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Important Terms:

Electric Charge = It is a fundamental property of matter. It is a fundamentally associated

with atomic particles, the electron and the proton.

Law of Charges or Charge-Force Law = “Like charges repel each other, and unlike

charges attract each other”

Coulomb = The SI unit of charge which was named after the French physicist, Charles

A. Coulomb.

Conductors = They are groups of substances that have the ability to transmit electric

charge. Valence electrons are loosely bound.

Semiconductors = They are materials whose ability to transmit charge is much less than

that of metals but much greater than that of insulators.

charge.

receives a net charge.

Charging by Friction = The transfer of charge is due to the contact between the

materials and depends on the nature of the materials.

Charging by Contact or by Conduction = Refers to the flow of charge during the short

period of time the electrons are in motion.

Coulomb’s Law = Electric force is directly proportional to the product between two

charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the charges.

1

Electric Lines of Force = The convenient way of graphically representing the electric

field pattern in space through.

surface surrounding it.

Gauss’s Law = The net number of electric field lines passing through an imaginary

closed surface is proportional to the amount of net charge enclosed within that surface.

charge(C)

Electron(-) -1.602x10-19 9.109x10-31

Proton(+) +1.602x10-19 1.672x10-27

Neutron 0 1.674x10-27

Important Equations

Quantization of Electric Charge

Q = ne

n = integral charge (coulomb / electron or C/e)

e= electron charge (e or electron)

Coulomb’s Law

𝒌𝒒𝟏 𝒒𝟐

𝐅𝐞 =

𝒓𝟐

Fe = Electric Force, N

q = charge, C

r = distance between the charges, m

Electric Field

𝐅𝐨𝐧 𝐪𝐨

𝐄=

𝐪𝐨

F = force, N

qo = charge, C

2

Electric Field Due to a Point Charge q

𝐤𝐪

𝐄 = 𝐫𝟐

k = proportionality constant, 9.00 x 109Nm2/C2

q = charge, C

r = distance between the charges, m

𝟒𝛑𝐤𝐐

𝐄=

𝐀

k = proportionality constant, 9.00 x 109Nm2/C2

Q = charge, C

A = area, m2

Example 1: If you shuffle across a carpeted floor on a dry day and acquire a net charge

of -2.0uC, will you have a deficiency or excess of electrons? How many missing or extra

electrons will you have?

Given: Required:

-6

Q = -2.0 µC = -2.0 ×10 C (a) whether you have lost or gained

e = -1.60 ×10-19 C electrons

(b) number of missing or excess

electron

Solution:

(a) Since the sign of your net charge is negative and electrons carry a negative

charge, you have acquired an excess of electron.

Q −2.0 ×10−6 C

(b) n = = = 𝟏. 𝟑 × 𝟏𝟎𝟏𝟑 𝐞𝐥𝐞𝐜𝐭𝐫𝐨𝐧

e −1.60× 10−19 C/electron

distance of 0.30m. What is the electrostatic force on each particle?

q1 = -1.0 µC q2 = +2.0µC

Given: Required:

q2 = +2.0x10-6 C F3

r = 0.30 m

3

m2

(9.00 x 109 N. ) (1.0x10-6 C)(2.0x10-6 C)

a. F12 = F21 = Fe =

kq1 q 2

= C2 = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟎𝐍

r2 (0.3m)2

(b) A configuration of three charges is shown below. What is the electrostatic force on

q3?

(0,0.30m) q1 = +2.5µC

q3 = +3.0 µC

(0.40, 0)

(0,-0.30m) q2 = +2.5µC

m2

(9.00 x 109 N. ) (2.50 x10-6 C)(3.0x10-6 C)

F13 = F23 = Fe =

kq1 q 3

= C2 = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟕𝐍

r2 (0.5m)2

Force Fx Fy

0.27 N 4 3

(0.27 𝑁) = 0.22 N − 5 (0.27 𝑁) = −0.16 N

5

0.27 N 4 3

(0.27 𝑁) = 0.22 N (0.27 𝑁) = +0.16 N

5 5

∑Fx= 0.44 N ∑Fy= 0 N

x .44

tan θ = = = undefined

y .0

F3 = 0.44 N ,due E

Example 3: What is the magnitude of the repulsive electrostatic force between two

protons in a nucleus? Take the distance between the centers of nuclear protons to be

3.0x10-15 m. If these protons were released from rest, how would the magnitude of their

initial acceleration compare to that of the acceleration due to the gravity of the earth’s

surface?

Given: Required:

r= 3.0×1015 m (a) Fe = ?

q1= q2= +1.60×10-19C (b) a/g = ?

mp= 1.67× 10-27 kg

Solution:

4

m2

(9.00 x 109 N. 10-19 -19

a. Fe = = C =25.66 N

r2 2

(3.0×10-15 m)

b.

F 25.66 N

𝑎 = me = = 1.53 × 1028 m/s2

p 1.67×10-27 kg

a 1.53×1028 m/s2

= = 𝟏. 𝟓𝟔 × 𝟏𝟎𝟐𝟕

g 9.81 m/s2

5

Name:

Course/Year/Section:

Assignment No.:

(0,0.30m) q1 = +2.5µC

q3 = +3.0 µC

(0.40, 0)

(0,-0.30m) q2 = +2.5µC

2. Two charges are attracted by a force of 25 N when separated by 10cm. What is the force

between the charges when the distance between them is 50 cm?

6

Example 4: Compare the magnitudes of the electric and gravitational forces between a

proton and an electron. Express your answer as a ratio of electric force to gravitational

force.

Given: Required:

Fe

qe = -1.60×10-19C (ratio of forces)=?

Fg

qp = +1.60×10-19C

me = 9.11 × 10-31 kg

mp = 1.67 × 10-27kg

Solution:

kqe qp Gme mp

Fe = Fg =

r2 r2

m2

Fe kq e q p (9.00 x 109 N. 2 ) (1.602 x 10−19 C)(1.602 x 10−19 C)

= = C

Fg Gme mp (6.67 x 10−11 N. m2) ( 9.11 × 10−31 kg )(1.67 × 10−27 kg)

C2

𝟑𝟗

= 𝟐. 𝟐𝟕 × 𝟏𝟎

Example 5: Two point charges are placed on the x- axis as shown. Find the location on

the axis where the electric field is zero.

q1 = +1.5 µC q2 = +2.0µC

x(m)

0 0.6

Given: Required:

q1 = +1.50×10-6C

q2 = +2.0×10-6C

Solution:

q1 q2 0.6 − x

= = 1.15

x2 (0.6-x)2 x

1.5 2

= 0.6 − x = 1.15x

x2 (0.6 − x)2

0.6 = 2.15x

0.6

x= = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟖 𝐦

(0.6 − x)2 2 2.15

√ = √

x2 1.5

7

Example 6: What is the electric field at the origin for a 3- charge configuration?

Given: q1 = -1.0×10-6C

4.0m -1.5uC q2 = +2.0×10-6C

q3 = -1.5×10-6C

r1= 3.50 m

r2= 5.00 m

r3= 4.00 m

Required: E=?

9 m2 -6

N. C ) (-1.0×10 C)

kq1 (9.0×10

E1 = 2 = 2

= 7.35 × 102 N/C

r1 (3.50 m)

9 m2 −6

(9.0 × 10 N.

kq 2 C ) (+2.0 × 10 C)

𝐸2 = 2 = = 7.20 × 102 N/C

r2 (5.0 m)2

9 m2 −6

(9.0 × 10 N.

kq 3 C ) (−1.5 × 10 C)

𝐸3 = 2 = = 8.44 × 102 N/C

r3 (4.0 m)2

102 N

Ex = E1 + E2 = 7.35 × + 7.20 × 102 N/C = 1.46 × 103 N/C

C

Example 7: Show that the electric field far from a dipole, on its perpendicular bisector (the x

axis) is given by kqd/x3.

Given: Required:

q1 = + q E=?

q2 = - q

Solution:

𝐸 = = 2∗ = 3

x3 x (x) x

x ≈d

𝐤𝐪𝐝 𝟏

𝐄= ∝

𝐱𝟑 𝐱𝟑

8

Example 8: The electric field required to ionize air is about 1.0x104N/C when the field reaches

this value, the least bound electron begin leaving their molecules, eventually creating lightning.

Assume that this value of field E exist between a negatively charged lower cloud surface and the

positively charged ground. If we take the storm clouds to squares 10 miles on each side, estimate

the total negative charge on the lower cloud surface.

Given: Required:

E = 1.0×104 N/C Q=?

d = 10 mi ≈1.6× 104 m

Solution:

4N 4 2

EA (1.0×10 C ) (1.6× 10 m)

Q= = = 𝟐𝟑 𝐂

4πk 9 m2

4π(9.0×10 N. 2 )

C

9

Chapter 2: Electric Potential, Energy and Capacitance

Important Terms:

Electric Potential Energy = It is the work done on the charge.

Electric Potential Difference = It is the change in potential energy per unit positive test charge

Volt = The Si unit of electric potential difference is the joule per coulomb, and renamed in honor

of an Italian Scientist, Alessandro Volta

Electric Potential = It as the same as electric potential difference however it is not measurable

because of the choice of reference point

Equipotential Surfaces = A plane on which the value of the electric potential is constant.

Electron Volt = The kinetic energy acquired by an electron accelerated through a potential

difference of exactly 1V.

Farad = The combined unit of capacitance is the coulomb per volt which was named after an

English scientist, Michael Faraday.

Dielectric = A sheet of insulating material which is placed between the plates and serves a

several purpose.

Dielectric Permittivity = It is always greater than the permittivity of the vacuum by a factor of

K.

Equivalent Series Capacitance = The value of a single capacitor that could replace the series

combination.

Equivalent Parallel Capacitance = The value of a single capacitor that could replace the

parallel combination and holds the same total charge when connected to the battery.

Important Equations

10

Electric Potential Difference

𝚫𝐔𝐞 𝐖

𝚫𝐕 = =

𝐪𝐨 𝐪𝐨

∆Ue = electric potential energy, J

= qoEd

E = electric field, N/C

q = charge, C

d = distance, m

W = work, J

qo = charge, C

𝚫V = Ed

E = electric field, N/C

d = distance, m

𝐤𝐪

𝐕=

𝐫

k = proportionality constant, 9.00 x 109Nm2/C2

r = distance, m

q = charge, C

U = U12 + U23 + U13 + ……..

𝜟𝑽

𝑬 = −( )

𝜟𝒙

𝚫V = electric potential difference, v

𝚫x = distance, m

Capacitance

Q = CV

Where: Q = Charge, C

C = Capacitance, f

11

V = voltage, v

Є𝐨𝐀

𝐂=

𝐝

Where: C = capacitance

A = Area, m2

d = distance, m

Єo = permittivity of a vacuum, 8.85 x10-12C2/Nm2

𝐐𝐕 𝐐𝟐 𝐂𝐕 𝟐

𝐔𝐜 = = =

𝟐 𝟐𝐂 𝟐

Q = charge, C

V = voltage, v

C = capacitance, f

C = KCo

Where: C = capacitance, f

K = dielectric constant

𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏

= + + + … ..

𝑪𝒔 𝑪𝟏 𝑪𝟐 𝑪𝟑

Cp = C1 + C2 + C3 + …

Example 1: A proton is moved from negative to the positive plate of a parallel- plate

arrangement. The plates are 1.50 cm apart, and the dielectric field is uniform with a magnitude of

1500 N/C. (a) What is the proton’s potential energy charge? (b)What is the potential difference

between the plates? (c) Between the negative plate and a point midway between the plates? (d) If

the proton is released from rest at the positive plate, what speed will it have just before it hits the

negative plate?

12

Given: Required:

d= 1.5cm = 0.015m UPROTON = ?

E= 1500N/C ∆V = ?

ν=?

Solution:

1500N Nm J

𝑏. ∆V = Ed = ( ) (0.015m) = 22.5 = 22.5 = 22.5 V

C C C

U

a. ∆V =

q

22.5J

U = Vq = (1.602 x 10−19 C) = 3.62 x 10−18 J (Kinetic Energy)

C

1500N

𝑐. ∆V = = 11.25J/C

C(0.0075m)

1

𝑑. KE = mυ2

2

1

3.62 x 10−18 = (1.672 x 10−27 ) v 2

2

2(3.62 x 10-18)

𝑣=√ = 6.50 x104 m/s

1.672 x 10−27

Example 2: We want to accelerate an electron to one percent of the speed of light in a space of

2.50mm between a pair of large horizontal, parallel plates. If the top plate is positively charged,

what voltage between the plates is required? What is the magnitude of the electric field?

Given: Required:

c = 3.00 x 108m/s V=?

ν = 0.01 x 3.00 x 108m/s = 3.0 x 106m/s E =?

d = 2.5mm = 0.0025m

Solution:

1 2 1 −31

106 m

𝑎. KE = mν = (9.109 x 10 kg) (3.0 x ) = 4.10 x10−18 J = U

2 2 s

∆𝑈 4.10𝑥10−18

∆𝑉 = = = 25.48𝐽/𝐶

𝑞𝑜 1.609𝑥10−19

𝑏. V = Ed;

V 25.48 J/C 10236𝑣

E= = = = 10236N/C

d 0.0025 m m

13

Name:

Course/Year/Section:

Assignment No.:

What is the difference in potential between two points, one at 20 cm and the other at 40cm from

a charge of 5.5 micro coulomb? Which point is at a higher potential?

14

Example 3: In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the electron in the orbit around the proton

can exists only in certain circular orbits. The smallest has a radius of 0.0529nm and the next

largest has a radius of 0.212nm, what is the potential difference between the two orbits? Which

orbit is at a higher potential?

Given:

r1= 0.0529 nm= 5.29 x 10-11m

r2= 0.212nm = 2.12 x 10-10m

Required:

a. V = ?

b. ∆V =?

Solution:

V1 = = = 27.26 v

r 5.29x10-11

V2 = = = 6.8 v

r 2.12x10-10

Example 4: The water molecule is the foundation of life as we know it. Many of its important

properties are related to the fact that it is a polar molecule. Although the molecule’s net charge is

zero, it is separated into positive and negative regions. A very simple picture of water molecule

along with the charges is given in the diagram below. The distance from each hydrogen atom to

the oxygen atom is 9.60x10-11m and the angle between the hydrogen-oxygen bond directions is

104o. What is the total electrostatic energy of the water molecule?

H q1= 5.20x10-20 c

9.6x10-11 m

O q3= -10.4x10-20 c

104o

H q2=5.20x10-20 c

15

Given: Required:

θ= 104o Utotal = ?

d = 9.60x10-11m

Solution:

1

104 2

ℎ

sin =

2 9.6x10-11m

h =2 (9.6x10-11m)sin 52 = 1.51x10-10m

9.00 x 109Nm2/C2(5.2x10-20C)(-10.4x10-20C)

U13 = U23 = -11 = −5.09x10−19 J

9.6x10 m

9.00 x 109Nm2/C2(5.2x10-20C)2

U12 = = 1.61x10−19 J

1.51x10-10m

Example 5: Under normal atmospheric conditions, the Earth is electrically charged and creates

an approximately constant electric field of about 150 V/m pointing down near its surface.

