Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 111

# Chapter 1: Electric Charge, Forces and Fields

Important Terms:
Electric Charge = It is a fundamental property of matter. It is a fundamentally associated
with atomic particles, the electron and the proton.

Law of Charges or Charge-Force Law = “Like charges repel each other, and unlike
charges attract each other”

Coulomb = The SI unit of charge which was named after the French physicist, Charles
A. Coulomb.

## Conservation of Charge = The net charge of an isolated system remains constant.

Conductors = They are groups of substances that have the ability to transmit electric
charge. Valence electrons are loosely bound.

## Insulators = They are poor electrical conductors.

Semiconductors = They are materials whose ability to transmit charge is much less than
that of metals but much greater than that of insulators.

charge.

## Electrostatic Charging = A process by which an insulator or an insulated conductor

receives a net charge.

Charging by Friction = The transfer of charge is due to the contact between the
materials and depends on the nature of the materials.

Charging by Contact or by Conduction = Refers to the flow of charge during the short
period of time the electrons are in motion.

## Polarization = Separation of charge.

Coulomb’s Law = Electric force is directly proportional to the product between two
charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the charges.

## Electric Field = A force per unit charge.

1
Electric Lines of Force = The convenient way of graphically representing the electric
field pattern in space through.

## Gaussian Surface = Consider a single positive electric charge in an imaginary closed

surface surrounding it.

Gauss’s Law = The net number of electric field lines passing through an imaginary
closed surface is proportional to the amount of net charge enclosed within that surface.

## Particles Electric Mass(kg)

charge(C)
Electron(-) -1.602x10-19 9.109x10-31
Proton(+) +1.602x10-19 1.672x10-27
Neutron 0 1.674x10-27

Important Equations
Quantization of Electric Charge
Q = ne

## Where: Q= charge(C or coulomb)

n = integral charge (coulomb / electron or C/e)
e= electron charge (e or electron)

Coulomb’s Law
𝒌𝒒𝟏 𝒒𝟐
𝐅𝐞 =
𝒓𝟐

## Where: k = proportionality constant, 9.00 x 109Nm2/C2

Fe = Electric Force, N
q = charge, C
r = distance between the charges, m

Electric Field
𝐅𝐨𝐧 𝐪𝐨
𝐄=
𝐪𝐨

## Where: E = electric field, F/C

F = force, N
qo = charge, C

2
Electric Field Due to a Point Charge q
𝐤𝐪
𝐄 = 𝐫𝟐

## Where: E = electric field, F/C

k = proportionality constant, 9.00 x 109Nm2/C2
q = charge, C
r = distance between the charges, m

𝟒𝛑𝐤𝐐
𝐄=
𝐀

## Where: E = electric field, F/C

k = proportionality constant, 9.00 x 109Nm2/C2
Q = charge, C
A = area, m2

Example 1: If you shuffle across a carpeted floor on a dry day and acquire a net charge
of -2.0uC, will you have a deficiency or excess of electrons? How many missing or extra
electrons will you have?

Given: Required:
-6
Q = -2.0 µC = -2.0 ×10 C (a) whether you have lost or gained
e = -1.60 ×10-19 C electrons
(b) number of missing or excess
electron
Solution:
(a) Since the sign of your net charge is negative and electrons carry a negative
charge, you have acquired an excess of electron.

Q −2.0 ×10−6 C
(b) n = = = 𝟏. 𝟑 × 𝟏𝟎𝟏𝟑 𝐞𝐥𝐞𝐜𝐭𝐫𝐨𝐧
e −1.60× 10−19 C/electron

## Example 2: Two point charges of -1.0x10-6 C and +2.0x10-6 C are separated by a

distance of 0.30m. What is the electrostatic force on each particle?

q1 = -1.0 µC q2 = +2.0µC

Given: Required:

## q1 = -1.0x10-6 C F12 and F21

q2 = +2.0x10-6 C F3
r = 0.30 m

3
m2
(9.00 x 109 N. ) (1.0x10-6 C)(2.0x10-6 C)
a. F12 = F21 = Fe =
kq1 q 2
= C2 = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟎𝐍
r2 (0.3m)2

(b) A configuration of three charges is shown below. What is the electrostatic force on
q3?

(0,0.30m) q1 = +2.5µC

q3 = +3.0 µC
(0.40, 0)

(0,-0.30m) q2 = +2.5µC

m2
(9.00 x 109 N. ) (2.50 x10-6 C)(3.0x10-6 C)
F13 = F23 = Fe =
kq1 q 3
= C2 = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟕𝐍
r2 (0.5m)2

Force Fx Fy
0.27 N 4 3
(0.27 𝑁) = 0.22 N − 5 (0.27 𝑁) = −0.16 N
5
0.27 N 4 3
(0.27 𝑁) = 0.22 N (0.27 𝑁) = +0.16 N
5 5
∑Fx= 0.44 N ∑Fy= 0 N

## R= √Fx2 +Fy2 =√0.442 +02 =0.44N

x .44
tan θ = = = undefined
y .0

F3 = 0.44 N ,due E

Example 3: What is the magnitude of the repulsive electrostatic force between two
protons in a nucleus? Take the distance between the centers of nuclear protons to be
3.0x10-15 m. If these protons were released from rest, how would the magnitude of their
initial acceleration compare to that of the acceleration due to the gravity of the earth’s
surface?

Given: Required:
r= 3.0×1015 m (a) Fe = ?
q1= q2= +1.60×10-19C (b) a/g = ?
mp= 1.67× 10-27 kg

Solution:

4
m2
(9.00 x 109 N. 10-19 -19

## kq1 q 2 2 ) (1.60 x C)(1.60 x 10 C)

a. Fe = = C =25.66 N
r2 2
(3.0×10-15 m)
b.
F 25.66 N
𝑎 = me = = 1.53 × 1028 m/s2
p 1.67×10-27 kg

a 1.53×1028 m/s2
= = 𝟏. 𝟓𝟔 × 𝟏𝟎𝟐𝟕
g 9.81 m/s2

5
Name:
Course/Year/Section:
Assignment No.:

## 1. What is the electrostatic force on each particle?

(0,0.30m) q1 = +2.5µC

q3 = +3.0 µC
(0.40, 0)

(0,-0.30m) q2 = +2.5µC

2. Two charges are attracted by a force of 25 N when separated by 10cm. What is the force
between the charges when the distance between them is 50 cm?

6
Example 4: Compare the magnitudes of the electric and gravitational forces between a
proton and an electron. Express your answer as a ratio of electric force to gravitational
force.

Given: Required:

Fe
qe = -1.60×10-19C (ratio of forces)=?
Fg
qp = +1.60×10-19C
me = 9.11 × 10-31 kg
mp = 1.67 × 10-27kg

Solution:

kqe qp Gme mp
Fe = Fg =
r2 r2

m2
Fe kq e q p (9.00 x 109 N. 2 ) (1.602 x 10−19 C)(1.602 x 10−19 C)
= = C
Fg Gme mp (6.67 x 10−11 N. m2) ( 9.11 × 10−31 kg )(1.67 × 10−27 kg)
C2
𝟑𝟗
= 𝟐. 𝟐𝟕 × 𝟏𝟎

Example 5: Two point charges are placed on the x- axis as shown. Find the location on
the axis where the electric field is zero.
q1 = +1.5 µC q2 = +2.0µC
x(m)
0 0.6
Given: Required:

## d = 0.60m x = ? (location of zero E)

q1 = +1.50×10-6C
q2 = +2.0×10-6C

Solution:
q1 q2 0.6 − x
= = 1.15
x2 (0.6-x)2 x
1.5 2
= 0.6 − x = 1.15x
x2 (0.6 − x)2
0.6 = 2.15x
0.6
x= = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟖 𝐦
(0.6 − x)2 2 2.15
√ = √
x2 1.5

7
Example 6: What is the electric field at the origin for a 3- charge configuration?

Given: q1 = -1.0×10-6C
4.0m -1.5uC q2 = +2.0×10-6C
q3 = -1.5×10-6C
r1= 3.50 m
r2= 5.00 m
r3= 4.00 m

## -5.0m 2uC 3.5m -1.0uC

Required: E=?

9 m2 -6
N. C ) (-1.0×10 C)
kq1 (9.0×10
E1 = 2 = 2
= 7.35 × 102 N/C
r1 (3.50 m)
9 m2 −6
(9.0 × 10 N.
kq 2 C ) (+2.0 × 10 C)
𝐸2 = 2 = = 7.20 × 102 N/C
r2 (5.0 m)2
9 m2 −6
(9.0 × 10 N.
kq 3 C ) (−1.5 × 10 C)
𝐸3 = 2 = = 8.44 × 102 N/C
r3 (4.0 m)2

102 N
Ex = E1 + E2 = 7.35 × + 7.20 × 102 N/C = 1.46 × 103 N/C
C

## E = √(1.46 × 103 N/C) + (8.44 × 102 N/C) = 𝟏. 𝟔𝟗 × 𝟏𝟎𝟑 𝐍/𝐂

Example 7: Show that the electric field far from a dipole, on its perpendicular bisector (the x
axis) is given by kqd/x3.

Given: Required:
q1 = + q E=?
q2 = - q

Solution:

## kqd kq (x) kqx

𝐸 = = 2∗ = 3
x3 x (x) x
x ≈d

𝐤𝐪𝐝 𝟏
𝐄= ∝
𝐱𝟑 𝐱𝟑

8
Example 8: The electric field required to ionize air is about 1.0x104N/C when the field reaches
this value, the least bound electron begin leaving their molecules, eventually creating lightning.
Assume that this value of field E exist between a negatively charged lower cloud surface and the
positively charged ground. If we take the storm clouds to squares 10 miles on each side, estimate
the total negative charge on the lower cloud surface.

Given: Required:
E = 1.0×104 N/C Q=?
d = 10 mi ≈1.6× 104 m

Solution:
4N 4 2
EA (1.0×10 C ) (1.6× 10 m)
Q= = = 𝟐𝟑 𝐂
4πk 9 m2
4π(9.0×10 N. 2 )
C

9
Chapter 2: Electric Potential, Energy and Capacitance
Important Terms:
Electric Potential Energy = It is the work done on the charge.

Electric Potential Difference = It is the change in potential energy per unit positive test charge

Volt = The Si unit of electric potential difference is the joule per coulomb, and renamed in honor
of an Italian Scientist, Alessandro Volta

## Voltage = Potential Difference.

Electric Potential = It as the same as electric potential difference however it is not measurable
because of the choice of reference point

Equipotential Surfaces = A plane on which the value of the electric potential is constant.

Electron Volt = The kinetic energy acquired by an electron accelerated through a potential
difference of exactly 1V.

## Capacitance = It expresses the charge stored per volt.

Farad = The combined unit of capacitance is the coulomb per volt which was named after an
English scientist, Michael Faraday.

Dielectric = A sheet of insulating material which is placed between the plates and serves a
several purpose.

## Dielectric Constant = It is the characteristics of the capability of the chosen material.

Dielectric Permittivity = It is always greater than the permittivity of the vacuum by a factor of
K.

Equivalent Series Capacitance = The value of a single capacitor that could replace the series
combination.

Equivalent Parallel Capacitance = The value of a single capacitor that could replace the
parallel combination and holds the same total charge when connected to the battery.

Important Equations

10
Electric Potential Difference
𝚫𝐔𝐞 𝐖
𝚫𝐕 = =
𝐪𝐨 𝐪𝐨

## Where: 𝚫V = electric potential difference, v

∆Ue = electric potential energy, J
= qoEd
E = electric field, N/C
q = charge, C
d = distance, m
W = work, J
qo = charge, C

𝚫V = Ed

## Where: 𝚫V = electric potential difference, v

E = electric field, N/C
d = distance, m

𝐤𝐪
𝐕=
𝐫

## Where: V = electric potential, v

k = proportionality constant, 9.00 x 109Nm2/C2
r = distance, m
q = charge, C

## Electric Potential Energy of a Configuration of Point Charges

U = U12 + U23 + U13 + ……..

𝜟𝑽
𝑬 = −( )
𝜟𝒙

## Where: E = electric field, N/C

𝚫V = electric potential difference, v
𝚫x = distance, m

Capacitance
Q = CV
Where: Q = Charge, C
C = Capacitance, f

11
V = voltage, v

## Capacitance of a Parallel-Plate Capacitor

Є𝐨𝐀
𝐂=
𝐝

Where: C = capacitance
A = Area, m2
d = distance, m
Єo = permittivity of a vacuum, 8.85 x10-12C2/Nm2

𝐐𝐕 𝐐𝟐 𝐂𝐕 𝟐
𝐔𝐜 = = =
𝟐 𝟐𝐂 𝟐

## Where: Uc = energy stored in a capacitor, J

Q = charge, C
V = voltage, v
C = capacitance, f

## Dielectric Effect on Capacitance

C = KCo

Where: C = capacitance, f
K = dielectric constant

𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
= + + + … ..
𝑪𝒔 𝑪𝟏 𝑪𝟐 𝑪𝟑

## Equivalent Capacitance for Capacitors in Parallel

Cp = C1 + C2 + C3 + …

## Where: Cp = equivalent capacitance connected in parallel

Example 1: A proton is moved from negative to the positive plate of a parallel- plate
arrangement. The plates are 1.50 cm apart, and the dielectric field is uniform with a magnitude of
1500 N/C. (a) What is the proton’s potential energy charge? (b)What is the potential difference
between the plates? (c) Between the negative plate and a point midway between the plates? (d) If
the proton is released from rest at the positive plate, what speed will it have just before it hits the
negative plate?

12
Given: Required:
d= 1.5cm = 0.015m UPROTON = ?
E= 1500N/C ∆V = ?
ν=?
Solution:
1500N Nm J
𝑏. ∆V = Ed = ( ) (0.015m) = 22.5 = 22.5 = 22.5 V
C C C
U
a. ∆V =
q
22.5J
U = Vq = (1.602 x 10−19 C) = 3.62 x 10−18 J (Kinetic Energy)
C

1500N
𝑐. ∆V = = 11.25J/C
C(0.0075m)

## U = Vq = 11.25J/C(1.602 x 10−19 C) = 1.81 x 10−18 J

1
𝑑. KE = mυ2
2
1
3.62 x 10−18 = (1.672 x 10−27 ) v 2
2
2(3.62 x 10-18)
𝑣=√ = 6.50 x104 m/s
1.672 x 10−27

Example 2: We want to accelerate an electron to one percent of the speed of light in a space of
2.50mm between a pair of large horizontal, parallel plates. If the top plate is positively charged,
what voltage between the plates is required? What is the magnitude of the electric field?

Given: Required:
c = 3.00 x 108m/s V=?
ν = 0.01 x 3.00 x 108m/s = 3.0 x 106m/s E =?
d = 2.5mm = 0.0025m

Solution:
1 2 1 −31
106 m
𝑎. KE = mν = (9.109 x 10 kg) (3.0 x ) = 4.10 x10−18 J = U
2 2 s

∆𝑈 4.10𝑥10−18
∆𝑉 = = = 25.48𝐽/𝐶
𝑞𝑜 1.609𝑥10−19

𝑏. V = Ed;
V 25.48 J/C 10236𝑣
E= = = = 10236N/C
d 0.0025 m m

13
Name:
Course/Year/Section:
Assignment No.:

What is the difference in potential between two points, one at 20 cm and the other at 40cm from
a charge of 5.5 micro coulomb? Which point is at a higher potential?

14
Example 3: In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the electron in the orbit around the proton
can exists only in certain circular orbits. The smallest has a radius of 0.0529nm and the next
largest has a radius of 0.212nm, what is the potential difference between the two orbits? Which
orbit is at a higher potential?

Given:
r1= 0.0529 nm= 5.29 x 10-11m
r2= 0.212nm = 2.12 x 10-10m

Required:
a. V = ?
b. ∆V =?

Solution:

V1 = = = 27.26 v
r 5.29x10-11

V2 = = = 6.8 v
r 2.12x10-10

## ∆V= V1 - V2 = 27.26 - 6.8 = 20.46v

Example 4: The water molecule is the foundation of life as we know it. Many of its important
properties are related to the fact that it is a polar molecule. Although the molecule’s net charge is
zero, it is separated into positive and negative regions. A very simple picture of water molecule
along with the charges is given in the diagram below. The distance from each hydrogen atom to
the oxygen atom is 9.60x10-11m and the angle between the hydrogen-oxygen bond directions is
104o. What is the total electrostatic energy of the water molecule?

