. Since bothshare similar
sodium and lithium chemical properties.
have one valence electron,
they share similar chemical properties.
READING
http://www.visionlearning.com/en/library/Chemistry/1/The-Periodic-Table-of-Elements/52/reading
Read the text again and decide whether the following statements are TRUE or FALSE.

READING 1. The way in which an atom's electrons are arranged around its nucleus depends on the
properties of the atom.
Read the text again and decide whether the following statements are TRUE or FALSE.

2. Bohr's
1. The way in which an atom's electronstheory of the
are arranged atom
around tellsdepends
its nucleus us that electrons
on the properties are not located strictly around an atom's
of the atom.
nucleus.
2. Bohr's theory of the atom tells us that electrons are not located strictly around an atom's nucleus.
3. As lower shells are filled, additional electrons reside in more-distant shells.
3. As lower shells are filled, additional electrons reside in more-distant shells.
4. Why is sodium different from lithium?
4. Why is sodium different from lithium?

5.have
5. Both sodium and lithium Bothonly sodium
one electronand lithium
in their outermosthave
electrononly
shell. one electron in their outermost electron shell.
6. An element's chemical6. An element's
properties chemical
are determined properties
by the way in which its atomsare determined
interact with by the way in which its atoms interact
other atoms.
with other atoms.
7. As sodium and lithium have one valence electron, they share different chemical properties.
7. As sodium and lithium have one valence electron, they share different chemical
properties. 18 18

Quiz

Find the answer to the following questions:


1. What is the most abundant element in the universe?
a. oxygen
b. hydrogen

c. sodium
2. What is the most abundant element in the earth's crust?
a. iron
b. magnesium
c. oxygen
3. What is the second more abundant element in the human body?
a. oxygen
b. calcium
c.carbon
LANGUAGE USE
Simple Past – Present Perfect Simple
In British English, the use of Simple Past and Present Perfect is quite strict. As soon as a
time expression in the past is given, you have to use Simple Past. If there are no signal words,
you must decide if we just talk about an action in the past or if its consequence in the present
is important.
Certain time in the past or just / already / yet? Do you want to express that an action
happened at a certain time in the past (even if it was just a few seconds ago) or that an action
has just / already / not yet happened?

Simple Past Present Perfect Simple

certain time in the past just / already / not yet


I phoned Mary 2 minutes ago. I have just phoned Mary.

Certain event in the past or how often so far?


Do you want to express when a certain action took place or whether / how often an action
has happened till now?

Simple Past Present Perfect Simple

certain event in the past whether / how often till now


He went to Canada last summer. Have you ever been to Canada? / I have been
to Canada twice.

Use the appropriate form of the verbs in brackets.

1. My friend (be) ................. to London three times.


2. A few years ago she (study) ..............English in New York.
3. I can’t get into my house because I (lose) ................ my keys.
4. She (be) ............. unemployed since she left school.
5. I never (know) ........... my grandmother as she died before I was born.
6. It is the first time I (eat) .......... crayfish.
7. It’s ages since they (speak) ......... .
8. The last time I saw him (be) .......... the day before yesterday.
9. I just (have) ............ the time to go to the cinema recently.
10. Tom (be) .......... away for the last two weeks.

LISTENING for fun!


I guess you are tired now, so listen to the New Periodic Song at
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zUDDiWtFtEM

UNIT 2. CHEMICAL BONDING


2.1. Chemical bonding
READING
2.1.1. Chemical bonding and atomic structure

You are going to read a text about chemical bonding and the atomic structure. Work
with a partner. Fill the gaps in the text with words from the box.

noble gases, particles, represented, uncombined, equal, chemical symbols, to,


electrically, achieve, energy level

Chemical bonding happens when two or more atoms join together to form a molecule. It
is a general principle in science that all systems will try to reach their lowest .......... , and
chemical bonding will only take place when a molecule can form that has less energy than its
.......... atoms. The three main types of bond are ionic, covalent, and metallic. These all involve
electrons moving between atoms in various ways. Another, much weaker, type is the hydrogen
bond.

Atomic Structure

Atoms consist of a nucleus containing positively charged protons, which is surrounded


by an .......... number of negatively charged electrons. Normally, therefore, they are ..........
neutral. An atom can, however lose or gain one or more electrons, giving it a positive or
negative charge. When one has an electrical charge, it is called an ion.
It is the electrons that are involved in chemical bonding. These .......... are arranged into
shells that can be thought of as existing at increasing distances from the nucleus. Generally,
the further from the nucleus the shells are, the more energy they have. There is a limit ..........
the number of electrons that can occupy a shell. For example, the first, innermost, shell has a
limit of two and the next shell a limit of eight.
In most cases, it is only the electrons in the outermost shell that participate in bonding.
These are often called the valence electrons. As a general rule, atoms will tend to combine with
one another in such a way that they all .......... full outer shells, as these configurations usually
have less energy. A group of elements known as the .......... — helium, neon, argon, krypton,
xenon, and radon — already have full outer shells and because of this, they do not normally
form chemical bonds. Other elements will generally try to achieve a noble gas structure by
giving, accepting, or sharing electrons with other atoms.

Chemical bonds are sometimes .......... by something called a Lewis structure, named
after the American chemist Gilbert N. Lewis. In a Lewis structure, the valence electrons are
represented by dots just outside the .......... for the elements in a molecule. They show clearly
where electrons have moved from one atom to another and where they are shared between
atoms.

READING
2.1.2. Types of bonding
You are going to read a text about types of bonding. Some sentences are missing from
the text. Choose from the list (A-G) the most appropriate sentence for each gap (1-6) in the
text. There is an example at the beginning.
Ionic Bonding
This type of chemical bonding takes place between metals, which easily give up
electrons, and non- metals , which are keen to accept them. The metal gives the electrons in its
incomplete outermost shell to the non-metal, leaving that shell empty so that the full shell
below becomes its new outermost shell. (0) ___D___ In this way, both atoms have achieved
full outer shells. This leaves the metal with a positive charge and the non-metal with a negative
charge, so they are positive and negative ions that attract one another.
Covalent Bonding
A simple example is sodium fluoride. (1) ______ Fluorine has two shells, with seven
electrons in the outermost. The sodium gives its one valence electron to the fluorine atom, so
that the sodium now has two complete shells and a positive charge, while the fluorine has two
complete shells and a negative charge. The resulting molecule — sodium fluoride — features
two atoms with complete outer shells bonded together by electrical attraction .

Atoms of non-metals combine with one another by sharing electrons in such a way that
they lower their overall energy level. (2) ______ To take a simple example, hydrogen has just
one electron, in its first — and only — shell, which leaves it one short of a full shell. Two
hydrogen atoms can share their electrons to form a molecule in which both have a full outer
shell

It is often possible to predict how atoms will combine with one another from the number
of electrons they have. For example, carbon has six, which means that it has a full first shell
of two and an outermost shell of four, leaving it four short of a full outer shell. Oxygen has
eight, and so has six in its outer shell — two short of a full shell. A carbon atom can combine
with two oxygen atoms to form carbon dioxide, in which the carbon shares its four electrons,
two with each oxygen atom, and the oxygen atoms in turn each share two of their electrons
with the carbon atom. (3) ______

Metallic Bonding
In a piece of metal, the valence electrons are more or less free to move around, rather
than belonging to individual atoms. The metal therefore consists of positively charged ions
surrounded by mobile, negatively charged electrons. The ions can be moved relatively easily,
but are difficult to detach, due to their attraction to the electrons. (4) ______ The mobility of
the electrons also explains why metals are good conductors of electricity.
Hydrogen Bonding

Unlike the examples above, hydrogen bonding involves bonding between, rather than
within, molecules. When hydrogen combines with an element that strongly attracts electrons
— such as fluorine or oxygen — the electrons are pulled away from the hydrogen. This results
in a molecule with an overall positive charge on one side and a negative charge on the other.
(5) ______

Although these bonds are much weaker than ionic, covalent, or metallic bonds, they are
very important. Hydrogen bonding takes place in water, a compound containing two atoms of
hydrogen and one of oxygen. (6) ______ Without hydrogen bonding, water would have a much
lower boiling point and could not exist as a liquid on the Earth.