(a)How far apart are two equipotential surfaces that have a 1000-volt difference between them?

Which has a higher potential – the one farther from the Earth or the one closer? (b)During an

approaching lightning storm, the polarity changes and the field can rise to many times the normal

value,Under these conditions, if the field is 900 V/m and points up, now how far apart are the

two surfaces in (b)?

Given:

150 V/m = constant electric Field

V = 1000v

Solution:

∆V

E =

∆x

∆V 1000V

a. ∆x = = = 6.67m

E 150V/m

1000V

b. ∆x = = 1.11m

900V/m

16

Example 6: What would be the plate area if air-filled 1.0 farad parallel plate capacitor is if the

plate separation were 1.0 mm? Would it be realistic to consider building one?

Given: Required:

C = 1F A=?

d = 1mm= 0.001m

Solution:

ϵoA

C =

d

Cd 1F (0.001m)

A = = = 1.13x108 m2

ϵ0 8.85x10-12C2/Nm2

Example 7: Following a heart attack, the heart sometimes beats in erratic (and a useless fashion,

called fibrillation). One way to get the heart back to its normal rhythm is to shock it with electric

energy supplied by an instrument called a cardiac defibrillator. Experiment show that about 300 J

of energy is required to produce the desired effect. Typically, a defibrillator stores this energy in

a capacitor charge by 5000 V power supply. (a)What capacitance is required? (b)What is the

charge on the capacitor plate?

Given: Required:

300J = U C=?

5000v= V Q=?

Solution:

2U 2(300J)

C = 2

= = 2.4 x 10−5 F = 24μF

V (5000𝑣)2

12volt power supply, has normal plate separation of 3.00mm and a plate area of 0.750cm2. What

is the required dielectric constant if the capacitance is 1.10pF? How much charge is stored on

the plates under normal conditions? How much charge flows onto the plates (that is, what is the

change in charge) if they are compressed to a separation of only 2.00mm?

Given: Required:

V = 12V K=?

d = 3mm = 0.003m Q=?

(1m)2

A = 0.75cm2 x = 7.5x10-5m2 ∆Q = ?

(100cm)2

C = 1.1pF

d’ = 2mm

Solution:

17

∈0A 8.85x10-12C2/Nm2(7.5x10-5m2)

Co = = = 2.21x10−13 F

d 0.003m

C 1.1x10-12 F

K = = = 4.98

Co 2.21x10-13F

Q = CV = 1.1x10-12F(12V) = 1.32x10-11C

′

K∈0A 4.98(8.85x10-12C2/Nm2)(7.5x10-5m2)

C = = = 1.65x10−12 F

d' 0.002m

Example 9: You have two capacitors, one 2.50 F and the other one is 5.00 F. What are the

charges on each and the total charge stored if they are connected across a 12.0- volt battery (a) in

series and (b) in parallel.

Given: Required:

C1= 2.50 F Q1 =?

C2 = 5.00 F Q2 =?

V= 12.0V QT =?

Solution:

1 1 1 1 1 2+1

a. = + + =

CS C1 C2 2.50 F 5.00 F 5.00 F

5

CS = F

3

5

Q = CV = F(12V) = 2.00x10-5C = Q1 = Q 2

3

Q 2.00x10-5C

V1 = = -6 = 8V

C1 2.50 x10-5 F

Q 2.00x10 C

V2 = = = 4V

C2 5.00 x10-6F

QT = CV = 7.5 x10-6F(12V) = 9.0x10-5C

VT = V1 = V2 = 12V

Q2 = C2 V2 = 5.00 F (12V) = 6x10-5 C

18

Example 10: Three Capacitors are connected in a circuit as shown below. What is the voltage

across the capacitor?

C2= 0.60 uF

12V

C1= 0.20 uF

C3= 0.10 uF

Given: Required:

C1 = 0.20F V1 = ? & Q1 = ?

C2 = 0.60F V2 = ? & Q2 = ?

C3 = 0.10F V3 = ? & Q3 = ?

Solution:

1 1 1 1 1 1+2 12v

= + = + =

CT C2 CP 0.60F 0.3F 0.6F CP= 0.30 uF

0.6F

CT = = 0.2F

3

Q2 2.4x10-6C

V2 = = = 4v

C2 0.60x10-6F

QP 2.4x10-6C

Vp = = = 8v = V1 = V3

CP 0.30x10-6F

19

Name:

Course/Year/Section:

Assignment No.:

What is the equivalent capacitance of two capacitors, 0.40 micro farad and 0.60 micro

farad when they are connected in series and in parallel?

20

Chapter 3: Electric Current and Resistance

Important Terms:

Battery = It is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy.

Cathode = The electrode that has the larger number of excess electrons. It designated the

negative terminal of the battery.

Anode = It has still excess negative charge, has a smaller excess than the cathode. It is the

positive (+) terminal of the battery.

Electromotive force (emf) = The potential difference across the terminals of a battery when it is

not connected to a circuit.

Direct current = The flow of electrons is from negative (-) terminal to the positive(+) terminal.

Complete Circuit = It forms from a battery or some other voltage source connected to a

continuous conducing path.

Ampere = The unit of current is coulombs per second in honor of the French scientist, Andre

Ampere.

Drift Velocity = The net electron flow is characterized by an average velocity which is smaller

than the random velocities of the electron themselves.

Ohm = The combined unit of volts per ampere which was named in honor of a German

physicist, George Ohm.

Resistivity = It is the intrinsic atomic properties which acts as a constant of proportionality for

the relationship of resistance to length and area.

Conductivity = The reciprocal of resistivity.

21

Temperature Coefficient of Resistivity = It is a constant over a small temperature range.

Superconductivity = The electrical resistance of metals and alloys generally decreases with

decreasing temperature.

Electric Power = The rate at which energy is delivered to the external circuit by the battery.

Joule Heat (I2R) Loss = The thermal energy expended in a current – carrying resistor.

Kilowatt – Hour (KWH) = The thing that is being paid for electricity measurement.

Important Equations

Electric Current

Where: I = current, A

q = charge, C

t = time, s

Electric Resistance

Where: R = resistance, Ω

V = voltage, v

I = current, A

Resistivity

Where: ρ = resistivity, Ωm

R = resistance, Ω

A = area, m2

L = length, m

Conductivity

ρ = resistivity, Ωm

22

Temperature Dependence of Resistance

Ro = initial resistance, Ω

T = temperature, oC

α = temperature coefficient of resistivity, per oC

Electric Power

R = resistance, Ω

V = voltage, v

I = current, A

Example 1: There is a steady current of 0.50A in a flashlight bulb for 2.0 min. How much

charge passes through the bulb during this time? How many electrons does this represent?

Given: Required:

I = 0.5 A Q=?

t = 2mins = 120s n=?

Solution:

q

I =

t

q = It = 0.5A (120s) = 60C

Q 60C

n = = = 3.75x1020 e

e 1.602x10-19C

resistance, a current of 2.5 mA results. What is the value of the resistor?

Given: Required:

V = 12V R=?

I = 2.5 mA = 0.0025A

Solution:

V 12V

𝑅= = = 4800Ω

I 0.0025A

23

Example 3: A 1.5 meter insulated extension cord, which consists of two wires to make a

complete circuit, is used to connect a lamp to an outlet. If the copper wire of the cord has a

diameter of 2.3mm.what is the resistance of the wires at room temperature?

Given: Required:

L = 1.5m R=?

LT = 3m

Ø = 2.3mm = 0.0023m

ρCu = 1.70x10-8Ωm

Solution:

ρL 1.70x10-8Ωm x 3m

𝑅= = = 𝟏. 𝟐𝟑𝐱𝟏𝟎−𝟐 𝛀

A π (0.0023)2 2

𝑚

4

Example 4: A platinum wire has a resistance of 0.50 Ω at 0 C. It is placed in a water bath where

its resistance rises to a final value of 0.60Ω. What is the temperature of the bath?

Given: Required:

RO = 0.50Ω Tf = ?

Rf = 0.60Ω

T1 = 0ºC

α = 3.9x10-3/C

Solution:

𝑅𝐹 = 𝑅𝑂 (1 + 𝛼∆𝑇)

RF 0.6Ω

−1 -1

RO

TF = = 0.50Ω

= 𝟓𝟏. 𝟐𝟖𝐨 𝐂\

α 3.9x10-3/C

Example 5: A desktop computer system includes a color monitor and the central processing unit

with keyboard, each operating at an average voltage of 120V. a typical 17’’ color monitor has a

power requirement of 130 W, and a CPU’s requirement has a power of 960W.(a). Calculate the

average current that each component carries.(b). What is the resistance of each component under

this operating condition?

Given: Required:

V = 120V IMONITOR = ?

PMONITOR = 130W ICPU = ?

PCPU = 960W R MONITOR = ?

R CPU = ?

Solution:

P = IV

PMONITOR 130W

IMONITOR = = = 1.08 A

V 120V

24

PCPU 960W

ICPU = = = 8A

V 120V

V 120V

R MONITOR = = = 111.11Ω

IMONITOR 1.08 A

V 120V

R CPU = = = 15Ω

ICPU 8A

Name:

Course/Year/Section:

25

Assignment No.:

1. How long would it take for a net charge of 2.5C to pass a location in a wire so as to produce a

steady current of 5.0milliampere?

2. What is the percentage variation of the resistivity copper over the range from room temperature

(20 degrees Celsius) to 100 degrees Celsius?

Example 6: A hair dryer is rated at 1200W for 115V. The uniform wire filament breaks near one

end, and the owner repairs it by removing one section near the break and simply reconnecting it.

26

The filament is then 10.0% shorter than its original length. What will be the change in the

heater’s power output?

Given: Required:

P = 1200 W PF = ?

V = 115V

Solution:

LF = 90% Lo

PO 1200W

IO = = = 10.43A

V 115V

V 115V

Ro = = = 11.03Ω

I 10.43A

ρLF ρ( 0.90LO)

Rf = = = 0.90R o

A A

Vo = Vf = 115V

Io R o = If R f

Io R o = If (0.90R o )

Io = If (0.90)

10.43A

IF = = 11.59A

0.90

Example 7: If the motor of a frost- free refrigerator runs 15% of the time, how much does it cost

to operate per month if the power company changes 11с per kWh?

Given: Required:

PREFRIGERATOR = 500W Cost of refrigerator per month

30 days 24 hours

t = 0.15 ( )( ) = 108hrs/mo

1 month 1 day

Solution:

108hrs

500W ( month )

KWH = = 54

1000

54KWH 11¢ 594¢ $1

𝑃𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑒 = ( month ) (KWH) = (month) (100¢) = $5.94/mo

Example 8: Most modern power plants produce electricity at a rate of about 1.0GW. Estimate to

two significant figures how many fewer power plants the state of California would need if all its

27

households switched from the 500watt refrigerators in the previous example to more efficient

400watt refrigerators. Assume exactly 6 million homes with an average of 1.2 refrigerators per

home.

Given:

PP = 1.0GW = 1.0x109W = 1.0x106KW

500 24hrs

Energy Req’t of 500W refrigerator = 1000 (15%) ( day ) = 1.8 KWH/day

# of homes = 6.0x106

# of refrigerators/home = 1.2 ref/home

Required:

# of power plants

Solution:

Total

1.8KWH

day 1.2ref KWH

(6,000,000homes) ( ) = 12,960,000

refrigerator home day

Switch to 400W

KWH KWH

0.80 (12,960,000 ) = 10,368,000

day day

12,960,000 - 10,368,000 = 2, 592, 000

day day day

KW 24hrs KWH/plant

1.0x106 ( ) = 2.4x107

plant day day

KWH

2, 592, 000

day

# of power plants = = 0.108 plants

7 KWH/plant

2.4x10

day

28

Important Terms:

Equivalent Series Resistances = The sum of the individual resistances.

Equivalent Parallel Resistances = The value of a single resistor that could replace any number

of resistors and maintain the same current through the battery.

Kirchhoff’s Rules = A general method for analyzing multi-loop circuits which embody the

conservation of charge and the conservation of energy.

Kirchhoff’s Junction Theorem = The algebraic sum of the currents at any junction is zero.

Kirchhoff’s Loop Theorem = The algebraic sum of the potential differences across all of the

elements of any closed loop is zero.

Circuit Breaker = They are used extensively in wiring new homes which uses bimetallic strip

which also limits the current in a circuit.

Grounded Plug = It is the large round prong connects with the dedicated grounding wire.

Polarized Plug = A two prong plug that fits in the socket only one way because one prong is

wider than the other and one of the slits of the receptacle is also larger.

Important Equations

29

Equivalent Series Resistance

𝐑 𝐒 = 𝐑 𝟏 + 𝐑 𝟐 + 𝐑 𝟑 + … ..

Where: R = resistance, Ω

1 1 1 1

= + + + … ..

RP R1 R 2 R 2

Where: R = resistance, Ω

Kirchhoff’s Rules

∑ 𝐈𝐢 = 𝟎

𝐢

∑ 𝐕𝐢 = 𝟎

𝐢

Where: I = Current, A

V = Voltage, v

𝐕𝐂 = 𝐕𝐎 (𝟏 − 𝐞−𝐭/𝐑𝐂 )

Vo = Voltage of the battery, v

t = time, s

R = resistance, Ω

C = capacitance, F

τ = RC

R = resistance, Ω

C = Capacitance, F

𝐕𝐂 = 𝐕𝐎 𝐞−𝐭/𝐑𝐂 = 𝐕𝐎 𝐞−𝐭/𝛕

Vo = Voltage of the battery, v

t = time, s

R = resistance, Ω

C = capacitance, F

τ = time constant

30

Galvanometer Current used as Ammeter

IR s

Ig =

r + Rs

I = current, A

Rs = shunt resistance, Ω

r = resistance of the galvanometer coil

V

Ig =

r + Rm

V= voltage, v

Rm = resistance, Ω

r = resistance of the galvanometer coil

Example 1: What is the equivalent resistance of three resistors (1.0Ω, 2.0Ω, and 3.0Ω) when

they are connected (a) in series and (b) in parallel? (c) What current will be delivered from a 12 –

volt battery for each of these arrangements?

Given: Required:

R1 = 1.0Ω , I=?