H q1= 5.20x10-20 c
9.6x10-11 m

O q3= -10.4x10-20 c

104o

H q2=5.20x10-20 c

15
Given: Required:
θ= 104o Utotal = ?
d = 9.60x10-11m
Solution:
1
104 2

sin =
2 9.6x10-11m

h =2 (9.6x10-11m)sin 52 = 1.51x10-10m

## UT = U12 + U13 + U23

9.00 x 109Nm2/C2(5.2x10-20C)(-10.4x10-20C)
U13 = U23 = -11 = −5.09x10−19 J
9.6x10 m

9.00 x 109Nm2/C2(5.2x10-20C)2
U12 = = 1.61x10−19 J
1.51x10-10m

## Utotal = 2(−5.09x10−19 ) + 1.61x10−19 = −8.57x10−19 J

Example 5: Under normal atmospheric conditions, the Earth is electrically charged and creates
an approximately constant electric field of about 150 V/m pointing down near its surface.
(a)How far apart are two equipotential surfaces that have a 1000-volt difference between them?
Which has a higher potential – the one farther from the Earth or the one closer? (b)During an
approaching lightning storm, the polarity changes and the field can rise to many times the normal
value,Under these conditions, if the field is 900 V/m and points up, now how far apart are the
two surfaces in (b)?

Given:
150 V/m = constant electric Field
V = 1000v
Solution:

∆V
E =
∆x
∆V 1000V
a. ∆x = = = 6.67m
E 150V/m
1000V
b. ∆x = = 1.11m
900V/m

16
Example 6: What would be the plate area if air-filled 1.0 farad parallel plate capacitor is if the
plate separation were 1.0 mm? Would it be realistic to consider building one?

Given: Required:
C = 1F A=?
d = 1mm= 0.001m
Solution:

ϵoA
C =
d
Cd 1F (0.001m)
A = = = 1.13x108 m2
ϵ0 8.85x10-12C2/Nm2

Example 7: Following a heart attack, the heart sometimes beats in erratic (and a useless fashion,
called fibrillation). One way to get the heart back to its normal rhythm is to shock it with electric
energy supplied by an instrument called a cardiac defibrillator. Experiment show that about 300 J
of energy is required to produce the desired effect. Typically, a defibrillator stores this energy in
a capacitor charge by 5000 V power supply. (a)What capacitance is required? (b)What is the
charge on the capacitor plate?

Given: Required:
300J = U C=?
5000v= V Q=?

Solution:

2U 2(300J)
C = 2
= = 2.4 x 10−5 F = 24μF
V (5000𝑣)2

## Example 8: Consider a capacitor with dielectric underneath a computer key. It is connected to a

12volt power supply, has normal plate separation of 3.00mm and a plate area of 0.750cm2. What
is the required dielectric constant if the capacitance is 1.10pF? How much charge is stored on
the plates under normal conditions? How much charge flows onto the plates (that is, what is the
change in charge) if they are compressed to a separation of only 2.00mm?

Given: Required:
V = 12V K=?
d = 3mm = 0.003m Q=?
(1m)2
A = 0.75cm2 x = 7.5x10-5m2 ∆Q = ?
(100cm)2
C = 1.1pF
d’ = 2mm

Solution:

17
∈0A 8.85x10-12C2/Nm2(7.5x10-5m2)
Co = = = 2.21x10−13 F
d 0.003m

C 1.1x10-12 F
K = = = 4.98
Co 2.21x10-13F

Q = CV = 1.1x10-12F(12V) = 1.32x10-11C

K∈0A 4.98(8.85x10-12C2/Nm2)(7.5x10-5m2)
C = = = 1.65x10−12 F
d' 0.002m

## ∆Q = Q'-Q = 1.98x10-11C - 1.32x10-11C = 6.60x10-12C

Example 9: You have two capacitors, one 2.50 F and the other one is 5.00 F. What are the
charges on each and the total charge stored if they are connected across a 12.0- volt battery (a) in
series and (b) in parallel.

Given: Required:
C1= 2.50 F Q1 =?
C2 = 5.00 F Q2 =?
V= 12.0V QT =?

Solution:

1 1 1 1 1 2+1
a. = + + =
CS C1 C2 2.50 F 5.00 F 5.00 F
5
CS = F
3
5
Q = CV = F(12V) = 2.00x10-5C = Q1 = Q 2
3
Q 2.00x10-5C
V1 = = -6 = 8V
C1 2.50 x10-5 F
Q 2.00x10 C
V2 = = = 4V
C2 5.00 x10-6F

## b. CP = C1 + C2 = 2.50 F + 5.00 F = 7.5F

QT = CV = 7.5 x10-6F(12V) = 9.0x10-5C
VT = V1 = V2 = 12V

## Q1 = C1V 1 = 2.50 F (12V) = 3.0x10-5 C

Q2 = C2 V2 = 5.00 F (12V) = 6x10-5 C

18
Example 10: Three Capacitors are connected in a circuit as shown below. What is the voltage
across the capacitor?

C2= 0.60 uF

12V

C1= 0.20 uF
C3= 0.10 uF

Given: Required:
C1 = 0.20F V1 = ? & Q1 = ?
C2 = 0.60F V2 = ? & Q2 = ?
C3 = 0.10F V3 = ? & Q3 = ?

Solution:

## CP = C1 + C3 = 0.20F +0.10F = 0.3F C2= 0.60 uF

1 1 1 1 1 1+2 12v
= + = + =
CT C2 CP 0.60F 0.3F 0.6F CP= 0.30 uF
0.6F
CT = = 0.2F
3

## QT = CT VT = 0.2 x10-6F (12V)= 2.4x10-6C = Q2 = QP

Q2 2.4x10-6C
V2 = = = 4v
C2 0.60x10-6F
QP 2.4x10-6C
Vp = = = 8v = V1 = V3
CP 0.30x10-6F

## Q3 = C3 V3 = 0.10x10-6F (8v) = 8x10-7C

19
Name:
Course/Year/Section:
Assignment No.:

What is the equivalent capacitance of two capacitors, 0.40 micro farad and 0.60 micro
farad when they are connected in series and in parallel?

20
Chapter 3: Electric Current and Resistance
Important Terms:
Battery = It is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy.

## Circuit- Any complete loop consisting of wires and electrical devices.

Cathode = The electrode that has the larger number of excess electrons. It designated the
negative terminal of the battery.

Anode = It has still excess negative charge, has a smaller excess than the cathode. It is the
positive (+) terminal of the battery.

Electromotive force (emf) = The potential difference across the terminals of a battery when it is
not connected to a circuit.

## Terminal voltage = The operating voltage of a battery.

Direct current = The flow of electrons is from negative (-) terminal to the positive(+) terminal.

Complete Circuit = It forms from a battery or some other voltage source connected to a
continuous conducing path.

## Electric Current = The rate of flow of net charge.

Ampere = The unit of current is coulombs per second in honor of the French scientist, Andre
Ampere.

Drift Velocity = The net electron flow is characterized by an average velocity which is smaller
than the random velocities of the electron themselves.

## Ohm’s Law = A resistor that has constant resistance.

Ohm = The combined unit of volts per ampere which was named in honor of a German
physicist, George Ohm.

Resistivity = It is the intrinsic atomic properties which acts as a constant of proportionality for
the relationship of resistance to length and area.
Conductivity = The reciprocal of resistivity.

21
Temperature Coefficient of Resistivity = It is a constant over a small temperature range.

Superconductivity = The electrical resistance of metals and alloys generally decreases with
decreasing temperature.

Electric Power = The rate at which energy is delivered to the external circuit by the battery.

Joule Heat (I2R) Loss = The thermal energy expended in a current – carrying resistor.

Kilowatt – Hour (KWH) = The thing that is being paid for electricity measurement.

Important Equations
Electric Current

Where: I = current, A
q = charge, C
t = time, s

Electric Resistance

Where: R = resistance, Ω
V = voltage, v
I = current, A

Resistivity

Where: ρ = resistivity, Ωm
R = resistance, Ω
A = area, m2
L = length, m

Conductivity

## Where: σ = conductivity, per Ωm

ρ = resistivity, Ωm

22
Temperature Dependence of Resistance

## Where: Rf = final resistance, Ω

Ro = initial resistance, Ω
T = temperature, oC
α = temperature coefficient of resistivity, per oC

Electric Power

## Where: P = power, watts

R = resistance, Ω
V = voltage, v
I = current, A

Example 1: There is a steady current of 0.50A in a flashlight bulb for 2.0 min. How much
charge passes through the bulb during this time? How many electrons does this represent?

Given: Required:
I = 0.5 A Q=?
t = 2mins = 120s n=?

Solution:
q
I =
t
q = It = 0.5A (120s) = 60C

Q 60C
n = = = 3.75x1020 e
e 1.602x10-19C

## Example 2: When a 12-volt automobile battery is connected across a resistor of unknown

resistance, a current of 2.5 mA results. What is the value of the resistor?

Given: Required:
V = 12V R=?
I = 2.5 mA = 0.0025A

Solution:

V 12V
𝑅= = = 4800Ω
I 0.0025A

23
Example 3: A 1.5 meter insulated extension cord, which consists of two wires to make a
complete circuit, is used to connect a lamp to an outlet. If the copper wire of the cord has a
diameter of 2.3mm.what is the resistance of the wires at room temperature?

Given: Required:
L = 1.5m R=?
LT = 3m
Ø = 2.3mm = 0.0023m
ρCu = 1.70x10-8Ωm

Solution:

ρL 1.70x10-8Ωm x 3m
𝑅= = = 𝟏. 𝟐𝟑𝐱𝟏𝟎−𝟐 𝛀
A π (0.0023)2 2
𝑚
4

Example 4: A platinum wire has a resistance of 0.50 Ω at 0 C. It is placed in a water bath where
its resistance rises to a final value of 0.60Ω. What is the temperature of the bath?

Given: Required:
RO = 0.50Ω Tf = ?
Rf = 0.60Ω
T1 = 0ºC
α = 3.9x10-3/C

Solution:
𝑅𝐹 = 𝑅𝑂 (1 + 𝛼∆𝑇)
RF 0.6Ω
−1 -1
RO
TF = = 0.50Ω
= 𝟓𝟏. 𝟐𝟖𝐨 𝐂\
α 3.9x10-3/C

Example 5: A desktop computer system includes a color monitor and the central processing unit
with keyboard, each operating at an average voltage of 120V. a typical 17’’ color monitor has a
power requirement of 130 W, and a CPU’s requirement has a power of 960W.(a). Calculate the
average current that each component carries.(b). What is the resistance of each component under
this operating condition?

Given: Required:
V = 120V IMONITOR = ?
PMONITOR = 130W ICPU = ?
PCPU = 960W R MONITOR = ?
R CPU = ?
Solution:

P = IV
PMONITOR 130W
IMONITOR = = = 1.08 A
V 120V
24
PCPU 960W
ICPU = = = 8A
V 120V
V 120V
R MONITOR = = = 111.11Ω
IMONITOR 1.08 A
V 120V
R CPU = = = 15Ω
ICPU 8A

Name:
Course/Year/Section:
25
Assignment No.:

1. How long would it take for a net charge of 2.5C to pass a location in a wire so as to produce a
steady current of 5.0milliampere?

2. What is the percentage variation of the resistivity copper over the range from room temperature
(20 degrees Celsius) to 100 degrees Celsius?

Example 6: A hair dryer is rated at 1200W for 115V. The uniform wire filament breaks near one
end, and the owner repairs it by removing one section near the break and simply reconnecting it.

26
The filament is then 10.0% shorter than its original length. What will be the change in the
heater’s power output?

Given: Required:
P = 1200 W PF = ?
V = 115V

Solution:

LF = 90% Lo
PO 1200W
IO = = = 10.43A
V 115V
V 115V
Ro = = = 11.03Ω
I 10.43A
ρLF ρ( 0.90LO)
Rf = = = 0.90R o
A A

Vo = Vf = 115V

Io R o = If R f
Io R o = If (0.90R o )
Io = If (0.90)

10.43A
IF = = 11.59A
0.90

## Pf = IF Vf = 11.59A (115v) = 1,332.85W

Example 7: If the motor of a frost- free refrigerator runs 15% of the time, how much does it cost
to operate per month if the power company changes 11с per kWh?

Given: Required:
PREFRIGERATOR = 500W Cost of refrigerator per month
30 days 24 hours
t = 0.15 ( )( ) = 108hrs/mo
1 month 1 day

Solution:

108hrs
500W ( month )
KWH = = 54
1000
54KWH 11¢ 594¢ \$1
𝑃𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑒 = ( month ) (KWH) = (month) (100¢) = \$5.94/mo
Example 8: Most modern power plants produce electricity at a rate of about 1.0GW. Estimate to
two significant figures how many fewer power plants the state of California would need if all its

27
households switched from the 500watt refrigerators in the previous example to more efficient
400watt refrigerators. Assume exactly 6 million homes with an average of 1.2 refrigerators per
home.

Given:
PP = 1.0GW = 1.0x109W = 1.0x106KW
500 24hrs
Energy Req’t of 500W refrigerator = 1000 (15%) ( day ) = 1.8 KWH/day
# of homes = 6.0x106
# of refrigerators/home = 1.2 ref/home

Required:

# of power plants

Solution:

Total
1.8KWH
day 1.2ref KWH
(6,000,000homes) ( ) = 12,960,000
refrigerator home day

Switch to 400W
KWH KWH
0.80 (12,960,000 ) = 10,368,000
day day

## KWH KWH KWH

12,960,000 - 10,368,000 = 2, 592, 000
day day day

KW 24hrs KWH/plant
1.0x106 ( ) = 2.4x107
plant day day

KWH
2, 592, 000
day
# of power plants = = 0.108 plants
7 KWH/plant
2.4x10
day

## Chapter 4: Basic Electric Circuits

28
Important Terms:
Equivalent Series Resistances = The sum of the individual resistances.

Equivalent Parallel Resistances = The value of a single resistor that could replace any number
of resistors and maintain the same current through the battery.

Kirchhoff’s Rules = A general method for analyzing multi-loop circuits which embody the
conservation of charge and the conservation of energy.

## Branch = A path connecting two junctions.

Kirchhoff’s Junction Theorem = The algebraic sum of the currents at any junction is zero.

Kirchhoff’s Loop Theorem = The algebraic sum of the potential differences across all of the
elements of any closed loop is zero.

## Fuse = Common to older homes which limits the current in a circuit.

Circuit Breaker = They are used extensively in wiring new homes which uses bimetallic strip
which also limits the current in a circuit.

Grounded Plug = It is the large round prong connects with the dedicated grounding wire.

Polarized Plug = A two prong plug that fits in the socket only one way because one prong is
wider than the other and one of the slits of the receptacle is also larger.

Important Equations

29
Equivalent Series Resistance
𝐑 𝐒 = 𝐑 𝟏 + 𝐑 𝟐 + 𝐑 𝟑 + … ..

Where: R = resistance, Ω

## Equivalent Parallel Resistance

1 1 1 1
= + + + … ..
RP R1 R 2 R 2

Where: R = resistance, Ω

Kirchhoff’s Rules
∑ 𝐈𝐢 = 𝟎
𝐢
∑ 𝐕𝐢 = 𝟎
𝐢

Where: I = Current, A
V = Voltage, v

## Charging Voltage across a Capacitor in an RC Circuit

𝐕𝐂 = 𝐕𝐎 (𝟏 − 𝐞−𝐭/𝐑𝐂 )

## Where: Vc = voltage of a charging capacitor, v

Vo = Voltage of the battery, v
t = time, s
R = resistance, Ω
C = capacitance, F

τ = RC

## Where: τ = time constant

R = resistance, Ω
C = Capacitance, F

## Discharging Voltage across a Capacitor in an RC Circuit

𝐕𝐂 = 𝐕𝐎 𝐞−𝐭/𝐑𝐂 = 𝐕𝐎 𝐞−𝐭/𝛕

## Where: Vc = voltage of a charging capacitor, v

Vo = Voltage of the battery, v
t = time, s
R = resistance, Ω
C = capacitance, F
τ = time constant

30
Galvanometer Current used as Ammeter
IR s
Ig =
r + Rs

## Where: Ig = galvanometer currnt, A

I = current, A
Rs = shunt resistance, Ω
r = resistance of the galvanometer coil

V
Ig =
r + Rm

## Where: Ig = galvanometer currnt, A

V= voltage, v
Rm = resistance, Ω
r = resistance of the galvanometer coil

Example 1: What is the equivalent resistance of three resistors (1.0Ω, 2.0Ω, and 3.0Ω) when
they are connected (a) in series and (b) in parallel? (c) What current will be delivered from a 12 –
volt battery for each of these arrangements?

