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Class - 9


YEAR 2012 Rs.

Publicaiton year-2007
Reprint-2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012
© Rajya Siksha Kendra, Bhopal
M.K. Singh,
Commissioner Rajya Siksha Kendra, Bhopal
Shakuntala Shrivastav
Co-ordinator, Text Books Rajya Siksha Kendra, Bhopal
Subject Co-ordinator
Dr. Sadhna Singh
Academic Consultant, Rajya Siksha Kendra, Bhopal
wDr. Anita Sharma, Lect., Govt. Boys Higher Secondary School, Station Area, Bhopal
wDr. Ashok Tyagi, Asstt. Proff., M.L.B., Govt. Excellence College, Gwalior w Kamal Bhardwaj,
Asstt. Prof., P.G. Excellence College, Ambah, Morena w Dr. Mahaveer Prasad Modi, Asstt.
Prof. Govt. College, Morena w Dr. Manoj Awasthi, Asstt. Prof. Madhav College, Gwalior
w Dr. Neeraj Goyal, Asstt. Prof. Govt. P.G. College, Morena w Dr. Rajendra Saxena, Rtd.,
Vice Principal, DIET, Ujjain w Ramesh Chandra Tripathi, Rtd. Gwalior w Shakun Dhoot,
Lect., KNG, Bhopal w S.S.Patel, Sr. Lecuturer, DIET, Pachmari w ShushmaDixit, Lect., Boys
Higher Secondary School, Bairagrah w ShushmaSaran, Govt. Girls K.N.H.S., Bhopal
w Dr. Anjali Jain, Asstt. Prof., S.N.K. P.G. Autonomous College, Bhopal w Dr. A.L. Naik,
Retd., Deputy Commissoner, Deptt. of Tribal Welfare w Dr. Rajeshwari Duby, Asstt. Prof.,
S.N.K., P.G. Autonomous College, Bhopal w Dr. Sadhna Singh R.S.K. w Dr. R.P. Singh
Retd., Principal, DIET, Vidisha w Dr. S.K. Trivedi, Lecturer, Govt. Hamidia College, Bhopal.
w Dr. J.P. Singh, Retd., Proff., Regional Educational Research and Trainng Institute, Bhopal
w Dr. M.K. Mathur, Retd., Principal P.G. College, Gwalior w Dr. Nalini Rewadikar, Retd.,
Principal, Govt. College, Ujjain, w Dr. S.K. Shukla, H.O.D., Jivaji University, Gwalior
w Jaishree Nair, TGT, Social Science, KV-3, Bhopal w Dr. Rajeshwari Dubey, Astt. Prof.,
SNK, PG. College, Bhopal w Dr. Sangeeta Pethiya, TGT, Social Science, DPS, Bhopal
w Shushma Saran, Lecturer, Govt. K.N.H.S.S., Bhopal
Mapping & Picturaisation - Vikas Malviya (RSK), Vinay Sapre, Dr. R. Saxena
© Government of India copyright Act 2008
l The correct depiction of internal description of maps is the responsibility of publishers.
l The territorial waters of India extend into the sea to a distance of twelve nautical miles measured from the
appropriate base line.
l The interstate boundaries between Arunachal Pradesh, Assam and Meghalaya shown in this publication are as
interpreted from the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971 but yet to be verified.
l The international and coastal boundaries of India with the verified record/main copy certified by survey of India.
l The state boundaries between Uttaranchal & Utterpradesh, Bihar & Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh &
Madhyapradesh have not been verified by the Concerned Government .

Composing - Akshar Graphics, Ph.: 2559213

Approved by
Madhya Pradesh Textbook Standing Committee
S.No. Name and Address Designation
1 Dr. Govind Sharma Chairman
Former Additional Director,
Higher Education, Govt. of M.P., Gwalior
2. Mr. Bhagirath Kumrawat Member
Educationist, Bhopal
3. Prof. Sureshwar Sharma Member
Former Vice Chancellor,
Rani Durgawati Vishwavidyalaya, Jabalpur
4. Dr. Manmohan Upadhyaya Member
Educationist and Deputy Chairman,
M.P. Sanskrit Board, Bhopal
5. Dr. Umrao Singh Choudhary Member
Former Vice Chancellor,
Devi Ahiliya Unicersity, Indore
6. Prof. Udai Jain Member
Former Principal, Vaishnav College, Indore
7. Dr. Subhash Gupta Member
Dean, Student Welfare, Devi Ahilya University, Indore
8. Dr. Prakash Bartunia Member
Assistant General Manager, IDBI, Bhopal
9. Dr. (Smt.) Binay Rajaram Member
Trustee, Bharat Bhawan (Literature)
Professor and Head of the Department
Shri Satya Sai Women’s College, Bhopal
10. Commissioner Member Secretary
Rajya Shiksha Kendra, M.P., Bhopal
11. Commissioner, Member
Public Instruction, M.P., Bhopal
12. Secretary, Member
Board of Secondary Education, M.P., Bhopal
13. Managing Director, Member
M.P. Text Book Corporation, Bhopal
14. Representative - NCERT Member
15. Representative - Navodaya Vidyalaya Sangathan Member
M.P. Rajya Shiksha Kendra gratefully acknowledges the contribution of
Dr. Prem Bharati, Educationist and member, State Level General Body and working
committee M.P. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, in the development of textbooks.

The new text book is an attempt to execute the national curriculum 2005, in
which investment in information, associating children with life outside school,
reducing the tradition of textual knowledge and learning by memorization and to
work in the direction of child centered learning. To meet these aims of education,
M.P. Education Deptt. and M.P. Board of Secondary education have developed an
intergrated a new curriculum. In this subject matter related to Environment,
Geography, History, Political Science and Economics has been incorporated. The
new textbook of class 9 has been prepared on the basis of a new integrated
curriculum keeping in mind the cognitive development of students of class 9.
Children will be able to create new learning by relating to the information and
contents of the book.
Its hoped that the new textbook of Social Science will help the learners to
grasp the information related to the subject in an easy and simple manner. It will also
help to develop their skills and qualitative development in the subject. The book will
help in childrens' participation in learning, reducing mental pressure and making the
contents interesting. The Board of Secondary Education is grateful to all the people
and institutions who have given their valuable contribution in the preparation of the
book. The Board also expresses its heartfelt gratitude to the author whose literature
has been used in book writing. In the end the Board of Secondary Education
expresses its gratitude to the teachers/educationists and parents who have given their
valuable suggestions for the improvement of the book.
Its a collective effort of writers, moderators and subject coordinators, under
the guidance of a standing committee. It has been our endeavour to develop a book
without errors but improvement is a continuous process, in human effort there is
always a scope for improvement. Therefore suggestions are invited for improving the
Rajya Siksha Kendra,

About the Book
Social Science is a very interesting subject as it is related to our
social environment. But the teaching of it is very generalized. This
also affects the desired results. Therefore while teaching, realistic
picturisation of subject matter is very important.
Keeping the above fact in mind an effort has been made to
incorporate the subject matters of Environment, Geography, History,
Political Science and Economics in an interesting manner. The
following efforts have been made in the book -
u The contents and skills related to the chapters have been given
under the heading of ‘We will study’ in the beginning. This will
help the teachers while teaching and evaluation.
u The book has been made in two colours and important information
has been shown in bold and in boxes.
u Maximum efforts to provide information through graphs, pictures
and maps have been made.
u Colourful maps have been given which will make the subject
interesting and learning easy. This will also help in developing
skills and understanding.
u Difficult words have been given at the end so that an understanding
of the definition of words develops in the students.
u Exercises towards the end of the lessons have been given to
develop the writing skills, self thinking, relating facts with each
other developing the skill of drawing conclusions, and the ability
to express information. Very short questions, short questions and
long questions and map work has been included for the same.
Objective type questions have been included so that children get
familiarized with the pattern of competitive exam. In the exercises,
knowledge understanding, application and skill based questions
have been included which will help in the correct evaluation of
the level of students learning.
u Project work has been included in the activities which will help
in developing the potential of the child. Besides students will also
learn to relate with surrounding environment and daily life and
acquire knowledge.

Social Science Class - 9
01. Man and Environment 08
Meaning of environment, Elements and Importance, Natural and cultural
environment. Man and environment relationship, types and effect of
envionmental pollution, corrective measures. Ecological degradation and
changing patterns of landuse, Factors responsible for this: Population growth,
Industrialisation and Urbanisation, Transport, Encroachment on water bodies,
Facilities for tourism, pilgrimage, Recreation and adventure, Construction of
large dams, Mining and war. Resources of Natural environment, utilization
and conservation.
Some success stories of environmental conservation e.g., C.N.G., Chipko
Movement, Silent Valley, Water Harvesting. Role of Envionmental Impact
Assessment (EIA).
02. India: Location, Physical Divisions 04
Geographical Location of India, Physical division.
03. Climate & Drainage Pattern 04
Factors affecting climate, Monsoon and its Characteristics, Rainfall and
Temperature Distribution, Effect of Weather and Climate on Human Life.
Rivers: Major & Minor, Lakes and Seas, Role of Rivers in Economic
development of the Country, River Pollution and measures for control.
04. Natural Vegetation and Wild life 04
Types of Vegetation, Altitudinal Variation in Vegetation, Major wild life
species, and their distribution, need & various measures for conservation
Wild Animals, National Parks and Sanctuaries of Madhya Pradesh.
05. Population 05
Distribution, Sex Ratio, Literacy & Introduction to National Population
06. Map : Study and Depiction 05
07. Ancient India:- 10
Indus valley Civilization, Vedic civilization, Mauryan Period, Gupta Period,
Brief introduction to the political history of Harsha period.