R2 = 2.0Ω ,

R3 = 3.0Ω ;

V = 12v;

Solution:

Series

𝑅𝑇 = 𝑅1 + 𝑅2 + 𝑅3 = 1 + 2 + 3 = 𝟔Ω

VT 12

IT = = = 𝟐𝐀 = I1 = I2 = I3

RT 6

V1 = I1R1 = 2(1Ω) = 2v

V2 = I2R2 = 2(2) = 4v

V3 = I3R3 = 2(3) = 6v

VT = 12v

PT = IT VT = 2x12 = 𝟐𝟒𝐖

P1 = I1 V1 = 2x2 = 𝟒𝐖

P2 = I2 V2 = 2x4 = 𝟖𝐖

P3 = I3 V3 = 2x6 = 𝟏𝟐𝐖

PT = 𝟐𝟒𝐖

Parallel

31

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 + 3 + 2 11

= + + = + + = =

𝑅𝑇 𝑅1 𝑅2 𝑅3 1 2 3 6 6

𝟔

𝑅𝑇 = Ω

𝟏𝟏

VT 12

IT = = = 𝟐𝟐𝐀

RT 6⁄

11

VT = V1 = V2 = V3 = 𝟏𝟐𝐕

V1 12V

I1 = = = 𝟏𝟐𝐀

R1 1Ω

V2 12V

I2 = = = 𝟔𝐀

R2 2Ω

V3 12V

I3 = = = 𝟒𝐀

R3 3Ω

IT = 𝟐𝟐𝐀

P2 = I2 V2 = 6A x 12V = 𝟕𝟐𝐖

P3 = I3 V3 = 4A x 12V = 𝟒𝟖𝐖

PT = 𝟐𝟔𝟒𝐖

Name:

32

Course/Year/Section:

Assignment No.:

1. Three resistors with values 1.0 ohm, 2.0 ohm, and 4.0 ohm are connected in parallel in a

circuit with a 6.0v battery. What are the (a) the total equivalent resistance, (b) the voltage

across each resistors, and (c) the power dissipated in the resistors?

33

2.. Three resistors with values 5.0 ohm, 2.5 ohm, and 4.0 ohm are connected in series in a

circuit with a 36.0v battery. What are the (a) the total equivalent resistance, (b) the voltage

across each resistors, and (c) the power dissipated in the resistors?

34

Example 2: What are the voltages across and the current in each of the resistors (R1 to R5) in

the figure below? How much power is dissipated in each of the resistors?

R1= 6.00 Ώ

R5= 2.50 Ώ

R2= 4.00 Ώ

Given: Required:

R2= 4.00 Ώ

R3= 6.00 Ώ

R4= 2.00 Ώ

R5= 2.50 Ώ

Solution:

I I I 1 1 1+3 4

= + = + = = V2 6𝑣

R34 R3 R4 6 2 6 6 I2 = = = 1.5𝐴

R34 = 1.5Ω R2 4

V345 6𝑣

I345 = = = 1.5𝐴 = I5 = I34 𝐴

R 345 4

R345 = 2.5 + 1.5 = 4Ω V34 = I34R34 = 1.5(1.5) = 2.25v = V3 = V4

𝑉3 2.25

I3 = = = 𝟎. 𝟑𝟕𝟓𝐀

𝑅3 6

1 1 1 1 1 2 𝑉4 2.25

= + = + = I4 = = = 𝟏. 𝟏𝟐𝟓𝐀

R 2345 R 2 R 345 4 4 4 𝑅4 2

R2345 = 2Ω

PT = VTIT = 24(3) = 72w

P2 = I2V2 = 1.5(6) = 9w

RT =R1+ R2345 = 6 + 2 = 8Ω P3 = I3V3 = 0.375 (2.25) = 0.84375w

P4 = I4V4 = 1.25(2.25) = 2.53125w

𝑉𝑇 24 P5 = I5 V5 = 1.5(3.75) = 5.625w

IT = = = 3A = I1 = I2345

𝑅𝑇 8 PT =72.00000w

V1 = I1R1 = 3(6) = 18v

V2345 = I2345R2345 = 3(2) = 6v =V2 = V345

35

Example 3: Three resistors are connected in parallel across a 36.0-volt battery. Use Kirchhoff’s

rule to calculate (a) the current through each resistor and the battery and (b) the equivalent

resistance of the pair.

@PT.1

A–B–C=0 @ Loop 3

3D – 2.5E = 0

@PT.2

C–D–E=0 3(12) – 2.5E = 0

36

@ Loop 1 E = = 𝟏𝟒. 𝟒𝐀

2.5

-6B + 36 = 0

C=D+E

B = 6A = 12 + 14.4

= 26.4A

@ Loop 2

6B – 3D = 0 A=B+C

6(6) – 3D = 0 = 6 + 26.4

36 A = 32.4A

D = 3 = 𝟏𝟐𝐀

Example 4: What are the voltages across the current in each of the resistors (R1 to R4) in the

figure below? (Use the Kirchhoff’s law).

9Ω Given:

R3=2.00Ω

R3=2.00Ω

V2=12.00V

Required:

2Ω Voltages

V2=12.00V

6Ω

6V

36

@PT.1 *3&4

A–B–C=0 eq. 1 3(A + 3C = 3)

11A – 9C = 12

@ Loop 1

-9B – 2A + 12 = 0 3A + 9C = 9

2A + 9B = 12 eq. 2 11A – 9C = 12

14A = 21

@ Loop 2 A = 3/2 or 1.5A

6 + 6C – 12 + 2A = 0

2A + 6C=6 3

2 (2) +9B = 12

2 3 + 9B = 12

A + 3C = 3 eq. 3

9B = 12 – 3

*1&2 B = 1A

9 (A – B – C = 0)

2A + 9B = 12 3

+ 3C = 3

9A – 9B – 9C =0 2

3 3

2A + 9B = 12 3C = 3 – =

2 2

11A – 9C =12 eq.4 3 1

C = = A

2(3) 2

37

Name:

Course/Year/Section:

Assignment No.:

Use the Kirchhoff’s law to determine the power dissipated in the resistors.

10.0 7.0

9.0

36 v 6.0

8.0 5.0

38

Example 5: The capacitance resistance in the RC circuit is 6.0 µF and 0.25MΩ,

respectively, and the battery has a 12-volt terminal voltage. (a) The capacitor was initially

uncharged. What is the voltage across it one time constant after the switch is closed? (b)

What are the voltage across the capacitor and the capacitor’s charge at t = 5.0 s?

a) Vc = 0.63Vº

= 0.63(12)

= 7.56v

b) Vc = Vº (1 – e -t/T) T = Rc

= 12(1 - e -5/1.5) = (6 x 10 -6F) (0.25 x 106Ω)

= 11.57V T = 1.5s

Q = CVc

= 6 x 10-6 F(11.57)

Q = 6.94 x 10 -5C

Example 6: A galvanometer that can safely carry a maximum coil current of 200 µA

(called the full-scale sensitivity) has a coil resistance of 50 Ω. It is to be used in an

ammeter designed to read currents up to 3.0 A (at full scale). What is the required shunt

resistance?

Given: Required:

Ig = 200µA = 200 x 10 -6A Rs = ?

R = 50Ω

1 = 3A

Solution:

IRs 3Rs

Ig = ; 200 x 10 −6 =

R+Rs 50 + Rs

200 x 10 -6 (50) + 200 x 10-6 Rs = 3Rs

0.01 = 3,0003 Rs

0.01

Rs= = 𝟑. 𝟑𝟑 𝐱 𝟏𝟎 − 𝟑Ω

3,0003

39

Example 7: Suppose that the galvanometer in latter problem is to be used instead in a

voltmeter with a full-scale reading of 3.0 V. What is the required multiplier resistance?

Given: Required:

V = 3V Rm =

Solution:

Ig = V

R + Rm

200 x 10-6 = 3

50 + Rm

Rm = 3 - 50

200 x 10-6

Rm = 1.49 x 104Ω

40

Name:

Course/Year/Section:

Assignment No.:

In a flashing neon light circuit, at a time constant of 2.0 s is desired. If you have a 1.0

micro farad capacitor, what resistance should you use in the circuits?

V

Ig =

R + Rm

V - Igr

1gRm =

Ig

1 gr + 1gRm = V

V - Igr

Rm =

Ig

6 – 200 x 10 -6(50)

Rm =

200 x 10-6

Rm = 3.0 x 104Ω

the needle through 10 divisions of full scale. What resistance is needed to convert the

galvanometer to a full scale 10-volt meter?

41

A voltmeter has a resistance of 300k-ohms. What is the current through the meter when it

is connected across a 10 ohm resistor that is wired to a 6.0 volt source?

42

Chapter 5: Magnetism

Important Terms:

Pole – Force Law or Law of Poles = Like magnetic poles repel each other and unlike

magnetic poles attract each other.

and magnetic field.

Tesla = The combined unit, newton per ampere meter, of magnetic field is named in

honor of Nikola Tesla.

Right Hand Force Rule = When the fingers of the right hand are pointed in the direction

of v and then curled toward the vector B, the extended thumb points in the direction of F

for a positive charge.

Right Hand Source Rule = If a current carrying wire is grasped with the right hand with

the extended thumb pointing in the direction of the current I, the curled fingers indicate

the circular sense of the magnetic field direction.

Ferromagnetic Materials = Strong magnetic materials where the electron spins do not

pair or cancel completely.

Hard Iron = Irons that retains some magnetism after being in an external magnetic field.

Curie Temperature = The critical temperature where the domain coupling is destroyed

by the increased in thermal oscillations and a ferromagnetic loses its ferromagnetism.

Right Hand Force Rule for a Current Carrying Wire = When the fingers of the right

hand are pointed in the direction of the conventional current I and then curled toward the

vector B, the extended thumb points in the direction of the magnetic force on the wire.

43

Mass Spectrometer = It is one form of electric and magnetic field.

Magnet = composed of two “centers” of force called “poles”, one or near each end of the

magnet these poles are distinguished as positive and negative, these are called the north

(N) and south poles (S). This terminology comes from the early used of the magnetic

compass.

Magnetic Poles = With two bar magnets we notice a pattern of attraction and repulsion

between their various ends.

Important Equations:

Magnitude of the Magnetic Force on a Moving Charged Particle

F = qvBSinθ

Where: F = force, N

q = charge, C

v = velocity, m/s

B = magnetic field, T

μ𝐨 𝐈

𝐁=

𝟐𝛑𝐝

I = current ,A

µo = magnetic permeability of free space

= 4π x 10-7Tm/A

d = distance, m

Carrying Wire

μ𝐨 𝐈

𝐁=

𝟐𝐫

I = current, A

µo = magnetic permeability of free space

= 4π x 10-7Tm/A

r = radius, m

μ𝐨 𝐍𝐈

𝐁=

𝐋

44

B = µonI

I = current ,A

µo = magnetic permeability of free space

= 4π x 10-7Tm/A

L = length, m

N = turn or loop

n = linear turn density, turn/m

= N/L

F = ILBSinθ

Where: F = force, N

I = current, A

L = length, m

B = magnetic field, T

τ = IABSinθ

Where: τ = torque,

I = current, A

A = area, m2

B = magnetic field, T

τ = NIABSinθ

Where: τ = torque,

I = current, A

A = area, m2

B = magnetic field, T

N = loops, turns

45

Example 1: A particle with a charge of -5.0 x 10-4C move at a speed of 1.0 x 103 m/s in

the + x direction toward a uniform magnetic field of 0.20T in the +y direction. What is

the force on the particle just as it enters the magnetic field?

Given: Required:

Q= -5x10-4C F=?

v= 1.0 x 10 -5 m/s

β = 0.2 T

Solution:

assume that it is a steady (dc) current (even though it is not). Assume also that this

current is a west-to-east direction. What are the magnitudes and the directions of

magnetic field it produces 1.0 cm directly below the wire?

Given: Required:

I= 15A β= ?

d= 1cm = 0.01 m

Solution:

B= = = = = 𝟑 𝐱 𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝐓

2πr 2πd d 0.01m

Example 3: A solenoid is 0.30 m long with 103 turns per meter and carries a current of

5.0 A. What is the magnitude of the magnetic field at the center of this solenoid?

Compare your result with the field near the single wire in the previous example (notice

that this wire carries three times the current of the solenoid in this Example!), and

comment.

Given: Required:

L=0.3 m B=?

n= 1000 turns/m

I= 5A

Solution:

46

Name:

Course/Year/Section:

Assignment No.:

1. A positive charge of 0.25 C moves horizontally to the right at a speed of 2.0x102 m/s and

enters a magnetic field directed vertically downward. If it experiences a force of 20N,

what is the magnetic field strength?

2. Two long parallel wires separated by 50 cm carry currents of 4.0 amperes each in a

horizontal direction. Find the midway between the wires if the currents are (a) in the

same direction and (b) in opposite directions.

3. What is the magnitude of the magnetic field of the circular orbit of the electron in a

hydrogen atom, which has an orbital radius of 0.0529nm?

47

Example 4: Two long parallel wires separated by a distance d and carry currents I1 and

I2 in the same direction.(a) Derive an expression for the magnetic force per unit length on

one of the wires due to the other and show that, in keeping with Newton’s third law, the

forces on the two wires are equal in magnitude. (b) Show that for these current directions,

the forces are mutually attractive, in keeping with Newton’s third law that the forces of

an action-at reaction pair must be opposite in direction.

Given:

I1

I2

d

Solution:

𝐹 = 𝑄𝑣𝛽𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃

𝑄

𝐼 = ; 𝑄 = 𝐼𝑡

𝑡

𝑑 𝐿

𝑣= =

𝑡 𝑡

𝜃 = 90

𝐿

𝐹 = (𝐼𝑡) ( ) 𝛽𝑆𝑖𝑛90

𝑡

𝐹 = (𝐼)(𝐿)𝛽

F

= Iβ

L

F1

= I1β1

L

μo I2

β = 2πd

F1 I1 µo I2

=

L 2πd

F1 μo I1 I2 F2

L

=

2πd

= L

48

Name:

Course/Year/Section:

Assignment No.:

1. Two long straight parallel wires 10cm apart carry equal currents pf 3.0 ampere in

opposite directions. What is the force per unit length of the wires?

49

Example 5: An orbiting electron possesses an orbital magnetic moment, and the motion

can produce a magnetic field. In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the single

electron travels in a circle with a radius of 0.0529 nm and has a period of 1.5 x 10-16s.

Derive a general expression for the orbital magnetic moment in terms of the orbital radius

r, the charge on the electron e, and the orbital period T. What is the magnitude of the

orbital magnetic moment of the electron in the hydrogen atom?

Solution:

a) Τ = IA

A = πr2

q e

I= =

t t

eπr2 πer2

Τ= =

t t

2

π(1.609 x 10-19 )(0.0529x10-9 )

b) Τ=

1.5x10-6 s

T= 9.43 x 10−24 Am2

Example 6: One electron is removed from a methane molecule prior to entering the mass

spec arrangement. After passing through the velocity selector, the charged molecule has

a speed of 1.0 x 103m/s. It then enters the final magnetic field region, in which the field

is 6.7 x 10-3T and follows a circular path. The molecule lands on the detector 5.0cm from

the entrance to the field. Determine the mass of this molecule. Neglect the mass of the

removed electron.