Given: Required:
R1 = 1.0Ω , I=?
R2 = 2.0Ω ,
R3 = 3.0Ω ;
V = 12v;

Solution:
Series
𝑅𝑇 = 𝑅1 + 𝑅2 + 𝑅3 = 1 + 2 + 3 = 𝟔Ω
VT 12
IT = = = 𝟐𝐀 = I1 = I2 = I3
RT 6

V1 = I1R1 = 2(1Ω) = 2v
V2 = I2R2 = 2(2) = 4v
V3 = I3R3 = 2(3) = 6v
VT = 12v

PT = IT VT = 2x12 = 𝟐𝟒𝐖
P1 = I1 V1 = 2x2 = 𝟒𝐖
P2 = I2 V2 = 2x4 = 𝟖𝐖
P3 = I3 V3 = 2x6 = 𝟏𝟐𝐖
PT = 𝟐𝟒𝐖
Parallel

31
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 + 3 + 2 11
= + + = + + = =
𝑅𝑇 𝑅1 𝑅2 𝑅3 1 2 3 6 6
𝟔
𝑅𝑇 = Ω
𝟏𝟏
VT 12
IT = = = 𝟐𝟐𝐀
RT 6⁄
11

VT = V1 = V2 = V3 = 𝟏𝟐𝐕

V1 12V
I1 = = = 𝟏𝟐𝐀
R1 1Ω
V2 12V
I2 = = = 𝟔𝐀
R2 2Ω
V3 12V
I3 = = = 𝟒𝐀
R3 3Ω
IT = 𝟐𝟐𝐀

## P1 = I1 V1 = 12A x 12V = 𝟏𝟒𝟒𝐖

P2 = I2 V2 = 6A x 12V = 𝟕𝟐𝐖
P3 = I3 V3 = 4A x 12V = 𝟒𝟖𝐖
PT = 𝟐𝟔𝟒𝐖

Name:

32
Course/Year/Section:
Assignment No.:

1. Three resistors with values 1.0 ohm, 2.0 ohm, and 4.0 ohm are connected in parallel in a
circuit with a 6.0v battery. What are the (a) the total equivalent resistance, (b) the voltage
across each resistors, and (c) the power dissipated in the resistors?

33
2.. Three resistors with values 5.0 ohm, 2.5 ohm, and 4.0 ohm are connected in series in a
circuit with a 36.0v battery. What are the (a) the total equivalent resistance, (b) the voltage
across each resistors, and (c) the power dissipated in the resistors?

34
Example 2: What are the voltages across and the current in each of the resistors (R1 to R5) in
the figure below? How much power is dissipated in each of the resistors?

R1= 6.00 Ώ
R5= 2.50 Ώ

R2= 4.00 Ώ

Given: Required:

## R1= 6.00 Ώ Currents & Voltages

R2= 4.00 Ώ
R3= 6.00 Ώ
R4= 2.00 Ώ
R5= 2.50 Ώ

Solution:

I I I 1 1 1+3 4
= + = + = = V2 6𝑣
R34 R3 R4 6 2 6 6 I2 = = = 1.5𝐴
R34 = 1.5Ω R2 4
V345 6𝑣
I345 = = = 1.5𝐴 = I5 = I34 𝐴
R 345 4

## V5 = I5R5 = 1.5(2.5) = 3.75v

R345 = 2.5 + 1.5 = 4Ω V34 = I34R34 = 1.5(1.5) = 2.25v = V3 = V4

𝑉3 2.25
I3 = = = 𝟎. 𝟑𝟕𝟓𝐀
𝑅3 6
1 1 1 1 1 2 𝑉4 2.25
= + = + = I4 = = = 𝟏. 𝟏𝟐𝟓𝐀
R 2345 R 2 R 345 4 4 4 𝑅4 2
R2345 = 2Ω
PT = VTIT = 24(3) = 72w

## P1 = I1V1 = 3(8) = 254w

P2 = I2V2 = 1.5(6) = 9w
RT =R1+ R2345 = 6 + 2 = 8Ω P3 = I3V3 = 0.375 (2.25) = 0.84375w
P4 = I4V4 = 1.25(2.25) = 2.53125w
𝑉𝑇 24 P5 = I5 V5 = 1.5(3.75) = 5.625w
IT = = = 3A = I1 = I2345
𝑅𝑇 8 PT =72.00000w
V1 = I1R1 = 3(6) = 18v
V2345 = I2345R2345 = 3(2) = 6v =V2 = V345

35
Example 3: Three resistors are connected in parallel across a 36.0-volt battery. Use Kirchhoff’s
rule to calculate (a) the current through each resistor and the battery and (b) the equivalent
resistance of the pair.

## 36v 6.0 3.0 2.50

@PT.1
A–B–C=0 @ Loop 3
3D – 2.5E = 0
@PT.2
C–D–E=0 3(12) – 2.5E = 0
36
@ Loop 1 E = = 𝟏𝟒. 𝟒𝐀
2.5
-6B + 36 = 0
C=D+E
B = 6A = 12 + 14.4
= 26.4A
@ Loop 2
6B – 3D = 0 A=B+C
6(6) – 3D = 0 = 6 + 26.4
36 A = 32.4A
D = 3 = 𝟏𝟐𝐀

Example 4: What are the voltages across the current in each of the resistors (R1 to R4) in the
figure below? (Use the Kirchhoff’s law).

9Ω Given:
R3=2.00Ω
R3=2.00Ω
V2=12.00V

Required:
2Ω Voltages
V2=12.00V

6Ω
6V

36
@PT.1 *3&4
A–B–C=0 eq. 1 3(A + 3C = 3)
11A – 9C = 12
@ Loop 1
-9B – 2A + 12 = 0 3A + 9C = 9
2A + 9B = 12 eq. 2 11A – 9C = 12
14A = 21
@ Loop 2 A = 3/2 or 1.5A
6 + 6C – 12 + 2A = 0
2A + 6C=6 3
2 (2) +9B = 12
2 3 + 9B = 12
A + 3C = 3 eq. 3
9B = 12 – 3
*1&2 B = 1A
9 (A – B – C = 0)
2A + 9B = 12 3
+ 3C = 3
9A – 9B – 9C =0 2
3 3
2A + 9B = 12 3C = 3 – =
2 2
11A – 9C =12 eq.4 3 1
C = = A
2(3) 2

37
Name:
Course/Year/Section:
Assignment No.:

Use the Kirchhoff’s law to determine the power dissipated in the resistors.

10.0 7.0

9.0
36 v 6.0

8.0 5.0

38
Example 5: The capacitance resistance in the RC circuit is 6.0 µF and 0.25MΩ,
respectively, and the battery has a 12-volt terminal voltage. (a) The capacitor was initially
uncharged. What is the voltage across it one time constant after the switch is closed? (b)
What are the voltage across the capacitor and the capacitor’s charge at t = 5.0 s?

a) Vc = 0.63Vº
= 0.63(12)
= 7.56v

b) Vc = Vº (1 – e -t/T) T = Rc
= 12(1 - e -5/1.5) = (6 x 10 -6F) (0.25 x 106Ω)
= 11.57V T = 1.5s

Q = CVc
= 6 x 10-6 F(11.57)
Q = 6.94 x 10 -5C

Example 6: A galvanometer that can safely carry a maximum coil current of 200 µA
(called the full-scale sensitivity) has a coil resistance of 50 Ω. It is to be used in an
ammeter designed to read currents up to 3.0 A (at full scale). What is the required shunt
resistance?

Given: Required:
Ig = 200µA = 200 x 10 -6A Rs = ?
R = 50Ω
1 = 3A

Solution:

IRs 3Rs
Ig = ; 200 x 10 −6 =
R+Rs 50 + Rs
200 x 10 -6 (50) + 200 x 10-6 Rs = 3Rs

0.01 = 3,0003 Rs
0.01
Rs= = 𝟑. 𝟑𝟑 𝐱 𝟏𝟎 − 𝟑Ω
3,0003

39
Example 7: Suppose that the galvanometer in latter problem is to be used instead in a
voltmeter with a full-scale reading of 3.0 V. What is the required multiplier resistance?

Given: Required:
V = 3V Rm =

Solution:

Ig = V
R + Rm
200 x 10-6 = 3
50 + Rm

Rm = 3 - 50
200 x 10-6

Rm = 1.49 x 104Ω

40
Name:
Course/Year/Section:
Assignment No.:

In a flashing neon light circuit, at a time constant of 2.0 s is desired. If you have a 1.0
micro farad capacitor, what resistance should you use in the circuits?

V
Ig =
R + Rm
V - Igr
1gRm =
Ig
1 gr + 1gRm = V
V - Igr
Rm =
Ig
6 – 200 x 10 -6(50)
Rm =
200 x 10-6
Rm = 3.0 x 104Ω

## A galvanometer has a coil resistance of 20 ohm. A current of 200 microamperes deflects

the needle through 10 divisions of full scale. What resistance is needed to convert the
galvanometer to a full scale 10-volt meter?

41
A voltmeter has a resistance of 300k-ohms. What is the current through the meter when it
is connected across a 10 ohm resistor that is wired to a 6.0 volt source?

42
Chapter 5: Magnetism
Important Terms:
Pole – Force Law or Law of Poles = Like magnetic poles repel each other and unlike
magnetic poles attract each other.

## Electromagnetism = It is the study of interactions between electrically charged particles

and magnetic field.

Tesla = The combined unit, newton per ampere meter, of magnetic field is named in
honor of Nikola Tesla.

Right Hand Force Rule = When the fingers of the right hand are pointed in the direction
of v and then curled toward the vector B, the extended thumb points in the direction of F
for a positive charge.

Right Hand Source Rule = If a current carrying wire is grasped with the right hand with
the extended thumb pointing in the direction of the current I, the curled fingers indicate
the circular sense of the magnetic field direction.

Ferromagnetic Materials = Strong magnetic materials where the electron spins do not
pair or cancel completely.

## Magnetic Permeability = It is the core material of the magnet.

Hard Iron = Irons that retains some magnetism after being in an external magnetic field.

## Permanent Magnet = It magnetism can be lost.

Curie Temperature = The critical temperature where the domain coupling is destroyed
by the increased in thermal oscillations and a ferromagnetic loses its ferromagnetism.

Right Hand Force Rule for a Current Carrying Wire = When the fingers of the right
hand are pointed in the direction of the conventional current I and then curled toward the
vector B, the extended thumb points in the direction of the magnetic force on the wire.

## Cathode Ray Tube = A vacuum tube that is used in an oscilloscope.

43
Mass Spectrometer = It is one form of electric and magnetic field.

Magnet = composed of two “centers” of force called “poles”, one or near each end of the
magnet these poles are distinguished as positive and negative, these are called the north
(N) and south poles (S). This terminology comes from the early used of the magnetic
compass.

Magnetic Poles = With two bar magnets we notice a pattern of attraction and repulsion
between their various ends.

Important Equations:
Magnitude of the Magnetic Force on a Moving Charged Particle
F = qvBSinθ

Where: F = force, N
q = charge, C
v = velocity, m/s
B = magnetic field, T

μ𝐨 𝐈
𝐁=
𝟐𝛑𝐝

## Where: B = magnetic field, T

I = current ,A
µo = magnetic permeability of free space
= 4π x 10-7Tm/A
d = distance, m

Carrying Wire
μ𝐨 𝐈
𝐁=
𝟐𝐫

## Where: B = magnetic field, T

I = current, A
µo = magnetic permeability of free space
= 4π x 10-7Tm/A
r = radius, m

μ𝐨 𝐍𝐈
𝐁=
𝐋

44
B = µonI

## Where: B = magnetic field, T

I = current ,A
µo = magnetic permeability of free space
= 4π x 10-7Tm/A
L = length, m
N = turn or loop
n = linear turn density, turn/m
= N/L

## Magnitude of Force on a Straight, Current-Carrying Wire

F = ILBSinθ

Where: F = force, N
I = current, A
L = length, m
B = magnetic field, T

## Magnitude of Torque on a Single Current- Carrying Loop

τ = IABSinθ

Where: τ = torque,
I = current, A
A = area, m2
B = magnetic field, T

## Magnitude of Torque on a Single Current- Carrying Coil

τ = NIABSinθ

Where: τ = torque,
I = current, A
A = area, m2
B = magnetic field, T
N = loops, turns

45
Example 1: A particle with a charge of -5.0 x 10-4C move at a speed of 1.0 x 103 m/s in
the + x direction toward a uniform magnetic field of 0.20T in the +y direction. What is
the force on the particle just as it enters the magnetic field?

Given: Required:
Q= -5x10-4C F=?
v= 1.0 x 10 -5 m/s
β = 0.2 T

Solution:

## Example 2: The maximum household current in a wire is about 15 A. for simplicity;

assume that it is a steady (dc) current (even though it is not). Assume also that this
current is a west-to-east direction. What are the magnitudes and the directions of
magnetic field it produces 1.0 cm directly below the wire?

Given: Required:
I= 15A β= ?
d= 1cm = 0.01 m

Solution:

## μo I 4πx10−7 Tm/AI 2x10−7 TmI 2x10−7 Tm/A(15A)

B= = = = = 𝟑 𝐱 𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝐓
2πr 2πd d 0.01m

Example 3: A solenoid is 0.30 m long with 103 turns per meter and carries a current of
5.0 A. What is the magnitude of the magnetic field at the center of this solenoid?
Compare your result with the field near the single wire in the previous example (notice
that this wire carries three times the current of the solenoid in this Example!), and
comment.

Given: Required:
L=0.3 m B=?
n= 1000 turns/m
I= 5A

Solution:

## B=μ𝐨 nI = 4π x 10-7 Tm/A (1000m) (5A) = 0.00628T

46
Name:
Course/Year/Section:
Assignment No.:

1. A positive charge of 0.25 C moves horizontally to the right at a speed of 2.0x102 m/s and
enters a magnetic field directed vertically downward. If it experiences a force of 20N,
what is the magnetic field strength?

2. Two long parallel wires separated by 50 cm carry currents of 4.0 amperes each in a
horizontal direction. Find the midway between the wires if the currents are (a) in the
same direction and (b) in opposite directions.

3. What is the magnitude of the magnetic field of the circular orbit of the electron in a
hydrogen atom, which has an orbital radius of 0.0529nm?

47
Example 4: Two long parallel wires separated by a distance d and carry currents I1 and
I2 in the same direction.(a) Derive an expression for the magnetic force per unit length on
one of the wires due to the other and show that, in keeping with Newton’s third law, the
forces on the two wires are equal in magnitude. (b) Show that for these current directions,
the forces are mutually attractive, in keeping with Newton’s third law that the forces of
an action-at reaction pair must be opposite in direction.

Given:
I1
I2
d

Solution:

𝐹 = 𝑄𝑣𝛽𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃
𝑄
𝐼 = ; 𝑄 = 𝐼𝑡
𝑡
𝑑 𝐿
𝑣= =
𝑡 𝑡
𝜃 = 90
𝐿
𝐹 = (𝐼𝑡) ( ) 𝛽𝑆𝑖𝑛90
𝑡
𝐹 = (𝐼)(𝐿)𝛽

F
= Iβ
L
F1
= I1β1
L
μo I2
β = 2πd

F1 I1 µo I2
=
L 2πd

F1 μo I1 I2 F2
L
=
2πd
= L

48
Name:
Course/Year/Section:
Assignment No.:

1. Two long straight parallel wires 10cm apart carry equal currents pf 3.0 ampere in
opposite directions. What is the force per unit length of the wires?

49
Example 5: An orbiting electron possesses an orbital magnetic moment, and the motion
can produce a magnetic field. In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the single
electron travels in a circle with a radius of 0.0529 nm and has a period of 1.5 x 10-16s.
Derive a general expression for the orbital magnetic moment in terms of the orbital radius
r, the charge on the electron e, and the orbital period T. What is the magnitude of the
orbital magnetic moment of the electron in the hydrogen atom?