Find more information on chemical bonding at


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h6LPAwAmnCQ

A This means that more energy is required to convert liquid water into a gas than would
otherwise be the case.
B This explains why metals are generally easy to bend but difficult to break.
C In a liquid, the positive and negative sides attract one another, forming bonds between the
molecules.
D The non-metal accepts electrons so as to fill up its incomplete outermost shell.
E This way, all three atoms have full outer shells containing eight electrons.
F This usually means that, when combined, they all have full outer shells.
G Sodium has three shells, with one valence electron in the outermost.
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT
Provide the antonyms of the following words from the text above.
1. outermost
2. accepting
3. attract
4. combine
5. lower their energy level
6. mobile
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT
Match the words (1-15) from the text above with the synonyms (a-o).

1. take place a growing

2. various b instance
3. involve c lead to

4. therefore d include

5. bonding e since

6. increasing f occur

7.occupy g need

8. as h react

9. because of i donate

10. represent j different

11. give k as a result

12. example l link

13. combine m due to

14. result in n fill a space

15. require o show

SPEAKING

Read the text again and by using the illustration below discuss what you have learned
about the different types of bonding.
WRITING
With the help of the information from the text titled Types of bonding and the ’pictures’
above write a 120 word summary of the different types of bonding.
LISTENING
See more about ionic bonding at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5EwmedLuRmw
Watch the following video about ionic bonding at
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qf07-8Jhhpc.
Work with a partner. Discuss the three steps the presenter has mentioned. The following
expressions might help you:
• connection between metal atoms and non-metal atoms
• a big, thick staircase ( why is it mentioned?)
• step 1 – transfer of electron
• step 2 - ion formation
• step 3 - opposite charges, sticking together
READING
2.1.3. What is bond energy?
After reading the text, answer the following questions.

Bond energy is a term used in chemistry to describe the amount of energy required to
separate the chemical bonds between atoms. It is defined as the amount of heat energy required
to break a specific quantity of bonds of one type and is expressed as kilojoules per mole of
bonds (kj/mol). A mole is a constant, equal to 6.02 x 1023 atoms or molecules of a particular
substance. The bond energy of a particular bond depends on the type of bond, and some are
much stronger than others. Ionic bonds, formed by the transfer of electrons from one atom to
another are generally the strongest, and hydrogen bonds are the weakest.
Some chemists and texts refer to the energy needed to break bonds apart as bond
dissociation energy, sometimes expressed as a negative value, and the energy needed to form
the bonds as bond energy, expressed as a positive value, but this is mainly a matter of semantics
as the absolute amounts are identical for any given bond. The same amount of energy is
released when bonds are formed as must be applied to break them. This can cause confusion,
but the terms bond dissociation energy and bond energy are sometimes used interchangeably.
The main difference is the usage of one or the other to describe what kind of reaction is
happening, not the amount of energy involved.

1. How do you define bond energy?


2. How is an ionic bond formed?
3. Which is the strongest bond?
4. What kind of value refers to bond energy?
5. What can lead to confusion?
6. How are the terms bond dissociation energy and bond energy sometimes used?
7. What is the main difference between the terms mentioned in the previous question?
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT
2.1.4. Bonding in metals (Properties of metals)
Fill the gaps in the text with words from the box.

malleability, lattice, hybrids, electronegativities, fluid, p-orbitals, alkali, octet, quantitative

The fact that the metallic elements are found on the left side of the periodic table offers
an important clue to the nature of how they bond together to form solids.
These elements all possess low .......... and readily form positive ions Mn+. Because they
show no tendency to form negative ions, the kind of bonding present in ionic solids can
immediately be ruled out.
The metallic elements have empty or nearly-empty outer .........., so there are never
enough outer- shell electrons to place an .......... around an atom.
These points lead us to the simplest picture of metals, which regards them as a .......... of
positive ions immersed in a “sea of electrons” which can freely migrate throughout the solid.
In effect the electropositive nature of the metallic atoms allows their valence electrons to exist
as a mobile .......... which can be displaced by an applied electric field, hence giving rise to their
high electrical conductivities. Because each ion is surrounded by the electron fluid in all
directions, the bonding has no directional properties; this accounts for the high .......... and
ductility of metals.
This view is an oversimplification that fails to explain metals in a ........... way, nor can it
account for the differences in the properties of individual metals. A more detailed treatment,
known as the bond theory of metals, applies the idea of resonance .......... to metallic lattices.
In the case of an .......... metal, for example, this would involve a large number of hybrid
structures in which a given Na atom shares its electron with its various neighbors.
READING
After reading the text above again, answer the questions that follow.
1. What does the fact that the metallic elements are found on the left side of the periodic
table offer an important clue to?
2. What is characteristic of all these elements?
3. Why is the kind of bonding present in ionic solids can immediately be ruled out?
4. What is the consequence of the fact that the metallic elements have empty or nearly-
empty outer p-orbitals?
5. How can we describe the so-called lattice of ions?
6. What allows the valence electrons of the metallic atoms to exist as a mobile fluid?
7. What gives rise to their high electrical conductivities?
8. Why does the bonding have no directional properties?

2.2. What is a molecule?


VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT
Read the following text. Use a dictionary and explain the meaning of the following words
and phrases from the text below:
1. particle 2. aggregate 3. distinctive 4. distinguish 5. observable 6. Discrete
7. chemical species 8. constituent atom 9. that is 10. spatial relationship
11. compound 12. structural formula 13. property
Most people think of molecules as the particles that result when atoms become joined
together in some way. This conveys the general picture, but a somewhat better definition is:
A molecule is an aggregate of atoms that possesses distinctive observable properties.
A more restrictive definition distinguishes between a "true" molecule that exists as an
independent particle, and an extended solid that can only be represented by its simplest
formula. Methane, CH4, is an example of the former, while sodium chloride, which does not
contain any discrete NaCl units, is the most widely-known extended solid.
Structure, structure, structure!
And what are those properties that characterize a particular kind of molecule and
distinguish it from others? The identity of a chemical species is defined by its structure. In its
most fundamental sense, the structure of a molecule is specified by the identity of its constituent
atoms and the sequence in which they are joined together, that is, by the bonding connectivity.
This, in turn, defines the bonding geometry— the spatial relationship between the bonded
atoms.
The importance of bonding connectivity is nicely illustrated by the structures of the two
compounds ethanol and dimethyl ether, both of which have the simplest formula C2H6O.
The structural formulas reveal the very different connectivities of these two molecules whose
physical and chemistry properties are quite different:

LISTENING and SPEAKING


After watching the video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RbbOBPfH_uk, discuss
the differences between an atom and a molecule with a partner.
2.3. How do we depict chemical structures?
READING

Write the appropriate answer to each question below.


Chemical species are traditionally represented by structural formulas such as the one for
ascorbic acid (vitamin C) which we show here. The lines, of course, represent the "chemical
bonds" of the molecule. More importantly, the structural formula of a molecule defines its
connectivity, as was illustrated in the comparison of ethanol and dimethyl ether shown above.
One limitation of such formulas is that they are drawn on a two-dimensional paper or
screen, whereas most molecules have a three-dimensional shape.

The wedge-shaped lines in the structural formula are one way of indicating which bonds extend
above or below the viewing plane. You will probably be spared having to learn this convention
until you get into second-year Chemistry.
Three-dimensional models (either real plastic ones or images that incorporate
perspective and shading) reveal much more about a molecule's structure. The ball-and-stick
and space-filling renditions are widely employed, but each has its limitations, as seen in the
following examples:
The wedge-shaped lines in the structural formula are one way of indicating which bonds extend
above or below the viewing plane. You will probably be spared having to learn this convention until
you get into second-year Chemistry.

Three-dimensional models (either real plastic ones or images that incorporate perspective and
shading) reveal much more about a molecule's structure. The ball-and-stick and space-filling
renditions are widely employed, but each has its limitations, as seen in the following examples:

[U. Alberta ]
methane Note how this shows CH4 to be
[U. Rochester] roughly spherical.