08. Medieval India 10
Invasion of the Arabs, Ghazni and Ghori, Delhi Sultanat and a brief introduc-
tion to the Mughal period. Vijayanagar and Bahamani Empires, brief history
of Maharana Pratap, Rani Durgawati and Maharaja Shivaji, Fall of the Mughals
09. Major Cultural Trends 10
From the early history to the fall of the Mughals, Literature, painting,
Architecture, Sculpture, Dance and Music etc.
10. Concept of Democracy 06
Meaning and Definition, Basic Principles, Types and Importance.
Evolution of Democracy in India: Concept of Democracy in ancient India,
Necessity & Importance of Constitution for democracy.
11. Election 07
Party System: Meaning and Importance; Indian Electoral Process and the
Role of Election Commission; Voting rights,:- Meaning & Definition, Con-
ditions for acquiring voting right.
12. Constitutional Rights and Duties of Citizen 07
Fundamental Rights granted by the Constitution; Fundamental duties,
Right to Information
13. Development of Rural Economy 06
An introduction to Village based economy in ancient India, Concept an Ideal
Village, A study of Village economy in Madhya Pradesh.
14. Economic Challenges Facing India 08
Poverty : Meaning, Causes, Poverty alleviation Programme, Various Types of
Heavy Medium, Small and Cottage Industries in India.
15. Food Security 06
Varieties of food grains in India, Need of Food Security, Role of Government,
Public distribution System and Fair Price shops.

Social Science
Unitwise marks distribution
Unit Subject content / Lesson Marks Period
1. Man and Environment 04 06
2. Conservation of Environment 04 06
3. India : Location, Physical Division 04 06
4. Drainage System 02 02
5. Climate 02 04
6. Natural Vegetation and wild life 04 05
7. Population 05 08
8. Map - Study and Depiction 05 05
9. Ancient India 10 14
10. Medieval India 10 14
11. Major Cultural Trends 10 15
12. Democracy 06 10
13. Election 07 12
14. Constitutional Rights and Duties 07 14
of citizens
15. Rural Economy 06 12
16. Poverty - An Economic challenge for India 04 07
17. State of Industries in India 04 08
18. Food Security 06 12
Revision 20
Total 100 180
Marks Distribution as per objectives
Objectives Percentage
Knowledge 35
Understanding 50
Application 15
Total 100

Chapter Subject Chapter Page

1. Geography Man and Environment 1

2. Efforts and successes of 15

Environmental Conservation

3. India : Location and Physical Division 23

4. India : Drainage System 38

5. India : Climate 45

6. India : Natural Vegetation and Wild Life 56

7. India : Population 69

8. Map : Reading and Numbering 82

Appendix 93

9. History History of Ancient India 96

10. Medieval India 117

11. Major Cultural Trends 143

12. Civics Democracy 161

13. Election 173

14. Constitutional Rights and Duties 187

of Citizens
15. Economics Growth of Rural Economy 205

16. Poverty : An Economic Challenge 225

for India

17. State of Industries in India 234

18. Food Security in India 245

Man and Environment
1.1 Indian Concept of Environment:
We Will Study & Since ancient times detailed descriptions
1.1 Indian concept of
of the mutual relationship between man and
nature are found in literature. Nature is
1.2 Natural and Cultural
represented in the form of Mother in the Vedas.
In the hope of having a healthy environment
1.3 Resources of Natural
man has maintained passionate relations with
the environment in his life style. His debt
1.4 Relationship of Man and
towards the environment is exposed in the
Environment and its effects
form of sensitivity, honour, passion and safety.
1.5 Types and Impact of
Man and Environment are the creator, parent
Environmental Pollution
and saviour of each other.
1.6 Change in land use and its
effects It is evident from the Vedas and Puranas
that we have always worshiped nature and its
various sources. We offer our prayers to water sources such as the Ganga, the Yamuna,
the Saraswati, to trees plants like the Banyan, Peepal, Neem and Tulsi. We also bow
before the Sun, the Moon and the Earth and mother nature has sustaned like her children.
Nature is infact life. It is believed that the environment receives fragrance as we burn
Dhoop. The Upanishads assume earth as the body of the supernatural, heaven? as his
brain, the Sun and the Moon as his eyes and skies as his mind. Therefore it isn't proper
to cut trees and to pollute sources of water.
It is believed in Hinduism that the God of rains (Indra) is pleased by the worship
of Agni, Jal, Vayu and Prathvi and performance of yagya, and he pours rain water a result
nature flourishes and fulfils human necessities.
The religion of Christianity considers nature as a Goddess. Wordsworth, Keats
and Shelley became great poets of the world in the lap of Nature.
The Verses of Islam taboo killing of lives and instruct to save flora and fauna.
Hazrat Abu Bakra asks not to destroy the fruit giving trees, crops and animals. Prophet
Mohammad used to sit besides a palm tree delivering sermons to his disciples. Badshah
Akbar used to believe in Havan, Yagya, Veda, Surya Namaskar and worship of Tulsi and
Peepal trees. The propogator of Buaddissm Lord Buddha received enlightenment under
the People tree. In Jainism also all sages are required to spend time in natural
environment. In Jainism any kind of violence against living beings is a taboo. Thus all
religions have the provision of conservation of Nature.
1.2 Natural and Cultural Environment:
Environment is a broad term. By environment we mean all those conditions which
are necessary for the existence of living things. The literal meaning of environment is
all that surrounds us, such as air, water, flora and fauna, the Earth, the Sun, the Moon, the
stars and the sky etc. The villages, cities, dams, roads etc. made by man are also part of
environment. Environment is basically of two types; one which is made by nature such
as hills, plains, plateau, flora and fauna, rivers, animals, birds etc. The other is that which
man has made to fulfil his needs such as villages, cities, houses, roads, railways, dams
etc. The first type of environment is known as physical or natural environment. It is of
two types: organic and inorganic, The second type of environment is called the Socio-
cultural environment, it is also of two types - first that which is physically observable
such as the houses, roads, dams, fields etc. and second which is observed in various
behaviors such as religion, rites and rituals, food habits, festivals etc.
Man & Environment
Elements of Natural Elements of Cultural
Environment Environment
Physical Food
Features Clothing
Climate Habitat
Drainage system Occupation
Vegetation Religious rituals
Soil Social Practices
Water Transport
Living organisms Politics
Mineral Resources Art's
Natural or Physical Environment : This includes all natural elements in nature
such as location, geomorphology, rocks, climate, vegetation, wild life, minerals, water
bodies, ocean etc. Man's existence depends upon these elements.
Cultural and Social Environment : The socio-cultural environment develops due
to the mutual relationship between man and natural environment. This includes the
economic and social activities created, developed and conducted by man such as farming,

industry, rites and l Environment is a combination of physical and cultural
rituals, settlement, elements.
roads, railways, air l The elements of environment are sources of immense
services, means of power.
irrigation, government l The impact of the environment is both visible and
system and science and invisible.
technology. Man keeps l Environment is changeable.
changing and modifying l Environment has regional diversity.
his natural environment. l Environment has terrestrial unity.
List the natural and l There is regularity in the functioning of the environment.
cultural elements of
environment found in the surroundings of your school and discuss them in your class.
1.3 Resources of Natural Environment
Nature has given many gifts to man for the fulfilment of his needs such as rocks,
minerals, soil, rivers, plants and animals etc. The Value of any resource is expressed with
reference to economy, law morality and aesthetics. When any physical thing or matter
is useful or valuable to man it is called a resource. Resources are generally of three

Type of Resources

Natural Resources Human Resource

❖ Population
❖ Health
Renewable Non Renewable ❖ Education
❖ Air ❖ Non cyclic - ❖ Working efficie
❖ Agriculture Fossil fuel
❖ Water (coal, petrol)
❖ Forests ❖ Cyclic-metallic
The resources which are given to us by nature and where man's role
in its creation is nil are called Natural Resources.

Renewable Resources : Resources, which are reproduceable after use or can be

used again e.g.: forests, pastures, agricultural land.
Non Renewable Resources : Those resources which once exploited cannot be
reproduced or supplied in the near future such as petroleum, coal.