Solution:

a) Τ = IA
A = πr2
q e
I= =
t t
eπr2 πer2
Τ= =
t t
2
π(1.609 x 10-19 )(0.0529x10-9 )
b) Τ=
1.5x10-6 s
T= 9.43 x 10−24 Am2

Example 6: One electron is removed from a methane molecule prior to entering the mass
spec arrangement. After passing through the velocity selector, the charged molecule has
a speed of 1.0 x 103m/s. It then enters the final magnetic field region, in which the field
is 6.7 x 10-3T and follows a circular path. The molecule lands on the detector 5.0cm from
the entrance to the field. Determine the mass of this molecule. Neglect the mass of the
removed electron.

Given:
V= 1.0 x 103m/s
B= 6.7 x 10-3T
d= 5cm = 0.05m
q= 1.602 x 10-19 C
θ = 90

Sol’n:

## qBr 1.602 x 10−19 (6.7x10−3 )(0.025)

m= = 3
= 2.68x10−26 𝑘𝑔
V 1.0x10

50
Chapter 6: Electromagnetic Induction
Important Terms:
Electromagnetic Induction = It is the current induced in a loop caused by an induced
electromotive force (emf) due to this process.

Magnetic Flux = It is a measure of the number of field lines passing through an area.

Faraday’s Law of Induction = It is the time rate of change of the magnetic flux through
all the loops.

Lenz’s Law = An induced emf in a metal loop or coil gives rise to a current whose
magnetic field opposes the change in magnetic flux that produces it.

Alternating Current = The polarity of the voltage and the direction of the current
periodically change.

AC Generators = The electricity used in homes and industry is primarily ac, this is
sometimes called as an alternator.

## Back EMF = It is the induced emf in motors and generators.

Transformer = It consists of two coils of insulated wire would on the same (closed) iron
core.

Primary Coil = When AC voltage is applied to the input coil, the alternating current
gives rise to an alternating magnetic flux that is concentrated in the iron core.

Secondary Coil = The changing flux also passes through the output coil, inducing an
alternating voltage and current in it.

Step-up Transformer = If the secondary coil has more windings than the primary coil
does (Ns > Np, or Ns/Np > 1), the voltage is stepped up or (Vs > Vp).

Step-down Transformer = The secondary coil has fewer turns than the primary and the
voltage is stepped down, or reduced and the current is increased.

Eddy Currents = The fourth cause of energy loss in the transformer core.

## Electromagnetic Waves = It is considered as a means of heat transfer.

Maxwell’s Equation = A set of equation which combines the electric field and the
magnetic field into a single electromagnetic field.

## Radiation Pressure = The radiation force per area.

51
52
Important Equations:
Magnetic Flux
Φ = BACosθ

## Where: φ = magnetic flux, Tm2

B = magnetic field strength, T
A = area, m2

𝚫𝚽
𝛏 = −𝐍
𝚫𝐭

## Where: ξ = induced emf, v

N = loops, turns
φ = magnetic flux, Tm2
t = time, s

Generator emf
𝛏 = 𝛏𝐨 𝐒𝐢𝐧𝛚𝐭 = 𝛏𝐨 𝐒𝐢𝐧𝟐𝛑𝐟𝐭

## Where: ξ = induced emf, v

ξo = emf, v
= NBAω
ω = angular velocity, rad/s
t = time, s
f = frequency, hz
N = loops, turns
B = magnetic field strength, T
A = area, m2

ξb = V - IR

## Where: ξb = back emf, v

V = voltage, v
I = current, A
R = Resistance, Ω

𝐈𝐏 𝐕𝐒 𝐍𝐒
= =
𝐈𝐒 𝐕𝐏 𝐍𝐏

## Where: IP = primary current, A

IS = secondary current, A
VP = primary voltage, v

53
VS = secondary voltage, v
NP = primary turns, turns
NS = secondary turns, turns

Example 1: Consider a laptop computer’s speaker that is near a single wire carrying a
household current. At a distance of 30 cm, maximum current of 10 A would produce a
maximum magnetic field of about 7.0x10-6 Tesla. Both the current and the field would
reverse direction every half cycle, or Δt= 1/120s.
The speaker’s coil consists of 1000 circular wire loops and has a total resistance
of 1.0 ohm and a radius of 3.0 cm. Since the coil is small, assume for simplicity that the
magnetic field strength at any instant is constant over coils’ area, which is perpendicular
to the to the field direction. According to the manufacturer, the coil can carry only 25mA
before it is damaged. What is the magnitude of the average induced emf in the coil during
one half cycle and the magnitude of the average induced current in the coil? Will the
speaker’s coil survive?

Given: Required:
d = 30cm = 0.3m Emf = v = ?
Imax = 10 A (household) I (induced) =?
β = 7.0 x 10-6 T
∆t = 1⁄120 S
N = 1000 loops
R┌ = 1 Ω
┌ = 3cm = 0.03m
Imax = 25m A = 0.025A (Manufacturer Limit)

Solution.

N |∆ø|
V = emf =
∆t

∆ø = øf -øi
øi = β o A Cosθ = 7.0 x 10-6 (π) (0.03)2 cos 0
øi = 1.97 x 10-8 Tm2 / loop
øf = - 1.97 x 10-8 Tm2 / loop
∆ø = øf -øi = - 1.97 x 10-8 - 1.97 x 10-8 = -3.94x10-8 Tm2 / loop

N ⁄ ∆ø ⁄ 1000(−3.94𝑥10−8 )
V = emf = = = 4.728𝑥10−3 𝑣
∆t 1⁄
120 𝑠

𝑉 4.728𝑥10−3
𝐼= = = 4.728𝑥10−3 𝐴 = 4.728𝑚𝐴 < 25𝑚𝐴 𝑖𝑡 𝑤𝑖𝑙𝑙 𝑛𝑜𝑡 𝑏𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑘
𝑅 1

54
55
Example 2: A farmer decides to use a waterfalls on his property to create a small
hydroelectric power plant. He builds a coil consisting of 1500 closely packed circular
loops of wire with a radius of 20 cm and constructs his generator to spin at 60Hz in a
magnetic field. To generate a maximum emf of 120 V, what must be the magnitude of the
magnetic field?

Given: Required :
N = 1500 loops β=?
T = 20cm = 0.2m
F = 60hz
Emf v = 120V

Solution :
V = ε = π (0.2)2 (1500) (60) β = 120v
β = 1.69 x 10-3T

Example 3: A dc motor with a resistance of 8.0 ohm in its windings operates on 120 V.
With a normal load, there is a back emf of 100 V when the motor reaches full speed .
What are (a) the starting current drawn by the motor and (b) the armature current at
operating speed under a normal load?

Given: Required
R = 8Ω Ia =?
V = 120V
εb = 100V
Solution :
V = IR
I20 = Ia (8)
120
Ia = 8 = 15A

ε = V – IR
100 = 120 – Ia (8)
20 = 8𝐼𝑎
Ia = 2.5 A

Example 4: A transformer has 50 turns on its primary coil and 100 turns on its secondary
coil. (a) if the primary is connected to 120- volt source, what is the voltage output of the
secondary? (b) If the transformer is operated in reverse and the 120-volt input is applied
to the 100-turn coil, what would be the voltage output?

Given: Required:
Np = 50 turns Vs = ?
Ns = 100 turns
Vp = 120 volt

56
Solution:
100 Vs 100 120
= =
50 120 50 Vs
Vs 120
2 = 120 2=
Vs
Vs = 240v Vs = 60v

Example 5: A small hydroelectric power plant produces energy in the form of electric
current at 10 A and a voltage of 440 V. The voltage is stepped up to 4400 V (by an ideal
transformer) for the transmission over 40 km of power line, which has a resistance of
0.50Ώ/km. (A power transmission line has two wires for a complete circuit. (a) What
percentage of the original energy would have been lost in transmission if the voltage had
not been stepped up? (b) What percentage of the original energy is lost with the voltage
stepped up?

Given: I = 10 A LT = 80km.
V = 440v R/L = 0.5Ω⁄km
v = 4400v RT = 40Ω
L = 40km
Required: ρ=?

Solution:
PL = I2 R = 102(40) = 4000 watt

## P = IV = 10(440) = 4400 watt

4000
%PL = x 100 = 𝟗𝟎. 𝟗𝟏%
4400
10𝐴 4400 440(10)
= ; = 𝐼𝑠 = 𝟏𝐀
𝐼𝑠 440 4400

PL = I2 R = 12 (40) = 40w

40
%PL = x100 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟏%
4400

Example 6: Viking space probes landed on Mars in 1976 and sent radio and TV signals
back to Earth. How much longer did it take for a signal to reach us when Mars was
farthest from Earth than when it was closest to us? The average distance of Mars and
Earth from the Sun are 229 million km and 150 million km respectively. Assume circular
orbits with these average distances as radii.

Given: Required:
d=229x109 m, 150x109 m 𝑡 =?

57
dM = 229x109 m
dE = 150x109 m

Solution:
∆d = (dM + dE ) − (dM − dE )
= 2dE = 𝟑𝟎𝟎𝐱𝟏𝟎𝟗 𝐦

## c = speed of light = 3.0x108

d
c=
t

∆d 300x109 1min.
t= = = 1000x = 𝟏𝟔. 𝟔𝟕𝐦𝐢𝐧
c 3.0x108 60sec.

58
Chapter 7: AC Circuits
Important Terms:
Peak Voltage = The voltage oscillates between values of positive Vo and negative Vo.

Peak Current = The current oscillates between values of positive Io and negative Io

current.

## Inductance = It is the measure of the opposition a circuit element presents to a time

varying current.

Inductor = It is a coil that exhibits a reverse voltage, or back emf, in opposition to the
changing current.

Henry = The combined unit, volt-second per ampere, for inductance named after Joseph
Henry.

## Inductive Reactance = The opposition that an inductor presents to the current in an AC

circuit depends on the value of the inductance and on the frequency of the voltage.

Phase Diagram = The resistance and reactance of the circuit are given in a vectorlike
properties.

## Phasors = The magnitude of the resistance and reactance represented by an arrow.

Impedance = The phasor sum is the effective, or net, opposition to the current.

Phase Angle = The angle between the voltage from the source and the current in the
circuit.

Inductive Circuit = If the inductive reactance is greater than the capacitive reactance, the
phase angle is positive.

Capacitive Circuit = If the capacitive reactance is greater than the inductive reactance,
the phase angle is negative.

## Resonance Frequency = The frequency for the condition of minimum impedance.

59
Important Equations:
Instantaneous Voltage in an AC Circuit
V = VOSinωt = VOSin2πft

## Where: V = instantaneous voltage, v

VO = peak voltage, v
ω = angular velocity, rad/s
t = time, s
f = frequency, hz

I = IOSin2πft

## Where: I = instantaneous current, A

IO = peak current, A
t = time, s
f = frequency, hz

IO = √𝟐𝐈rms

VO = √𝟐𝐕rms

## Where: VO = peak voltage, v

Vrms = effective voltage, v
Irms = effective current, A
IO = peak current, A

P = I2rmsR

Vrms = IrmsR

## Where: Vrms = effective voltage, v

Irms = effective current, A
R = resistance, Ω

Capacitive Reactance
𝟏 𝟏
𝐗𝐂 = =
𝟐𝛑𝐟𝐂 𝛚𝐂

## Where: XC = capacitive reactance, Ω

C = capacitance, F
f = frequency, hz

60
ω = angular velocity, rad/s

## Relationship between Voltage and Current in an AC Circuit

V = IXC

Where: V = voltage, v
I = current, A
XC = capacitive reactance, Ω

Inductive Reactance
XL = 2πfL = ωL

## Where: XL = inductive reactance, Ω

L = inductance, H
f = frequency, hz
ω = angular velocity, rad/s

## Relationship between Voltage and Current in an AC Circuit

V = IXL

Where: V = voltage, v
I = current, A
XL = inductive reactance, Ω

## Ohm’s Law Generalized to AC Circuits

V = IZ

Where: V = voltage, v
I = current, A
Z = impedance, Ω

## Impedance for a Series RLC Circuit

𝐙 = √𝐑𝟐 + (𝐗 𝐋 − 𝐗 𝐂 )𝟐

Where: Z = impedance, Ω
R = resistance, Ω
XL = inductive reactance, Ω
XC = capacitive reactance, Ω

𝐗𝐋 − 𝐗𝐂
𝐓𝐚𝐧𝚽 =
𝐑

## Where: φ = phase angle, o

R = resistance, Ω
XL = inductive reactance, Ω

61
XC = capacitive reactance, Ω

## Power Factor of a Series RLC Circuit

𝐑
𝐂𝐨𝐬𝚽 =
𝐙

Where: Z = impedance, Ω
R = resistance, Ω
Φ = phase angle, o

## Power in Terms of Power Factor

𝐏 = 𝐈𝐕𝐂𝐨𝐬𝚽 = 𝐈𝟐 𝐙𝐂𝐨𝐬𝚽

## Where: P = power, watts

I = current, A
V = voltage, v
Cosφ = power factor
Z = impedance, Ω

𝟏
𝒇𝒐 = 𝟐𝝅√𝑳𝑪

## Where: fo = resonance frequency, hz

L = inductance, H
C = capacitance, F

Example 1: A lamp with a 60watt bulb is plugged into a 120 V outlet. (a) What are the
Irms and peak currents through the lamp? (b) What is the resistance of the bulb? (Neglect
the resistance of the wiring.)

Given: Required:
P = 60watts Irms
V= 120v Ipeak

Solution:
P 60 V 120
A) Irms = = = 0.5𝐴 B) R = = = 240Ω
V 120 I 0.5

## Ipeak = √2 Irms = √2 (0.5A) = 0.71A

Example 2: A 15.0 micro farad capacitor is connected to a 120V, 60Herts source. What
are (a). The capacitive reactance and (b). The current (rms and peak) in the circuit?

Given: Required:
C = 15μF = 15x10−6 F Irms
V = 120v Ipeak

62
F = 60hz

Solution:
1 1
a. xc = = = 176.84Ω
2πfc 2𝜋(60)(15𝑥10−6 𝐹)
V 120
𝑏. Irms = = = 0.68A
Xc 176.84
Ipeak = √2 Irms = √2(0.68) = 0.96A

Example 3: A 125-mH inductor is connected to a 120-volt, 60-Hertz source. What are (a)
the inductive reactance? And (b) rms current in the circuit?

Given: Required:
L = 125mH = 125x10−3H XL
V = 120v Irms
f = 60Hz

Solution:
𝑎. XL = 2πfL = 2π (60) (125x10−3 ) = 47.12Ω

b. V = XL Irms
120 = 47.12 Irms
Irms = 2.55A

Example 4: A series RC circuit has a resistance of 100 ohm and a capacitance of 15.0
micro farad. (a). what is the (rms current) in the circuit when driven by a 120 volt 60-H
source? (b) Compute the (rms) voltage across each circuits element and the two element
combined. Compare it to that of the voltage source. Is Kirchoff’s loop theorem satisfied?

Given: Required:
R = 100Ω Irms
C = 15 Uf = 15x10-6 F
V = 120 V
f = 60 Hz

Solution:

1 1
Xc = = = 176.84Ω
2πfc 2π(60)(15X10−6 )

## Z = √1002 + 176.842 = 203.16 Ω

63
V 120
Irms = = = 0.59 A
Z 203.16

## VR = IR = 0.59 (100) = 59V

VC = IXC = 0.59 (176.84) = 104.34
163.34 ≠ 120

## Example 5: A series RLC circuit has a resistance of 25.0 ohm, capacitance of 50

microfarad, in an inductance of 0.300 H. if the circuit is driven by a 120-volt, 60-hz
source, what are (a) the impedance of the circuit (b) the current in the circuit, and (c) the
phase angle between the current and the voltage. (d) How much power is dissipated in the
circuit?