Given:

V= 1.0 x 103m/s

B= 6.7 x 10-3T

d= 5cm = 0.05m

q= 1.602 x 10-19 C

θ = 90

Sol’n:

m= = 3

= 2.68x10−26 𝑘𝑔

V 1.0x10

50

Chapter 6: Electromagnetic Induction

Important Terms:

Electromagnetic Induction = It is the current induced in a loop caused by an induced

electromotive force (emf) due to this process.

Magnetic Flux = It is a measure of the number of field lines passing through an area.

Faraday’s Law of Induction = It is the time rate of change of the magnetic flux through

all the loops.

Lenz’s Law = An induced emf in a metal loop or coil gives rise to a current whose

magnetic field opposes the change in magnetic flux that produces it.

Alternating Current = The polarity of the voltage and the direction of the current

periodically change.

AC Generators = The electricity used in homes and industry is primarily ac, this is

sometimes called as an alternator.

Transformer = It consists of two coils of insulated wire would on the same (closed) iron

core.

Primary Coil = When AC voltage is applied to the input coil, the alternating current

gives rise to an alternating magnetic flux that is concentrated in the iron core.

Secondary Coil = The changing flux also passes through the output coil, inducing an

alternating voltage and current in it.

Step-up Transformer = If the secondary coil has more windings than the primary coil

does (Ns > Np, or Ns/Np > 1), the voltage is stepped up or (Vs > Vp).

Step-down Transformer = The secondary coil has fewer turns than the primary and the

voltage is stepped down, or reduced and the current is increased.

Eddy Currents = The fourth cause of energy loss in the transformer core.

Maxwell’s Equation = A set of equation which combines the electric field and the

magnetic field into a single electromagnetic field.

51

52

Important Equations:

Magnetic Flux

Φ = BACosθ

B = magnetic field strength, T

A = area, m2

𝚫𝚽

𝛏 = −𝐍

𝚫𝐭

N = loops, turns

φ = magnetic flux, Tm2

t = time, s

Generator emf

𝛏 = 𝛏𝐨 𝐒𝐢𝐧𝛚𝐭 = 𝛏𝐨 𝐒𝐢𝐧𝟐𝛑𝐟𝐭

ξo = emf, v

= NBAω

ω = angular velocity, rad/s

t = time, s

f = frequency, hz

N = loops, turns

B = magnetic field strength, T

A = area, m2

ξb = V - IR

V = voltage, v

I = current, A

R = Resistance, Ω

𝐈𝐏 𝐕𝐒 𝐍𝐒

= =

𝐈𝐒 𝐕𝐏 𝐍𝐏

IS = secondary current, A

VP = primary voltage, v

53

VS = secondary voltage, v

NP = primary turns, turns

NS = secondary turns, turns

Example 1: Consider a laptop computer’s speaker that is near a single wire carrying a

household current. At a distance of 30 cm, maximum current of 10 A would produce a

maximum magnetic field of about 7.0x10-6 Tesla. Both the current and the field would

reverse direction every half cycle, or Δt= 1/120s.

The speaker’s coil consists of 1000 circular wire loops and has a total resistance

of 1.0 ohm and a radius of 3.0 cm. Since the coil is small, assume for simplicity that the

magnetic field strength at any instant is constant over coils’ area, which is perpendicular

to the to the field direction. According to the manufacturer, the coil can carry only 25mA

before it is damaged. What is the magnitude of the average induced emf in the coil during

one half cycle and the magnitude of the average induced current in the coil? Will the

speaker’s coil survive?

Given: Required:

d = 30cm = 0.3m Emf = v = ?

Imax = 10 A (household) I (induced) =?

β = 7.0 x 10-6 T

∆t = 1⁄120 S

N = 1000 loops

R┌ = 1 Ω

┌ = 3cm = 0.03m

Imax = 25m A = 0.025A (Manufacturer Limit)

Solution.

N |∆ø|

V = emf =

∆t

∆ø = øf -øi

øi = β o A Cosθ = 7.0 x 10-6 (π) (0.03)2 cos 0

øi = 1.97 x 10-8 Tm2 / loop

øf = - 1.97 x 10-8 Tm2 / loop

∆ø = øf -øi = - 1.97 x 10-8 - 1.97 x 10-8 = -3.94x10-8 Tm2 / loop

N ⁄ ∆ø ⁄ 1000(−3.94𝑥10−8 )

V = emf = = = 4.728𝑥10−3 𝑣

∆t 1⁄

120 𝑠

𝑉 4.728𝑥10−3

𝐼= = = 4.728𝑥10−3 𝐴 = 4.728𝑚𝐴 < 25𝑚𝐴 𝑖𝑡 𝑤𝑖𝑙𝑙 𝑛𝑜𝑡 𝑏𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑘

𝑅 1

54

55

Example 2: A farmer decides to use a waterfalls on his property to create a small

hydroelectric power plant. He builds a coil consisting of 1500 closely packed circular

loops of wire with a radius of 20 cm and constructs his generator to spin at 60Hz in a

magnetic field. To generate a maximum emf of 120 V, what must be the magnitude of the

magnetic field?

Given: Required :

N = 1500 loops β=?

T = 20cm = 0.2m

F = 60hz

Emf v = 120V

Solution :

V = ε = π (0.2)2 (1500) (60) β = 120v

β = 1.69 x 10-3T

Example 3: A dc motor with a resistance of 8.0 ohm in its windings operates on 120 V.

With a normal load, there is a back emf of 100 V when the motor reaches full speed .

What are (a) the starting current drawn by the motor and (b) the armature current at

operating speed under a normal load?

Given: Required

R = 8Ω Ia =?

V = 120V

εb = 100V

Solution :

V = IR

I20 = Ia (8)

120

Ia = 8 = 15A

ε = V – IR

100 = 120 – Ia (8)

20 = 8𝐼𝑎

Ia = 2.5 A

Example 4: A transformer has 50 turns on its primary coil and 100 turns on its secondary

coil. (a) if the primary is connected to 120- volt source, what is the voltage output of the

secondary? (b) If the transformer is operated in reverse and the 120-volt input is applied

to the 100-turn coil, what would be the voltage output?

Given: Required:

Np = 50 turns Vs = ?

Ns = 100 turns

Vp = 120 volt

56

Solution:

100 Vs 100 120

= =

50 120 50 Vs

Vs 120

2 = 120 2=

Vs

Vs = 240v Vs = 60v

Example 5: A small hydroelectric power plant produces energy in the form of electric

current at 10 A and a voltage of 440 V. The voltage is stepped up to 4400 V (by an ideal

transformer) for the transmission over 40 km of power line, which has a resistance of

0.50Ώ/km. (A power transmission line has two wires for a complete circuit. (a) What

percentage of the original energy would have been lost in transmission if the voltage had

not been stepped up? (b) What percentage of the original energy is lost with the voltage

stepped up?

Given: I = 10 A LT = 80km.

V = 440v R/L = 0.5Ω⁄km

v = 4400v RT = 40Ω

L = 40km

Required: ρ=?

Solution:

PL = I2 R = 102(40) = 4000 watt

4000

%PL = x 100 = 𝟗𝟎. 𝟗𝟏%

4400

10𝐴 4400 440(10)

= ; = 𝐼𝑠 = 𝟏𝐀

𝐼𝑠 440 4400

PL = I2 R = 12 (40) = 40w

40

%PL = x100 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟏%

4400

Example 6: Viking space probes landed on Mars in 1976 and sent radio and TV signals

back to Earth. How much longer did it take for a signal to reach us when Mars was

farthest from Earth than when it was closest to us? The average distance of Mars and

Earth from the Sun are 229 million km and 150 million km respectively. Assume circular

orbits with these average distances as radii.

Given: Required:

d=229x109 m, 150x109 m 𝑡 =?

57

dM = 229x109 m

dE = 150x109 m

Solution:

∆d = (dM + dE ) − (dM − dE )

= 2dE = 𝟑𝟎𝟎𝐱𝟏𝟎𝟗 𝐦

d

c=

t

∆d 300x109 1min.

t= = = 1000x = 𝟏𝟔. 𝟔𝟕𝐦𝐢𝐧

c 3.0x108 60sec.

58

Chapter 7: AC Circuits

Important Terms:

Peak Voltage = The voltage oscillates between values of positive Vo and negative Vo.

Peak Current = The current oscillates between values of positive Io and negative Io

current.

varying current.

Inductor = It is a coil that exhibits a reverse voltage, or back emf, in opposition to the

changing current.

Henry = The combined unit, volt-second per ampere, for inductance named after Joseph

Henry.

circuit depends on the value of the inductance and on the frequency of the voltage.

Phase Diagram = The resistance and reactance of the circuit are given in a vectorlike

properties.

Impedance = The phasor sum is the effective, or net, opposition to the current.

Phase Angle = The angle between the voltage from the source and the current in the

circuit.

Inductive Circuit = If the inductive reactance is greater than the capacitive reactance, the

phase angle is positive.

Capacitive Circuit = If the capacitive reactance is greater than the inductive reactance,

the phase angle is negative.

59

Important Equations:

Instantaneous Voltage in an AC Circuit

V = VOSinωt = VOSin2πft

VO = peak voltage, v

ω = angular velocity, rad/s

t = time, s

f = frequency, hz

I = IOSin2πft

IO = peak current, A

t = time, s

f = frequency, hz

IO = √𝟐𝐈rms

VO = √𝟐𝐕rms

Vrms = effective voltage, v

Irms = effective current, A

IO = peak current, A

P = I2rmsR

Vrms = IrmsR

Irms = effective current, A

R = resistance, Ω

Capacitive Reactance

𝟏 𝟏

𝐗𝐂 = =

𝟐𝛑𝐟𝐂 𝛚𝐂

C = capacitance, F

f = frequency, hz

60

ω = angular velocity, rad/s

V = IXC

Where: V = voltage, v

I = current, A

XC = capacitive reactance, Ω

Inductive Reactance

XL = 2πfL = ωL

L = inductance, H

f = frequency, hz

ω = angular velocity, rad/s

V = IXL

Where: V = voltage, v

I = current, A

XL = inductive reactance, Ω

V = IZ

Where: V = voltage, v

I = current, A

Z = impedance, Ω

𝐙 = √𝐑𝟐 + (𝐗 𝐋 − 𝐗 𝐂 )𝟐

Where: Z = impedance, Ω

R = resistance, Ω

XL = inductive reactance, Ω

XC = capacitive reactance, Ω

𝐗𝐋 − 𝐗𝐂

𝐓𝐚𝐧𝚽 =

𝐑

R = resistance, Ω

XL = inductive reactance, Ω

61

XC = capacitive reactance, Ω

𝐑

𝐂𝐨𝐬𝚽 =

𝐙

Where: Z = impedance, Ω

R = resistance, Ω

Φ = phase angle, o

𝐏 = 𝐈𝐕𝐂𝐨𝐬𝚽 = 𝐈𝟐 𝐙𝐂𝐨𝐬𝚽

I = current, A

V = voltage, v

Cosφ = power factor

Z = impedance, Ω

𝟏

𝒇𝒐 = 𝟐𝝅√𝑳𝑪

L = inductance, H

C = capacitance, F

Example 1: A lamp with a 60watt bulb is plugged into a 120 V outlet. (a) What are the

Irms and peak currents through the lamp? (b) What is the resistance of the bulb? (Neglect

the resistance of the wiring.)

Given: Required:

P = 60watts Irms

V= 120v Ipeak

Solution:

P 60 V 120

A) Irms = = = 0.5𝐴 B) R = = = 240Ω

V 120 I 0.5

Example 2: A 15.0 micro farad capacitor is connected to a 120V, 60Herts source. What

are (a). The capacitive reactance and (b). The current (rms and peak) in the circuit?

Given: Required:

C = 15μF = 15x10−6 F Irms

V = 120v Ipeak

62

F = 60hz

Solution:

1 1

a. xc = = = 176.84Ω

2πfc 2𝜋(60)(15𝑥10−6 𝐹)

V 120

𝑏. Irms = = = 0.68A

Xc 176.84

Ipeak = √2 Irms = √2(0.68) = 0.96A

Example 3: A 125-mH inductor is connected to a 120-volt, 60-Hertz source. What are (a)

the inductive reactance? And (b) rms current in the circuit?

Given: Required:

L = 125mH = 125x10−3H XL

V = 120v Irms

f = 60Hz

Solution:

𝑎. XL = 2πfL = 2π (60) (125x10−3 ) = 47.12Ω

b. V = XL Irms

120 = 47.12 Irms

Irms = 2.55A

Example 4: A series RC circuit has a resistance of 100 ohm and a capacitance of 15.0

micro farad. (a). what is the (rms current) in the circuit when driven by a 120 volt 60-H

source? (b) Compute the (rms) voltage across each circuits element and the two element

combined. Compare it to that of the voltage source. Is Kirchoff’s loop theorem satisfied?

Given: Required:

R = 100Ω Irms

C = 15 Uf = 15x10-6 F

V = 120 V

f = 60 Hz

Solution:

1 1

Xc = = = 176.84Ω

2πfc 2π(60)(15X10−6 )

63

V 120

Irms = = = 0.59 A

Z 203.16

VC = IXC = 0.59 (176.84) = 104.34

163.34 ≠ 120

microfarad, in an inductance of 0.300 H. if the circuit is driven by a 120-volt, 60-hz

source, what are (a) the impedance of the circuit (b) the current in the circuit, and (c) the

phase angle between the current and the voltage. (d) How much power is dissipated in the

circuit?

Given: Required:

R = 25 Ω Z

C = 50 uF = 50×10-6 F I

L = 0.3 H Ø

V = 120 V P

f = 60 hz

Solution:

1

Xc = = 53.05 Ω

2π(60)(50X10−6 )

120

Irms = = 1.84 A

65.05

XL − 𝑋𝐶 113.1-53.05

TanØ = =

𝑅 25

Ø = 67.40°

64

Example 6: A series RCL circuit has a resistance of 50.0 ohms, capacitance of 6

nanofarad, and an inductance of 28 mH. The circuit is corrupted to a wide range

adjustable frequency – voltage source with an output of 25 volts. (a) What is the

resonance frequency of the circuit? (b) How much current is in the circuit when it is

resonance? (c) What is the voltage across each circuit element for this condition?