Human Resources
Human resource means the number and quality of human beings. Education and
health increase man's physical and mental capacity. Man himself is a major resource who
uses the natural elements as resource on the basis of his knowledge, labour and technical
know how. He is the producer and the consumer of resources.
Man made Resources
Man-made resources are those which are produced by man to utilize the physical
environment such as machines, buildings, tools etc.
Land Resources
Land is an important natural resource. It is the basis of the whole living world. Land
is used for housing, roads, railways, farming, pastures and mining etc. Land use is not the
same in different areas. 29% of the earth is landmass and 71% is covered with water.
Agricultural Resources
Land, soil and water are the fundamental means of farming. Farming is easier in
coastal areas and in the alluvial soil of the river valleys. The per acre crop production
has increased with the help of fertilizers, pesticides, various means of irrigation, hybrid
seeds and machines.
Water Resources
Water on the earth's surface is obtained through rains, rivers, lakes, ponds, glaciers,
waterfall wells, tube wells. The water is used for irrigation, industry, domestic supply,
fish farming and water transport. In the whole world, most of the water is used for
farming. Much water is wasted in floods and this leads to loss of property and crops
every year. For better use and management of water, multipurpose river valley projects
have been prepared.
Soil Resources
Good soil is essential for the growth of vegetation. Living beings are dependent on
plants for their food. Soil formation is a slow process. In soil formation types of rocks,
climate, land slope, types of vegetation have specific contribution. Fertility of soil
depends on all these.
Forest Resources
30% of the total land area of the world is covered by forests. Forests are found
only in those areas which have adequate rains. Forests do not grow in dry and snowy
areas. Forests have specific importance for us. The trees absorb Carbon-di-oxide from
the atmosphere and release Oxygen, therefore forests are considered as the store house
of life giving Oxygen for all living beings. Forests conserve water and soil. They increase

the underground water level. They also prevent soil erosion and trauma of floods. Forests
are safe habitat for wild life. Many industries are based on wood and medicinal plants
found in forests.
1.4 Relationship of Man and Environment and its Effects
Man and environment are dependent on each other, environment nurtures the human
race and in turn is also influenced by man. Man is directly related to environment and
like man, other living beings are also dependent on environment for food, water, air and
shelter. Man and other living beings use things given by nature. Man is dependent on the
factors of environment for his physical, cultural, industrial and economic progress. By
using the elements of the natural environment he has built farms, factories, towns, cities,
roads, railways, dams and canals. Religion, beliefs and practices and culture have all
developed on the same basis.
The environment has deteriorated due to human interference with the natural
environment. As a result of population growth, urbanization, industrialization, farming,
transportation and progress in technology the natural structure has changed. Previously
man considered nature as a means of sustaining life but in the modern industrial era he
wants to dominate nature by exploiting its treasures in irrational ways. This has polluted
the air, water and soil and food. At some places forests are being destroyed where as
in other places vegetation is being destroyed. Thousands of people are suffering from
droughts, floods and land slides. The stores of natural resources are gradually being
exhausted. Fertile land is being transformed into barren land, deserts are increasing and
agricultural land is decreasing. Even the increasing means of irrigation and modern ways
of farming are proving inadequate to supply sufficient food for the growing population.
Actually all these conditions are created by man himself. Man creates an imbalance in
the environment by the injudicious exploitation of nature for short term profit which
results in environmental pollution. This state of imbalance is also hazardous for the
vegetation and other living things. Man has created his cultural environment with the help
of good food, housing accessibility, desire to rest and cognitive skills.

Pollution : The unwanted change occurring in the natural formation and

balance of the environment is known as environmental pollution.
Pollutants : The unusable substances responsible for pollution which are
present in excess quantity are called pollutants. Pollutants are of two types.
1. Natural Pollutants 2. man- made pollutants such as pesticides, fertilizers,
glass, plastic, radio active substances, metals, lead, various types of chemicals.

1.5 Types of Pollution and their Impact on the Environment
Air Pollution : Disturbance of balance among the various gases in the air or the
presence of unwanted gases is known as air pollution. It is produced due to smoke
coming out of factories, use of pesticides, chemical tests and decomposition of litter
and dead organic matter. Increase of Carbon-di-oxide in the atmosphere has increased
the temperature of the atmosphere. As a result the polar ice caps are melting and sea
level may rise by about a meter causing submergence of coastal regions. Burning of coal
and mineral oil also adds Sulphur di oxide in the atmosphere which results in the burning
of the eyes, hoarseness of the throat, respiratory and lung diseases. Air pollution also
causes acid rains. The danger of increase in the hole in the Ozone layer is also on the
rise because of air pollution.

Acid Rain : The Sulphur-di-oxide and Nitrogen gases coming out of the
factories mixup in the atmosphere, they react with the existing vapours and
produce sulphuric acid and nitric acid respectively. This acid pours down
with the rain water on the earth. It is called acid rain. The term 'acid rain'
was first coined by a British scientist in 1873.
In India the concentration of gases producing acid rain in the atmosphere
of cities such as Agra, Mumbai and Delhi is on the rise. Acid rain destroys
the green covering of the earth. Leaves start falling from the trees and the
immunity of the plants is reduced. Standing crops in the fields are destroyed.
Ozone hole : It is about 20-35 km. above the sea level in the atmosphere. This
layer absorbs the ultraviolet rays coming from the sun and thus protects the
living beings on the earth. Ozone is a composite group of atoms. Due to the
excessive use of Chloro Flouro Carbon (CFC) in appliances such as refrigerators
and air conditioners, a hole is caused in the ozone layer. This hole was first of all
observed above Antartica in 1985, now the hole has got extended to South
Australia, North America and Europe.
Due to the hole in the Ozone layer the wrath of ultraviolet rays on the earth's
surface is spreading. As a result the possibility of skin cancer is increasing. It also
reduces the immunity of the human body. Due to the decreasing rate of photosynthesis,
growth of flora and fauna is hampered and forests are drying up. Carbon-di-oxide and
other heat resistant gases absorb some part of the heat and reflect it back to the earth's
surface. As a result extra heat is stored in the lower atmosphere and its temperature
increases. This is called Global warming.
Water Pollution: The entry of some unwanted substances in the natural water
which reduce its purity is known as water pollution. Polluted water is not suitable for
man, animals, vegetation, sea animals and irrigation. The causes of water pollution are

soil erosion, leaves of trees, domestic ● Approximately 90% surface water is
drainage and sewage, effluents from
polluted in India.
factories, fertilizers and pesticides and
the hot water flowing from nuclear ● The Ganga, Hugli, Damodar, Gomti,
reactors and spreading of mineral oil on Yamuna, Godawari rivers are polluted
sea surface. Lead, Mercury, Chromium due to the industrial and the urban
dissolved in the polluted water destroy wastes and sewerage.
the intestines and cells of the kidney.
The polluted water results in the excessive growth of algae in rivers and lakes. This
results in the depletion of dissolved oxygen due to which fishes and other aquatic
animals die of suffocation.
Noise Pollution : Any sound that disturbs the mental activities is known as noise
pollution. Therefore
● Unit of noise is Decibel
noise is an unwanted
sound. Any sound which ● 66-75 decibel sound is considered as a normal noise.
is at a high pitch than ● Noise level of 140 decibels causes nervous disorder.
normal voice is called
noise. Fast increasing ● Rio-de-Janeiro is the city having highest noise in the
population, factories, world, where noise pollution is 120 decibel.
railways, means of road ● According to a survey in Mumbai metropolis of India
transport, aeroplanes, people are suffering from lack of peace, tension and
radio speakers, crackers uneasiness due to noise pollution.
and sound producing
instruments are the sources of noise. Due to noise pollution man becomes disturbed and
tense. This increases irritability and headaches and also has ill effects on the health.
Soil Pollution: Any unwanted change in the physical, chemical or biological
attributes of the earth which destroys the fertility and utility of land, is soil pollution.
Excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers, industrialization, urbanization, plastic and
polythene, continuous irrigation with salty water, domestic litter, waste from hospitals,
waste from mines etc. are various causes of soil pollution. Soil pollution and litter make
the visible land dirty. Due to the deposition of the waste or coarse material the land
becomes unsuitable for other uses. There is danger of soil erosion, land slides and
conversion of land into ravines. Hundreds of acres of land around the destitute Magraha
coal mine has sunk. The hoardings placed around it read 'Danger Zone', 'Don't go ahead'
meaning that the earth's crust has been destroyed.
Radioactive Pollution: Due to the use of nuclear elements for various purposes
radioactive particles enter the atmosphere and produce radio active pollution. Uranium,