Given: Required:
R = 25 Ω Z
C = 50 uF = 50×10-6 F I
L = 0.3 H Ø
V = 120 V P
f = 60 hz

Solution:

1
Xc = = 53.05 Ω
2π(60)(50X10−6 )

## Z = √252 + (113.1 − 53.05)2 = 65.05 Ω

120
Irms = = 1.84 A
65.05

XL − 𝑋𝐶 113.1-53.05
TanØ = =
𝑅 25
Ø = 67.40°

## P = IV cos Ø = 1.84 (120)cos 67.40 = 84.85 W

64
Example 6: A series RCL circuit has a resistance of 50.0 ohms, capacitance of 6
nanofarad, and an inductance of 28 mH. The circuit is corrupted to a wide range
adjustable frequency – voltage source with an output of 25 volts. (a) What is the
resonance frequency of the circuit? (b) How much current is in the circuit when it is
resonance? (c) What is the voltage across each circuit element for this condition?
Given: Required:
R = 50 Ω f
C = 6nF = 6×10-9 F Z
L = 28m H VR
V = 120 V

Solution:
1 1
f = = = 12,279.07 hz
2π√LC 2π√28 × 10−3 (6.0 × 10−9 )

## Z = √R2 + (×L −×C )2

×L = ×C

Z= R = 50 Ω

V
𝐼=Z = 25
50
= 0.5 A

VR = IR = 0.5 (50) = 25 V
VC = VL

## VC =VL = XL(I) = 2160.25 x 0.5 = 1080.12v

65
Chapter 8: Geometrical Optics: Reflection and Refraction of
Light
Important Terms:
Wave Front = It is a line or surface defined by adjacent portions of a wave that are in
phase.

Plane wave front = The curvature of a short segment of a circular or spherical wave
front is small. Such a segment might be approximated as a linear wave front in two
dimensions or a plane wave front.

Ray = A line drawn perpendicular to a series of wave fronts and pointing in the direction
of propagation.

Geometrical optics = The use of the geometrical representations of wave fronts and rays
to explain phenomena.

## Reflection = It involves the absorption and re-mission of light by means of complex

electromagnetic vibrations in the atoms of the reflecting medium.

Angle of incidence = It is the angle between a ray incident on a surface and the line
perpendicular to the reflecting surface.

Angle of reflection = It is the angle measured from the reflected ray to the surface
normal.

## Law of Reflection = It defines the relationship of angle of reflection and incidence.

Regular (Specular) Reflection = When the reflecting surface is smooth, the reflected
rays of a beam of light are parallel.

Irregular (Diffuse) Reflection = If the reflecting surface is rough, the light rays are
reflected in non parallel direction because of the irregular nature of the surface.

Refraction = It is the change in direction of a wave at a boundary where the wave passes
from one medium into another.

## Huygens Principle = Every point on an advancing wave front can be considered to be a

source of secondary waves, or wavelets, and the line or surface tangent to all these
wavelets defines a new position of the wavefront.

## Angle of Refraction = The change in the direction of wave propagation.

Index of Refraction = It is the relationship between the speed of light in a vacuum and
the speed of light in a medium.
66
Critical Angle = It is the limit for a certain angle of incidence.

Total Internal Reflection = It is an optical phenomenon that occurs when a ray of light
strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than the critical angle with respect to the
normal to the surface.

transmit light.

## Dispersion = It is a transparent material with different indices of refraction for different

wavelengths of light, in refracting there is a separation of the wavelengths.

## Indices of Refraction of some substances

Substance n
Air 1.00029
Water 1.33
Ethyl Alcohol 1.36
Fused Quartz 1.46
Glycerine 1.47
Polystyrene 1.49
Oil (typical value) 1.50
Glass (by type) 1.45-1.70
Crown 1.52
Flint 1.66
Zircon 1.92
Diamond 2.42

Important Equations:
Law of Reflection
θi = θr

## Where: θi = angle of incidence

Θr = angle of reflection

Snell’s Law
𝐒𝐢𝐧 𝛉𝟏 𝐯𝟏
=
𝐒𝐢𝐧 𝛉𝟐 𝐯𝟐

𝐧𝟏 𝐒𝐢𝐧 𝛉𝟏 = 𝐧𝟐 𝐒𝐢𝐧 𝛉𝟐

## Where: v = velocity, m/s

n = index of refraction

67
Index of Refraction
𝐜 𝛌
𝐧= =
𝐯 𝛌𝐦

## Where: n = index of refraction

c = speed of light, 3.0 x 108m/s
v = velocity, m/s

𝐧𝟐
𝐒𝐢𝐧𝛉𝐂 =
𝐧𝟏

𝟏
𝐒𝐢𝐧𝛉𝐂 =
𝐧

## Example 1: What is the speed of light in water?

Given:
n = 1.33 Required:
c = 3.0x108m/s v =?

Solution:
3.0x108
𝑣= = 2.26x108 𝑚/𝑠
1.33

Example 2: Light in air is incident on a piece of crown glass at angle of 37.00 (relative to
the normal). What is the angle of reflection of the glass?

Given:
𝑛𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 1.00
𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑠 = 1.52
𝜃𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 37.00°

Required”
𝜃𝑔𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑠 =?

Solution:
𝑛1 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃1 = 𝑛2 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃2
1.00𝑆𝑖𝑛37 = 1.52𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃2
𝜃2 = 23.33°

68
Example 3: A beam of light traveling in air strikes the plate-glass top of a coffee table at
an angle of incidence of 45.00 the glass has an n= 1.5 a.) What is the angle of refraction
for the light transmitted into the glass? b.) if the glass plate is 2.0 cm thick, what is the
lateral distance between the point where they enters the glass---x in the figure? c.) prove
that the emergent beam is parallel to the incident beam, that is θ4= θ2

Given:
𝑛𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 1.00
𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑠 = 1.5
𝜃𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 45.00°
thickness = 2cm

Required”
𝜃𝑔𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑠 =?
X=?
𝜃1 = 𝜃4 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑣𝑒

Solution:
𝑎. 𝑛1 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃1 = 𝑛2 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃2
𝑛1 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃1 1𝑆𝑖𝑛45
𝜃2 = 𝑆𝑖𝑛−1 [ ] = 𝑆𝑖𝑛−1 [ ] = 28.13°
𝑛2 1.5
𝑦
𝑏. 𝑇𝑎𝑛𝜃2 =
𝑥
2
𝑇𝑎𝑛28.13° =
𝑥
2
𝑥= = 3.74𝑐𝑚
𝑇𝑎𝑛28.13°

## 𝑐. 𝑛1 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃1 = 𝑛2 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃2 = 𝑛4 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃4

1.0𝑆𝑖𝑛45 = 1.5𝑆𝑖𝑛28.13° = 1𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃4
𝜃4 = 45°

Example 4: What is the critical angle for light traveling in water and incident on a water-
air boundary? (b)if a diver submerged in a poll looked up at the water surface at an angle
of θ< θc what would see?(Neglect ant thermal or motional in the water).

Given:
𝑛𝑎𝑖𝑟 = 1.00 Required:
𝑛𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 1.33 𝜃𝑐 =?

Solution:
𝑛1
𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃𝑐 =
𝑛2
𝑛1 1
𝜃𝑐 = 𝑆𝑖𝑛−1 [ ] = 𝑆𝑖𝑛−1 [ ] = 48.75°
𝑛2 1.33

69
Example 5: The index of refraction of a particular transparent material is 1.4053 for the
red end (λ= 700nm) of the visible spectrum and 1.4698 for the blue end ( λ= 400nm). If
white light is incident on a prism of this material at an angle of 45.00, what is the angular
dispersion of the visible spectrum inside the prism?

Given:
Red End Blue End
𝑛1 = 1.00 𝑛1 = 1.00
𝜃1 = 45° 𝜃1 = 45°
𝑛2 = 1.4053 𝑛2 = 1.4698

Required:
𝜃2 =?

Solution:
𝑎. 𝑛1 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃1 = 𝑛2 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃2
1𝑆𝑖𝑛45 = 1.4053𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃2
1𝑆𝑖𝑛45
𝜃2 = 𝑆𝑖𝑛−1 [ ] = 29.18°
1.4053

𝑏. 𝑛1 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃1 = 𝑛2 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃2
1𝑆𝑖𝑛45 = 1.4698𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃2
1𝑆𝑖𝑛45
𝜃2 = 𝑆𝑖𝑛−1 [ ] = 28.76°
1.4698

70
Chapter 9: Mirrors and Lenses
Important Terms:
Mirrors = Are smooth reflecting surfaces: usually made of polished metal or glass that
has been coated with some metallic substances.

## Image = It is the visual counterpart of an object produced by reflection (mirrors),

refraction (lenses), or the passage of rays through a small hole.

## Real image = Image through which light actually passes.

Lateral Magnification = It refers to the comparison between the size of the image to its
object.

## Convex mirror = It is the outside reflections.

Optic axis = It is the radial line through the center of the spherical mirror and it intersects
the mirror surface at the vertex of the spherical section.

Center of curvature (c) = It is the point on the optic axis that corresponds to the center
of the sphere of which the mirror forms a section.

Radius of curvature (r) = It is the distance between the vertex and the center of
curvature is equal to the radius of the sphere.

Converging mirror = It is a concave mirror which is a result when rays parallel to the
optic axis are incident on a concave mirror, the reflected rays intersect, or converge, at a
common point called, the focal point.

Diverging Mirrors = It is the incident parallel rays emerge from the lens as though they
emanated from a focal point on the incident side of the lens.

Focal Point = When rays parallel to the optic axis are incident on a concave mirror, the
reflected rays intersect, or converge at a common point.

Focal length = It is the distance from the vertex to the focal point of the spherical mirror.

71
Parallel ray = It is a ray that is incident along a path parallel to the optic axis and is
reflected through the focal point.

Chief ray or radial ray = It is a ray that is incident through the center of curvature (c) of
the mirror. Since the chief ray is incident normal to the mirrors surface, this ray is
reflected back along its path, through point c.

Mirror Focal ray = It is a ray that passes through the focal point and is reflected parallel
to the optic axis.

Spherical mirror equation = It is the distance and focal length can be shown to be
related.

## Magnification factor =It is magnification equation for a spherical mirror

Spherical aberration = It is incident parallel rays from the optic do not converge at the
focal point. The farther the incident ray is from the axis, the more the more

Lens = It comes from the Latin word for lentil, a seed whose shape is similar to that of a
common lens.

Optical lens = It is made from some transparent material. One of both surfaces usually
has a spherical contour.

Biconvex lens = It is a converging lens where incident light rays parallel to the lens axis
converge at a focal point on the opposite side of the lens.

## Biconcave lens = It can be approximated by two prisms placed point to point.

Diverging lens = It is the incident rays emerge from the lens as though they emanated
from a focal point on the incident side of the lens.

## Diverging lenses = It is thinner at its center than periphery.

Parallel ray = It is a ray that is parallel to the lens axis on incidence and that after
refraction either (a) passes through the focal point on the image side of a converging lens
or (b) appears to diverge from the focal point of an object side of a diverging lens.

Chief ray or Central ray(for lenses) = It is a ray that passes through the center of the
lens and is undeviated.

72
Lens Focal Ray = It is a ray that passes through the focal point on the object side of a
converging lens or appears to pass through the focal point on the image side of a
diverging lens and after refraction is parallel to the lens axis.

Lens Spherical Aberration = It is an effect that occurs when parallel rays passing
through different region of a lens do not come together on a common focal plane.

Circle of least confusion = It is the place where the transmitted light beam has the
smallest cross section.

Chromatic aberration = It is an effect that occurs because the index of refraction of the
material making up a lens is not the same for all wavelengths.

Astigmatism = It is the rays centering along the major and minor axis of the ellipse than
focus at different points after passing through the lens.

Lens Maker’s Equation = Properties which are related to the focal length of a thin lens
which gives the focal length of a thin lens in air.

## Diopters = The unit used by

Magnification Factor
𝐡𝐢
𝐌=
𝐡𝐨

## Where: M = magnification factor

hi = height of image
ho = height of object

𝐑
𝐟=
𝟐

## Where: f = focal length, m

R = radius of curvature, m

𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 𝟐
+ = =
𝐝𝐨 𝐝𝐢 𝐟 𝐑

𝒅𝒐 𝒇
𝒅𝒊 =
𝒅𝒐 − 𝒇

## Where: do = object distance

di = image distance
f = focal length

73
r = radius of curvature

𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
+ =
𝐝𝐨 𝐝𝐢 𝐟

𝒅𝒐 𝒇
𝒅𝒊 =
𝒅𝒐 − 𝒇

## Where: do = object distance

di = image distance
f = focal length

𝐝𝐢
𝐌=
𝐝𝐨

## Where: M = magnification factor

hi = height of image
ho = height of object

Mtotal = M1M2

## Where: Mtotal = total magnification

M = magnification factor

𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
= (𝐧 − 𝟏) ( − )
𝐟 𝐑𝟏 𝐑𝟐

## Where: f = focal length

n = index of refraction
R = radius of curvature

𝟏
𝑷=
𝒇

## Where: P = lens power

f = focal length

74
Sign convention for spherical mirrors

Focal length
Concave (converging) mirror : +f (or +R)
Convex (diverging ) mirror : -f ( or –R )
Object distance do ( same for both convex and concave mirror )
+do when the object is in front of the object ( real object )
-di when the object is behind of the object ( virtual image)
Image distance (do)
+di when the image is formed in front of the mirror
-di when the image is formed behind the mirror
image orientation M ( same for both mirrors )
+M when the image is upright with respect to the object
-M when the image is inverted with respect to the object

## Sign Convention for Thin Lenses

Focal length
Converging lens (sometimes called a positive lens): +f
Diverging lens (sometimes called a negative lens); -f

## Object distance (do)

+do when the object is in front of the object ( real object )
-do when the object is behind of the object ( virtual image )

## Image distance (do)

+di when the image is formed on the opposite (image) side
of the lens from the object (real image)
-di when the image is formed on the same (object) side of
the lens as the object (virtual image)

Image orientation M
+M when the image is upright with respect to the object
-M when the image is inverted with respect to the object

75
Example 1: What is the minimum vertical length of a plane mirror needed for a person to
be able to see a complete (head to toe) image?

ℎ1 ℎ2 ℎ1 + ℎ2 ℎ
𝐿= + = =
2 2 2 2

## Example 2: A concave mirror has a radius of curvature of 30 cm. If an object is placed

(a) 45 cm, (b) 20 cm, and (c) 10 cm from the mirror, where is the image formed and what
are its characteristics?

Given:
R= 30
𝑎. 𝑑𝑜 = 45
𝑏. 𝑑𝑜 = 20
𝑐. 𝑑𝑜 = 10

Required:
𝑑𝑖 =? & 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑠

Solution:
𝑅 30
𝑓= = = 15
2 2
1 1 1
𝑎. = +
𝑓 𝑑𝑜 𝑑𝑖
1 1 1
= +
15 45 𝑑𝑖
1 1 1
= −
𝑑𝑖 15 45
𝑑𝑖 = 22.5 (𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑙)

−𝑑𝑖 −22.5
𝑀= = = −0.5(𝑖𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑑, 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑟)
𝑑𝑜 45

1 1 1
𝑏. = +
𝑓 𝑑𝑜 𝑑𝑖
1 1 1
= +
15 20 𝑑𝑖
1 1 1
= −
𝑑𝑖 15 20
𝑑𝑖 = 60 (𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑙)

−𝑑𝑖 −60
𝑀= = = −3(𝑖𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑑, 𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔𝑒𝑟)
𝑑𝑜 20

76
1 1 1
𝑐. = +
𝑓 𝑑𝑜 𝑑𝑖
1 1 1
= +
15 10 𝑑𝑖
1 1 1
= −
𝑑𝑖 15 10
𝑑𝑖 = −30 (𝑣𝑖𝑟𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙)

−𝑑𝑖 −(−30)
𝑀= = = 3(𝑢𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡, 𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔𝑒𝑟)
𝑑𝑜 10

## Example 3: An object is 30 cm in front of a diverging mirror that has a focal length of 10

cm. Where the image, and what is are its characteristics?

Given:
𝑑𝑜 = 30
𝑓 = 10

Required:
𝑑𝑖 =? & 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑠

Solution:
1 1 1
= +
𝑓 𝑑𝑜 𝑑𝑖
−1 1 1
= +
30 10 𝑑𝑖
1 −1 1
= −
𝑑𝑖 30 10
𝑑𝑖 = −7.5 (𝑣𝑖𝑟𝑡𝑢𝑎𝑙)

−𝑑𝑖 −(−7.5)
𝑀= = = 0.25(𝑢𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡, 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑟)
𝑑𝑜 30

Example 4: Where is the image formed by a concave mirror if the object is at infinity?

1 1 1
= +
𝑓 𝑑𝑜 𝑑𝑖
1 1 1
= +
𝑓 ∞ 𝑑𝑖
1 1
=
𝑓 𝑑𝑖
𝑑𝑖 = 𝑓

77
Example 5: As the object distance of a biconvex lens is varied, at what point does the
real image go from being reduced to being magnified.

