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 is the oldest systematic PHILOSOPHY in Western culture,

 which is a believe that ideas are the only true reality.
 this philosophy begins with PLATO (428-347 B.C.E).
 a philosophical belief claiming that material things are IMAGINARY, that material
things do not exist independently but only as constructions in the mind.
 Idealist believe that ideas are the only true reality

It is any philosophy which argues that the only thing actually knowable is consciousness (or
the contents of consciousness), whereas we never can be sure that matter or anything in the
outside world really exists. Thus, the only real things are mental entities, not physical things
(which exist only in the sense that they are perceived).

The material world is characterized by change, instability, and uncertainty; whereas, SOME

You have noticed that in this picture, that

consist of the images of Plato with his
finger pointing up and Aristotle with his
palm facing down stated the idea of
“Mind Over Matter” which is the central
idea of Idealism.


 428 – 347 BCE

 Greek Philisopher
 Father of Idealism:

Platonic Idealism
 He did not think that man created knowledge. Rather, man discovered knowledge.

Platonic Ideslism
• “people should concern themselves in searching for truth”
• two worlds:
> world of ideas (forms)
> world of matter (ever-changing)
• People do not create knowledge, but rather they discover it. -states that all knowledge
must originate in a hypothetical existence before birth
• Hypothetical Existence – only way for human to have knowledge of certain concepts like
perfect equality which cannot be gleaned in experience.

Development of Modern Idealism

George Berkeley
 He was born in Ireland
 He served as the minister of Episcopal Church in Ireland
 He studied Latin, and Greek, French and Hebrew, mathematics and other contemporary
works of philosophy
 He kept notebooks filled of reflections and a wide range of philosophical adverse.
 “esse est percipi”
(to be is to perceived) “there’s no existence without PERCEPTION except GOD’s

Objectives of Berkeley:
• 1. Prove the existence of GOD
• 2. Prove that GOD is the “ULTIMATE CAUSE”.

Contributions to the Education:

 The centrality of the subjective mind
 The existence of anything (being dependent on a perceiving.)

Subjective idealism, a philosophy based on the premise that nothing exists except
minds and spirits and their perceptions or ideas. A person experiences material things, but
their existence is not independent of the perceiving mind; material things are thus mere
perceptions. The reality of the outside world is dependent on a knower.

Immanuel Kant

 Born in Königsberg, Prussia (now part of Russia)

 Raised in a modest way of life, a son of saddler
 Generally recognized as one of the world’s great philosopher
 Transcendental Idealism also called as formalistic idealism, term applied to the
epistemology of the 18th century German Philosopher Immanuel Kant, who held that the
human self, or Transcendental ego, constructs knowledge out of sense impressions.
 Kant believed that ideas, the raw matter of knowledge, must somehow be due to realities
existing independently of human minds; but he held that such things-in-themselves must
remain forever unknown. Human knowledge cannot reach to them because knowledge
can only arise in the course of synthesizing the ideas of sense.
René Descartes
(1596 - 1650)

 He was a French philosopher, mathematician, scientist and writer of the Age of Reason.
He has been called the "Father of Modern Philosophy", and much of subsequent Western
philosophy can be seen as a response to his writings. He is responsible for one of the
best-known quotations in philosophy: "Cogito, ergo sum" ("I think, therefore I am").
 He was one of the first to claim that all we really know is what is in our own
consciousnesses, and that the whole external world is merely an idea or picture in our
minds. Therefore, he claimed, it is possible to doubt the reality of the external world as
consisting of real objects, and “I think, therefore I am” is the only assertion that cannot be
doubted. Thus, Descartes can be considered an early epistemological idealist.

Prepared by:

Jessa D. Anas