Given: Required:

R = 50 Ω f

C = 6nF = 6×10-9 F Z

L = 28m H VR

V = 120 V

Solution:

1 1

f = = = 12,279.07 hz

2π√LC 2π√28 × 10−3 (6.0 × 10−9 )

×L = ×C

Z= R = 50 Ω

V

𝐼=Z = 25

50

= 0.5 A

VR = IR = 0.5 (50) = 25 V

VC = VL

65

Chapter 8: Geometrical Optics: Reflection and Refraction of

Light

Important Terms:

Wave Front = It is a line or surface defined by adjacent portions of a wave that are in

phase.

Plane wave front = The curvature of a short segment of a circular or spherical wave

front is small. Such a segment might be approximated as a linear wave front in two

dimensions or a plane wave front.

Ray = A line drawn perpendicular to a series of wave fronts and pointing in the direction

of propagation.

Geometrical optics = The use of the geometrical representations of wave fronts and rays

to explain phenomena.

electromagnetic vibrations in the atoms of the reflecting medium.

Angle of incidence = It is the angle between a ray incident on a surface and the line

perpendicular to the reflecting surface.

Angle of reflection = It is the angle measured from the reflected ray to the surface

normal.

Regular (Specular) Reflection = When the reflecting surface is smooth, the reflected

rays of a beam of light are parallel.

Irregular (Diffuse) Reflection = If the reflecting surface is rough, the light rays are

reflected in non parallel direction because of the irregular nature of the surface.

Refraction = It is the change in direction of a wave at a boundary where the wave passes

from one medium into another.

source of secondary waves, or wavelets, and the line or surface tangent to all these

wavelets defines a new position of the wavefront.

Index of Refraction = It is the relationship between the speed of light in a vacuum and

the speed of light in a medium.

66

Critical Angle = It is the limit for a certain angle of incidence.

Total Internal Reflection = It is an optical phenomenon that occurs when a ray of light

strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than the critical angle with respect to the

normal to the surface.

transmit light.

wavelengths of light, in refracting there is a separation of the wavelengths.

Substance n

Air 1.00029

Water 1.33

Ethyl Alcohol 1.36

Fused Quartz 1.46

Glycerine 1.47

Polystyrene 1.49

Oil (typical value) 1.50

Glass (by type) 1.45-1.70

Crown 1.52

Flint 1.66

Zircon 1.92

Diamond 2.42

Important Equations:

Law of Reflection

θi = θr

Θr = angle of reflection

Snell’s Law

𝐒𝐢𝐧 𝛉𝟏 𝐯𝟏

=

𝐒𝐢𝐧 𝛉𝟐 𝐯𝟐

𝐧𝟏 𝐒𝐢𝐧 𝛉𝟏 = 𝐧𝟐 𝐒𝐢𝐧 𝛉𝟐

n = index of refraction

67

Index of Refraction

𝐜 𝛌

𝐧= =

𝐯 𝛌𝐦

c = speed of light, 3.0 x 108m/s

v = velocity, m/s

𝐧𝟐

𝐒𝐢𝐧𝛉𝐂 =

𝐧𝟏

𝟏

𝐒𝐢𝐧𝛉𝐂 =

𝐧

Given:

n = 1.33 Required:

c = 3.0x108m/s v =?

Solution:

3.0x108

𝑣= = 2.26x108 𝑚/𝑠

1.33

Example 2: Light in air is incident on a piece of crown glass at angle of 37.00 (relative to

the normal). What is the angle of reflection of the glass?

Given:

𝑛𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 1.00

𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑠 = 1.52

𝜃𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 37.00°

Required”

𝜃𝑔𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑠 =?

Solution:

𝑛1 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃1 = 𝑛2 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃2

1.00𝑆𝑖𝑛37 = 1.52𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃2

𝜃2 = 23.33°

68

Example 3: A beam of light traveling in air strikes the plate-glass top of a coffee table at

an angle of incidence of 45.00 the glass has an n= 1.5 a.) What is the angle of refraction

for the light transmitted into the glass? b.) if the glass plate is 2.0 cm thick, what is the

lateral distance between the point where they enters the glass---x in the figure? c.) prove

that the emergent beam is parallel to the incident beam, that is θ4= θ2

Given:

𝑛𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 1.00

𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑠 = 1.5

𝜃𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 45.00°

thickness = 2cm

Required”

𝜃𝑔𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑠 =?

X=?

𝜃1 = 𝜃4 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣𝑒

Solution:

𝑎. 𝑛1 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃1 = 𝑛2 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃2

𝑛1 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃1 1𝑆𝑖𝑛45

𝜃2 = 𝑆𝑖𝑛−1 [ ] = 𝑆𝑖𝑛−1 [ ] = 28.13°

𝑛2 1.5

𝑦

𝑏. 𝑇𝑎𝑛𝜃2 =

𝑥

2

𝑇𝑎𝑛28.13° =

𝑥

2

𝑥= = 3.74𝑐𝑚

𝑇𝑎𝑛28.13°

1.0𝑆𝑖𝑛45 = 1.5𝑆𝑖𝑛28.13° = 1𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃4

𝜃4 = 45°

Example 4: What is the critical angle for light traveling in water and incident on a water-

air boundary? (b)if a diver submerged in a poll looked up at the water surface at an angle

of θ< θc what would see?(Neglect ant thermal or motional in the water).

Given:

𝑛𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 1.00 Required:

𝑛𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 1.33 𝜃𝑐 =?

Solution:

𝑛1

𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑐 =

𝑛2

𝑛1 1

𝜃𝑐 = 𝑆𝑖𝑛−1 [ ] = 𝑆𝑖𝑛−1 [ ] = 48.75°

𝑛2 1.33

69

Example 5: The index of refraction of a particular transparent material is 1.4053 for the

red end (λ= 700nm) of the visible spectrum and 1.4698 for the blue end ( λ= 400nm). If

white light is incident on a prism of this material at an angle of 45.00, what is the angular

dispersion of the visible spectrum inside the prism?

Given:

Red End Blue End

𝑛1 = 1.00 𝑛1 = 1.00

𝜃1 = 45° 𝜃1 = 45°

𝑛2 = 1.4053 𝑛2 = 1.4698

Required:

𝜃2 =?

Solution:

𝑎. 𝑛1 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃1 = 𝑛2 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃2

1𝑆𝑖𝑛45 = 1.4053𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃2

1𝑆𝑖𝑛45

𝜃2 = 𝑆𝑖𝑛−1 [ ] = 29.18°

1.4053

𝑏. 𝑛1 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃1 = 𝑛2 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃2

1𝑆𝑖𝑛45 = 1.4698𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃2

1𝑆𝑖𝑛45

𝜃2 = 𝑆𝑖𝑛−1 [ ] = 28.76°

1.4698

70

Chapter 9: Mirrors and Lenses

Important Terms:

Mirrors = Are smooth reflecting surfaces: usually made of polished metal or glass that

has been coated with some metallic substances.

refraction (lenses), or the passage of rays through a small hole.

Lateral Magnification = It refers to the comparison between the size of the image to its

object.

Optic axis = It is the radial line through the center of the spherical mirror and it intersects

the mirror surface at the vertex of the spherical section.

Center of curvature (c) = It is the point on the optic axis that corresponds to the center

of the sphere of which the mirror forms a section.

Radius of curvature (r) = It is the distance between the vertex and the center of

curvature is equal to the radius of the sphere.

Converging mirror = It is a concave mirror which is a result when rays parallel to the

optic axis are incident on a concave mirror, the reflected rays intersect, or converge, at a

common point called, the focal point.

Diverging Mirrors = It is the incident parallel rays emerge from the lens as though they

emanated from a focal point on the incident side of the lens.

Focal Point = When rays parallel to the optic axis are incident on a concave mirror, the

reflected rays intersect, or converge at a common point.

Focal length = It is the distance from the vertex to the focal point of the spherical mirror.

71

Parallel ray = It is a ray that is incident along a path parallel to the optic axis and is

reflected through the focal point.

Chief ray or radial ray = It is a ray that is incident through the center of curvature (c) of

the mirror. Since the chief ray is incident normal to the mirrors surface, this ray is

reflected back along its path, through point c.

Mirror Focal ray = It is a ray that passes through the focal point and is reflected parallel

to the optic axis.

Spherical mirror equation = It is the distance and focal length can be shown to be

related.

Spherical aberration = It is incident parallel rays from the optic do not converge at the

focal point. The farther the incident ray is from the axis, the more the more

Lens = It comes from the Latin word for lentil, a seed whose shape is similar to that of a

common lens.

Optical lens = It is made from some transparent material. One of both surfaces usually

has a spherical contour.

Biconvex lens = It is a converging lens where incident light rays parallel to the lens axis

converge at a focal point on the opposite side of the lens.

Diverging lens = It is the incident rays emerge from the lens as though they emanated

from a focal point on the incident side of the lens.

Parallel ray = It is a ray that is parallel to the lens axis on incidence and that after

refraction either (a) passes through the focal point on the image side of a converging lens

or (b) appears to diverge from the focal point of an object side of a diverging lens.

Chief ray or Central ray(for lenses) = It is a ray that passes through the center of the

lens and is undeviated.

72

Lens Focal Ray = It is a ray that passes through the focal point on the object side of a

converging lens or appears to pass through the focal point on the image side of a

diverging lens and after refraction is parallel to the lens axis.

Lens Spherical Aberration = It is an effect that occurs when parallel rays passing

through different region of a lens do not come together on a common focal plane.

Circle of least confusion = It is the place where the transmitted light beam has the

smallest cross section.

Chromatic aberration = It is an effect that occurs because the index of refraction of the

material making up a lens is not the same for all wavelengths.

Astigmatism = It is the rays centering along the major and minor axis of the ellipse than

focus at different points after passing through the lens.

Lens Maker’s Equation = Properties which are related to the focal length of a thin lens

which gives the focal length of a thin lens in air.

Magnification Factor

𝐡𝐢

𝐌=

𝐡𝐨

hi = height of image

ho = height of object

𝐑

𝐟=

𝟐

R = radius of curvature, m

𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 𝟐

+ = =

𝐝𝐨 𝐝𝐢 𝐟 𝐑

𝒅𝒐 𝒇

𝒅𝒊 =

𝒅𝒐 − 𝒇

di = image distance

f = focal length

73

r = radius of curvature

𝟏 𝟏 𝟏

+ =

𝐝𝐨 𝐝𝐢 𝐟

𝒅𝒐 𝒇

𝒅𝒊 =

𝒅𝒐 − 𝒇

di = image distance

f = focal length

𝐝𝐢

𝐌=

𝐝𝐨

hi = height of image

ho = height of object

Mtotal = M1M2

M = magnification factor

𝟏 𝟏 𝟏

= (𝐧 − 𝟏) ( − )

𝐟 𝐑𝟏 𝐑𝟐

n = index of refraction

R = radius of curvature

𝟏

𝑷=

𝒇

f = focal length

74

Sign convention for spherical mirrors

Focal length

Concave (converging) mirror : +f (or +R)

Convex (diverging ) mirror : -f ( or –R )

Object distance do ( same for both convex and concave mirror )

+do when the object is in front of the object ( real object )

-di when the object is behind of the object ( virtual image)

Image distance (do)

+di when the image is formed in front of the mirror

-di when the image is formed behind the mirror

image orientation M ( same for both mirrors )

+M when the image is upright with respect to the object

-M when the image is inverted with respect to the object

Focal length

Converging lens (sometimes called a positive lens): +f

Diverging lens (sometimes called a negative lens); -f

+do when the object is in front of the object ( real object )

-do when the object is behind of the object ( virtual image )

+di when the image is formed on the opposite (image) side

of the lens from the object (real image)

-di when the image is formed on the same (object) side of

the lens as the object (virtual image)

Image orientation M

+M when the image is upright with respect to the object

-M when the image is inverted with respect to the object

75

Example 1: What is the minimum vertical length of a plane mirror needed for a person to

be able to see a complete (head to toe) image?

ℎ1 ℎ2 ℎ1 + ℎ2 ℎ

𝐿= + = =

2 2 2 2

(a) 45 cm, (b) 20 cm, and (c) 10 cm from the mirror, where is the image formed and what

are its characteristics?

Given:

R= 30

𝑎. 𝑑𝑜 = 45

𝑏. 𝑑𝑜 = 20

𝑐. 𝑑𝑜 = 10

Required:

𝑑𝑖 =? & 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑠

Solution:

𝑅 30

𝑓= = = 15

2 2

1 1 1

𝑎. = +

𝑓 𝑑𝑜 𝑑𝑖

1 1 1

= +

15 45 𝑑𝑖

1 1 1

= −

𝑑𝑖 15 45

𝑑𝑖 = 22.5 (𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑙)

−𝑑𝑖 −22.5

𝑀= = = −0.5(𝑖𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑑, 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑟)

𝑑𝑜 45

1 1 1

𝑏. = +

𝑓 𝑑𝑜 𝑑𝑖

1 1 1

= +

15 20 𝑑𝑖

1 1 1

= −

𝑑𝑖 15 20

𝑑𝑖 = 60 (𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑙)

−𝑑𝑖 −60

𝑀= = = −3(𝑖𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑑, 𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔𝑒𝑟)

𝑑𝑜 20

76

1 1 1

𝑐. = +

𝑓 𝑑𝑜 𝑑𝑖

1 1 1

= +

15 10 𝑑𝑖

1 1 1

= −

𝑑𝑖 15 10

𝑑𝑖 = −30 (𝑣𝑖𝑟𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙)

−𝑑𝑖 −(−30)

𝑀= = = 3(𝑢𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡, 𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔𝑒𝑟)

𝑑𝑜 10

cm. Where the image, and what is are its characteristics?

Given:

𝑑𝑜 = 30

𝑓 = 10

Required:

𝑑𝑖 =? & 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑠

Solution:

1 1 1

= +

𝑓 𝑑𝑜 𝑑𝑖

−1 1 1

= +

30 10 𝑑𝑖

1 −1 1

= −

𝑑𝑖 30 10

𝑑𝑖 = −7.5 (𝑣𝑖𝑟𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙)

−𝑑𝑖 −(−7.5)

𝑀= = = 0.25(𝑢𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡, 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑟)

𝑑𝑜 30

Example 4: Where is the image formed by a concave mirror if the object is at infinity?

1 1 1

= +

𝑓 𝑑𝑜 𝑑𝑖

1 1 1

= +

𝑓 ∞ 𝑑𝑖

1 1

=

𝑓 𝑑𝑖

𝑑𝑖 = 𝑓

77

Example 5: As the object distance of a biconvex lens is varied, at what point does the

real image go from being reduced to being magnified.

1 1 1

= +

𝑓 𝑑𝑜 𝑑𝑖

1 1 1

= +

𝑓 2𝑓 𝑑𝑖

1 1 1 1

= − =

𝑑𝑖 𝑓 2𝑓 2𝑓

𝑑𝑖 = 2𝑓 = 𝑑𝑜

−𝑑𝑖 −2𝑓

𝑀= = = −1(𝑖𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑑, 𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑒 𝑠𝑖𝑧𝑒)

𝑑𝑜 2𝑓

Example 6: Suppose the object is 20 cm in front of the lens L1, which has a focal length

of 15 cm, is 26 cm from L2. What is the location of the final image, and what are its

characteristics?