1 1 1
= +
𝑓 𝑑𝑜 𝑑𝑖
1 1 1
= +
𝑓 2𝑓 𝑑𝑖
1 1 1 1
= − =
𝑑𝑖 𝑓 2𝑓 2𝑓
𝑑𝑖 = 2𝑓 = 𝑑𝑜

−𝑑𝑖 −2𝑓
𝑀= = = −1(𝑖𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑑, 𝑠𝑎𝑚𝑒 𝑠𝑖𝑧𝑒)
𝑑𝑜 2𝑓

Example 6: Suppose the object is 20 cm in front of the lens L1, which has a focal length
of 15 cm, is 26 cm from L2. What is the location of the final image, and what are its
characteristics?

Given:
𝑑𝑜 = 20𝑐𝑚 𝑓𝑟𝑜 𝐿1 Required:
𝑓 = 15 𝑑𝑖 =? & 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑠
𝑑𝑜 = 26

Solution
1 1 1
= +
𝑓1 𝑑𝑜1 𝑑𝑖1
1 1 1
= +
15 20 𝑑𝑖1
1 1 1
= −
𝑑𝑖1 15 20
𝑑𝑖1 = 60𝑐𝑚 (𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑙)
−𝑑𝑖1 −60
𝑀= = = −3( 𝑖𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑑, 𝑚𝑎𝑔𝑛𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑑)
𝑑𝑜1 20

1 1 1
= +
𝑓2 𝑑𝑜2 𝑑𝑖2
1 1 1
= +
12 −34 𝑑𝑖2
1 1 1
= +
𝑑𝑖2 12 34
𝑑𝑖1 = 8.87𝑐𝑚 (𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑙)
−𝑑𝑖2 −8.87
𝑀= = = 0.26( 𝑢𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡, 𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑟)
𝑑𝑜2 −34

## 𝑀𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑀1 𝑀2 = −3(0.26) = −0.78

78
Name:
Course/Year/Section:
Assignment No.:

1. A biconvex lens has a focal length of 12cm. Where the image formed, and what are its
characteristics for an object (a) 18cm and (b) 4cm from the lens?

79
Chapter 10: Physical Optics: The Wave Nature of Light
Important Terms:
Physical Optics = Physical optics or wave optics, takes into account those wave
properties that geometrical optics ignores. The wave theory of light leads to satisfactory
explanations of those phenomena that cannot be analyzed with rays.

Young’s Double Slit Experiment = Young’s-the first method that uses interference in
demonstrating the wave nature of light.

## Thin-Film Thickness = It is a result of the interference of light reflected from opposite

surfaces of the film and may be readily understood in terms of wave interference.

Optical Flats = It is used to check the smoothness of a reflecting surface. The flat is
placed so that there is an air wedge between it and the surface.

Newton’s Rings = It is the regular interference pattern in an optical flat that produces a
set of concentric bright and dark circular fringes.

Diffraction = It is the deviation of light. It generally occurs when waves pass through
small openings or around sharp edges or corners.

slits.

## Polarization = Refers to the orientation of the transverse wave oscillations.

Polarizing (Brewster) Angle = It is the incident angle at which this polarization occurs.

## Dichroism = It is an interesting property where in a birefringent crystal absorbs one of

the polarized components more than the other.

## Transmission Axis = It is the direction perpendicular to the orientation of the molecular

chains.

Optical Activity = The ability of a material to rotate the direction of a plane polarized
light.

Scattering = The process when light is incident on a suspension of particle, such as the
molecules of the air; some of the light may be absorbed and radiated.

80
Rayleigh Scattering = It is a relationship between the scattering being inversely
proportional to the wavelength to the 4th power (that is, S=1/λ4).

## LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) = It is a twisted-nematic display that is an application

involving the optical activity of a liquid crustal and crossed polarizers. When the
crystalline order is disoriented from an electric field applied voltage, the liquid crystal is
optically active in that region, and the light is not transmitted and reflected.

Important Equations:
Bright Fringe Condition (double slit interference)
dSinθ = nλ

n = order number
λ = wavelength

## Wavelength Measurement ( double slit interference for small θ only)

𝐲𝐧 𝐝
𝛌 ≈
𝐧𝐋

Where: λ = wavelength
yn = distance of the nth bright fringe
d = distance between the slits
n = order number
L = distance from the slit to the point

## Nonreflecting Film Thickness (minimum)

𝛌
𝐭= 𝐟𝐨𝐫 𝐧𝟐 > 𝑛1
𝟒𝐧

Where: t = thickness
n = order number
λ = wavelength

wSinθ = mλ

λ = wavelength

## Lateral Displacement of Dark Fringes (single slit diffraction)

𝐦𝐋𝛌
𝐲𝐦 = 𝐟𝐨𝐫 𝐦 = 𝟏, 𝟐, 𝟑
𝐰

81
Where: ym = maximum distance
L = distance from the slit to the point
λ = wavelength
w = slit width

## Interference Maxima for a Diffraction Grating

dSinθ = nλ for n= 0, 1, 2, 3

## Where: d = 1/N, distance

N = lines per unit length
n = order number
λ = wavelength

𝒅
𝒏 ≤
𝝀

d =distance
λ = wavelength

## Brewster (polarizing) Angle

Tanθp = n
Where: n = order number

Example 1: In a lab experiment, monochromatic light passes trough two narrow slits that
are 0.050mm apart. The interference pattern is observed on a white wall 1.0 m from the
slits. And the second-order fringe is 2.4 cm from the center of the central maximum (a)
what is the wavelength of the light? (b) what is the distance between the second-order
and the third order bright fringe?

Giiven:
𝑑 = 0.05𝑚𝑚 = 0.00005𝑚 Required:
𝐿 = 1𝑚 𝜆 =?
𝑦2 = 2.4𝑐𝑚 = 0.024 𝑦3 − 𝑦2 =?
𝑛=2

Solution:
𝑦𝑛 𝑑 0.024(0.00005)
𝑎. 𝜆 = = = 6.0𝑥10−7 𝑚 = 600𝑛𝑚
𝑛𝐿 2(1)

𝜆𝑛 𝐿 𝜆𝑛 𝐿 𝜆𝐿 600𝑛𝑚(1000𝑚𝑚)
𝑏. 𝑦3 − 𝑦2 = − = (𝑛 + 1 − 𝑛) = = 1.2𝑐𝑚
𝑑 𝑑 𝑑 0.05𝑚𝑚

82
Example 2:A glass lens (n=1.60) is coated with a thin, transparent film of a magnesium
fluoride (Mgf2, n = 1.38) to make the lens non-reflecting. What is the minimum film
thickness for the lens to be non-reflecting for incident light of wavelength 550 nm?

Given:
𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑎𝑠𝑠 = 1.60
𝑛𝑀𝑔𝐹2 = 1.38
𝜆 = 550𝑛𝑚

Required:
𝑡 =?

Solution:
𝜆 550𝑛𝑚
𝑡= = = 99.64𝑛𝑚
4𝑛 4(1.38)

Example 3: Monochromatic blue light (λ = 425 nm) passes through a slit whose width is
0.50 mm. What is the width of the central maximum on a screen located 1.0 m from the
slit?

Given:
𝜆 = 425𝑛𝑚
𝑤 = 0.50𝑚𝑚
𝐿 = 1.0𝑚

Required:
2𝑦 =?

Solution:
𝑚𝐿𝜆 2(1.0𝑚)(425𝑛𝑚)
2𝑦 = = = 1.7𝑚𝑚
𝑤 0.5𝑥10−3 𝑚

## Example 4: A particular diffraction grating produces an n = 2 spectral order at a

deviation angle of 30º for a light with wavelength of 700 nm. (a) How many lines per
centimeter does the grating have? (b) If the grating were illuminated with white light,
how many orders of the complete visible spectrum would be produced?

Given:
𝑛 = 2
𝜃 = 30°
𝜆 = 700𝑛𝑚

Required:
𝑁 =?
𝜆=

83
Solution:
𝑛𝜆 2(500𝑛𝑚)
𝑎. 𝑑 = = = 2000𝑛𝑚 = 2𝑥10−6 𝑚 = 2𝑥10−4 𝑐𝑚
𝑆𝑖𝑛𝜃 𝑆𝑖𝑛30
1 1
𝑁 = = = 5000 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑠⁄𝑐𝑚
𝑑 2𝑥10−4 𝑐𝑚

𝑑 2.00𝑥10−6 𝑚
𝑏. 𝑛 ≤ = = 2.86
𝜆 700𝑥10−9 𝑚

2.00𝑥10−6 𝑚
𝜆= = 6.6710−7 𝑚 𝑜𝑟 667𝑛𝑚
3

Example 5: Sunlight is reflected from the smooth surface of a pond. What is the Sun’s
altitude when the polarization of the reflected light is greatest?

Given:
𝑛 = 1.33

Required:
𝜃 =?

Solution:

𝜃 = 90 − 𝜃𝑝

## 𝜃𝑝 = 𝑇𝑎𝑛−1 𝑛 = 𝑇𝑎𝑛−1 (1.33) = 53.06°

𝜃 = 90 − 53.06 = 36.94°

Example 6: How much more is light at the blue end of the visible spectrum scattered by
air molecules than is light at the red end?

Given:
𝜆𝑟𝑒𝑑 = 700𝑛𝑚
𝜆𝑏𝑙𝑢𝑒 = 400𝑛𝑚

Required:
𝑆𝑏𝑙𝑢𝑒
=?
𝑆𝑟𝑒𝑑

Solution:
𝑆𝑏𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝜆𝑟𝑒𝑑 4 700𝑛𝑚 4
=( ) =( ) = 9.38
𝑆𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝜆𝑏𝑙𝑢𝑒 400𝑛𝑚

84
Chapter 11: Optical Instruments
Important Terms:
Vitreous Humor = A jellylike substance that fill the eyeball.

## Sclera = The white covering of the eyeball.

Cornea = It is where the light enter the eye through a curved, transparent tissue.

## Pupil = Central hole.

Retina = It is located on the back interior wall of the eye ball is a light sensitive surface.

## Rods = Are more sensitive to light than the cones.

Cones = Can distinguish frequency changes of sufficiently intense light witch the brain
interprets the color.

Nearsightedness = It is the ability to see distance object clearly but not distant object.

Farsightedness = It is the ability to see distant objects clearly but not nearby object.

## Astigmatism = It is another common defect of vision in which the refractive surface,

usually the cornea or crystalline lens, being out of round.

Magnifying Glass = It is a instrument witch single convex lens forms a clear image of an
object that is closer than the near point.

## Angular Magnification = It is symbolized m and it is a nation of the angular size of the

object viewed though the magnifying glass.

Compound Microscope = Provides greater magnification than is attained with the single
lens or simple microscope.

Objective = It is the converging lens with a relatively short focal length (fo < 1cm).

Eyepiece = It has a longer focal length and is positioned so that the image formed by that
the image formed by the objective falls just inside its focal length.

## Refracting Telescope = Principle of which is similar to that of a compound microscope.

85
Astronomical Telescope = Form a distant object from a intermediate image at the focal
point of objective (fo).

## Terrestrial Telescope = Utilizing a large, concave, front surface parabolic mirror.

Reflecting Telescope = A type of telescope that utilizes a large, concave, front surfaced
parabolic mirror.

Resolution = Of two diffracted images that are to ability to distinguish both image as
separate.

Rayleigh Criterion = Can be express in terms of the angular separation (θ) of the
sources the first maximum (m=1) for a single slit diffraction patterns satisfies this
relationship.

Resolving Power = This minimum distance between two points whose image can be just
resolved.

Additive Primary Colors = The red, blue and green from which we interpret a full
spectrum of colors.

Additive Method of Color of Production = When light beams of the additive primaries
are projected on a white screen so they overlap, other color will be produce.

Complementary Colors = Color of such pair that appear white to an eye when
combined.

## Subtractive Method of Color Production = Mixing the pigments results in the

subtraction of colors.

Subtractive Primary Pigments = Cyan, magenta, and yellow which produce the three
additive primary colors.

Important Equations:
Angular Magnification
𝛉
𝐦=
𝛉𝐨

𝟐𝟓𝐜𝐦
𝐦=𝟏+
𝐟

86
f = focal length

𝟐𝟓𝐜𝐦
𝐦=
𝐟

f = focal length

(𝟐𝟓𝐜𝐦)𝐋
𝐦𝐭𝐨𝐭𝐚𝐥 = 𝐌𝐨 𝐦𝐞 =
𝐟𝐨 𝐟𝐞

## Where: mtotal = angular magnification of a compound lens

Mo = angular magnification of the objective
me = angular magnification of the eyepiece
fo = focal length of the objective
fe = focal length of the eyepiece

𝐟𝐨
𝐦= −
𝐟𝐞

## Where: m = angular magnification

fo = focal length of the objective
fe = focal length of the eyepiece

## Minimum Angle of Resolution for a Slit

𝛌
𝛉𝐦𝐢𝐧 =
𝐝

Where: λ = wavelength
d = distance

## Minimum Angle of Resolution for a Circular Aperture (diameter)

𝟏. 𝟐𝟐𝛌
𝛉𝐦𝐢𝐧 =
𝐃

Where: λ = wavelength
D = diameter

Resolving Power
𝟏. 𝟐𝟐𝛌𝐟
𝐬 = 𝐟𝛉𝐦𝐢𝐧 =
𝐃

## Where: s = resolving power

87
F = focal length
D = diameter
λ = wavelength

Example 1: A certain near sighted person cannot see objects clearly when when they are
more than 78 cm from either eye. What power must corrective lens have if this person is
to see distant objects clearly? Assume that the lenses are in eyeglasses and are 3.0 cm in
front of the eye.

Given:
𝑑𝑖 = 78𝑐𝑚
𝑑 = 3𝑐𝑚

Required:
𝑃 =?

Solution:
1 1 1
𝑎. = +
𝑓 𝑑𝑖 𝑑𝑜
1 1 1
= +
𝑓 𝑑𝑖 ∞
1 −1
=
𝑓 75
𝑓 = −75𝑐𝑚

1 −1
𝑃 = = = −1.33𝐷𝑖𝑜𝑝𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠(𝐷)
𝑓 0.75

Example 2: A farsighted person has a near point of 75cm for one eye and a near point of
100cm for the other. What powers should contact lenses have to allow the person to see
an object clearly at a distance of 25cm?

Given:
𝑑𝑖1 = −75𝑐𝑚 = −0.75𝑚 Required:
𝑑𝑖2 = −100𝑐𝑚 = −1𝑚 𝑃 =?
𝑑𝑜 = 25𝑐𝑚 = 0.25𝑚

Solution:
1 1 1 −1 1
𝑃1 = = + = + = 2.67𝐷
𝑓1 𝑑𝑖1 𝑑𝑜 0.75 0.25

1 1 1 −1 1
𝑃2 = = + = + = 3𝐷
𝑓2 𝑑𝑖2 𝑑𝑜 1 0.25

88
Example 3: Sherlock Holmes uses a converging lens with a focal length of 12cm to
examine the fine detail of some cloth fibers found at the scene of crime.(a) what is the
maximum magnification given by the lens?(b) what is the magnification by relaxed eye
viewing?

Given:
𝑓 = 12

Required:
𝑎. 𝑀𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑠 =?
𝑏. 𝑀𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑥𝑒𝑑 𝑒𝑦𝑒𝑠 =?

Solution:
25 25
𝑎. 𝑀𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑠 = 1 + = 1+ = 3.08
𝑓 12

25 25
𝑏. 𝑀𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑎𝑥𝑒𝑑 𝑒𝑦𝑒𝑠 = = = 2.08
𝑓 12

## Example 4: A microscope has an object w/ focal length of10mm and an eyepiece w/ a

focal length of 4.0cm the lenses are positioned 20cm apart in the barrel. Determine the
approximate total magnification of microscope.

Given:
𝑓𝑜 = 10𝑚𝑚 = 1𝑐𝑚
𝑓 = 4𝑐𝑚
𝐿 = 20𝑐𝑚

Required:
𝑀𝑡𝑜𝑡 = ?

Solution:
(25𝑐𝑚)𝐿 (25𝑐𝑚)(20𝑐𝑚)
𝑀𝑡𝑜𝑡 = = = 125𝑥
𝑓𝑜 𝑓 (1𝑐𝑚)(4𝑐𝑚)

## Example 5: An astronomical telescope has an objective lens with focal length of

30cmand eyepiece with a focal length 9.0cm a. what is the magnification of the
telescope? b. if an erecting lens have a focal length of 7.5cm is use to convert the
telescope to a terrestrial type, what is the overall length of the telescope tube?