Space-filling model, showing relative


Ball-and-stick model, showing the
Ordinary structural sizes of the atoms and general shape
"chemical bonds" and bonding
formula, showing of the molecule, but not all atoms
geometry, but with the individual
connectivity only. visible. No obvious "chemical bonds"
atoms unrealisticly separated.
here!

ascorbic acid

ascorbic acid
ascorbic acid
37

But what would a molecule "really" look like if you could view it
through a magical microscope of some kind? A possible answer would be this computer-generated
view of nicotine. At first you might think it looks more like a piece of abstract sculpture than a
molecule, but it does reveal the shape of the negative charge-cloud that envelops the collection of
atom cores and nuclei hidden within. This can be very important for understanding how the molecule
Butwhat
But what would wouldaa molecule
interacts with the similar charge-clouds that clothe solvent and bioreceptor molecules.
molecule "really"
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couldview it
through a magical microscope of some
view it through a magical microscope of some kind? A possible answer would be this kind? A possible answer would be this computer-generated
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more like"really" piecelook like if you could view it
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immobilized solvent and bioreceptor molecules.
pentacene
molecule cooled to nearly absolute zero. In order to improve the image quality, a molecule of carbon
monoxide was placed on the end of the probe.

The image produced by the AFM probe is shown at the very bottom. What is actually being imaged is
the surface of the electron clouds of the molecule, which consists of five fused hexagonal rings of
carbon atoms with hydrogens on its periphery. The tiny bumps that correspond to these hydrogen
atom attest to the remarkable resolution of this experiment.

38

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carbon atoms with hydrogens on its periphery. The tiny bumps that correspond to these hydrogen
immobilized pentacene molecule cooled to nearly absolute zero. In order to improve the image
quality, a molecule of carbon monoxide was placed on the end of the probe
The image produced by the AFM probe is shown at the very bottom. What is actually
being imaged is the surface of the electron clouds of the molecule, which consists of five fused
hexagonal rings of carbon atoms with hydrogens on its periphery. The tiny bumps that
correspond to these hydrogen atoms attest to the remarkable resolution of this experiment.

1. What does the structural formula of a molecule define?


2. What do the wedge-shaped lines indicate?
3. How would you characterize the three-dimensional models?
4. What does the computer-generated view of nicotine show?
5. What does AFM stand for and what is it used for?
6. What does the surface of the electron clouds of the molecule consist of?
7. What do the tiny bumps prove?
SPEAKING
Because of the fact that the three-dimensional models reveal much more about a
molecule's structure discuss them in detail with a partner or in a small group on the basis of the
text above. Focus on the following ideas:
• the representation of chemical species by structural formulas
• two -dimensional drawings
• three-dimensional models
• imaging a real molecule (atomic force microscopy)
UNIT 3. ACIDS and BASES
3.1. Acid/Base Basics
READING
3.1.1. How does one define acids and bases?
Match the proper names to the following definitions and then check your choice while
reading the text below.

a. Arrhenius 1. Acids are electron pair acceptors while bases are electron pair donors.

b. Lewis 2. Acids are substances that donate protons (H+) whereas bases are substances
that accept protons.

3. Acids are substances that ionize (break off) in an aqueous solution to


c. Bronsted-
Lowry producehydrogen (H+) ions while bases produce hydroxide (OH-) ions in
solution.

In chemistry, acids and bases have been defined differently by three sets of theories. One
is the Arrhenius definition, which revolves around the idea that acids are substances that ionize
(break off) in an aqueous solution to produce hydrogen (H+) ions while bases produce
hydroxide (OH-) ions in solution. On the other hand, the Bronsted-Lowry definition defines
acids as substances that donate protons (H+) whereas bases are substances that accept protons.
Also, the Lewis theory of acids and bases states that acids are electron pair acceptors while
bases are electron pair donors. Acids and bases can be defined by their physical and chemical
observations.

SPEAKING
3.1.2. Properties
Work with a partner. Discuss the properties of acids and bases according to the table
below.
Acids and bases are common solutions that exist everywhere. Almost every liquid that
we encounter in our daily lives consists of acidic and basic properties, with the exception of
water. They have completely different properties and are able to neutralize to form H2O. The
table below compares the different properties between them:
Table 1.

ACIDS BASES

produce a piercing pain in a wound. give a slippery feel.

taste sour. taste bitter.

are colorless when placed in are pink when placed in phenolphthalein (an
phenolphthalein (an indicator). indicator).

are red on blue litmus paper (a pH


are blue on red litmus paper (a pH indicator).
indicator).

have a pH<7. have a pH>7.

produce hydrogen gas when reacted with


metals.

produce carbon dioxide when reacted with


carbonates.

Common examples: Lemons, oranges, Common Examples: Soap, toothpaste, bleach,


vinegar, urine, sulfuric acid, cleaning agents, limewater, ammonia

hydrochloric acid water, sodium hydroxide.

3.2. Types of definitions


VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT
3.2.1. The Arrhenius Definition
Match the words (1-6) from the text below to their synonyms (a-f).
In 1884, the Swedish chemist Svante Arrhenius proposed two specific classifications of
compounds, termed acids and bases. When dissolved in an aqueous solution, certain ions were
released into the solution.
Arrhenius Acids
An Arrhenius acid is a compound that increases the concentration of H+ ions that are
present when added to water. These H+ ions form the hydronium ion (H3O+) when they
combine with water molecules. This process is represented in a chemical equation by adding
H2O to the reactants side.
HCl(aq)→H+(aq) + Cl−(aq)
In this reaction, hydrochloric acid (HCl) dissociates into hydrogen (H+) and chlorine (Cl-
) ions when dissolved in water, thereby releasing H+ ions into solution. Formation of the
hydronium ion equation:
HCl(aq)+H3O+(l)→H3O+(aq) + Cl−(aq)
Incomplete Ionization (Weak Acids)
Strong acids are molecular compounds that essentially ionize to completion in aqueous
solution, disassociating into H+ ions and the additional anion; there are very few common
strong acids. All other acids are "weak acids" that incompletely ionize in aqueous solution.

Strong Acids HCl, HNO3, H2SO4, HBr, HI, HClO4

Weak Acids All other acids, such as HCN, HF, H2S, HCOOH

Arrhenius Bases

An Arrhenius base is a compound that increases the concentration of OH- ions that are
present when added to water.
The dissociation is represented by the following equation:
+ −
NaOH(aq)→Na (aq)+OH (aq)

In this reaction, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) disassociates into sodium (Na+) and
hydroxide (OH-) ions when dissolved in water, thereby releasing OH- ions into solution.

Figure 1. Arrhenius acids dissociate to form aqueous H+ ions and Arrhenius bases
dissociate to form aqueous OH- ions.
NOTE: The stronger the acid and base, the more dissociation will occur.
Incomplete Ionization (Weak Bases)
Like acids, strong and weak bases are classified by the extent of their ionization. Strong
bases disassociate almost or entirely to completion in aqueous solution. Similar to strong acids,
there are very few common strong bases. Weak bases are molecular compounds where the
ionization is not complete.

1. proposed a react

2. released b liberated

3. increases c grouped

4. combine d shown

5. ionize e suggested

6. represented f enlarges

7. classified g break off

READING
While reading the text above, decide if the statements are TRUE or FALSE.

1. An Arrhenius acid is a compound that decreases the concentration of H+ ions that are
present when added to water.

2. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) associates into hydrogen (H+) and chlorine (Cl-) ions when
dissolved in water.
3. Strong acids are molecular compounds that essentially ionize to completion in aqueous
solution. 4. There are a few common strong acids.