Thorium, Schizium, Plutonium, Cobalt, Strontium etc. are radioactive substances used in
nuclear processes. They are the causes of Radioactive pollution. The effects of radiation
spreading from radio active substances are long lasting. The excessive energy released
during nuclear tests destroys human and animal cells. The harmful radio active substances
such as strontium destroy fertility of soil.
● Radio active pollution has both direct and indirect effects on our
● Radio active radiation directly enters our bodies through the
respiratory track in the form of air and gases.
● It indirectly affects our bodies through the food chain.
● The radio active substances harm the bone-marrow, white blood
corpuscles, lymphocytes and spleen in our bodies and causes cancer
and infertility.
Thermal Pollution : An unwanted increase in normal temperature in the world
which affects the biosphere is Thermal Pollution. Carbon dioxide, Methane, C.F.C.,
Nitrous oxide, heat from thermal power stations, water from industries, Ozone hole,
forest fire and nuclear tests increase atmospheric temperature. Drought, floods, drying
of permanent water sources, increase in sea level, extinction of water animals, low
agricultural production due to climate change, ozone depletion etc. are the ill effects of
thermal pollution.
1.6 Change in land use and its effects
Primitive man used to collect food from nature for his sustenance. Then he was
totally dependent on nature. Available water and air were adequately pure in those times. As
time passed, science and technology developed. In his efforts to win over nature, man
started influencing the environment to fullfill his own needs. He made unnecessary
disturbances in the natural environment. As a result of rapid progress by man and
consequent urbanization and industrialization the natural environment underwent significant
changes. The major cause of decline of the natural environment in the world is the changing
form of land use.
In India forests are being destroyed to increase agricultural fields. For human
settlement rural areas are being captured by urban people. Open areas are gradually
disappearing. Deforestation, construction of big dams for hydro-electricity and irrigation,
spread of new roads and railways and development of factories has transformed land use
in India to a great extent. This has disturbed the natural balance. The habitat of various
types of animals have been destroyed and thousands of species of flora and fauna have
become extinct.
The continuous interference with the environment for the sake of human settlement
and industrial and economic development is causing environmental degradation.
The degradation of the natural environment is the result of continuous and irrational
exploitation of natural resources by man. Many factors are responsible for the changing
form of land all over the world; The following factors are responsible for this -
Population growth and reproduction : Today in various countries enormous
growth in the number of human beings has resulted in population explosion. Human life
span has improved due to progress in the field of medicine. The mortality rate has come
down. Deaths due to ailments, drought, war etc. are on the decline. As a result mortality
rate has unexpectedly gone down and population has gone up. Due to growth in
population problems such as crowds, unemployment, scarcity of resources, pollution,
mental and social tensions have come up.
Deforestation : Deforestation
means irrational cutting of forests
or plants from some regions.
Reduction of forests is the result of
human efforts. In the old method of
shifting cultivation, trees were cut
and burnt. The land was used for
farming for sometime and then
discarded. This method of farming
harmed the forests. Due to the
construction of huge dams, building of hydro electricity projects, distribution of
electricity and spread of railways and roads, extension of habitat areas and cutting of
trees for fuel and industries, forests have been harmed.
For environmental balance in India, 33% of the total land should be covered by
forests, but this percentage is only 21 at present. The excessive deforestation in
Himalayan and northeastern border areas have resulted in soil erosion. Land slides in
these areas are a common occurrence. The underground water level in Rajasthan, Gujarat
and Haryana has gone down. The desert areas have increased.
Excessive Grazing : Excessive use of forest land for grazing and intake of
vegetation by domestic animals is called excessive grazing. As a result vegetation does
not grow again very fast in these areas. The ill effect is that the layer of vegetation from
land is destroyed. Due to soil erosion the danger of spread of deserts arises. In such
areas soil absorbs less water and plants do not get adequate water. Such a situation has
developed in the highlands of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Western Madhya Pradesh.
Harmful Experiments in Agriculture : In order to fulfil the increasing demand of
food crops there is a common practice to use plenty of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and
weed killing chemicals to enhance production. Salination has increased as a result of
inadequate drainage of water from the fields. Nutrients of the soil are reduced due to
prevalence of excessive water . About 33 lakh hectares of land falling in the areas of the
Chambal, the Mahi, the Yamuna, the Sabarmati and their tributaries have turned into ravines.
Excessive mining means digging of land for extracting minerals and other substances. In
India about 80 lakh hectares of land is under mining. Trees are being cut from the land. As
a result currents of underground water are hampered, land slides, deposition of waste
material, soil erosion and formation of new land forms occur. The ill effects of excessive
mining can be observed in Doon valley formed by the Ganga and Yamuna, which are
surrounded by the Himalayan ranges. Previously this valley area was world famous for the
production of Basmati Rice, Litchi and Tea. But now due to uncontrolled mining of lime
stone only 12% valley area has greenery. In the Jaipur, Jodhpur and Udaipur districts due to
mining of stones the surrounding greenery has been destroyed. The Kanger valley national
park is in danger because of Dolomite mines of Bastar.
Urbanization : Cities are extended by including nearby rural areas. For extension
generally the farms, forests and pasture land are captured. The process of extension of
cities is urbanization. As a result of urbanization there is increase in population density
and transport facilities, roads, railways, hospitals, community centers etc. are on rise. All
these increase the pollution. The increasing deposition of waste influences human health.
About 5 crore people in India reside in the four metropolises of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata
and Chennai. These cities are suffering from drinking water problem, urban pollution,
unemployment and lack of peace.
Industrialization and Extension of slums : Keeping in mind the present and
future needs, factories producing various goods are increasing in number. The process
of establishment and extension of industries is called Industrialization. In the process, on
the one hand farms and forests are used and on the other hand raw materials from the
mines have to be supplied. These factories release poisonous gases in the atmosphere.
This disturbs atmospheric balance and increases air pollution. The waste materials are
left open in surrounding areas. The polluted water is drained in the rivers which directly
influences human health and environment. Industrialization is the main source of air,
water, noise, land, chemical and radio active pollution. In Kolkata a metropolis of India
the water of Damodar and Hugli rivers has been poisoned by the effluents of the hearby
steel factories, chemical industries, distillaries and paper and jute mills. The same is true
of the Ganga, Yamuna and Chambal rivers. Therefore industry is a boon but a curse for
the environment.
Construction of Huge Dams : Exploitation of natural resources is indispensable,
for the fulfilment of the needs of growing population. Along with land, forest and
mineral resources, water resources have also been exploited.
Dams are being constructed on big rivers for purposes of irrigation, hydro-
electricity, canals, fishing, water transportation and flood control. About 700 dams have

been constructed after independence. These dams are useful for the generation of
electricity, storing water for irrigation and drinking purposes, recreation facilities like
boating, fishery development etc. However along with these benefits, large dams also
have some adverse effects on the environment. Whenever a river valley project is started
the construction of houses for the workers, construction of roads, railways and underground
tunnels becomes essential. As a result the greenery of large areas surrounding the
construction site disappears. The artificial lakes made from the huge dams drowns
forests and farm land. The alkalinity of the land increases due to water drained from the
canals of the dam and its fertility decreases. Due to the prevalence of continuous water
in dam and canal areas the nearby land becomes unsuitable for agriculture. Human
settlements are displaced from the dam areas. Many families were displaced from dam
areas such as in the Bhakra dam and Pong dam . The later were rehabilitated in desert
Big dams bring in their wake displacement of human population, irrepairable loss
to wild life, diversion of agricultural land and shrinkage of forest cover. The golden rule
therefore is that the above problems be kept in mind while constructing big dams.
For the construction of Indira Sagar and Sardar Sarovar dams at
Narmada river many families were displaced. What were the problems
faced by them? Discuss in your class.
Facilities for Tourism, Pilgrimage, Entertainment and adventure activities
Progress of the means of tourism, pilgrimage and entertainment is also an effective
cause of environmental degradation. Generally all these facilities are developed in those
areas which are the source of natural environment and fresh water. In India such places
are basically the national parks, sanctuaries, areas of biodiversity, origin of rivers and
peaks of mountains. The main cause of environmental degradation in areas used for
tourism, pilgrimage, and adventures is human activities. Tourists going to Amarnath
throw polythene bags and litter on their way. Mountaineers also leave the left overs on
their route. Besides the arrangement of stay at these places also encourage environmental

Environment : Surroundings or the conditions under which a person or thing
exists and develops his or its character. It covers both physical
and cultural elements.
Natural resources : Wealth provided by nature like mineral deposits, soil fertility,
timber, fuel, water potential, aquatic animals and wild life.
Resource : Any thing on the earth which is useful for man.
Creater : one who creates.
Conservation : To save or to preserve.
Multipurpose : Something which has more than one objective or purpose.
Land Slide : Land sliding down under the force of gravity of a mass of land
on a mountain or hill side
Nitric Acid : When Nitrous oxide reacts with water it forms nitric acid which
is a poisonous gas.
Disease Resistant : To have the capacity to resist a disease.
Ozone Layer : An allotropic form of oxygen, Ozone consists of three atoms of
oxygen. It is a thick layer in the atmosphere which prevents
harmful ultra violet rays from reaching the earth and protect life
on the earth.
I. Choose the correct answer.
1. Unit of measuring noise is -
(i) Centimeter (ii) Decibel
(iii) Celsius (iv) Millibar
2. City with the highest intensity of noise in the world
(i) Mumbai (ii) New York
(iii) Rio-de-Janeiro (iv) Tokyo
3. Where was the Ozone hole observed in 1985 ?
(i) Australia (ii) Antartica
(iii) Western Europe (iv) Alaska
4. Ozone layer is
(i) 15 km above the earth's surface
(ii) 5-10 km above the earth's surface
(iii) 75-100 km above the earth's surface
(iv) 32-80 km above the earth's surface
5. Main cause of environmental degradation is
(i) Increase in tourism (ii) Shifting cultivation
(iii) Changing nature of land use (iv) All the above

6. Population explosion is
(i) Migration
(ii) Equal death rate and birth rate
(iii) Crowding
(iv) Continuous increase in number of humans
7. 'Cut and Burn' is related to-
(i) Shifting cultivation (ii) Tourism and pilgrimage
(iii) Mining (iv) Construction of dam
II. Fill in the blanks :
1. Any physical thing or matter, which is valuable to man is called ............. .
2. ................% of the earth is landmass and .............% is covered with mater.
3. ............% of the total land area of the world is covered by forests.
4. The term 'acid rain' was first coined by a British Scientists in ............ .
5. Bastar is famous for .................... mines.
Very short answer type of questions
1. What do you mean by environment ?
2. What is the meaning of cultural environment ?
3. Name five polluted rivers of India.
4. What is global warming ?
Short answer type questions
1. How does air or noise pollution affect human health? Explain.
2. How do radio active substances spread pollution ?
3. Differentiate between pollution and pollutants ?
4. Explain the problem of Ozone depletion.
5. What is soil pollution ? What are its ill effects ?
6. What do you understand by population explosion ?
7. How does overgrazing affect the quality of land ?
8. Describe the process of shifting agriculture.
9. What is deforestation ? List the reasons of deforestation.
10. Insecticides should not be used in excess amount. Why?
11. What are the harmful effects of mining on the environment of a region ?