Given:
𝑓𝑜 = 30𝑐𝑚
𝑓𝑒 = 9𝑐𝑚
𝑓𝑖 = 7.5𝑐𝑚

89
Required:
𝑎. 𝑀 = ?
𝑏. 𝐿 = ?

Solution
−𝑓𝑜 30
𝑎. 𝑀 = =− = −3.33𝑋
𝑓𝑒 9

𝑏. 𝐿1 = 𝑓𝑜 + 𝑓𝑒 = 30 + 9 = 39𝑐𝑚

## 𝐿 = 𝐿1 + 𝐿2 = 𝐿1 + 4𝑓𝑖 = 39 + 4(7.5) = 69𝑐𝑚

Example 6: Determine the maximum angle of resolution by Rayleigh Criterion (a) the
pupil of eye (day time diameter of about 4.0mm) (b) the Yerkes observatory refracting
telescope (diameter of 102cm) both a. and b. for visible light with a wavelength of 660nm
and (c) a radio telescope 25m for radiation with a wave length of 21cm.

Given:
𝐷𝑒𝑦𝑒 = 4𝑚𝑚 = 4𝑥10−3 𝑚
𝜆 = 660𝑥10−9 𝑚
𝐷𝑌𝑒𝑟𝑘𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑏𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑣𝑎𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑦 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑐𝑜𝑝𝑒 = 102𝑐𝑚 = 1.02𝑚
𝐷𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑜 𝑡𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑠𝑐𝑜𝑝𝑒 = 25𝑚
𝐿 = 21𝑐𝑚 = 0.21𝑚

Required:
𝜃𝑚𝑖𝑛 =?

Solution:
1.22𝜆 1.22(660𝑥10−9 𝑚)
𝑎. 𝜃𝑚𝑖𝑛 = = = 2.01𝑥10−4 𝑟𝑎𝑑
𝐷 4𝑥10−3 𝑚

1.22𝜆 1.22(660𝑥10−9 𝑚)
𝑏. 𝜃𝑚𝑖𝑛 = = = 7.89𝑥10−7 𝑟𝑎𝑑
𝐷 1.02𝑚

1.22𝜆 1.22(0.21𝑚)
𝑐. 𝜃𝑚𝑖𝑛 = = = 0.0102𝑟𝑎𝑑
𝐷 25𝑚

90
Chapter 12: Temperature
Important Terms:
Temperature = A relative measure or indication of hotness or coldness

Heat =The net energy transferred from one object to another because of a temperature
difference

Internal Energy = The energy becomes part of the total energy of the molecules of the
object or system

## Thermometer = A device constructed to make evident some property of a substance that

changes with temperature.

## Thermal Expansion =A change in the dimension or volume of a substance that occurs

when the temperature changes.

Fahrenheit Temperature Scale = The boiling point is 212o while the freezing point is
32o

Celsius Temperature Scale = The boiling point is 100o while the freezing point is 0o

## Kelvin Temperature Scale = absolute zero is the foundation.

Triple Point of Water = Represents a unique set of conditions where water co – exist
simultaneously in equilibrium as a solid, a liquid and a gas

Kinetic Theory of Gases = the molecules undergo perfectly elastic collisions with each
other and with the walls of the container.

## Diffusion = The process of random molecular mixing in which particular molecules

moves from a region where they are present in higher concentration to one where they are
in lower concentration.

## Osmosis = The diffusion of liquid water across a permeable membrane down a

concentration gradient.

## Degree of Freedom = Independent way a molecule has for possessing energy.

Equipartition Theorem = On average, the total internal energy of an ideal gas is divided
equally among each degree of freedom its molecules possess.

91
Important Equations:
Celsius – Fahrenheit Conversion
𝟗
℉ = ℃ + 𝟑𝟐
𝟓

𝟓
℃ = (℉ – 𝟑𝟐)
𝟗

Where: F = Fahrenheit
C = Celsius

𝐏𝐕 = 𝐍𝐤 𝐁 𝐓
𝐏𝟏 𝐕𝟏 𝐏𝟐 𝐕𝟐
=
𝐓𝟏 𝐓𝟐
𝐏𝐕 = 𝐧𝐑𝐓

## Where: kB = Boltzmann constant = 1.38 x 10-23J/K

R = 8.31J/(mol·K)
NA = Avogadro’s number = 6.02 x 1023 molecules/mol
P = Pressure
V = Volume
T = Temperature
N = Number of molecules
n = Number of moles

## Kelvin – Celsius Conversion

𝐊 = ℃ + 𝟐𝟕𝟑. 𝟏𝟓

Where: K = Kelvin

## Thermal Expansion of Solids

Linear: 𝐋𝐟 = 𝐋𝐨 (𝟏 + 𝛂𝚫𝐓)
Area: 𝐀 𝐟 = 𝐀 𝐨 (𝟏 + 𝟐𝛂𝚫𝐓)
Volume: 𝐕𝐟 = 𝐕𝐨 (𝟏 + 𝟑𝛂𝚫𝐓)

## Where: LF = Final length

LO = Initial length
AF = Final area
AO = Initial area
VF = Final volume
VO = Initial volume
T = Temperature
α = Coefficient of thermal expansion for solids

92
Thermal Volume Expansion of Fluids
𝚫𝐕
= 𝛃𝚫𝐓
𝐕𝐨

## Results of Kinetic Theory of Gases

𝟏
𝐩𝐕 = 𝐍𝐦𝐯𝐫𝐦𝐬 𝟐
𝟑
𝟏 𝟑
𝐦𝐯𝐫𝐦𝐬 𝟐 = 𝐤 𝐁 𝐓 (all gases)
𝟐 𝟐
𝟑 𝟑
𝐔 = 𝐍𝐤 𝐁 𝐓 = 𝐧𝐑𝐓 (ideal monatomic gases only)
𝟐 𝟐
𝟓 𝟓
𝐔 = 𝐍𝐤 𝐁 𝐓 = 𝐧𝐑𝐓 (diatomic gases)
𝟐 𝟐

Where: v = Velocity
U = Total Energy

Example 1: Convert 20oC to Fahrenheit scale and the normal body temperature and
98.6oF to the Celsius scale.

Given: 9
℉ = (20) + 32
𝑇1 = 20°C 5
𝑇2 = 𝑛𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑏𝑜𝑑𝑦 𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑝 = 37°𝐶 ℉ = 𝟔𝟖
𝑇3 = 98.6°𝐹
5
b. ℃ = (℉ − 32)
Required: 9
Convert to other units 5
℃ = (98.6 − 32)
9
Solution: ℃ = 𝟑𝟕
9
a. ℉ = ℃ + 32
5

## Example 2: What is the absolute zero on the Fahrenheit scale?

Given:
𝑇1 = 0°K

Required:
Absolute 0 in oF
9 9
℉ = ℃ + 32 = (−273.15) + 32
Solution: 5 5
K = ℃ + 273.15 ℉ = −𝟒𝟓𝟗. 𝟔𝟕
= ℃ + 273.15
℃ = −273.15

93
Example 3: A quantity of low density gas in a rigid container is initially at room
temperature and a particular pressure. If the gas is heated to a temperature of 60oC by
what factor does the pressure change?
Given: Solution:
T1 = 20℃ T1 T2 P2 T2
= ; =
T2 = 60℃ P1 P2 P1 T1
P2 60 + 273.15
Required: =
P1 20 + 273.15
P2 P2 333.15
=? =
P1 P1 293.15
P2
= 1.136
P1

Example 4: A steel beam is 5.0m long at a temperature of 20oC. On a hot day, the
temperature rises to 40oC. What is the change in the beam’s length due to thermal
expansion? Suppose that the ends of the beam are initially in contact with rigid vertical
supports, how much force will the expanded beam exert on the supports if the beam has a
cross-sectional area of 60cm2?

Given:
L= 5m Required:
Ti = 20℃ a. ΔL =?
Tf = 40℃ b. F =?
A = 60cm2

Solution
a. LF = Lo [1 + α(ΔT)]
12 × 10−6
LF = 5.00m [1 + ( ) (40℃ − 20℃)]

LF = 5.0012 m

ΔL = LF − Lo
ΔL = 5.0012 m − 5.00 m
ΔL = 0.0012 m

94
Example 5: A surveyor uses a steel measuring tape that is exactly 50.00 m long at a
temperature of 20oC. What is its length on a hot summer day when the temperature is
35oC?

Given:
Lo = 50.00m Required:
Ti = 20℃ LF =?
Tf = 35℃

Solution:
LF = Lo [1 + α(ΔT)]

12 × 10−6
LF = 50.00m [1 + ( ) (35℃ − 20℃)] = 𝟓𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟗 𝐦

Example 6: In the previous example, the surveyor measures a distance when the
temperature is 35oC and obtains the result 35.794m. What is the actual distance?

Given:
LF = 35.794 m Required:
Tf = 35℃ Lo =?

Solution:
LF = Lo [1 + α(ΔT)]

12 × 10−6
35.794 m = Lo [1 + ( ) (35℃ − 20℃)]

35.794m
Lo = = 𝟑𝟓. 𝟖𝟎𝟎𝟒 𝐦
12 × 10−6
[1 + ( ) (35℃ − 20℃)]

Example 7: What is the average (rms) speed of a helium atom (He) in a helium balloon
at room temperature? Take the mass of the helium atom to be 6.65 x 10-27kg.

Given: Solution
mHe = 6.65 × 10−27 kg
3k B T
T = 20℃ + 273.15 = 293.15 K vrms = √
J m
k B = 1.38 × 10−23
K
J
3 (1.38 × 10−23 K) (293.15 K)
Required: vrms = √
V =? 6.65 × 10−27 kg
𝐦
𝐯𝐫𝐦𝐬 = 𝟏𝟑𝟓𝟎. 𝟗𝟑
𝐬

95
Example 8: More than 99% of the air we breathe consists of diatomic gases, mainly
nitrogen (N2, 78%) and oxygen (O2, 21%). There are traces of other gases, one of which
is radon (Rn), a monatomic gas arising from radioactive decay of uranium in the ground.
Calculate the total internal energy of 1.00mole samples each of oxygen and radon at
room temperature. For each sample, calculate the amount of internal energy associated
with molecular translational kinetic energy.

Given:
n = 1 mole

## T = 20℃ + 273.15 = 293.15 K

J
k B = 8.31
mol ∙ K

Required:
a. URa =?
UO2 =?
b. UTRANS of Ra =?
UTRANS of O2 = ?

Solution:
3
URa = nkB T
2
3 J
URa = (1mol) (8.31 ) (293.15 K)
2 mol ∙ K
𝐔𝐑𝐚 = 𝟑𝟔𝟓𝟒. 𝟏𝟏 𝐉

5
UO2 = nkB T
2
5 J
UO2 = (1mol) (8.31 ) (293.15 K)
2 mol ∙ K
𝐔𝐎𝟐 = 𝟔𝟎𝟗𝟎. 𝟏𝟗 𝐉

𝐔𝐓𝐑𝐀𝐍𝐒 𝐨𝐟 𝐑𝐚 = 𝟑𝟔𝟓𝟒. 𝟏𝟏 𝐉

3
𝐔𝐓𝐑𝐀𝐍𝐒 𝐨𝐟 𝐎𝟐 = nkB T = 𝟑𝟔𝟓𝟒. 𝟏𝟏 𝐉
2

Name:

96
Section:

1. A building with a steel framework is 150m tall when the temperature is 0oC. How
much taller is the building on a hot summer day when the temperature is 36oC?

Given:
Lo = 150.00m
Ti = 0℃
Tf = 36℃

Required:
ΔL =?

Solution:
LF = Lo [1 + α(ΔT)]
LF = Lo [1 + α(Tf − Ti )]
12 × 10−6
LF = 150.00m [1 + ( ) (36℃ − 0℃)]

LF = 150.0648
ΔL = 150.0648 m − 150.00 m
𝚫𝐋 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟔𝟒𝟖 𝐦

2. A steel bridge is built in the summer when the temperature is 35oC. At the time of
construction its length is 80m. What is the length of the bridge on a cold winter day
when the temperature is -12oC?

Given:

Lo = 80m
Ti = 35℃
Tf = −12℃

Required
LF =?

Solution:
LF = Lo [1 + α(Tf − Ti )]

12 × 10−6
LF = 80m [1 + ( ) (−12℃ − 35℃)]

𝐋𝐅 = 𝟕𝟗. 𝟗𝟓𝟒𝟖𝟖 𝐦

## Chapter 13: Heat

97
Important Terms:
Heat = Describes a type of net energy transferred.

Kilocalorie (kcal) = the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a kilogram
mass of water of a certain temperature in Celsius.

Calorie (cal) = the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a pound of water of
a certain temperature in Celsius.

British thermal unit (Btu) = the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a
kilogram mass of water of a certain temperature in Fahrenheit.

Mechanical Equivalent of Heat = For every 4186J of work done, the temperature of the
water rose 1oC per kilogram, or 4186J is equivalent to 1kcal.

Specific Heat = the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of a 1kg of a
substance by 1oC.

## Calorimetry = the quantitative measure of heat exchange, which allows us to determine

the specific heats of substances.

Solid Phase = the molecules are held together by attractive forces or bonds.

## Freezing Point = the temperature at which liquid becomes solid

Liquid Phase = molecules of a substance are relatively free to move and a liquid
assumes the shape of its container

Gaseous Phase = molecules interact weakly and are separated by relatively large
distances; thus has no definite shape or volume.

## Boiling Point = the temperature at which liquid becomes vapor/gas

Condensation Point = the temperature at which gas condenses and becomes a liquid.

## Latent Heat = the heat energy involved in a phase change

Latent Heat of Fusion = the latent heat for a solid – liquid phase change
Latent Heat of Vaporization = the latent heat for a liquid – solid phase change

98
Latent Heat of Sublimation = the latent heat for the less common solid-gas phase
change

Evaporation = A cooling process for the object from which the molecules escape

## Conduction = energy is conductively transferred from a higher temperature region to a

lower temperature region – transfer as a result of a temperature difference.

## Thermal Conductivity = characterizes the heat-conducting ability of a material.

Convection = heat transfer as a result of mass transfer, which can be natural or forced

Radiation = heat transferred which does not require a medium but by electromagnetic
waves

Stefan’s Law = the rate at which an object radiates energy has been found to be
proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature

material.

## Blackbody = a body that is a good absorber of a certain wavelength of radiation is a good

emitter of those same wavelengths.
Important Equations
Specific Heat
𝐐 = 𝐦𝐜𝚫𝐓

Where: Q = heat
c = specific heat
m = mass
T = temperature

Latent Heat
𝐐 = 𝐦𝐋

Where: Q = heat
m = mass
L = latent heat

Thermal Conduction

99
𝚫𝐐 𝐤𝐀𝚫𝐓
=
𝚫𝐭 𝐝

Where: Q = heat
t = time
k = thermal conductivity
T = temperature
d = thickness

Stefan’s Law
𝚫𝐐
𝐏 = = 𝛔𝐀𝐞𝐓 𝟒
𝚫𝐭

Where: P = power
Q = heat
t = time
A = area
σ = Stefan-Boltzmann constant
e = emissivity
T = temperature

## Net Radiant Power

𝐏𝐧𝐞𝐭 = 𝛔𝐀𝐞(𝐓𝐬 𝟒 – 𝐓 𝟒 )

## Where: Ts = surrounding temperature

Example 1: How much mechanical work in joules would have to be done in Joule’s
apparatus to raise the temperature of a liter of water from room temperature to 25oC?

Given:
TI = 20℃
TF = 25℃
Vol = 1L
∴ mH2 O = 1 kg

Required:
Wk =?

Solution:
Q = mc∆T
kJ
Q = (1kg) (4.186 ) (25℃ − 20℃)
kg ∙ ℃
𝐐 = 𝟐𝟎. 𝟗𝟑 𝐤𝐉 = 𝐖

Example 2: How much heat is required to raise the temperature of 0.20kg of water from
15oC to 45oC?

100
Given: Solution:
TI = 15℃ Q = mc∆T
TF = 45℃ J
Q = (0.20kg) (4186 ) (45℃
mH2 O = 0.20 kg kg ∙ ℃
− 15℃)
Required: 𝐐 = 𝟐𝟓𝟏𝟏𝟔. 𝟎 𝐉
Q=?

Example 3: A half-liter of water at 30oC is cooled, with the removal of 63KJ of heat.
What is the final temperature of the water?