5. An Arrhenius base is a compound that increases the concentration of OH- ions that are
present when added to water.

6. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) disassociates into sodium (Na+) and hydroxide (OH-) ions
when dissolved in water.
7. The weaker the acid and base, the more dissociation will occur.
8. Weak bases are molecular compounds where the ionization is not complete.
LISTENING
Watch the video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DupXDD87oHc and then discuss
the topic. The recording is about the strengths and weaknesses of acids and bases. Focus on the
following ideas:
• complete ionization
• incomplete ionization
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT
3.2.1.1. Limitations to the Arrhenius Theory
Fill the gaps in the text with words from the box.

dissolved, solution, neutralised, dilute, weak base, in line with, however, either

The Arrhenius theory has many more limitations than the other two theories. The theory
suggests that in order for a substance to release either H+ or OH- ions, it must contain that
particular ion. However, this does not explain the .......... ammonia (NH3), which in the
presence of water, releases hydroxide ions into solution, but does not contain OH- itself.
Hydrochloric acid is .......... by both sodium hydroxide solution and ammonia solution.
In both cases, you get a colourless solution which you can crystallise to get a white salt - ..........
sodium chloride or ammonium chloride. These are clearly very similar reactions. The full
equations are:
NaOH(aq)+HCl(aq)→NaCl(aq)+H2O(l)
NH3(aq)+HCl(aq)→NH4Cl(aq)
In the sodium hydroxide case, hydrogen ions from the acid are reacting with hydroxide
ions from the sodium hydroxide - .......... the Arrhenius theory. However, in the ammonia case,
there are no hydroxide ions!
You can get around this by saying that the ammonia reacts with the water it is .......... in
to produce ammonium ions and hydroxide ions:
NH3(aq)+H2O(l)⇌NH4+ (aq)+OH−(aq)
This is a reversible reaction, and in a typical .......... ammonia solution, about 99% of the
ammonia remains as ammonia molecules. Nevertheless, there are hydroxide ions there, and we
can squeeze this into the Arrhenius theory ........... , this same reaction also happens between
ammonia gas and hydrogen chloride gas.
NH3(g)+HCl(g)→NH4Cl(s)
In this case, there are not any hydrogen ions or hydroxide ions in solution - because there
isn't any .......... . The Arrhenius theory wouldn't count this as an acid-base reaction, despite the
fact that it is producing the same product as when the two substances were in solution. Because
of this short- coming, later theories sought to better explain the behavior of acids and bases in
a new manner.
READING
3.2.2. The Brønsted-Lowry Definition
After reading this text, answer the questions that follow.
In 1923, British chemists Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and Thomas Martin Lowry
independently developed definitions of acids and bases based on the compounds' abilties to
either donate or accept protons (H+ ions). In this theory, acids are defined as proton donors;
whereas bases are defined as proton acceptors. A compound that acts as both a Bronsted-Lowry
acid and base together is called amphoteric.This took the Arrhenius definition one step further,
as a substance no longer needed to be composed of hydrogen (H+) or hydroxide (OH-) ions in
order to be classified as an acid or base.
Consider the following chemical equation:
HCl(aq)+NH3(aq)→NH4+(aq)+Cl−(aq)

Here, hydrochloric acid (HCl) "donates" a proton (H+) to ammonia (NH3) which
"accepts" it , forming a positively charged ammonium ion (NH4+) and a negatively charged
chloride ion (Cl-). Therefore, HCl is a Brønsted-Lowry acid (donates a proton) while the
ammonia is a Bronsted-Lowry base (accepts a proton). Also, Cl- is called the conjugate base
of the acid HCl and NH4+ is called the conjugate acid of the base NH3.
1. Who developed the definitions of acids and bases at the beginning of the 20th century?
2. How did they define acids and bases?
3. What is the conjugate base of the acid HCl and what is the conjugate acid of the base
NH3 ?

READING
3.2.2.1. pH Scale
After reading this text, answer the questions that follow.

Since acids increase the amount of H+ ions present and bases increase the amount of OH-
ions, under the pH scale, the strength of acidity and basicity can be measured by its
concentration of H+ ions. This scale is shown by the following formula:

pH = -log[H+]
with [H+] being the concentration of H+ ions.
The pH scale is often measured on a 1 to 14 range, but this is incorrect. Something with
a pH less than 7 indicates acidic properties and greater than 7 indicates basic properties. A pH
at exactly 7 is neutral. The higher the [H+], the lower the pH.

The pH scale shows that substances with a pH greater than 7 are basic and a pH less than
7 are acidic

• What increases the amount of H+ and what increases that of OH- ions?
• How can we measure the strength of acidity and basicity?
• On what range is the pH scale often measured? Is it correct?

WRITING
3.2.3. Lewis Theory
Translate the text below into Vietnamese. Be careful with the Vietnamese terminology.
The Lewis theory of acids and bases states that acids act as electron pair acceptors and
bases act as electron pair doners. This definition doesn't mention anything about the hydrogen
atom at all, unlike the other definitions. It only talks about the transfer of electron pairs. To
demonstrate this theory, consider the following example.

This is a reaction between ammonia (NH3) and boron trifluoride (BF3). Since there is no
transfer of hydrogen atoms here, it is clear that this is a Lewis acid-base reaction. In this
reaction, NH3 has a lone pair of electrons and BF3 has an incomplete octet, since boron doesn't
have enough electrons around it to form an octet.
Figure 2. The Lewis structures of ammonia and boron trifluoride.
Because boron only has 6 electrons around it, it can hold 2 more. BF3 can act as an acid
and accept the pair of electrons from the nitrogen in NH3, which will then form a bond between
the nitrogen and the boron.

Figure 3. The Lewis structure of H3NBF3, which resulted from the bond between
nitrogen and boron.
This is considered an acid-base reaction where NH3 (base) is donating the pair of
electrons to BF3. BF3 (acid) is accepting those electrons to form a new compound, H3NBF3.
3.3. Neutralization and Titration
LISTENING and SPEAKING
3.3.1. Neutralization
Work with a partner. Read the two short texts below and discuss the topics. (The
following video might help you: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_pc9wp4QyUE).
A special property of acids and bases is their ability to neutralize the other's properties.
In an acid- base (or neutralization) reaction, the H+ ions from the acid and the OH- ions from
the base react to create water (H2O). Another product of a neutralization reaction is an ionic
compound called a salt. Therefore, the general form of an acid-base reaction is:

The following are examples of neutralization reactions:

1.

2.
LANGUAGE USE
3.3.2. Titrations
Read the short text about titrations and find all the instances of PASSIVE
CONSTRUCTIONS there. Then give reasons for their use. Below you can get useful
information on passive and active voices. After reading the text, do the exercise on the last
page.
Titrations are performed with acids and bases to determine their concentrations. At the
equivalence point, the number of moles of the acid will equal the number of moles of the base.
This indicates that the reaction has been neutralized.
Neutralization: moles of acid = moles of base
Here's how the calculations are done:
For instance, hydrochloric acid is titrated with sodium hydroxide:

For instance, 30 mL of 1.00 M NaOH is needed to titrate 60 mL of an HCl solution. The


concentration of HCl needs to be determined. At the eqivalence point:
moles of HCl = moles of NaOH
Passive and Active Voices
Verbs are also said to be either active (The executive committee approved the new
policy)or passive (The new policy was approved by the executive committee) in voice. In the
active voice, the subject and verb relationship is straightforward: the subject is a be-er or a do-
er and the verb moves the sentence along. In the passive voice, the subject of the sentence is
neither a do-er or a be- er, but is acted upon by some other agent or by something unnamed
(The new policy was approved).
The passive is particularly useful (even recommended) in two situations:
• When it is more important to draw our attention to the person or thing acted
upon: The unidentified victim was apparently struck during the early morning hours.
• When the actor in the situation is not important: The aurora borealis can be
observed in the early morning hours.

The passive voice is especially helpful (and even regarded as mandatory) in scientific or
technical writing or lab reports , where the actor is not really important but the process or
principle being described is of ultimate importance. Instead of writing "I poured 20 cc of acid
into the beaker," we would write "Twenty cc of acid is/was poured into the beaker." The passive
voice is also useful when describing a mechanical process in which the details of process are
much more important than anyone's taking responsibility for the action: "The first coat of
primer paint is applied immediately after the acid rinse."
Only transitive verbs (those that take objects) can be transformed into passive
constructions. Sentences with direct and indirect objects

Active Professor Villa gave Jorge an A

Passive An A was given to Jorge by Professor Villa


Passive Jorge was given an A

Change the following sentences from active to passive.