12. How does urbanization destroy the environment ?
Long answer type questions
1. Explaining the Indian concept of environment. Describe how man is related to
his environment ?
2. What is environment ? What are the main elements of environment ? How has
man affected the environment ? Explain.
3. What do you mean by pollution ? Describe different types of pollution.
4. What is the meaning of resource ? Describe various types of resources with
5. How does changing use of land affect the environment ? Explain.
6. How does over population affect human life? Explain.
7. How is the construction of huge dams harmful for the environment? Explain.
8. Centralization of industries is very dangerous for the environment. Explain
with examples.
9. What do you mean by water pollution? River pollution is increasing in India.

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Efforts and successes of Environmental Conservation

We Will Study  2.1 Need for Environmental Conservation

A variety of plants and animals live on the
2.1 Need for Environmental
earth. Man is the most intelligent and powerful
living being, but nature has not given him the right
2.2 A study of Environmental
to destroy the resources. It is necessary to use
them carefully. Today environmental imbalance is
2.3 Role of Environment
the burning problem of the world. To rectify the
Impact Assessment (E.I.A.)
problems of pollution it is necessary to make
2.4 'Chipko' movement
people aware of the need to protect the
2.5 Silent valley
environment. Environmental conservation is
2.6 C.N.G.
possible only when environmentalists, leaders and
2.7 Efforts for water
policy makers make collective efforts.

2.2 Study of Environmental Effects

Environmental conservation is the planned management of the environment and the
resources to prevent its destruction and exploitation.
World population is increasing at an alarming rate, due to which natural resources
are in great demand. Pollution is increasing day by day due to rapid and irrational
exploitation. Keeping in mind the needs of the future it is necessary to conserve plants,
animals and other natural resources (water, air, minerals).
Man is also a component of nature. Human existence without nature is possible for
a short time but not for ever. If human beings want to exist in future they have to be
friendly with nature. For which we should keep in mind the following points.
● Use of family planning and birth control measures to control population
● Use of biofertilizers and vermicomposting in agriculture.
● Pumping underground water by using solar energy.
● Use of biogas for cooking.
● Construction of dams and water dividers for irrigation.

● Encouragement plantation.
● Following crop rotation.
● Conservation of wildlife, plants and animals and development of National
parks and Sanctuaries.
● Enforcing Prohibition of bird and animal hunting.
● Enforcing Prohibition of use of plastic.
● Use of non-conventional energy sources (as solar energy, wind energy).
● Management of urban waste by municipal corporations.
● Recycling of industrial waste and products.
● Maintenance of machines in industries and control of noise pollution
World Forest day, Water day, Population day and Environment Day with social
participation to increase people's awareness towards environment should be organised.
2.2 Study of Environmental Effects
The progress of man in different fields of life is the result of uncontrolled
exploitation of natural resources. Currently environmental pollution has reached its
highest level. It is very dangerous for human society.
Till now while preparing a project for development we have concentrated on three
1. The project should maximize economic return.
2. The project should be technically feasible
3. It should be minimally harmful for the environment.
Now we are concentrating more on the third objective. To fulfil this objective
Envionmental Impact Assessment is necessary.
2.3 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
The Environmental Impact Assessment aims to achieve sustained development with
minimum harm to the environment and to prevent any short-term and long-term adverse
effects on the environment. EIA evaluates the beneficial and adverse effects of
development projects, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The aim of EIA is to ensure
that development is achieved with minimal degradation of the environment. Envrionmental
Impact Assessment is a concept which seeks to find ways to ensure that the developmental
process and protection of the environment progress in harmony. Whenever a new
development project is planned, it is necessary to know its effects on the climate of that
particular area, vegetation, animals and society. How will the development projects such
as power plants, dams, iron and steel industries affect the environment? It is very

necessary in edible oil, paper and cement industry therefore it is mandatory to prepare
an Environment Impact Statement (EIS) before implementation of these projects.
Environmental Impact Assessment is an important technique of maintaining
environmental quality. Its aims and objectives are as follows -
● Development without causing damage to environment
● Maintenance of quality of environment
● Sustainable development so that the present as well as future generations
are able to meet their needs
● Emphasis on prevention rather than cure of envionmental degradation
● Use of EIA as an effective tool of design making on development action
Environmental Impact Statement is prepared before planning a project which
includes information related to land, surface, soil, animals, socio-economic effects,
pollution and disaster management.

Elements of EIA
● Effect on land including land degradation
● possibility of earthquakes
● possible effects on surface and ground water quality, soil and air
● possible effects on plants, wild life and endangered species
● Estimation of level of noise pollution
● Socio-economic impact
● Recycling and reduction of waste
● Efficient use of wastes and residuals
● Risk analysis and disaster management

Methods of Environmental Impact Assessment

Environmental Impact Assessment is conducted in three stages. These three stages
are Initial Scrutiny, Rapid Envionmental Impact Assessment and Comprehensive Impact
Initial screening of a project is done to decide whether the impact assessment is
actually needed for the project being undertaken or not. If it is felt that the project is
likely to cause some adverse effects on the environment, it is subjected to Rapid
Environmental Assessment. Rapid Assessment attempts to identify the key issues in a
project. Comprehensive Environmental Assessment is undertaken after the Initial and

Rapid Impact Assessment have been performed. Critical aspects of the project are taken
up at this stage. If needed, the project may not be approved for implementation.
In India, the Environmental Impact Assessment of development projects is the
responsibility of the Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India. The
ministry constitutes Environmental Appraisal Committee for different sectors of
development projects. These projects are related to river valley and irrigation, mining,
industries, thermal power projects, tourism, metallurgy, textile, rubber, leather, paper,
transport and chemical industries etc. special expert committees are formed for different
projects and EIA is prepared by them.
2.4 Chipko movement
The Chipko movement proved a successful strategy for protecting natural resources.
It is not only a movement to save trees, but it also provides the basis for permanent
economic welfare (in terms of food, grass, fuel, fertilizers and clothing) by making a
demand for a total transformation in land policy. The scope of this movement is not
confined to India but it extends to Switzerland, Germany and Holland. Women's
participation in this movement is remarkable. The success of the Chipko movement has
proved that the solution to intense problems is not possible by only making laws, rather
public awareness and comprehension of rights are also essential for it.
The Chipko movement was started in 1974. That year an Allahabad based sports
production company named Simond was given the contract of cutting trees of the Angu
species in Chamoli district. The wood of the trees of Angu species is used to make
agricultural tools. The use of this wood was prohibited for local people. The decision to
auction off hundreds of acres of forest area in the Renigaon of Chamoli created much
dissatisfaction among the people. The forest department tried to pacify their revolt by
inviting the menfolk of Renigaon and nearby villages to Chamoli for payment of
compensation for the role they had played during war time. At the same time the forest
workers and labourers reached Renigaon to cut trees, creating much disturbance in the
village. In the absence of the menfolk, an ordinary woman named Gangadevi came
forward to resist cutting of trees by the forest labourers. She went door to door and
motivated girls and women to register their revolt. Under the leadership of Murarilal and
Gangadevi about 27 women and girls embraced the trees. Thus a non-violent technique
of Chipko was used to save trees under the leadership of Gangadevi. The women said that
the forest was their parental home. They would not let it be cut at any cost. Even the guns
of contractors and forest employees and the bribery offered by them could not
discourage the women's. Their resistance finally transformed the forest labourers' hearts.
The women kept on surrounding and embracing trees for two days and nights continuously.
They also broke the one and only bridge at the entrance of the forest. After this event

of 26th March 1974, Renigaon became the battlefield of the Chipko movement. All over
the Uttarakhand, people witnessed a new zeal to protect forests after this event.
Afterwards Shri Sundarlal Bahuguna walked 2800 km. in order to speed up this
movement. Looking at the direction and intensity of the movement, the State Govt.
finally banned felling of forests in Renigaon area and the practice of giving contracts
also came to an end with the establishment of the U.P. Forest Development Corporation.
The Chipko movement got national publicity.
The demand of the Chipko movement activists to declare the forests of the
Himalayan region as protected area was also accepted. For the next 15 years the cutting
of the green trees of the Himalayan forests was prohibited. In the second phase, the
Chipko movement took a creative mode in the form of speedy plantation. Due to mass
support to the Chipko movements for protection of trees, the felling of forests came to
a halt. All this made possible the conservation of forests, increase in fertility of land and
control of hunting.
2.5 The Silent valley
The Silent valley is a small forest area of Kerala. It is located in the Western Ghats
on the South-west slopes of the Niligiri hills. Its total area is 90 Kms. It is surrounded
by high hills on all sides. Due to unapproachable tracts, this area is uninhabited. This
valley is a treasure of unique and valuable vegetation and animals. The Kuntipooja river
flows from the centre of the Silent Valley.
The Kerala Electricity Board wants to produce hydro electricity by constructing a dam
on the Kuntipooja river. This proposal has given rise to much environmental debate. The
Department of Environment in the Central Govt. has asked the Kerala Govt. to reconsider the
construction of the dam. A committee has been formed to look into this issue.
According to a report of this Committee the Silent Valley is the homeland of
certain unique types of vegetation and forest animals. The equatorial rain forests of this
area are safe only in the absence of human disturbances. The committee under the
chairmanship of M.G.K. Menon has recommended that no dam should be constructed as
it will do irreversible loss to the environment.
The Silent Valley was declared a national park in 1985. Due to public movement the
valuable rain forests, rarely available vegetation and animals could be protected.
2.6 C.N.G.
Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a cheaper, more efficient and less polluting
energy resource, which is useful for vehicles. CNG is less polluting than diesel; keeping
in mind its benefits the Delhi High Court has ordered the use of CNG in place of biofuel
in buses, tempo, autorickshaw running in Delhi. Delhi Bus Transport System has thus
become the biggest CNG run transport system in the world. Air pollution has decreased