Given:

𝑑𝑜 = 20𝑐𝑚 𝑓𝑟𝑜 𝐿1 Required:

𝑓 = 15 𝑑𝑖 =? & 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑠

𝑑𝑜 = 26

Solution

1 1 1

= +

𝑓1 𝑑𝑜1 𝑑𝑖1

1 1 1

= +

15 20 𝑑𝑖1

1 1 1

= −

𝑑𝑖1 15 20

𝑑𝑖1 = 60𝑐𝑚 (𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑙)

−𝑑𝑖1 −60

𝑀= = = −3( 𝑖𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑑, 𝑚𝑎𝑔𝑛𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑑)

𝑑𝑜1 20

1 1 1

= +

𝑓2 𝑑𝑜2 𝑑𝑖2

1 1 1

= +

12 −34 𝑑𝑖2

1 1 1

= +

𝑑𝑖2 12 34

𝑑𝑖1 = 8.87𝑐𝑚 (𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑙)

−𝑑𝑖2 −8.87

𝑀= = = 0.26( 𝑢𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡, 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑟)

𝑑𝑜2 −34

78

Name:

Course/Year/Section:

Assignment No.:

1. A biconvex lens has a focal length of 12cm. Where the image formed, and what are its

characteristics for an object (a) 18cm and (b) 4cm from the lens?

79

Chapter 10: Physical Optics: The Wave Nature of Light

Important Terms:

Physical Optics = Physical optics or wave optics, takes into account those wave

properties that geometrical optics ignores. The wave theory of light leads to satisfactory

explanations of those phenomena that cannot be analyzed with rays.

Young’s Double Slit Experiment = Young’s-the first method that uses interference in

demonstrating the wave nature of light.

surfaces of the film and may be readily understood in terms of wave interference.

Optical Flats = It is used to check the smoothness of a reflecting surface. The flat is

placed so that there is an air wedge between it and the surface.

Newton’s Rings = It is the regular interference pattern in an optical flat that produces a

set of concentric bright and dark circular fringes.

Diffraction = It is the deviation of light. It generally occurs when waves pass through

small openings or around sharp edges or corners.

slits.

Polarizing (Brewster) Angle = It is the incident angle at which this polarization occurs.

the polarized components more than the other.

chains.

Optical Activity = The ability of a material to rotate the direction of a plane polarized

light.

Scattering = The process when light is incident on a suspension of particle, such as the

molecules of the air; some of the light may be absorbed and radiated.

80

Rayleigh Scattering = It is a relationship between the scattering being inversely

proportional to the wavelength to the 4th power (that is, S=1/λ4).

involving the optical activity of a liquid crustal and crossed polarizers. When the

crystalline order is disoriented from an electric field applied voltage, the liquid crystal is

optically active in that region, and the light is not transmitted and reflected.

Important Equations:

Bright Fringe Condition (double slit interference)

dSinθ = nλ

n = order number

λ = wavelength

𝐲𝐧 𝐝

𝛌 ≈

𝐧𝐋

Where: λ = wavelength

yn = distance of the nth bright fringe

d = distance between the slits

n = order number

L = distance from the slit to the point

𝛌

𝐭= 𝐟𝐨𝐫 𝐧𝟐 > 𝑛1

𝟒𝐧

Where: t = thickness

n = order number

λ = wavelength

wSinθ = mλ

λ = wavelength

𝐦𝐋𝛌

𝐲𝐦 = 𝐟𝐨𝐫 𝐦 = 𝟏, 𝟐, 𝟑

𝐰

81

Where: ym = maximum distance

L = distance from the slit to the point

λ = wavelength

w = slit width

dSinθ = nλ for n= 0, 1, 2, 3

N = lines per unit length

n = order number

λ = wavelength

𝒅

𝒏 ≤

𝝀

d =distance

λ = wavelength

Tanθp = n

Where: n = order number

Example 1: In a lab experiment, monochromatic light passes trough two narrow slits that

are 0.050mm apart. The interference pattern is observed on a white wall 1.0 m from the

slits. And the second-order fringe is 2.4 cm from the center of the central maximum (a)

what is the wavelength of the light? (b) what is the distance between the second-order

and the third order bright fringe?

Giiven:

𝑑 = 0.05𝑚𝑚 = 0.00005𝑚 Required:

𝐿 = 1𝑚 𝜆 =?

𝑦2 = 2.4𝑐𝑚 = 0.024 𝑦3 − 𝑦2 =?

𝑛=2

Solution:

𝑦𝑛 𝑑 0.024(0.00005)

𝑎. 𝜆 = = = 6.0𝑥10−7 𝑚 = 600𝑛𝑚

𝑛𝐿 2(1)

𝜆𝑛 𝐿 𝜆𝑛 𝐿 𝜆𝐿 600𝑛𝑚(1000𝑚𝑚)

𝑏. 𝑦3 − 𝑦2 = − = (𝑛 + 1 − 𝑛) = = 1.2𝑐𝑚

𝑑 𝑑 𝑑 0.05𝑚𝑚

82

Example 2:A glass lens (n=1.60) is coated with a thin, transparent film of a magnesium

fluoride (Mgf2, n = 1.38) to make the lens non-reflecting. What is the minimum film

thickness for the lens to be non-reflecting for incident light of wavelength 550 nm?

Given:

𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑠 = 1.60

𝑛𝑀𝑔𝐹2 = 1.38

𝜆 = 550𝑛𝑚

Required:

𝑡 =?

Solution:

𝜆 550𝑛𝑚

𝑡= = = 99.64𝑛𝑚

4𝑛 4(1.38)

Example 3: Monochromatic blue light (λ = 425 nm) passes through a slit whose width is

0.50 mm. What is the width of the central maximum on a screen located 1.0 m from the

slit?

Given:

𝜆 = 425𝑛𝑚

𝑤 = 0.50𝑚𝑚

𝐿 = 1.0𝑚

Required:

2𝑦 =?

Solution:

𝑚𝐿𝜆 2(1.0𝑚)(425𝑛𝑚)

2𝑦 = = = 1.7𝑚𝑚

𝑤 0.5𝑥10−3 𝑚

deviation angle of 30º for a light with wavelength of 700 nm. (a) How many lines per

centimeter does the grating have? (b) If the grating were illuminated with white light,

how many orders of the complete visible spectrum would be produced?

Given:

𝑛 = 2

𝜃 = 30°

𝜆 = 700𝑛𝑚

Required:

𝑁 =?

𝜆=

83

Solution:

𝑛𝜆 2(500𝑛𝑚)

𝑎. 𝑑 = = = 2000𝑛𝑚 = 2𝑥10−6 𝑚 = 2𝑥10−4 𝑐𝑚

𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃 𝑆𝑖𝑛30

1 1

𝑁 = = = 5000 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑠⁄𝑐𝑚

𝑑 2𝑥10−4 𝑐𝑚

𝑑 2.00𝑥10−6 𝑚

𝑏. 𝑛 ≤ = = 2.86

𝜆 700𝑥10−9 𝑚

2.00𝑥10−6 𝑚

𝜆= = 6.6710−7 𝑚 𝑜𝑟 667𝑛𝑚

3

Example 5: Sunlight is reflected from the smooth surface of a pond. What is the Sun’s

altitude when the polarization of the reflected light is greatest?

Given:

𝑛 = 1.33

Required:

𝜃 =?

Solution:

𝜃 = 90 − 𝜃𝑝

𝜃 = 90 − 53.06 = 36.94°

Example 6: How much more is light at the blue end of the visible spectrum scattered by

air molecules than is light at the red end?

Given:

𝜆𝑟𝑒𝑑 = 700𝑛𝑚

𝜆𝑏𝑙𝑢𝑒 = 400𝑛𝑚

Required:

𝑆𝑏𝑙𝑢𝑒

=?

𝑆𝑟𝑒𝑑

Solution:

𝑆𝑏𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝜆𝑟𝑒𝑑 4 700𝑛𝑚 4

=( ) =( ) = 9.38

𝑆𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝜆𝑏𝑙𝑢𝑒 400𝑛𝑚

84

Chapter 11: Optical Instruments

Important Terms:

Vitreous Humor = A jellylike substance that fill the eyeball.

Cornea = It is where the light enter the eye through a curved, transparent tissue.

Retina = It is located on the back interior wall of the eye ball is a light sensitive surface.

Cones = Can distinguish frequency changes of sufficiently intense light witch the brain

interprets the color.

Nearsightedness = It is the ability to see distance object clearly but not distant object.

Farsightedness = It is the ability to see distant objects clearly but not nearby object.

usually the cornea or crystalline lens, being out of round.

Magnifying Glass = It is a instrument witch single convex lens forms a clear image of an

object that is closer than the near point.

object viewed though the magnifying glass.

Compound Microscope = Provides greater magnification than is attained with the single

lens or simple microscope.

Objective = It is the converging lens with a relatively short focal length (fo < 1cm).

Eyepiece = It has a longer focal length and is positioned so that the image formed by that

the image formed by the objective falls just inside its focal length.

85

Astronomical Telescope = Form a distant object from a intermediate image at the focal

point of objective (fo).

Reflecting Telescope = A type of telescope that utilizes a large, concave, front surfaced

parabolic mirror.

Resolution = Of two diffracted images that are to ability to distinguish both image as

separate.

Rayleigh Criterion = Can be express in terms of the angular separation (θ) of the

sources the first maximum (m=1) for a single slit diffraction patterns satisfies this

relationship.

Resolving Power = This minimum distance between two points whose image can be just

resolved.

Additive Primary Colors = The red, blue and green from which we interpret a full

spectrum of colors.

Additive Method of Color of Production = When light beams of the additive primaries

are projected on a white screen so they overlap, other color will be produce.

Complementary Colors = Color of such pair that appear white to an eye when

combined.

subtraction of colors.

Subtractive Primary Pigments = Cyan, magenta, and yellow which produce the three

additive primary colors.

Important Equations:

Angular Magnification

𝛉

𝐦=

𝛉𝐨

𝟐𝟓𝐜𝐦

𝐦=𝟏+

𝐟

86

f = focal length

𝟐𝟓𝐜𝐦

𝐦=

𝐟

f = focal length

(𝟐𝟓𝐜𝐦)𝐋

𝐦𝐭𝐨𝐭𝐚𝐥 = 𝐌𝐨 𝐦𝐞 =

𝐟𝐨 𝐟𝐞

Mo = angular magnification of the objective

me = angular magnification of the eyepiece

fo = focal length of the objective

fe = focal length of the eyepiece

𝐟𝐨

𝐦= −

𝐟𝐞

fo = focal length of the objective

fe = focal length of the eyepiece

𝛌

𝛉𝐦𝐢𝐧 =

𝐝

Where: λ = wavelength

d = distance

𝟏. 𝟐𝟐𝛌

𝛉𝐦𝐢𝐧 =

𝐃

Where: λ = wavelength

D = diameter

Resolving Power

𝟏. 𝟐𝟐𝛌𝐟

𝐬 = 𝐟𝛉𝐦𝐢𝐧 =

𝐃

87

F = focal length

D = diameter

λ = wavelength

Example 1: A certain near sighted person cannot see objects clearly when when they are

more than 78 cm from either eye. What power must corrective lens have if this person is

to see distant objects clearly? Assume that the lenses are in eyeglasses and are 3.0 cm in

front of the eye.

Given:

𝑑𝑖 = 78𝑐𝑚

𝑑 = 3𝑐𝑚

Required:

𝑃 =?

Solution:

1 1 1

𝑎. = +

𝑓 𝑑𝑖 𝑑𝑜

1 1 1

= +

𝑓 𝑑𝑖 ∞

1 −1

=

𝑓 75

𝑓 = −75𝑐𝑚

1 −1

𝑃 = = = −1.33𝐷𝑖𝑜𝑝𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠(𝐷)

𝑓 0.75

Example 2: A farsighted person has a near point of 75cm for one eye and a near point of

100cm for the other. What powers should contact lenses have to allow the person to see

an object clearly at a distance of 25cm?

Given:

𝑑𝑖1 = −75𝑐𝑚 = −0.75𝑚 Required:

𝑑𝑖2 = −100𝑐𝑚 = −1𝑚 𝑃 =?

𝑑𝑜 = 25𝑐𝑚 = 0.25𝑚

Solution:

1 1 1 −1 1

𝑃1 = = + = + = 2.67𝐷

𝑓1 𝑑𝑖1 𝑑𝑜 0.75 0.25

1 1 1 −1 1

𝑃2 = = + = + = 3𝐷

𝑓2 𝑑𝑖2 𝑑𝑜 1 0.25

88

Example 3: Sherlock Holmes uses a converging lens with a focal length of 12cm to

examine the fine detail of some cloth fibers found at the scene of crime.(a) what is the

maximum magnification given by the lens?(b) what is the magnification by relaxed eye

viewing?

Given:

𝑓 = 12

Required:

𝑎. 𝑀𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑠 =?

𝑏. 𝑀𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑥𝑒𝑑 𝑒𝑦𝑒𝑠 =?

Solution:

25 25

𝑎. 𝑀𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑠 = 1 + = 1+ = 3.08

𝑓 12

25 25

𝑏. 𝑀𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑥𝑒𝑑 𝑒𝑦𝑒𝑠 = = = 2.08

𝑓 12

focal length of 4.0cm the lenses are positioned 20cm apart in the barrel. Determine the

approximate total magnification of microscope.

Given:

𝑓𝑜 = 10𝑚𝑚 = 1𝑐𝑚

𝑓 = 4𝑐𝑚

𝐿 = 20𝑐𝑚

Required:

𝑀𝑡𝑜𝑡 = ?

Solution:

(25𝑐𝑚)𝐿 (25𝑐𝑚)(20𝑐𝑚)

𝑀𝑡𝑜𝑡 = = = 125𝑥

𝑓𝑜 𝑓 (1𝑐𝑚)(4𝑐𝑚)

30cmand eyepiece with a focal length 9.0cm a. what is the magnification of the

telescope? b. if an erecting lens have a focal length of 7.5cm is use to convert the

telescope to a terrestrial type, what is the overall length of the telescope tube?

Given:

𝑓𝑜 = 30𝑐𝑚

𝑓𝑒 = 9𝑐𝑚

𝑓𝑖 = 7.5𝑐𝑚

89

Required:

𝑎. 𝑀 = ?

𝑏. 𝐿 = ?