1. They should send it to us on Monday.
2. They cannot hold the meeting in that room.
3. They may deliver the package while we are out.
4. Susan is teaching that class.
5. We must warn them of the danger.
6. They couldn't sell the car at that price.
7. The government is debating that question now.
8. He has to finish it today.
9. They are sending the ambassador to Europe on a special mission.
10. You must insure your car.
UNIT 4. STATES of MATTER and THERMODYNAMICS
4.1. States of Matter
READING
4.1.1. Introduction
Read this text about states of matter and the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter. Parts
of some sentences have been removed from the text. Choose the most appropriate part from
the list (A-G) for each gap (1-6) in the text. There is an example at the beginning.
The different states of matter have long confused people. The ancient Greeks were the
first (0) ...C.. based on their observations of water. But these same Greeks, in particular the
philosopher Thales (624 - 545 BCE), incorrectly suggested that since water could exist as a
solid, liquid, or even a gas under natural conditions, it must be the single principal element in
the universe (1) ...... .We now know that water is not the fundamental substance of the universe;
in fact, (2) ...... .
To understand the different states in which matter can exist, we need to understand
something called the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter. Kinetic Molecular Theory has many
parts, but we will introduce just a few here. One of the basic concepts of the theory states
that atoms and molecules possess an energy of motion (3) ...... In other words, atoms and
molecules are constantly moving, and we measure the energy of these movements (4) ...... The
more energy a substance has, the more molecular movement there will be, and the higher the
perceived temperature will be. An important point that follows this is that the amount of energy
that atoms and molecules have (and thus the amount of movement) influences their interaction
with each other. (5) ....., many atoms and molecules are attracted to each other as a result of
various intermolecular forces such as hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and others. Atoms
and molecules that have relatively small amounts of energy (and movement) will interact
strongly with each other, while those that have relatively high energy will interact only slightly,
if even at all, with others.
How does this produce different states of matter? Atoms that have low energy interact
strongly and (6) ...... Thus, collectively, these atoms form a hard substance, what we call a
solid. Atoms that possess high energy will move past each other freely, flying about a room,
and forming what we call gas. As it turns out, there are several known states of matter; a few
of them are detailed below.
A. as the temperature of the substance
B. tend to "lock" in place with respect to other atoms
C. to identify three classes (what we now call states) of matter
D. from which all other substances are made
E. unlike simple billiard balls
F. it is not even an element
G. that we perceive as temperature
READING
Look at the text above again and decide whether these sentences are TRUE or FALSE.

1. Thales correctly suggested that since water could exist as a solid, liquid, or even a gas,
it must be the single principal element in the universe.
2. The more energy a substance has, the less molecular movement there will be.
3. The amount of energy that atoms and molecules have influences their interaction with
each other.
4. Atoms and molecules that have relatively small amounts of energy will interact weakly
with each other.
5. Atoms that have low energy interact strongly.

VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT
4.1.2. Solids, Liquids, Gases, Plasmas and Bose-Einstein Condensates
You are going to read a text about ’Solids, Liquids, Gases, Plasmas and Bose-Einstein
Condensates’. Fill the gaps in the text with phrases from the box.
intermolecular forces, charged ions, vibrational energy, low density, gaseous superfluids,
absolute zero, liquid crystals, attractive forces, ionized gases, rigid structure, little interaction

1. Solids are formed when the .......... between individual molecules are greater than
the energy causing them to move apart. Individual molecules are locked in position near each
other, and cannot move past one another. The atoms or molecules of solids remain in motion.
However, that motion is limited to ..........; individual molecules stay fixed in place and vibrate
next to each other. As the temperature of a solid is increased, the amount of vibration increases,
but the solid retains its shape and volume because the molecules are locked in place relative to
each other.
2. Liquids are formed when the energy (usually in the form of heat) of a system is
increased and the .......... of the solid state is broken down. In liquids, molecules can move past
one another and bump into other molecules; however, they remain relatively close to each other
like solids. Often in liquids, ........... (such as hydrogen bonds) pull molecules together and are
quickly broken. As the temperature of a liquid is increased, the amount of movement of
individual molecules increases. As a result, liquids can "flow" to take the shape of their
container but they cannot be easily compressed because the molecules are already close
together. Thus liquids have an undefined shape, but a defined volume.
3. Gases are formed when the energy in the system exceeds all of the attractive forces
between molecules. Thus gas molecules have .......... with each other beyond occasionally
bumping into one another. In the gas state, molecules move quickly and are free to move in
any direction, spreading out long distances. As the temperature of a gas increases, the amount
of movement of individual molecules increases. Gases expand to fill their containers and have
.......... . Because individual molecules are widely separated and can move around easily in the
gas state, gases can be compressed easily and they have an undefined shape.
Solids, liquids, and gases are the most common states of matter that exist on our planet.
4. Plasmas are hot, .......... . Plasmas are formed under conditions of extremely high
energy, so high, in fact, that molecules are ripped apart and only free atoms exist. More
astounding, plasmas have so much energy that the outer electrons are actually ripped off of
individual atoms, thus forming a gas of highly energetic, charged ions. Because the atoms in
plasma exist as .........., plasmas behave differently than gases, thus representing a fourth state
of matter. Plasmas can be commonly seen simply by looking upward; the high energy
conditions that exist in stars such as our sun force individual atoms into the plasma state. As
we have seen, increasing energy leads to more molecular motion. Conversely, decreasing
energy results in less molecular motion. As a result, one prediction of Kinetic Molecular
Theory is that if we continue to decrease the energy (measured as temperature) of a substance,
we will reach a point at which all molecular motion stops. The temperature at which molecular
motion stops is called .......... and has been calculated to be -273.15 degrees Celsius. While
scientists have cooled substances to temperatures close to absolute zero, they have never
actually reached absolute zero. The difficulty with observing a substance at absolute zero is
that to "see" the substance, light is needed, and light itself transfers energy to the substance,
thus raising the temperature. Despite these challenges, scientists have recently observed a fifth
state of matter that only exists at temperatures very close to absolute zero.
5. Bose-Einstein Condensates represent a fifth state of matter only seen for the first time
in 1995. The state is named after Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein who predicted its
existence in the 1920's. B-E condensates are .......... cooled to temperatures very near absolute
zero. In this weird state, all the atoms of the condensate attain the same quantum-mechanical
state and can flow past one another without friction. Even more strangely, B-E condensates can
actually "trap" light, releasing it when the state breaks down.
Several other less common states of matter have also either been described or actually
seen. Some of these states include .........., fermionic condensates, superfluids, supersolids and
the aptly named strange matter.
See more about gases, liquids and solids at
http://www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/liquids/character.html
Bose-Einstein Condensates
http://pfc.umd.edu/sites/default/files/images/cold_atoms_research.jpg

READING
Read the text above again. There are some statements after it. Your task is to match the
statements to the numbered paragraphs. The last two sentences in the text do not count as a
separate paragraph.
a) Because individual molecules are widely separated and can move around easily , they
can be compressed easily.
b) Individual molecules are locked in position near each other, and cannot move past
one another.
c) All the atoms attain the same quantum-mechanical state and can flow past one another
without friction.
d) They cannot be easily compressed because the molecules are already close together.
e) They are formed under conditions of extremely high energy, so high, that molecules
are ripped apart and only free atoms exist.
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT
Insert the missing forms of the words in the table. All the words are taken from the text
above.