in Delhi after the use of CNG begun. Now-a-days the idea of using CNG for other
purposes is under consideration.
2.7 Efforts for water conservation
A few years back the forests in Jhabua district of Madhya Pradesh were ruthlessly
cut. This resulted in the decreasing fertility of land, increasing soil erosion and reducing
employment opportunities. Consequently the local population was forced to migrate. In
the year 1994 the Rajeev Gandhi Water Storage Mission was started to eliminate the
problems of draught and deforestation. This mission involves the consumer at the end
point with the land and water conservation programme, specially stressing on his
participation in the on going process and in its maintenance. Under this mission stop
dams and ponds were constructed for water storage on local public demand. As a result
the quantity of available water increased, soil erosion was prevented, water became
easily available for irrigation, plants and animals. Consequently the agriculture products
and live stock increased.
In 1999 the state Govt. made it compulsory for the Sarpanch of every Panchayat
under 'Ek Panch Ek Talab' scheme to construct at least one new pond and repair the old
one during his office of five years. Thus about 3412 ponds were rebuilt and 500 new
ponds were constructed in a duration of less than 15 months. One-fourth of the cost was
borne by the people.
In the year 2000 under the 'Pani Roko Abhiyan' water storage was increased by
making small dams. This resulted in the development of 7 lacs water catchment areas.
Under the 'Gaon ka pani Gaon mein Evam khet ka pani khet mein" programme, water
was stored in the farms by constructing hedges. This benefitted about 20,000 villages.
All the above efforts of water conservation were made in Madhya Pradesh followed by
other states.
Environmental conservation is the crucial need of today's human society. The
Chipko movement, the Silent Valley project, use of CNG in Delhi for protection from
air pollution and water catchment and conservation efforts of Madhya Pradesh are some
of the landmarks in the area of envionmental Protection.

Crop Rotation : It is a method through which the imbalance in the soil created by
nutrient loss is corrected. Different crops are sown according to
season to increase the fertility of the soil.

Recycling : Recycling means salvaging material in order to reuse them.
Organic Farming : In this type of farming artificial chemical fertilizers are not used.
Instead organic forms of manures such as cow dung or green
manures are used for growing crops.
Biofertilizer : They are the organisms which bring about enrichment of soil
nutrients, such as bacteria and fungi.
I. Choose the correct answer:
a. In modern agriculture encouragement is given to -
(i) Organic farming (ii) Use of biofertilizers
(iii) Use of biological pest control (iv) All the above.
b. Last stage of EIA is-
(i) Comprehensive Environmental Assessment
(ii) Study of critical aspects
(iii) Rapid Environment Assessment (iv) Risk analysis.
c. In India EIA is the responsibility of-
(i) Ministry of Environment and forest (ii) Ministry of Defense
(iii) Ministry of Tourism (iv) Ministry of Agriculture
d. Chipko Movement was started in
(i) Karnataka (ii) Eastern India
(iii) UttaraKhand (iv) Kerala
e. First of all the use of CNG in India was started in
(i) Mumbai (ii) Delhi
(iii) Kolkata (iv) Chennai
II. Fill in the blanks :
1. Silent valley is a small forest area of ................... .
2. The chipko movement was started in .................. .
Very short answer type questions
1. What is the meaning of environmental conservation? Explain.
2. What do you understand by Environmental Impact Assessment?
3. Which ministry in India is responsible for making EIA?
4. What is modern farming?
5. What do you understand by organic farming?
6. Name three stages of EIA.
7. Why do we need envionmental conservation?
Short answer type questions
1. What is the Chipko movement? What are its basic elements?
2. To fulfil which important objectives is environmental conservation necessary?
3. What is the role of EIA? What are the basic contents for preparing EIS?
4. What is the meaning of CNG? In which field its use is maximum in India?
Long answer type questions
1. What is the meaning of the Chipko movement? How was it started and what
were the reasons of its international fame?
2. Write a short note on the Silent Valley.
3. Describe in detail the efforts for water conservation in Madhya Pradesh.

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India : Location and Physical Divisions

3.1 India-Geographical Location and

We will study  Extent
3.1 India - Geographical India is one of the oldest countries of the world.
Location and Extent When the western countries were still at the preliminary
3.2 India - Administrative stage of development, the culture of this country was at
units its peak. India is also known as Aryavarta, Hindustan and
Bharat. India is developing rapidly after Independence. It
3.3 India -Physical
is the world's largest democracy. From the point of view
Divisions of economy and military power also, India has estab-
lished its position as a rising power. The geographical
situation of India gives it a marked advantage for international trade.
Location : See the location of India in the given map of the world. You will find
that India is situated in the Northern Hemisphere in the southern part of the continent-
Asia. Towards its south lies the Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal is in the east and the
Arabian sea is in the west.
The latitudinal extent of the main land of India is 8°4' North to 37°6' North and
the longitudinal extent is from 68°7' East to 97°25' East. The tropic of Cancer (23°30'N)

divides the country into almost two equal parts. 82°30'E is the standard meridian for
Indian Standard Time. The standard time for the country is calculated from the standard
meridian. See the location and extent of India from the map and find out which of the
states does the standard meridian pass through. Also find out through which states does
the tropic of Cancer pass. Apart from the main land Andaman Nicobar Islands in the Bay
of Bengal and the Lakshdweep in the Arabian Sea are also part of India.
● Tropic of Cancer divides the country into almost two equal parts.
● Less area of India is situated on the eastern part of the standard meridian.
● The western most state of the country is Gujarat and the eastern most state
is Arunachal Pradesh.

● The northern most state of India is Jammu and Kashmir and the southern
most state is Tamil Nadu.
● The extreme southern point of India is Indira point located in the Andman
and Nicobar Islands.
In the given map of India see the location of the neighbouring countries of India.
India is bounded by Pakistan and Afghanistan in the north-west, China, Nepal and Bhutan
in the north, Bangladesh and Myanmar in the east and Sri Lanka in the south. Palk Strait
is between India and Sri Lanka.
Coastal boundaries of India
Areawise, India is the seventh largest country in the world. 2.42% area of the world
is in India. Find out the East-West and North-South extent from the location map of
India. India covers an area of 32,87,263 Km2.
● India is a union of States, it has 28 States and 7 Union territories.
● The Capital of India is New Delhi.
● Areawise Rajasthan is the largest and Goa is the smallest state in the
● Andaman and Nicobar group of island is the largest and Lakshadweep
island is the smallest Union territory of India.
● Pondicherry is a Union territory, some areas of which are situated on the
eastern coast and some areas on the western coast.
● The seven states of the North-East are known as 'The Seven Sisters'.
● There are 593 districts in India. The largest district is Kachchh (Gujarat)
and the smallest district is Mahe (Pondicherry).
● There are 5470 Tehsils /Talukas in the country.
● There are 6,38,588 villages (including uninhabited villages) in the country.
Administratively India is divided into 28 states and 7 union territories. Prepare a
list of States and Union territories of India from the given political map of India. New
Delhi is the capital of India.
3.3 Physiographic Divisions of India
India is a country of diverse surface features. Every type of surface features like
mountains, plateau, plains, river valleys, deserts and Islands is found in our country. On
the basis of these surface features, gifted by nature, India can be divided into the
following physiographic regions-

1. The Northern Mountains
2. The Great Northern Plains
3. The Peninsular Plateau
4. The Coastal Region
5. Islands
1. The Northern Mountains
Extending along the northern boundary of India, the Himalayas are the highest
mountain range of the world, they are young folded mountains. These ranges extend from
the Indus river in the west to the Brahmaputra in the east. The Himalayas form an arc
between these two extremes, covering a distance of 2400 Kms. The width of the
Himalayas varies from 400 Km. in Kashmir to 150 Km. in Arunachal Pradesh. On the
basis of extent and height the Himalayas can be divided into three parts.