Solution

−𝑓𝑜 30

𝑎. 𝑀 = =− = −3.33𝑋

𝑓𝑒 9

𝑏. 𝐿1 = 𝑓𝑜 + 𝑓𝑒 = 30 + 9 = 39𝑐𝑚

Example 6: Determine the maximum angle of resolution by Rayleigh Criterion (a) the

pupil of eye (day time diameter of about 4.0mm) (b) the Yerkes observatory refracting

telescope (diameter of 102cm) both a. and b. for visible light with a wavelength of 660nm

and (c) a radio telescope 25m for radiation with a wave length of 21cm.

Given:

𝐷𝑒𝑦𝑒 = 4𝑚𝑚 = 4𝑥10−3 𝑚

𝜆 = 660𝑥10−9 𝑚

𝐷𝑌𝑒𝑟𝑘𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑏𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑦 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑐𝑜𝑝𝑒 = 102𝑐𝑚 = 1.02𝑚

𝐷𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑜 𝑡𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑐𝑜𝑝𝑒 = 25𝑚

𝐿 = 21𝑐𝑚 = 0.21𝑚

Required:

𝜃𝑚𝑖𝑛 =?

Solution:

1.22𝜆 1.22(660𝑥10−9 𝑚)

𝑎. 𝜃𝑚𝑖𝑛 = = = 2.01𝑥10−4 𝑟𝑎𝑑

𝐷 4𝑥10−3 𝑚

1.22𝜆 1.22(660𝑥10−9 𝑚)

𝑏. 𝜃𝑚𝑖𝑛 = = = 7.89𝑥10−7 𝑟𝑎𝑑

𝐷 1.02𝑚

1.22𝜆 1.22(0.21𝑚)

𝑐. 𝜃𝑚𝑖𝑛 = = = 0.0102𝑟𝑎𝑑

𝐷 25𝑚

90

Chapter 12: Temperature

Important Terms:

Temperature = A relative measure or indication of hotness or coldness

Heat =The net energy transferred from one object to another because of a temperature

difference

Internal Energy = The energy becomes part of the total energy of the molecules of the

object or system

changes with temperature.

when the temperature changes.

Fahrenheit Temperature Scale = The boiling point is 212o while the freezing point is

32o

Celsius Temperature Scale = The boiling point is 100o while the freezing point is 0o

Triple Point of Water = Represents a unique set of conditions where water co – exist

simultaneously in equilibrium as a solid, a liquid and a gas

Kinetic Theory of Gases = the molecules undergo perfectly elastic collisions with each

other and with the walls of the container.

moves from a region where they are present in higher concentration to one where they are

in lower concentration.

concentration gradient.

Equipartition Theorem = On average, the total internal energy of an ideal gas is divided

equally among each degree of freedom its molecules possess.

91

Important Equations:

Celsius – Fahrenheit Conversion

𝟗

℉ = ℃ + 𝟑𝟐

𝟓

𝟓

℃ = (℉ – 𝟑𝟐)

𝟗

Where: F = Fahrenheit

C = Celsius

𝐏𝐕 = 𝐍𝐤 𝐁 𝐓

𝐏𝟏 𝐕𝟏 𝐏𝟐 𝐕𝟐

=

𝐓𝟏 𝐓𝟐

𝐏𝐕 = 𝐧𝐑𝐓

R = 8.31J/(mol·K)

NA = Avogadro’s number = 6.02 x 1023 molecules/mol

P = Pressure

V = Volume

T = Temperature

N = Number of molecules

n = Number of moles

𝐊 = ℃ + 𝟐𝟕𝟑. 𝟏𝟓

Where: K = Kelvin

Linear: 𝐋𝐟 = 𝐋𝐨 (𝟏 + 𝛂𝚫𝐓)

Area: 𝐀 𝐟 = 𝐀 𝐨 (𝟏 + 𝟐𝛂𝚫𝐓)

Volume: 𝐕𝐟 = 𝐕𝐨 (𝟏 + 𝟑𝛂𝚫𝐓)

LO = Initial length

AF = Final area

AO = Initial area

VF = Final volume

VO = Initial volume

T = Temperature

α = Coefficient of thermal expansion for solids

92

Thermal Volume Expansion of Fluids

𝚫𝐕

= 𝛃𝚫𝐓

𝐕𝐨

𝟏

𝐩𝐕 = 𝐍𝐦𝐯𝐫𝐦𝐬 𝟐

𝟑

𝟏 𝟑

𝐦𝐯𝐫𝐦𝐬 𝟐 = 𝐤 𝐁 𝐓 (all gases)

𝟐 𝟐

𝟑 𝟑

𝐔 = 𝐍𝐤 𝐁 𝐓 = 𝐧𝐑𝐓 (ideal monatomic gases only)

𝟐 𝟐

𝟓 𝟓

𝐔 = 𝐍𝐤 𝐁 𝐓 = 𝐧𝐑𝐓 (diatomic gases)

𝟐 𝟐

Where: v = Velocity

U = Total Energy

Example 1: Convert 20oC to Fahrenheit scale and the normal body temperature and

98.6oF to the Celsius scale.

Given: 9

℉ = (20) + 32

𝑇1 = 20°C 5

𝑇2 = 𝑛𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑏𝑜𝑑𝑦 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝 = 37°𝐶 ℉ = 𝟔𝟖

𝑇3 = 98.6°𝐹

5

b. ℃ = (℉ − 32)

Required: 9

Convert to other units 5

℃ = (98.6 − 32)

9

Solution: ℃ = 𝟑𝟕

9

a. ℉ = ℃ + 32

5

Given:

𝑇1 = 0°K

Required:

Absolute 0 in oF

9 9

℉ = ℃ + 32 = (−273.15) + 32

Solution: 5 5

K = ℃ + 273.15 ℉ = −𝟒𝟓𝟗. 𝟔𝟕

= ℃ + 273.15

℃ = −273.15

93

Example 3: A quantity of low density gas in a rigid container is initially at room

temperature and a particular pressure. If the gas is heated to a temperature of 60oC by

what factor does the pressure change?

Given: Solution:

T1 = 20℃ T1 T2 P2 T2

= ; =

T2 = 60℃ P1 P2 P1 T1

P2 60 + 273.15

Required: =

P1 20 + 273.15

P2 P2 333.15

=? =

P1 P1 293.15

P2

= 1.136

P1

Example 4: A steel beam is 5.0m long at a temperature of 20oC. On a hot day, the

temperature rises to 40oC. What is the change in the beam’s length due to thermal

expansion? Suppose that the ends of the beam are initially in contact with rigid vertical

supports, how much force will the expanded beam exert on the supports if the beam has a

cross-sectional area of 60cm2?

Given:

L= 5m Required:

Ti = 20℃ a. ΔL =?

Tf = 40℃ b. F =?

A = 60cm2

Solution

a. LF = Lo [1 + α(ΔT)]

12 × 10−6

LF = 5.00m [1 + ( ) (40℃ − 20℃)]

℃

LF = 5.0012 m

ΔL = LF − Lo

ΔL = 5.0012 m − 5.00 m

ΔL = 0.0012 m

94

Example 5: A surveyor uses a steel measuring tape that is exactly 50.00 m long at a

temperature of 20oC. What is its length on a hot summer day when the temperature is

35oC?

Given:

Lo = 50.00m Required:

Ti = 20℃ LF =?

Tf = 35℃

Solution:

LF = Lo [1 + α(ΔT)]

12 × 10−6

LF = 50.00m [1 + ( ) (35℃ − 20℃)] = 𝟓𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟗 𝐦

℃

Example 6: In the previous example, the surveyor measures a distance when the

temperature is 35oC and obtains the result 35.794m. What is the actual distance?

Given:

LF = 35.794 m Required:

Tf = 35℃ Lo =?

Solution:

LF = Lo [1 + α(ΔT)]

12 × 10−6

35.794 m = Lo [1 + ( ) (35℃ − 20℃)]

℃

35.794m

Lo = = 𝟑𝟓. 𝟖𝟎𝟎𝟒 𝐦

12 × 10−6

[1 + ( ) (35℃ − 20℃)]

℃

Example 7: What is the average (rms) speed of a helium atom (He) in a helium balloon

at room temperature? Take the mass of the helium atom to be 6.65 x 10-27kg.

Given: Solution

mHe = 6.65 × 10−27 kg

3k B T

T = 20℃ + 273.15 = 293.15 K vrms = √

J m

k B = 1.38 × 10−23

K

J

3 (1.38 × 10−23 K) (293.15 K)

Required: vrms = √

V =? 6.65 × 10−27 kg

𝐦

𝐯𝐫𝐦𝐬 = 𝟏𝟑𝟓𝟎. 𝟗𝟑

𝐬

95

Example 8: More than 99% of the air we breathe consists of diatomic gases, mainly

nitrogen (N2, 78%) and oxygen (O2, 21%). There are traces of other gases, one of which

is radon (Rn), a monatomic gas arising from radioactive decay of uranium in the ground.

Calculate the total internal energy of 1.00mole samples each of oxygen and radon at

room temperature. For each sample, calculate the amount of internal energy associated

with molecular translational kinetic energy.

Given:

n = 1 mole

J

k B = 8.31

mol ∙ K

Required:

a. URa =?

UO2 =?

b. UTRANS of Ra =?

UTRANS of O2 = ?

Solution:

3

URa = nkB T

2

3 J

URa = (1mol) (8.31 ) (293.15 K)

2 mol ∙ K

𝐔𝐑𝐚 = 𝟑𝟔𝟓𝟒. 𝟏𝟏 𝐉

5

UO2 = nkB T

2

5 J

UO2 = (1mol) (8.31 ) (293.15 K)

2 mol ∙ K

𝐔𝐎𝟐 = 𝟔𝟎𝟗𝟎. 𝟏𝟗 𝐉

𝐔𝐓𝐑𝐀𝐍𝐒 𝐨𝐟 𝐑𝐚 = 𝟑𝟔𝟓𝟒. 𝟏𝟏 𝐉

3

𝐔𝐓𝐑𝐀𝐍𝐒 𝐨𝐟 𝐎𝟐 = nkB T = 𝟑𝟔𝟓𝟒. 𝟏𝟏 𝐉

2

Name:

96

Section:

1. A building with a steel framework is 150m tall when the temperature is 0oC. How

much taller is the building on a hot summer day when the temperature is 36oC?

Given:

Lo = 150.00m

Ti = 0℃

Tf = 36℃

Required:

ΔL =?

Solution:

LF = Lo [1 + α(ΔT)]

LF = Lo [1 + α(Tf − Ti )]

12 × 10−6

LF = 150.00m [1 + ( ) (36℃ − 0℃)]

℃

LF = 150.0648

ΔL = 150.0648 m − 150.00 m

𝚫𝐋 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟔𝟒𝟖 𝐦

2. A steel bridge is built in the summer when the temperature is 35oC. At the time of

construction its length is 80m. What is the length of the bridge on a cold winter day

when the temperature is -12oC?

Given:

Lo = 80m

Ti = 35℃

Tf = −12℃

Required

LF =?

Solution:

LF = Lo [1 + α(Tf − Ti )]

12 × 10−6

LF = 80m [1 + ( ) (−12℃ − 35℃)]

℃

𝐋𝐅 = 𝟕𝟗. 𝟗𝟓𝟒𝟖𝟖 𝐦

97

Important Terms:

Heat = Describes a type of net energy transferred.

Kilocalorie (kcal) = the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a kilogram

mass of water of a certain temperature in Celsius.

Calorie (cal) = the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a pound of water of

a certain temperature in Celsius.

British thermal unit (Btu) = the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a

kilogram mass of water of a certain temperature in Fahrenheit.

Mechanical Equivalent of Heat = For every 4186J of work done, the temperature of the

water rose 1oC per kilogram, or 4186J is equivalent to 1kcal.

Specific Heat = the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of a 1kg of a

substance by 1oC.

the specific heats of substances.

Solid Phase = the molecules are held together by attractive forces or bonds.

Liquid Phase = molecules of a substance are relatively free to move and a liquid

assumes the shape of its container

Gaseous Phase = molecules interact weakly and are separated by relatively large

distances; thus has no definite shape or volume.

Condensation Point = the temperature at which gas condenses and becomes a liquid.

Latent Heat of Fusion = the latent heat for a solid – liquid phase change

Latent Heat of Vaporization = the latent heat for a liquid – solid phase change

98

Latent Heat of Sublimation = the latent heat for the less common solid-gas phase

change

Evaporation = A cooling process for the object from which the molecules escape

lower temperature region – transfer as a result of a temperature difference.

Convection = heat transfer as a result of mass transfer, which can be natural or forced

Radiation = heat transferred which does not require a medium but by electromagnetic

waves

Stefan’s Law = the rate at which an object radiates energy has been found to be

proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature

material.

emitter of those same wavelengths.

Important Equations

Specific Heat

𝐐 = 𝐦𝐜𝚫𝐓

Where: Q = heat

c = specific heat

m = mass

T = temperature

Latent Heat

𝐐 = 𝐦𝐋

Where: Q = heat

m = mass

L = latent heat

Thermal Conduction

99

𝚫𝐐 𝐤𝐀𝚫𝐓

=

𝚫𝐭 𝐝

Where: Q = heat

t = time

k = thermal conductivity

T = temperature

d = thickness

Stefan’s Law

𝚫𝐐

𝐏 = = 𝛔𝐀𝐞𝐓 𝟒

𝚫𝐭

Where: P = power

Q = heat

t = time

A = area

σ = Stefan-Boltzmann constant

e = emissivity

T = temperature

𝐏𝐧𝐞𝐭 = 𝛔𝐀𝐞(𝐓𝐬 𝟒 – 𝐓 𝟒 )

Example 1: How much mechanical work in joules would have to be done in Joule’s

apparatus to raise the temperature of a liter of water from room temperature to 25oC?

Given:

TI = 20℃

TF = 25℃

Vol = 1L

∴ mH2 O = 1 kg

Required:

Wk =?

Solution:

Q = mc∆T

kJ

Q = (1kg) (4.186 ) (25℃ − 20℃)

kg ∙ ℃

𝐐 = 𝟐𝟎. 𝟗𝟑 𝐤𝐉 = 𝐖

Example 2: How much heat is required to raise the temperature of 0.20kg of water from

15oC to 45oC?

100

Given: Solution:

TI = 15℃ Q = mc∆T

TF = 45℃ J

Q = (0.20kg) (4186 ) (45℃

mH2 O = 0.20 kg kg ∙ ℃

− 15℃)

Required: 𝐐 = 𝟐𝟓𝟏𝟏𝟔. 𝟎 𝐉

Q=?

Example 3: A half-liter of water at 30oC is cooled, with the removal of 63KJ of heat.

What is the final temperature of the water?

TI = 30℃

mH2 O = 0.50 kg Required:

J TF =?

cH2 O (4186 )

kg ∙ ℃

Solution:

Q = mc∆T

J

−63000J = (0.50kg) (4186 ) (TF − 30℃)

kg ∙ ℃

63000J

TF = − + 30

J

(0.50kg) (4186 )

kg ∙ ℃

𝐓𝐅 = −𝟎. 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟑℃ ≈ 𝟎℃

Example 4: Equal masses of aluminum and copper are at the same temperature. Which

will require the greater heat to raise its temperature by a given amount, and how many

times greater is this than the heat that would have to be added to the other metal?