VERB NOUN ADJECTIVE ADVERB

limited

easily

increase

exceed

energetic

condensate -
READING
4.1.3. Phase transitions
You are going to read a text about phase transitions. After you have read it, answer the
questions that follow.
The transformation of one state of matter into another state is called a phase transition.
The more common phase transitions even have names; for example, the terms melting and
freezing describe phase transitions between the solid and liquid state, and the terms
evaporation and condensation describe transitions between the liquid and gas state. Phase
transitions occur at very precise points, when the energy (measured as temperature) of a
substance in a given state exceeds that allowed in the state. For example, liquid water can exist
at a range of temperatures. Cold drinking water may be around 4oC. Hot shower water has more
energy and thus may be around 40oC. However, at 100°C under normal conditions, water will
begin to undergo a phase transition into the gas phase. At this point, energy introduced into the
liquid will not go into increasing the temperature; it will be used to send molecules of water
into the gas state. Thus, no matter how high the flame is on the stove, a pot of boiling water
will remain at 100oC until all of the water has undergone transition to the gas phase. The excess
energy introduced by a high flame will accelerate the liquid-to-gas transition; it will not change
the temperature. The heat curve below illustrates the corresponding changes in energy (shown
in calories) and temperature of water as it undergoes a phase transition between the liquid and
gas states.

As can be seen in the graph above, as we move from left to right, the temperature of
liquid water increases as energy (heat) is introduced. At 100oC, water begins to undergo a phase
transition and the temperature remains constant even as energy is added (the flat part of the
graph). The energy that is introduced during this period goes toward breaking intermolecular
forces so that individual water molecules can "escape" into the gas state. Finally, once the
transition is complete, if further energy is added to the system, the heat of the gaseous water,
or steam, will increase.
This same process can be seen in reverse if we simply look at the graph above starting
on the right side and moving left. As steam is cooled, the movement of gaseous water molecules
and thus temperature will decrease. When the gas reaches 100oC, more energy will be lost
from the system as the attractive forces between molecules reform; however the temperature
remains constant during the transition (the flat part of the graph). Finally, when condensation
is complete, the temperature of the liquid will begin to fall as energy is withdrawn.
Phase transitions are an important part of the world around us. For example, the energy
withdrawn when perspiration evaporates from the surface of your skin allows your body to
correctly regulate its temperature during hot days. Phase transitions play an important part in
geology,
influencing mineral formation and possibly even earthquakes. And who can ignore the phase
transition that occurs at about -3oC, when cream, perhaps with a few strawberries or chocolate
chunks, begins to form solid ice cream.
Now we understand what is happening in a pot of boiling water. The energy (heat)
introduced at the bottom of the pot causes a localized phase transition of liquid water to the
gaseous state. Because gases are less dense than liquids, these localized phase transitions form
pockets (or bubbles) of gas, which rise to the surface of the pot and burst. But nature is often
more magical than our imaginations. Despite all that we know about the states of matter and
phase transitions, we still cannot predict where the individual bubbles will form in a pot of
boiling water.
1. How is phase transition defined?
2. Enumerate the more common phase transitions.
3. When do they occur?
4. What does the heat curve in the graph above illustrate?
5. How can phase transitions be an important part of the world around us?
6. What can phase transitions influence in geology?
7. Why can we say that nature is often more magical than our imaginations?
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT
Complete the sentences from the text above with parts removed from them.
1. The terms __________ describe phase transitions between the solid and liquid state.
2. Phase transitions occur at very precise points, when the energy (__________) of a
substance in a given state exceeds that allowed in the state.
3. __________ introduced by a high flame will accelerate the liquid-to-gas transition; it
will not change the temperature.
4. As steam is cooled, the movement of __________ and thus temperature will decrease.
5. When condensation is complete, the temperature of the liquid will begin to fall as
__________ .
6. Phase transitions play an important part in geology, influencing __________ and
possibly even earthquakes.
7. The energy (heat) introduced at the bottom of the pot causes __________ of liquid
water to the gaseous state.
mineral formation, the excess energy, a localized phase transition, energy is
withdrawn, melting and freezing , gaseous water molecules, measured as temperature

SPEAKING
You can find a graph in the text above. Study it carefully and then discuss with a partner
what you can see in it on the basis of the following questions.
1. How are the temperature and the energy related to each other?
2. How does the energy introduced during this period influence intermolecular forces?
3. What happens when further energy is added to the system?
WRITING
Write a description of phase transitions represented in the following process diagram.
Concentrate on the different chemical processes that occur when a phase transition takes
place.

4.2. Thermodynamics
VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT
You are going to read a text about Thermodynamics , a branch of physics, which deals
with the energy and work of a system. Match the words (1-8) from the text with their synonyms
(a-h).
Thermodynamics is a branch of physics which deals with the energy and work of a
system. It was born in the 19th century as scientists were first discovering how to build and
operate steam engines. Thermodynamics deals only with the large scale response of a system
which we can observe and measure in experiments. Small scale gas interactions are described
by the kinetic theory of gases. The methods complement each other; some principles are more
easily understood in terms of thermodynamics and some principles are more easily explained
by kinetic theory.
There are three principal laws of thermodynamics. Each law leads to the definition of
thermodynamic properties which help us to understand and predict the operation of a physical
system.
The First Law of Thermodynamics can be stated something like this: " Heat is a form of
energy. Types of energy can be transferred from one type to another, and it is possible to
account for all of the energy to show no loss or gain of energy from the transfer." This law is
apparently violated by the famous Einstein equation, E = m c2, in which E is energy, m is mass
and c is the velocity of light. This is the equation that shows that an incredibly small mass
disappears when a nuclear reaction occurs and an incredibly large amount of energy is made.
Einstein's equation does not violate the first law, but just shows us the difficult idea that mass
and energy are just two different forms of the same thing. Mass is just a very concentrated form
of energy. It is pretty difficult to get energy from mass. (And even more difficult to get mass
from energy!)
The Second Law of Thermodynamics is a bit more complex. There are several ways to
express it and several parts to it. "Usable work from a heat engine is available from a difference
in temperature rather than any amount of material at the same temperature." and "When two
materials are combined, the temperature of both of them will become the same, a weighted
average based on the specific heat and mass of the two materials coming together."
The Third Law of Thermodynamics describes material under a very specialized
condition. It shows that it is impossible to bring and keep a material to absolute zero
temperature, since absolute zero is the condition wherein a material has absolutely no motion
of the atoms or molecules.
Match the words (1-8) from the text with their synonyms (a-h).

1. observe a. complicated

2. principles b. happens

3. principal c. connected

4. apparently d. see

5. occurs e. main

6. complex f. laws

7. combined g. state

8. condition h. obviously

READING
Look at the text above again and decide whether these sentences are TRUE or FALSE.
1. Thermodynamics deals only with the small scale response of a system which we can
observe and measure in experiments.
2. Large scale gas interactions are described by the kinetic theory of gases.
3. Thermodynamic properties help us to understand and predict the operation of a physical
system.
4. The First Law of Thermodynamics is in harmony with the famous Einstein equation.
5. When two materials are combined, the temperature of both of them will become the same.
6. According to the Third Law of Thermodynamics it is impossible to bring and keep a
material to absolute zero temperature.
LISTENING and SPEAKING
Watch the video about the Laws of Thermodynamics and then discuss these laws with a
partner.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dL9NfiJjV14 (Zeroth, First, Second and Third Laws
of Thermodynamics)
The following key words and expressions might help you:
• energy transfer
• heat flow +work done
• conservation of energy
• entropy dictates!
• absolute zero : impossible
LANGUAGE USE
Read the text about thermodynamics and find all the instances of RELATIVE CLAUSES
there. Then give reasons for their use. Below you can get useful information on relative clauses.
After reading the text, do the exercise on the last page.
Relative clauses

Defining relative clauses are used to specify I have a friend who speaks five languages.
which person or thing we mean. We don't put I have a friend that speaks five languages
commas between the noun and a defining
relative clause. She showed me the coat which she had
bought.
Who or that are used for people. She showed me the coat that she had bought.
Which or that are used for things

Non-defining relative clauses (extra who speaks five languages, works as a


information clauses) are used to add extra translator for the EU.
information to a sentence. The area, which has very high
We put commas before a non-defining unemployment, is in the north of the country.
relative clause (and also after, if necessary).
Who is used for people. Which is used for
things.
That cannot be used.