(i) The Greater Himalayas or the Inner Himalayas- The northern most ranges
are known as the Greater Himalayas or Inner- Himalayas or Himadri. This
range has all the highest peaks with an average height of 6000 metres. The
core of these ranges is made up of granite. This range is always covered with

snow and many glaciers flow in this region. Mt. Everest, the highest peak in
the world (8848 mtrs.) is located in Nepal. All the main peaks of India like
Kanchenjunga (8598 metres), Nanga Parbat, Nandadevi, Namcha Barwa etc.
belong to this range. Locate these mountain ranges in the given map.
(ii) The Middle Himalayas or the Himachal - Parallel and to the South of
the Greater Himalayas lie the ranges known as the Middle Himalaya or
Himachal. They are composed of highly compressed metamorphic and
sedimentary rocks. Slate and quartzite are the main rocks. The height of these
mountains varies between 3700 metres to 4500 metres and the average width
is 50 Km. The Kashmir valley and the Kangra and Kullu valleys of Himachal
are situated in these ranges. Pirpanjal and Dhauladhar are important ranges of
this area . Hill stations like Shimla, Mussoorie, Nainital and Darjeeling belong
to Middle Himalayas.
(iii) Shiwalik Ranges - Shiwalik ranges are the southern-most ranges of the
Himalayas. Locate these ranges in the given map of the Himalayas. The altitude

of these ranges is 900 to 1100 metres with the width ranging from 10 to 50
Km. This range is made up of sedimentary rocks. The valleys of this region are
covered with a thick layer of Alluvial soil and unconsolidated river deposits. In
between the middle Himalayas and Shiwaliks are the flat bottom longitudinal
valleys termed as 'Duns', such as in Dehrad Dun, Kothri Dun and Patli Dun.

●The Himalayas are also known as Punjab Himalaya (From Indus river to
Satluj river), Kumaon Himalaya ( from Satluj to Kali river) Nepal
Himalaya ( from Kali river to Tista river) and Assam Himalaya
( from Tista river to Brahmaputra river) on the basis of regions.
●There are some important passes in the Himalayas, such as the Karakoram
( Jammu and Kashmir), Shipkila (Himachal Pradesh), Nathula (Sikkim,
and Bomdila (Arunachal Pradesh) etc.
The Himalayan mountains protect us from the cold blizzards of central Asia.
Himalayan mountains are of great importance due to the fact that they have perennial
rivers, wild life and forest resources rich in medicines, scenic beauty, crops and
production of electricity. They are a store house of mineral resources.

2. The Great Northern Plains

The Northern Plains of India are made up of the deposition of fine silt by three

main river systems which are those of the Indus, the Ganga, the Brahmaputra and their
tributaries. It is also known as the plains of the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. This is
approximately 3,200 Km long and 150 to 300 Km. wide. It is almost a flat plain with
little relief. The deep fertile soil of this region, sufficient water and favourable climate
are very helpful in the development of agriculture. It is a densely populated area. It can
be divided into three parts -1 Western Plains. 2. Central Plains 3. Eastern Plains.
The Western Plains- It extends in Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan. It slopes from
North-East to South-West. Its western part is a desert known as The Thar desert. Luni is
the main river here. Satluj, Beas and Ravi rivers flow in the western side of Yamuna. It
is a very fertile land and in Punjab it is known as Khadar .
Central Plains - It stretches from the Yamuna river to Bangladesh covering a
distance of about 1400 Km. It is known as the Ganga plain. Its slope is from West to
East. The regions where the flood water reaches every year is known as 'Khadar' and
where it does not reach is known as 'Bangar'. The foothill region of the Himalayas is
known as the 'Tarai'. The soil of this region is known as Alluvial soil.

Bangar Land Khadar Land

1. It is the upland of the Northern 1. It is the lowland of the Northern
Plains made by older deposition. plains made by the newer alluvium.
Pebbles are also found here.
2. Flood water does not reach here. 2. This land is submerged in flood
3. Water level is deep. 3. Underground water level is high.
4. It extends mainly in Punjab and . 4. It extends in eastern Uttar
the plains of Uttar Pradesh Pradesh, Bihar and Bengal.
Eastern Plains - This plain is 650 Km. long and 100 Km. wide. It is also known
as the Brahmaputra Plain. It slopes from North -East to South-West.
The Central plain covers approximately one fourth area of India which supports
45% population of the country. This plain is made up of the alluvial soil of the Indus, the
Satluj, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra rivers has irrigation facilities, therefore, it is
called the ‘gift’ of the Himalaya. The Northern plain is agriculturally important. it is
densely populated. It possesses a network of canals, roads and railways. This plain has
been the birth place of civilization. Several centres of pilgrimage like Amritsar,
Kurukshetra, Mathura, Vrindavan, Prayag, Kashi, Gaya, Garhmukteshwar etc. are situated
in these plains.
3. The Peninsular Plateau
It is a part of the oldest landmass- the Gondwana land. Its average height from the

sea level is 600 to 900 metres. It is surrounded by seas on three sides and by landmass
on one side so it is also known as the Peninsular plateau. It is a triangular plateau with
its base in the north, from Delhi and Rajmahal hills to the northern plain. It is bordered
by the Eastern Ghats in the east and by the Western Ghats in the west and Kanyakumari
is at the southern tip. Areawise, the peninsular plateau is the largest physiographic
division of the country. The peninsular plateau is subdivided into two parts, the Central
Highlands and the Deccan Plateau.

The Central Highlands : The Northern part of the Peninsular Plateau comprises
of plateaus, uncovered mountain ranges and low mountains. It is made up of hard igneous
rocks. In the north-west it is flanked by the Aravallis which are very old fold mountains.
On the southern boundary of the central Highlands lies the Vindhyachal Mountains and
it continues as the Kaimur range eastward. The Malwa Plateau lies in between Amrawati
and Vindhyachal mountains.
This plateau is drained by the Betwa, the Parvati, the Kali Sindh, the Chambal and
the Mahi. The eastern part of the Central Highlands is known as the Bundelkhand. The
Baghelkhand plateau is situated in the east of Kaimur and Bhander hills. In the central
part of the Highlands, Vindhyachal and Kaimur hills form an escarpment between the
valleys of the Narmada and Son rivers, towards the east of the Son river. The Chota
Nagpur plateau of Jharkhand is also a part of this region. This plateau is drained by the
Mahanadi, the Son, the Subarnarekha and the Damodar. It is rich in minerals.
The Deccan Plateau - The Deccan plateau extends from the Satpura, Mahadev
and Maikal hills in the north to the southern tip of the peninsula. The north-western part
of the plateau is mainly made up of volcanic deposits. The western Ghats, form the
western edge of the Deccan plateau, which runs discontinuously from north to south
almost parallel to the Arabian Sea. In Maharashtra and Karnataka they are called the
Sahyadri. The Ghats are crossed by three gaps known as Thalghat, Bhorghat and Palghat.
They are called the Nilgiris in Tamil Nadu and along Kerala and Tamil Nadu border they
are known as the Annamalai and the Cardamom Hills. The Palghat gap separates the
Nilgiri and the cardamom Hills. The Palni Hills and the Cardamom Hills are branches of
Anaimalai Hills. The highest peak of Southern India, the Anai Mudi (2695 metres) is in
Palni Hills. The Eastern Ghat is 800 Km.long. Its highest peak is Mahendragiri. Gneiss
rocks are mainly found here.
The Peninsular plateau is made up of old rocks so it is rich in minerals.
Gold is found in Karnataka, Diamond, Marble, limestone and Manganese in
Madhya Pradesh, coal in West Bengal and Iron is found in Bihar and Orissa.
Maharashtra is famous for growing cotton because of the black cotton soil.
The South-Western Peninsular Plateau is known for the production of spices,
tea and Coffee. This region has the potential of generating hydro-electricity.
Several hill resorts like Ootacamund, Pachmarhi and Mahabaleshwar are
located in the plateau region.

5. Coastal Plains
The Peninslar Plateau of India from Kutch to Orissa is flanked by a narrow strip
of coastal lowlands or plains. Due to difference in their formation, this coastal plain is
divided into two parts- The West Coastal plain and the East Coastal Plain.

The West Coastal Plain extends from Gujarat to Kerala along the Arabian Sea.
These plains are narrow and are known as Konkan in the north and Malabar in the south
of Goa. The maximum width here is 40 Km. Here the rivers are small and fast flowing.
This region has very few major rivers like the Narmada and the Tapi. The rivers of the
West Coast form a tidal mouth. The coastal plains of Kutch and Gujarat are arid.

The East coastal plain extends in the delta region of rivers Mahanadi, Godavari,
Krishna and Kaveri flowing in the Bay of Bengal. Fertile alluvial soil is found here.
Chilka, Koleru and Pullicat lakes are situated on this coast. The northern part of the East
coast is known as the Northern Circars and its Southern part is called the Coromandel
West Coastal Plains East Coastal Plains
1. They extend along the Arabian Coast. 1. They extend along the Bay of Bengal.
2. These plains are narrow. 2. These plains are wider.
3. They are formed due to small but 3. They are formed due to the deposi-
fast flowing rivers. tion by the rivers Mahanadi,
Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri.
4. Deltas are not found on this coast. 4. Deltas are found here.

5. Indian Islands
The origin of the In-
dian Islands- Lakshadweep
and Andaman Nicobar is of
different types.
Lakshadweep Islands, lying
opposite to the coast of
Kerala in the Arabian Sea,
are formed by numerous
small Islands. These islands
are formed by the deposi-
tion of the coral polyps and
are known as Atolls.
The Andaman and
Nicobar Islands in the Bay
of Bengal are bigger islands
and are more in number.
They are scattered in a large
area and are far away from
the main land. These islands are the peaks of submerged hilly ranges. Some of them are
of volcanic origin. There are nearly 300 known and unknown Islands in the Andaman and
Nicobar covering an area of about 8249 Km2.