J =

cCu = 390 QCu mCu cCu ∆TCu

kg ∙ ℃

J Since mCu = mAl & ∆TCu = ∆TAl

cAl = 920 J

kg ∙ ℃ QAl cAl 920

kg ∙ ℃

mCu = mAl ∴ = =

QCu cCu J

∆TCu = ∆TAl 390

kg ∙ ℃

QAl

Required: = 2.36: 𝐐𝐀𝐥 = 𝟐. 𝟑𝟔𝐐𝐂𝐮

QAl QCu

=? 𝐐𝐀𝐥 > 𝐐𝐂𝐮

QCu

Solution:

101

Example 5: Students in a physics lab are to determine the specific heat of copper

experimentally. They heat 0.150kg of copper shot to 100oC and then carefully pour the

hot shot into a calorimeter cup containing 0.200kg of water at 20oC. The final

temperature of the mixture in the cup is measured to be 25oC. If the aluminum cup has a

mass of 0.045kg, what is the specific heat of copper? (Assume that there is no heat loss to

the surroundings.)

TI for Cu = 100℃ mAl = 0.045 kg

TI for Al & H2 O = 20℃ mH2 O = 0.20 kg

TF = 25℃

J Required:

cAl = 920

kg ∙ ℃ cCu =?

J

cH2 O = 4186

kg ∙ ℃

Solution:

ΣQ = 0

QAl + QCu + Q H2 O = 0

mAl cAl ∆TAl + mCu cCu ∆TCu + mH2 O cH2 O ∆TH2O = 0

207 − 11.25cCu + 4186 = 0

−207 − 4186 𝐉

cCu = = 𝟑𝟗𝟎. 𝟒𝟗

−11.25 𝐤𝐠 ∙ ℃

Example 6: Heat is added to 0.500kg of water at room temperature. How much heat in

joules is required to change the water to steam at 110oC?

Given: J

cH2 O = 2010 for steam

m = 0.50 kg kg ∙ ℃

TI = 20℃ J

TF1 = 100℃ Lv = 22.6 × 105

kg

TF2 = 110℃

J Required:

cH2 O = 4186 @ room T

kg ∙ ℃ ΣQH2 O =?

Solution:

J

Q1 = mc∆T = (0.500 kg) (4186 ) (100℃ − 20℃) = 167440J

kg ∙ ℃

J

QLv = mLv = (0.500 kg) (22.6 × 105 ) = 1130000 J

kg

J

Q3 = mc∆T = (0.500 kg) (2010 ) (110℃ − 100℃) = 10050J

kg ∙ ℃

ΣQH2 O = Q1 + QLv + Q3 = 167440 + 1130000 + 10050

𝚺𝐐𝐇𝟐 𝐎 = 𝟏𝟑𝟎𝟕𝟒𝟗𝟎 𝐉 = 𝟏. 𝟑𝟏 × 𝟏𝟎 𝟔 𝐉

102

Example 7: A 0.30kg piece of ice at 0oC is placed in a liter of water at room temperature

in an insulated container. Assume that no heat is lost to the container, what is the final

temperature of the water?

Given:

mice = 0.30 kg

vol = 1L: ∴ mH2 O = 1 kg

J

LF = 3.33 × 105

kg

J

cH2 O = 4186

kg ∙ ℃

Required:

TF =?

Solution:

J

Qice = mLF = (0.30kg) (3.33 × 105 ) = 99900J

kg

Qice = Q H2 O

Q H2 O = mc∆T

J

−99900J = (1kg) (4186 ) (TF − 20℃)

kg ∙ ℃

−99900J

+ 20℃ = TF

J

(1kg) (4186 )

kg ∙ ℃

𝐓𝐅 = −𝟑. 𝟖𝟕 ℃

J

Q H2 O = (1kg) (4186 ) (0℃ − 20℃) = −83720 J

kg ∙ ℃

Q H2 O −83720 J

𝐦𝐢𝐜𝐞 = = = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟓 𝐤𝐠

Lv J

3.33 × 105

kg

103

Example 8: A room with a pine ceiling that measures 3.0m x 5.0m x 2.0cm thick has a

layer of glass wool insulation above it that is 6.0cm thick. On a cold day, the temperature

inside the room is 20oC and the temperature in the attic above the room is 8oC. Assuming

that the temperatures remain constant with a steady heat flow, how much energy does the

layer of insulation save in 1.0hr? Assume losses are due to the conduction only.

Given:

A = 3m × 5m = 15 m2

d1 = 2cm = 0.02m

d2 = 6cm = 0.06m

T1 = 20℃

T2 = 8℃

∆t = 1hr = 3600s

J

k glass wool = 0.042

ms ∙ ℃

J

k wood pine = 0.12

ms ∙ ℃

Solution:

∆T = T1 − T2 = 20 − 8 = 12℃

J

k wood pine A∆T∆t 0.12 ms ∙ ℃ (15 m2 )(12℃)(3600s)

∆Q = = = 𝟑𝟖𝟖𝟖𝟎𝟎𝟎𝐉

d1 0.02 m

∆Q1 ∆Q2

=

∆t ∆t

k glass wool A∆T k wood pine A∆T

=

d1 d2

k glass wool (T − T1 ) k wood pine (T2 − T)

=

d1 d2

T=

k glass wool d2 + k wood pine d1

∆Q1 A(T2 − T1 )

=

∆t k glass wool k wood pine

+

d1 d2

15m2 (12℃)(3600s)

∆𝐐𝟐 = = 𝟒𝟎𝟔𝟐𝟎𝟖. 𝟗𝟔 𝐉

0.06 0.02

J + J

0.042 ms ∙ ℃ 0.12 ms ∙ ℃

∆𝑄1 = ∆Q − ∆Q2

∆𝑄1 = 3888000J − 406208.96 J = 𝟑𝟒𝟖𝟏𝟕𝟗𝟒𝟏. 𝟎𝟒 𝐉

104

∆𝑄1 34817941.04J

%= × 100 = × 100 = 𝟖𝟗. 𝟓𝟓%

∆Q 3888000J

Example 9: Suppose that your skin has an emissivity of 0.70 and that its exposed area is

0.27m2. How much net energy will be radiated per second from this area if the air

temperature is 20oC? Assume your skin temperature to be the same as normal body

temperature, 37oC.

Given:

Ts = 20℃ + 273.15 = 293.15 K

Tbody = 37℃ + 273.15 = 310.15 K

A = 0.27 m2

e = 0.7

𝑤

δ = 5.67 × 10−8 2 4

𝑚 𝐾

Required:

E =?

Solution:

𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝛿𝐴𝑒(𝑇𝑠 4 − 𝑇𝑏𝑜𝑑𝑦 4 )

𝑤

𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑡 = (5.67 × 10−8 2 4 ) (0.27 𝑚2 )(0.7)(293.15 𝐾 4 − 310.15 𝐾 4 )

𝑚 𝐾

𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑡 = −20.02 𝑤

105

Chapter 14: Thermodynamics

Important Terms:

Thermodynamics = transfer or the actions of heat

imaginary

Thermally Isolated System = If the heat transfer into or out of the system is impossible

Irreversible Process = A process for which the intermediate steps are non-equilibrium

states

Reversible Process = the process path between the initial and final states would be

known

thermodynamic system

Second Law of Thermodynamics = heat will not flow spontaneously from a colder

body to a warmer body

Thermal Cycle = a series of processes which brings the engine or system back to its

original condition.

106

Thermal Pump = a generic term for any device, including refrigerators, air conditioners

and heat pump, that transfers heat energy from a low-temperature reservoir to a high

temperature reservoir.

performance

Heat Pump = common commercial devices used to cool homes and offices in the

summer and to heat them in the winter

Carnot Cycle = consists of two isotherms and two adiabats and is conveniently

represented on a T-S diagram, where it forms a rectangle

zero

Important Equations

First Law of Thermodynamics

𝑸 = 𝜟𝑼 + 𝑾

Where: Q = heat

U=

W = work

𝑾 = 𝒑𝜟𝑽 = 𝒑(𝑽𝟐 – 𝑽𝟏 )

Where: V = volume

p = pressure

Change in Entropy

𝑸

𝜟𝑺 =

𝑻

Q = heat

T = temperature

𝑾𝒏𝒆𝒕 𝑸𝒉𝒐𝒕 – 𝑸𝒄𝒐𝒍𝒅 𝑸𝒄𝒐𝒍𝒅

Є𝒕𝒉 = = = 𝟏–

𝑸𝒉𝒐𝒕 𝑸𝒉𝒐𝒕 𝑸𝒉𝒐𝒕

107

Where: Є = thermal efficiency

W = work

Q = heat

Coefficient of Performance

𝑸𝒄𝒐𝒍𝒅 𝑸𝒄𝒐𝒍𝒅

𝑪𝑶𝑷𝒓𝒆𝒇 = =

𝑾𝒊𝒏 𝑸𝒉𝒐𝒕 – 𝑸𝒄𝒐𝒍𝒅

For refrigerator or air conditioner

𝑸𝒉𝒐𝒕 𝑸𝒉𝒐𝒕

𝑪𝑶𝑷𝒉𝒑 = =

𝑾𝒊𝒏 𝑸𝒉𝒐𝒕 – 𝑸𝒄𝒐𝒍𝒅

For heat pump in heating mode

Q = heat

W = work

𝑻𝒄𝒐𝒍𝒅 𝑻𝒉𝒐𝒕 – 𝑻𝒄𝒐𝒍𝒅

Є𝒄 = 𝟏 – =

𝑻𝒉𝒐𝒕 𝑻𝒉𝒐𝒕

Relative Efficiency

Є𝒕𝒉

Є𝒓𝒆𝒍 =

Є𝒄

Єth = thermal efficiency

Єc = carnot efficiency

Example 1: An ideal gas occupies a volume of 22.4L at STP (standard temperature and

pressure). While absorbing 2.53kJ of heat from the surroundings, the gas expands

isobarically to 32.4L. What is the change in the internal energy of the gas?

Vol1= 22.4 L at STP

Q= 2.53 KJ Required:

Vol2 = 32.4L ∆𝑈 = ?

P1= P2 = 1 atm = 1.01x105 Pa

108

Solution:

100𝑐𝑚3 (1𝑚)3

22.4𝐿 𝑥 𝑥 = 0.0224𝑚3

1𝐿 (1000𝑐𝑚)3

100𝑐𝑚3 (1𝑚)3

32.4𝐿 𝑥 𝑥 = 0.0324𝑚3

1𝐿 (1000𝑐𝑚)3

W= PΔV = 1.01x105 N (0.0324 m3- 0.0224 m3) = 1010 J

ΔU= Q – W = 2530 J - 1010 J = 1520 J

Example 2: What is the change in entropy of ethyl alcohol when 0.25kg of it vaporizes at

its boiling point of 78oC (latent heat of vaporization Lv = 1.0 x 105J/kg)?

Given:

m= 0.25 Kg Required:

T= 78 + 273.15 = 351 K ∆𝑆 = ?

LV= 1.0x105 J/Kg

Solution:

1.0𝑥105 𝐽

𝑄 = 𝑚𝐿𝑣 = 0.25𝑘𝑔 ( )

𝑘𝑔

𝑄 = 25000𝐽

𝑄 25000

∆𝑆 = = = 71.19𝐽/𝐾

𝑇 351.15

Example 3: A metal spoon at 24oC is placed in 1.00kg of water at 18oC. The thermally

isolated system comes to equilibrium at a temperature of 20oC. Find the approximately

change in the entropy of the system.

Given:

TMS= 24°C Required:

TW= 18°C ∆𝑆 = ?

mW= 1 Kg

TF= 20°C

Solution:

𝐽

𝑄𝑊 = 𝑚𝑐∆𝑇 = 1𝑘𝑔 (4189 ) (20°𝐶 − 18°𝐶) = 8372𝐽

𝑘𝑔°𝐶

𝑇𝐹 + 𝑇𝑊 20 + 18

𝑇𝑊 = = = 19 + 273.15 = 292.15°𝐾

2 2

𝑇𝐹 + 𝑇𝑀𝑆 20 + 24

𝑇𝑀𝑆 = = = 22 + 273.15 = 295.15°𝐾

2 2

109

𝑄𝑊 8372𝐽

∆𝑆𝑊 = = = 28.66𝐽/𝐾

𝑇𝑊 292.15

𝑄𝑀𝑆 −8372𝐽

∆𝑆𝑀𝑆 = = = −28.37𝐽/𝐾

𝑇𝑀𝑆 295.15

Example 4: The small gasoline powered engine of a leaf blower removes 800J of heat

energy from a high temperature reservoir and exhausts 700J to a low temperature

reservoir. What is the engine’s thermal efficiency?

Given:

QHOT= 800 J

QCOLD= 700 J

Required:

Єth =?

Solution:

WNET = QHOT − QCOLD = 800 − 700 = 100J

WNET 100J

Єth = = = 0.125 x 100% = 12.5%

QHOT 800J

Example 5: An air conditioner operating in summer extracts 100J of heat from the

interior of the house for every 40J of electric energy required to operate it. Determine its

COP and its COP if it is reversed in the winter, running as a heat pump to move the same

amount of heat for the same amount of kinetic energy.

Given:

QCOLD = 100J

WNET = 40J

Required:

COPREF = ?

COPHP = ?

Solution:

QHOT = QCOLD + WINPUT = 100 + 40

QHOT = 140J

QCOLD 100

COPREF = = = 2.5

WINPUT 40

QHOT 140

COPHP = = = 3.5

WINPUT 40

110

Example 6: An engineer is designing a cyclic heat engine to operate between

temperatures of 150oC and 27oC. What is the maximum theoretical efficiency that can be

achieved? Suppose the engine, when built, does 100J of work per cycle for every 500J of

input heat per cycle. What is its relative efficiency?

Given:

THOT= 150 °C + 273.15 = 423.15 K

TCOLD= 27 °C + 273.15 = 300.15 K

WNET= 100 J

QHOT= 500J

Required:

∈𝑅𝐸𝐿 = ?

Solution:

𝑇𝐶𝑂𝐿𝐷 300.15

∈𝐶 = 1 − =1− = 0.29 𝑋 100% = 29%

𝑇𝐻𝑂𝑇 423.15

𝑊𝑁𝐸𝑇 100

∈𝑇𝐻 = = = 0.20𝑋 100% = 20%

𝑄𝐻𝑂𝑇 500

∈ 𝑇𝐻 0.20

∈𝑅𝐸𝐿 = = 𝑋 100% = 69%

∈𝐶 0.29

111

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