Relative pronouns

We use who or that when we talk about This is the man who helped us. (more formal)
people. This is the man that helped us. (less formal)
Who is more formal than that. We cannot use what:

We use which or that when we talk about t's the watch which my husband bought me
things (not people). for my birthday. (more formal)
Which is more formal than that It's the watch that my husband bought me for
my birthday. (less formal)

In informal speech, we can omit which and It's the watch my husband bought me for my
that when the pronoun refers to the object of birthday.
the sentence.
In this sentence, 'the watch' is the object of
the verb 'bought' so we don't need to
use that or which.

We cannot omit which and that when the It was the man that sold me the car.
pronoun refers to the subject of the sentence. In this sentence, 'the man' is the subject of the
verb 'sold' so we need to use that or who.

We use whose to show possession. John, whose brother was also a musician,
plays over 100 concerts every year.

Do the following exercise:


1. He is a famous architect ____designs won an international award last year.
2. He is the one ____the award should be given to.
3. This is Mary, ____ is taking over my job when I leave.
4. Its the invoice ____ you sent us last week. 5. He is a consultant ____advice I rely on.
6. The photocopier, ____ has a two-year guarantee, cost $2000.
7. The people ____were stopped at the border were all from Eastern Europe.
8. They expect his decision soon, ____ should help us solve the problem.
9. The President of the company, ____ I really admire, is visiting us next week.
UNIT 5. SOLUTION CHEMISTRY

5.1. Solutions
READING
5.1.1. Properties of Solutions
Read the following text about the properties of solutions. Parts of some sentences have
been removed from the text. Choose the most appropriate part from the list (A-K) for each gap
(1-10) in the text. There is an example at the beginning.

A solution is a homogenous mixture of two or more substances that exist in a single


phase. There are two main parts to any solution. The solute is the component of a solution (0)
__J____; it is usually present in a smaller amount than the solvent. The solvent is the
component (1) ______, and it is usually present in greater concentration. For example, in a
solution of salt water, salt is the solute and water is the solvent. In solutions (2) ______, the
solution is referred to as an aqueous solution. A solution does not have to involve liquids. For
instance, air is a solution (3) ______, and other trace gases, and solder is a solution of lead and
tin. The general rule of thumb for solutions is the idea (4) ______ . Polar, ionic substances are
soluble in polar solvents, while nonpolar solutes are soluble in nonpolar solvents. For example,
alcohol and water, (5) ______, can form a solution and iodine and carbon tetrachloride, which
are both nonpolar, make a solution. However, iodine will not readily dissolve in polar water.
In a solution, the particles are really small— (6) ______. They never settle on standing,
they cannot be separated by filtering, and light will pass through a solution unchanged. One
type of mixture (7) ______ is known as the colloid. In a colloid, particles are between 100 and
1000 nm in size—still too small for our eyes to distinguish, but particles this small will not
settle. As is the case in solutions, the particles cannot be filtered, (8) ______. Some examples
of colloids include gelatin, fog, smoke, and shaving cream. Another type of mixture (9) ______
is known as a suspension. Suspensions have much larger particles: usually over 1000 nm.
Particles in a suspension will settle on standing, can often be separated by a filter, and may
scatter light, (10) ______. Some examples of suspensions are muddy water, paint, and some
medicines, like Pepto-Bismol.

A that like dissolves like


B that is not considered a solution
C into which the solute is dissolved
D but they do scatter light
E that consists of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide
F that is not a solution
G where water is the solvent
H anywhere from 0 to 100 nm
I but they are usually not transparent
J that is dissolved in the solvent
K which are both polar
READING
Read the text above and then match the following terms from it ( 1-5 ) to the definitions
( A-E ).

1. colloid A. not considered a solution; usually not transparent

2. solute B. the component into which the solute is dissolved

3. solvent C. a homogenous mixture of two or more substances that exist in a single phase

4. suspension D. the component of a solution that is dissolved in the solvent

5. solution E. particles in it are too small for our eyes to distinguish

READING
5.1.2. Types of Solutions
You are going to read a short text about types of solutions. Work with a partner. Fill the
gaps in the text with words from the box.

condensation, clusters, makeup, instance, water vapor, solvent, adsorption, since, homogenous

There are three common states of matter, and seven different types of solutions are
possible. These can be seen here in the Table:

Solute Solvent Example

gas gas air

gas liquid soda

gas liquid Hydrogen on Platinum

liquid gas Water vapor in air


liquid liquid Alcohol in Water

liquid solid Dental fillings (Mercury in


Silver)

solid gas Sulfur vapor in air

solid liquid sugar solution in water

solid solid Solder (tin in lead)

A gas cannot act as a ______ for a liquid or a solid. If the solute is a solid or a liquid, it
must be converted to a gas to form a gaseous solution. Why is fog, for ______ , not a solution
of liquid water in air? The water droplets are not mixed on a molecular level--they are ______
of many many molecules suspended in air.
All mixtures of gases are solutions, since they consist of ______ systems of different
kinds of molecules. Solutions of solids in liquids are very common. ______ water is a liquid at
ordinary temperatures one may consider ______ in air to be a solution of a liquid in a gas.
Solutions of gases in solids are rare, one example is the ______ of hydrogen on the surface of
palladium and platinum. This phenomenon, called ______ , approaches the nature of a solution.
In general substances that are alike in their chemical ______ are more likely to form
solutions.
SPEAKING
Work with a partner or in a small group. Discuss the different types of solutions with the
help of the information you find in the Table above.
READING
5.1.3. The Solution Process
After reading the text, decide whether the following statements are TRUE or FALSE.
In order for a solute to be dissolved in a solvent, the attractive forces between the solute
and solvent particles must be great enough to overcome the attractive forces within the pure
solvent and pure solute. The solute and the solvent molecules in a solution are expanded
compared to their position within the pure substances.
The process of expansion, for both the solute and solvent, involves a change in the energy
of the system: this process can be either exothermic or endothermic. After dissolving, the solute
is said to be fully solvated (usually by dipole-dipole or ion-dipole forces), and when the solvent
is water, the
solute is said to be hydrated. The separation of the solute particles from one another prior
to dissolving is an endothermic process for both solvent and solute (steps 1 and 2), but when
the solute and solvent combine with each other, this is an exothermic process (step 3). If the
energy released in step 3 is greater than the energy absorbed in steps 1 and 2, the solution forms
and is stable.
The term solubility refers to the maximum amount of material that will dissolve in a
given amount of solvent at a given temperature to produce a stable solution. By looking at the
plot of solubilities below, you can see that most solids increase in solubility with an increase
in temperature.

Gases, however, decrease in solubility with an increase in temperature.


1. The solute and the solvent molecules are contracted compared to their position within the
pure substances.
2. The process of expansion involves a change in the energy of the system in the case of the
solute.
3. After dissolving in water, the solute is said to be hydrated.
4. The separation of the solute particles from one another after dissolving is an endothermic
process.
5. When the solute and solvent combine with each other, this is an exothermic process.
6. Few solids increase in solubility with an increase in temperature.
7. But gases increase with an increase in temperature.
WRITING
Describe in detail what you can see on the plot above. Write about the behaviour of solids
in solubility and then compare it with that of gases. Write 120 words.
SPEAKING
5.1.4. Degrees of Saturation
Read the text and then think about the questions that follow. Discuss them with a partner
or in a small group.