## Given: Q = −63kJ = −63000J

TI = 30℃
mH2 O = 0.50 kg Required:
J TF =?
cH2 O (4186 )
kg ∙ ℃

Solution:
Q = mc∆T
J
−63000J = (0.50kg) (4186 ) (TF − 30℃)
kg ∙ ℃
63000J
TF = − + 30
J
(0.50kg) (4186 )
kg ∙ ℃
𝐓𝐅 = −𝟎. 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟑℃ ≈ 𝟎℃

Example 4: Equal masses of aluminum and copper are at the same temperature. Which
will require the greater heat to raise its temperature by a given amount, and how many
times greater is this than the heat that would have to be added to the other metal?

## Given: QAl mAl cAl ∆TAl

J =
cCu = 390 QCu mCu cCu ∆TCu
kg ∙ ℃
J Since mCu = mAl & ∆TCu = ∆TAl
cAl = 920 J
kg ∙ ℃ QAl cAl 920
kg ∙ ℃
mCu = mAl ∴ = =
QCu cCu J
∆TCu = ∆TAl 390
kg ∙ ℃
QAl
Required: = 2.36: 𝐐𝐀𝐥 = 𝟐. 𝟑𝟔𝐐𝐂𝐮
QAl QCu
=? 𝐐𝐀𝐥 > 𝐐𝐂𝐮
QCu

Solution:

101
Example 5: Students in a physics lab are to determine the specific heat of copper
experimentally. They heat 0.150kg of copper shot to 100oC and then carefully pour the
hot shot into a calorimeter cup containing 0.200kg of water at 20oC. The final
temperature of the mixture in the cup is measured to be 25oC. If the aluminum cup has a
mass of 0.045kg, what is the specific heat of copper? (Assume that there is no heat loss to
the surroundings.)

## Given: mCu = 0.15 kg

TI for Cu = 100℃ mAl = 0.045 kg
TI for Al & H2 O = 20℃ mH2 O = 0.20 kg
TF = 25℃
J Required:
cAl = 920
kg ∙ ℃ cCu =?
J
cH2 O = 4186
kg ∙ ℃

Solution:
ΣQ = 0
QAl + QCu + Q H2 O = 0
mAl cAl ∆TAl + mCu cCu ∆TCu + mH2 O cH2 O ∆TH2O = 0

## [0.045(920)(25 − 20)] + [0.15(cCu )(25 − 100)] + [0.20(25 − 20)(4186)] = 0

207 − 11.25cCu + 4186 = 0
−207 − 4186 𝐉
cCu = = 𝟑𝟗𝟎. 𝟒𝟗
−11.25 𝐤𝐠 ∙ ℃

Example 6: Heat is added to 0.500kg of water at room temperature. How much heat in
joules is required to change the water to steam at 110oC?

Given: J
cH2 O = 2010 for steam
m = 0.50 kg kg ∙ ℃
TI = 20℃ J
TF1 = 100℃ Lv = 22.6 × 105
kg
TF2 = 110℃
J Required:
cH2 O = 4186 @ room T
kg ∙ ℃ ΣQH2 O =?
Solution:
J
Q1 = mc∆T = (0.500 kg) (4186 ) (100℃ − 20℃) = 167440J
kg ∙ ℃
J
QLv = mLv = (0.500 kg) (22.6 × 105 ) = 1130000 J
kg
J
Q3 = mc∆T = (0.500 kg) (2010 ) (110℃ − 100℃) = 10050J
kg ∙ ℃
ΣQH2 O = Q1 + QLv + Q3 = 167440 + 1130000 + 10050
𝚺𝐐𝐇𝟐 𝐎 = 𝟏𝟑𝟎𝟕𝟒𝟗𝟎 𝐉 = 𝟏. 𝟑𝟏 × 𝟏𝟎 𝟔 𝐉
102
Example 7: A 0.30kg piece of ice at 0oC is placed in a liter of water at room temperature
in an insulated container. Assume that no heat is lost to the container, what is the final
temperature of the water?

Given:
mice = 0.30 kg
vol = 1L: ∴ mH2 O = 1 kg
J
LF = 3.33 × 105
kg
J
cH2 O = 4186
kg ∙ ℃

Required:
TF =?

Solution:
J
Qice = mLF = (0.30kg) (3.33 × 105 ) = 99900J
kg

Qice = Q H2 O
Q H2 O = mc∆T
J
−99900J = (1kg) (4186 ) (TF − 20℃)
kg ∙ ℃

−99900J
+ 20℃ = TF
J
(1kg) (4186 )
kg ∙ ℃

𝐓𝐅 = −𝟑. 𝟖𝟕 ℃

J
Q H2 O = (1kg) (4186 ) (0℃ − 20℃) = −83720 J
kg ∙ ℃

Q H2 O −83720 J
𝐦𝐢𝐜𝐞 = = = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟓 𝐤𝐠
Lv J
3.33 × 105
kg

103
Example 8: A room with a pine ceiling that measures 3.0m x 5.0m x 2.0cm thick has a
layer of glass wool insulation above it that is 6.0cm thick. On a cold day, the temperature
inside the room is 20oC and the temperature in the attic above the room is 8oC. Assuming
that the temperatures remain constant with a steady heat flow, how much energy does the
layer of insulation save in 1.0hr? Assume losses are due to the conduction only.

Given:
A = 3m × 5m = 15 m2
d1 = 2cm = 0.02m
d2 = 6cm = 0.06m
T1 = 20℃
T2 = 8℃
∆t = 1hr = 3600s
J
k glass wool = 0.042
ms ∙ ℃
J
k wood pine = 0.12
ms ∙ ℃

Solution:
∆T = T1 − T2 = 20 − 8 = 12℃

J
k wood pine A∆T∆t 0.12 ms ∙ ℃ (15 m2 )(12℃)(3600s)
∆Q = = = 𝟑𝟖𝟖𝟖𝟎𝟎𝟎𝐉
d1 0.02 m

∆Q1 ∆Q2
=
∆t ∆t
k glass wool A∆T k wood pine A∆T
=
d1 d2
k glass wool (T − T1 ) k wood pine (T2 − T)
=
d1 d2

## k glass wool d2 T1 + k wood pine d1 T2

T=
k glass wool d2 + k wood pine d1
∆Q1 A(T2 − T1 )
=
∆t k glass wool k wood pine
+
d1 d2

15m2 (12℃)(3600s)
∆𝐐𝟐 = = 𝟒𝟎𝟔𝟐𝟎𝟖. 𝟗𝟔 𝐉
0.06 0.02
J + J
0.042 ms ∙ ℃ 0.12 ms ∙ ℃

∆𝑄1 = ∆Q − ∆Q2
∆𝑄1 = 3888000J − 406208.96 J = 𝟑𝟒𝟖𝟏𝟕𝟗𝟒𝟏. 𝟎𝟒 𝐉

104
∆𝑄1 34817941.04J
%= × 100 = × 100 = 𝟖𝟗. 𝟓𝟓%
∆Q 3888000J

Example 9: Suppose that your skin has an emissivity of 0.70 and that its exposed area is
0.27m2. How much net energy will be radiated per second from this area if the air
temperature is 20oC? Assume your skin temperature to be the same as normal body
temperature, 37oC.

Given:
Ts = 20℃ + 273.15 = 293.15 K
Tbody = 37℃ + 273.15 = 310.15 K
A = 0.27 m2
e = 0.7
𝑤
δ = 5.67 × 10−8 2 4
𝑚 𝐾

Required:
E =?

Solution:
𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑡 = 𝛿𝐴𝑒(𝑇𝑠 4 − 𝑇𝑏𝑜𝑑𝑦 4 )
𝑤
𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑡 = (5.67 × 10−8 2 4 ) (0.27 𝑚2 )(0.7)(293.15 𝐾 4 − 310.15 𝐾 4 )
𝑚 𝐾
𝑃𝑛𝑒𝑡 = −20.02 𝑤

105
Chapter 14: Thermodynamics
Important Terms:
Thermodynamics = transfer or the actions of heat

## System = a definite quantity of matter enclosed by boundaries or surfaces, either real or

imaginary

Thermally Isolated System = If the heat transfer into or out of the system is impossible

## Process = change in the state or the thermodynamic coordinates of a system

Irreversible Process = A process for which the intermediate steps are non-equilibrium
states

Reversible Process = the process path between the initial and final states would be
known

## First Law of thermodynamics = a statement of the conservation of energy as applied to

thermodynamic system

## Adiabatic Process = no heat is transferred into or out of the system

Second Law of Thermodynamics = heat will not flow spontaneously from a colder
body to a warmer body

## Heat Engine = device that converts heat energy to work

Thermal Cycle = a series of processes which brings the engine or system back to its
original condition.

106
Thermal Pump = a generic term for any device, including refrigerators, air conditioners
and heat pump, that transfers heat energy from a low-temperature reservoir to a high
temperature reservoir.

## Coefficient of Performance (COP) = measure of a refrigerator or air conditioner’s

performance

Heat Pump = common commercial devices used to cool homes and offices in the
summer and to heat them in the winter

Carnot Cycle = consists of two isotherms and two adiabats and is conveniently
represented on a T-S diagram, where it forms a rectangle

## Third Law of Thermodynamics = it is impossible to reach a temperature of absolute

zero

Important Equations
First Law of Thermodynamics
𝑸 = 𝜟𝑼 + 𝑾

Where: Q = heat
U=
W = work

## Work Done by an Expanding Gas

𝑾 = 𝒑𝜟𝑽 = 𝒑(𝑽𝟐 – 𝑽𝟏 )

Where: V = volume
p = pressure

Change in Entropy
𝑸
𝜟𝑺 =
𝑻

Q = heat
T = temperature

## Thermal Efficiency of a Heat Engine

𝑾𝒏𝒆𝒕 𝑸𝒉𝒐𝒕 – 𝑸𝒄𝒐𝒍𝒅 𝑸𝒄𝒐𝒍𝒅
Є𝒕𝒉 = = = 𝟏–
𝑸𝒉𝒐𝒕 𝑸𝒉𝒐𝒕 𝑸𝒉𝒐𝒕

107
Where: Є = thermal efficiency
W = work
Q = heat

Coefficient of Performance
𝑸𝒄𝒐𝒍𝒅 𝑸𝒄𝒐𝒍𝒅
𝑪𝑶𝑷𝒓𝒆𝒇 = =
𝑾𝒊𝒏 𝑸𝒉𝒐𝒕 – 𝑸𝒄𝒐𝒍𝒅
For refrigerator or air conditioner

𝑸𝒉𝒐𝒕 𝑸𝒉𝒐𝒕
𝑪𝑶𝑷𝒉𝒑 = =
𝑾𝒊𝒏 𝑸𝒉𝒐𝒕 – 𝑸𝒄𝒐𝒍𝒅
For heat pump in heating mode

Q = heat
W = work

## Carnot Efficiency of an Ideal Heat Engine:

𝑻𝒄𝒐𝒍𝒅 𝑻𝒉𝒐𝒕 – 𝑻𝒄𝒐𝒍𝒅
Є𝒄 = 𝟏 – =
𝑻𝒉𝒐𝒕 𝑻𝒉𝒐𝒕

## Where: Єc = carnot efficiency

Relative Efficiency
Є𝒕𝒉
Є𝒓𝒆𝒍 =
Є𝒄

## Where: Єrel = relative efficiency

Єth = thermal efficiency
Єc = carnot efficiency

Example 1: An ideal gas occupies a volume of 22.4L at STP (standard temperature and
pressure). While absorbing 2.53kJ of heat from the surroundings, the gas expands
isobarically to 32.4L. What is the change in the internal energy of the gas?

## Given: T1= 0 °C = 273 K

Vol1= 22.4 L at STP
Q= 2.53 KJ Required:
Vol2 = 32.4L ∆𝑈 = ?
P1= P2 = 1 atm = 1.01x105 Pa

108
Solution:
100𝑐𝑚3 (1𝑚)3
22.4𝐿 𝑥 𝑥 = 0.0224𝑚3
1𝐿 (1000𝑐𝑚)3
100𝑐𝑚3 (1𝑚)3
32.4𝐿 𝑥 𝑥 = 0.0324𝑚3
1𝐿 (1000𝑐𝑚)3
W= PΔV = 1.01x105 N (0.0324 m3- 0.0224 m3) = 1010 J
ΔU= Q – W = 2530 J - 1010 J = 1520 J

Example 2: What is the change in entropy of ethyl alcohol when 0.25kg of it vaporizes at
its boiling point of 78oC (latent heat of vaporization Lv = 1.0 x 105J/kg)?

Given:
m= 0.25 Kg Required:
T= 78 + 273.15 = 351 K ∆𝑆 = ?
LV= 1.0x105 J/Kg

Solution:
1.0𝑥105 𝐽
𝑄 = 𝑚𝐿𝑣 = 0.25𝑘𝑔 ( )
𝑘𝑔
𝑄 = 25000𝐽

𝑄 25000
∆𝑆 = = = 71.19𝐽/𝐾
𝑇 351.15

Example 3: A metal spoon at 24oC is placed in 1.00kg of water at 18oC. The thermally
isolated system comes to equilibrium at a temperature of 20oC. Find the approximately
change in the entropy of the system.

Given:
TMS= 24°C Required:
TW= 18°C ∆𝑆 = ?
mW= 1 Kg
TF= 20°C

Solution:
𝐽
𝑄𝑊 = 𝑚𝑐∆𝑇 = 1𝑘𝑔 (4189 ) (20°𝐶 − 18°𝐶) = 8372𝐽
𝑘𝑔°𝐶

𝑇𝐹 + 𝑇𝑊 20 + 18
𝑇𝑊 = = = 19 + 273.15 = 292.15°𝐾
2 2
𝑇𝐹 + 𝑇𝑀𝑆 20 + 24
𝑇𝑀𝑆 = = = 22 + 273.15 = 295.15°𝐾
2 2

109
𝑄𝑊 8372𝐽
∆𝑆𝑊 = = = 28.66𝐽/𝐾
𝑇𝑊 292.15
𝑄𝑀𝑆 −8372𝐽
∆𝑆𝑀𝑆 = = = −28.37𝐽/𝐾
𝑇𝑀𝑆 295.15

## ∆𝑆 = ∆𝑆𝑊 + ∆𝑆𝑀𝑆 = 28.66 + (−28.37) = 0.29𝐽/𝐾

Example 4: The small gasoline powered engine of a leaf blower removes 800J of heat
energy from a high temperature reservoir and exhausts 700J to a low temperature
reservoir. What is the engine’s thermal efficiency?

Given:
QHOT= 800 J
QCOLD= 700 J

Required:
Єth =?
Solution:
WNET = QHOT − QCOLD = 800 − 700 = 100J

WNET 100J
Єth = = = 0.125 x 100% = 12.5%
QHOT 800J
Example 5: An air conditioner operating in summer extracts 100J of heat from the
interior of the house for every 40J of electric energy required to operate it. Determine its
COP and its COP if it is reversed in the winter, running as a heat pump to move the same
amount of heat for the same amount of kinetic energy.

Given:
QCOLD = 100J
WNET = 40J

Required:
COPREF = ?
COPHP = ?

Solution:
QHOT = QCOLD + WINPUT = 100 + 40
QHOT = 140J

QCOLD 100
COPREF = = = 2.5
WINPUT 40
QHOT 140
COPHP = = = 3.5
WINPUT 40

110
Example 6: An engineer is designing a cyclic heat engine to operate between
temperatures of 150oC and 27oC. What is the maximum theoretical efficiency that can be
achieved? Suppose the engine, when built, does 100J of work per cycle for every 500J of
input heat per cycle. What is its relative efficiency?
Given:
THOT= 150 °C + 273.15 = 423.15 K
TCOLD= 27 °C + 273.15 = 300.15 K
WNET= 100 J
QHOT= 500J

Required:
∈𝑅𝐸𝐿 = ?

Solution:
𝑇𝐶𝑂𝐿𝐷 300.15
∈𝐶 = 1 − =1− = 0.29 𝑋 100% = 29%
𝑇𝐻𝑂𝑇 423.15
𝑊𝑁𝐸𝑇 100
∈𝑇𝐻 = = = 0.20𝑋 100% = 20%
𝑄𝐻𝑂𝑇 500
∈ 𝑇𝐻 0.20
∈𝑅𝐸𝐿 = = 𝑋 100% = 69%
∈𝐶 0.29

111