When referring to solutions, there are three degrees of saturation—unsaturated, saturated,


and supersaturated. If a solution is unsaturated, the solvent is capable of dissolving more solute.
When the solution is saturated, the solvent has dissolved the maximum amount of solute that
it can at the given temperature. At this point we say that the solution is in a state of dynamic
equilibrium—the processes of dissolving and precipitation are happening at the same rate. A
supersaturated solution is one in which the solvent contains more solute than it can theoretically
hold at a given temperature. Supersaturated solutions are often formed by heating a solution
and dissolving more solute, then cooling the solution down slowly. These solutions are unstable
and crystallize readily.
1. When is a solution unsaturated?
2. What characterizes a saturated solution?
3. How do we define a dynamic equilibrium?
4. What is a supersaturated solution like?
LANGUAGE USE
You have just read about degrees of saturation. Now some words are missing from the
text. Write the missing words on the lines 1-6 in the gaps. Use only one word in each gap.
There is an example at the beginning.
When referring to (0)_ solutions _____, there are three degrees of saturation—
unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated. If a solution is unsaturated, the solvent is capable of
(1) ______ more solute. When the solution is saturated, the solvent has dissolved the maximum
amount of (2)______ that it can at the given temperature. At this point we say that the solution
is in a state of dynamic (3)______—the processes of dissolving and precipitation are happening
at the same rate. A supersaturated solution is one in which the solvent contains more solute (4)
______ it can theoretically hold at a given temperature. Supersaturated solutions are often
formed by (5) ______ a solution and dissolving more solute, then cooling the solution down
slowly. These solutions are unstable and (6) ______ readily.
LISTENING
Watch the following video and with the help of this recording revise what you have
learned about the different types of solutions.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JQRIlS9lNdg (solutions tutorial-unsaturated,
saturated, supersaturated)
There are some ideas below to assist you in doing so:
• how do I tell them apart?
• no chunks, no grit in the bottom
• how did the saturated solution look?
• adding solute changes the appearance (in which case?)
• where does the supersaturation come in?
READING
5.1.5. Concentration Terms
Match the terms ( 1-5 ) from the short texts below to the definitions ( A-E ).
Molarity (M )
Solutions are often referred to as being concentrated or dilute. These two terms are very
general. While concentrated indicates that there is a lot of solute dissolved in the solvent
(perhaps the solution is near to being saturated) and dilute indicates that a small amount of
solute is dissolved in the solvent, we often need to be exact with quantities in chemistry.

The molarity of a solution is a measure of the number of moles of solute per liter of
solution. This is the most common concentration unit used in chemistry. For instance, you
might see an expression that looks like this: [NaCl] = 0.75, which means that 0.75 mole of
NaCl is dissolved per 1.00 L of solution. The brackets around the number indicate that the
concentration is expressed in terms of molarity.

Dilution
Dilution is the process of taking a more concentrated solution and adding water to make
it less concentrated. The more concentrated solution before the dilution is performed is known
as the stock solution. You can relate the concentration of the stock solution to the concentration
of the diluted solution using the equation below:
M1V1 = M2V2
where M is molarity and V is the volume, in liters, of the solution.
Mass Percent (Weight Percent)
The mass percent of a solution is another way of expressing its concentration. Mass
percent is found by dividing the mass of the solute by the mass of the solution and multiplying
by 100; so a solution of NaOH that is 28% NaOH by mass contains 28 g of NaOH for each 100
g of solution. Here’s the equation:

Molality (m)

Whereas the molarity of a solution is dependent on the volume of the solution, the
molality is dependent on the mass of the solvent in the solution. Do not get these confused.
1.concentrated
A. a measure of the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
solution

2. dilution B. a measure of the number of moles of solute per liter of solution

C. it is found by dividing the mass of the solute by the mass of the solution
3. molarity
and multiplying by 100

4. mass percent D. there is a lot of solute dissolved in the solvent

E. the process of taking a more concentrated solution and adding water


5. molality
to make it less concentrated

READING
5.1.6. Electrolytes
After reading the text, fill the gaps in it with words and phrases from the box.

covalently bonded, floating, dissociate, solutes, electrolytes, degree, conductivity, acetic acid

Certain solutions are capable of conducting an electric current and these solutions are
referred to as electrolytes. Generally speaking, we say that there are three classes of _____
(solutions that conduct a current): acids, bases, and salts.
Strong electrolytes consist of solutes that _____ completely in solution. Strong acids,
strong bases, and soluble salts are in this category.
Nonelectrolytes are substances that are predominantly _____, generally will not produce ions
in solution, and therefore are considered nonconductors.
Weak electrolytes consist of _____that dissociate only a little in solution. Weak acids,
weak bases, and slightly soluble salts are in this category.
The greater the degree of dissociation of the solute, the greater the _____ of the solution.
Consider two acid solutions that have the same concentration—hydrochloric acid and
_____. Hydrochloric acid ionizes completely, while only about 2% of the acetic acid molecules
ionize. If a conductivity apparatus were used to test the two solutions, HCl would conduct an
electric current to a much greater _____ because there is more available charge in solution.
Below is a figure showing the ionization of barium chloride; as you can see, the Ba+ and Cl-
ions are _____ free in solution, and this makes barium chloride an electrolyte.
Conductivity
Read the text again and use the word at the end of each gap to form a new word with
which to fill the gap.
Electrolytes
Certain solutions are capable of conducting an electric current and these solutions are
referred to as electrolytes. Generally ______ (speak) , we say that there are three classes of
electrolytes (solutions that conduct a current): acids, bases, and salts.
Strong electrolytes consist of ______ (solution) that dissociate completely in solution.
Strong acids, strong bases, and soluble salts are in this category.
Nonelectrolytes are substances that are predominantly ______ ( covalent) bonded, generally
will not produce ions in solution, and therefore are considered ______ (conductor).
Weak electrolytes consist of solutes that dissociate only a little in solution. Weak acids,
weak bases, and ______ (slight) soluble salts are in this category.
The greater the degree of dissociation of the solute, the greater the ______ (conduct) of
the solution. Consider two acid solutions that have the same concentration—hydrochloric acid
and acetic acid. Hydrochloric acid ionizes completely, while only about 2% of the acetic acid
molecules ionize. If a conductivity apparatus were used to test the two solutions, HCl would
conduct an ______ (electricity) current to a much greater degree because there is more
available charge in solution. Below is a figure ______ ( show) the ionization of barium
chloride; as you can see, the Ba+ and Cl- ions are floating free in solution, and this makes
barium chloride an electrolyte.

READING
5.1.7. Colligative Properties
You are going to read a text about colligative properties. Parts of some sentences have
been removed from the text. Choose the most appropriate part from the list (A-G) for each gap
(1-6) in the text. There is an example at the beginning.
Properties of solutions that depend on the number of solute particles present per solvent
molecule are called colligative properties. The concentration of solute in a solution can affect
various physical properties of the solvent (0) __C____.
Vapor Pressure Lowering. When a nonvolatile solute is dissolved in a solvent, (1) ______ than
that of the pure solvent. The amount of the vapor pressure lowering is proportional to the
amount of solute and not its identity. Therefore, vapor pressure lowering is a colligative
property. The equation that describes that phenomenon is called Raoult's law.
Freezing Point Depression
The freezing point of a substance is defined as the temperature at which the vapor
pressure of the solid and the liquid states of that substance are equal. (2) ______ , the freezing
point decreases. Why is a solution’s freezing point depressed below that of a pure solvent? The
answer lies in the fact (3)______ . They must be attracted to one another and have a spot in
which to cluster; if they act as a solvent, solute molecules get in the way (4) ______. The more
ions in solution, the greater the effect on the freezing point. We can calculate the effect of these
solute particles by using the following formula:
DTf = Kf msolute i
Where: DTf = the change in freezing point
Kf = molal freezing point depression constant for the substance (for water = 1.86oC/m)
m = molality of the solution
i = number of ions in solution (this is equal to 1 for covalent compounds and is equal to
the number of ions in solution for ionic compounds)
Boiling Point Elevation
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature (5) ______ . Because vapor pressure
is lowered by the addition of a nonvolatile solute, the boiling point is increased. Why? Since
the solute particles get in the way of the solvent particles trying to escape the substance as they
move around faster, it will take more energy for the vapor pressure to reach atmospheric
pressure, (6) ______ . We can calculate the change in boiling point in a way that’s similar to
how we calculate the change in freezing point:
DTb = Kb msolute i
Where Kb = molal boiling point elevation constant (for water = 0.51 ̊C/m)

A. at which the vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure


B. if the vapor pressure of the liquid is lowered
C. including its freezing point, boiling point, and vapor pressure D and thus the boiling
point increases
E. the vapor pressure of the resulting solution is lower
F. and prevent them from clustering tightly together
G. that molecules cluster in order to freeze