Standard Time : The Local time of the meridian 82°30' E is the standard time
of India.
Granite : Rocks formed by the slow cooling of a large intrusion of
Metamorphic Rocks : A rock resulting from the sedimentary and igneous rocks
changing their original character and appearance as a result
of extreme heat, pressure or chemical action inside the
earth's crust.
Deposition : Accumulation of sediments

Relief : Inequalities or variations in physical shapes and forms of the
earth's surface.
Bangar : Old alluvium of the plains
Khadar : New alluvium of flood plains
Alluvial Plains : Plains formed due to the deposition of alluvium by a river.
Gondwana Land : The southern part of the great Precambrian landmass, Pangaea.
It includes today's Africa, Australia and Antarctica.
Coral : Sedentary marine animals that live in Colonies. They are
found in clear, warm and shallow seas. A hard, calcareous
rock like substance is secreted by them which is deposited
and coral reefs are formed.
Submergence : Geologically, submergence means downward movement of
the earth surface.
Choose the correct Answer:
1. The standard time of India is calculated from -
(i) 72° E. longitude (ii) 80°30' W. longitude
(iii) 82°30' E. Longitude (iv) 85° E. longitude.
2. The tropic of Cancer does not pass through which state of India?
(i) Gujarat (ii) Maharashtra
(iii) Chhattisgarh (iv) Orissa.
3. The largest Union Territory of India is :
(i) Andaman Nicobar Islands (ii) Dadra and Nagar Haveli
(iii) Lakshadweep (iv) Pondicherry.
4. The Indian Peninsular Plateau is made of which type of rocks?
(i) Metamorphic (ii) Sedimentary
(iii) Oldest rock (iv) None of the above.
2. Very short answer type questions:
1. What are the different names of India?
2. What is the area of India?
3. How many states and union territories are there in India?
4. Name two neighbouring Island countries of India.

5. Name any two lakes situated on the East Coast of India.
6. Which Islands of India are formed by corals?
7. Name two important peaks of the Himalayan range.
8. What is the West-East extent of India?
3. Short answer type questions
1. Explain the importance of the geographical location of India.
2. Describe the Great Plains of northern India.
3. Describe briefly the Southern plateau.
4. What is the importance of the Himalayas for India? Explain.
5. Differentiate between Bangar and Khadar.
6. Describe briefly the east coastal plain.
4. Long answer type questions
1. Describe the physiographic divisions of India.
2. Describe the location and extent of India.
3 Describe the Himalayan Mountain range.
4. Describe the Peninsular Plateau.
5. Write short notes on - Indian Coastal Region, Indian Islands.
5. Answer the following questions referring to the Map of India.
1. The Latitude of Northern boundary of India.
2. Name the states adjoining China.
3. Name the States through which the Tropic of Cancer passes.
4. Name the rivers which join the Bay of Bengal.
5. Name any three passes located in the Himalayas.
6. True or false :
1. Indian ocean is situated in the south of India.
2. The seven states of North-west are called "The seven Sisters'.
3. The Andman and Nicobar Islands are situated in the Arabian sea.

7. Show the following in the outline map of India.
1. Tropic of Cancer and 82°30' E. longitude
2. Union Territories - Chandigarh and Pondicherry
3. Bomdila and Nathula passes
4. Raipur and Bhopal
5. The Narmada River and the Mahanadi
6. The Himalayas and the Vindhyas

Project Work :
● Divide the class into five groups and ask them to prepare a model and give
a presentation in the class on different physiographic features of India.
❖❖ ❖❖ ❖❖
India : Drainage System

We will study  4.1 Meaning of the Drainage System

The Drainage System means the river system of a
4.1 Meaning of Drainage particular area. If we see a physical map we find that
System small streams from different directions join the main
4.2 Indian drainage river. This main river flows and joins a huge water body
system like a lake, a sea or an ocean.
4.3 Lakes of India
The Amount of rainfall and topography form the
4.4 Adjoining seas
drainage system. The river and its tributaries drain the
4.5 Role of rivers in the
area and form the physical features of that region. This
economy of the
is known as the drainage system or the drainage area of
that river. Rivers form various land forms or features
4.6 River pollution and
by cutting, flowing and depositing. According to the
topographical structure rivers flow in various drainage
patterns. Observing the river map of India we find that any highland like mountains
separate two neighboring drainage basins. This high land is known as the water divide.
When one river captures the water of the other river it is called river capturing.
See the drainage pattern of the rivers of India and find out the source and the mouth
of the rivers.
4.2 Indian Drainage System
There is a difference in the drainage system of India due to its varied topography.
Indian rivers are divided into two categories.
1. Rivers of the Himalayas 2. Rivers of Peninsular India
1. Rivers of the Himalayas
The main feature of the Himalayan rivers is that they receive water throughout the
year. The rivers of this region receive water from rainfall as well as from the melting of
snow from ice capped mountains. As these rivers flow through high mountains they form
deep valleys, gorges and waterfalls. In their mature stage deposition in the plains takes
place. They form meanders, ox-bow lakes and flood plains in their middle and lower
course. Three large rivers originate from the Himalayas
The Indus System :
This system comprises the Indus and its tributaries. The length of the Indus river is

about 2900 Km. It rises in Tibet near Mansarovar and flows towards the west forming a
beautiful 500 metre deep gorge in the Laddakh district of Jammu and Kashmir. From here
it flows towards the Southwest, enters Pakistan and finally joins the Arabian Sea. The five
tributaries of the Indus are the Jhelum, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas and the Satluj. This

region of five rivers is known as the Punjab. The water of these rivers is used in Punjab,
Haryana and the South Western part of Rajasthan for irrigation.
The Ganges System :
The length of river Ganga is more than 2500 Km. Its source is near the Gangotri. The
Ganga enters the plains near Haridwar. Its main tributaries are the Yamuna, the Ghaghra, the
Gandak and the Kosi. These rivers form a fertile flood plain. They form meanders and ox-
bow lakes. Near Ambala a water divide separates the Ganga and the Indus drainage systems.
The Ganga receives some of its tributaries like the Chambal, the Ken, the Betwa,
the Son and the Damodar form the Peninsular Plateau. Big dams have been built on these
rivers which are used for hydroelectricity and irrigation. Flowing southward it forms a
delta and finally joins the Bay of Bengal. The main stream of the Ganges enters
Bangladesh and when it joins the Brahmaputra river it is called the Meghana.
The Brahmaputra System :
It rises near the Mansarovar Lake and the Kailash mountains. It flows parallel to the
Himalayas and enters Arunachal Pradesh. In India it flows for 1400 Km. Its tributaries
include Dibang, Luhit, Dhansiri, Kalang etc. It is heavily laden with silt and often
becomes sluggish. It is notorious for its annual floods due to heavy rainfall. The river
course often shifts during floods. River islands are also formed. It is known as Tsangpo
in Tibet, Brahmaputra in India and Padma and Meghana in Bangladesh. It forms a large
delta and finally drains into the Bay of Bengal.
2. Rivers of Peninsular India
The rivers of Peninsular India are seasonal. They flow from a dry area. Their length is also
less than those that originate from the Himalayas. They do not form plains. The main water
divides in Peninsular India are the Western Ghats which extend north-south near the western
coast. Rivers of Peninsular India like the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri
flow eastward and drain into the Bay of Bengal. They form deltas. The rivers flowing into the
Western Ghats are small. The Narmada and the Tapi are the two large westward flowing rivers.
They flow in a rift valley and forming a tidal mouth where these joins the Arabian Sea.
The Narmada
It rises from the Amarkantak plateau in Madhya Pradesh, flowing1312 Km. through a
rift valley and finally drains into the Arabian Sea. It drains Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. It
forms "Dhuandhar" falls in the marble rocks of Bhedaghat near Jabalpur. Its tributaries are
very small.
The Tapi :
It rises near Multai in Betul district in the Satpura ranges of Madhya Pradesh, It is
724 kms. long. It flows in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat and finally reaches

the Gulf of Cambay.
The Godavari
It rises from the western Ghats near Nasik and flows for 1500 Km. in Orissa and
Andhra Pradesh and drains in the Bay of Bengal. Wardha, Manjra, Venganga and Penganga
are its tributaries. It is the largest river system of Peninsular India. Due to its large area
it is also called Dakshin Ganga.
The Mahanadi
It rises in Sihawa a highland of Chhattisgarh. It is 858 Km. long. Its drainage basin lies
in Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Orissa. Hirakund Dam is built on this river.
The Krishna
It rises in Maharashtra near Mahabaleshwar. It is 1400 Km. long. It flows in
Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The Koyna, Panchganga, Malprabha, Ghat
prabha, Bhima, Musi and Tungbhadra are its major tributaries. Almati and Nagarjun Sagar
Dams are built on this river.
The Kaveri
It rises in the Brahmagiri hills in Coorg district. It is 760 Km. long. Hemavati,
Amaravati, Bhavani are its tributaries. The main waterfall on this river is Shivasamudram
waterfall. The water of this river is used for hydroelectricity and irrigation.
Rivers of Northern and Southern India
Rivers of Northern India Rivers of Southern India
1. The rivers of Northern India have 1. The rivers of the Southern India have
their origin in the Himalayas and the their origin in the Western Ghats,
Northern slopes of the Peninsular India. Satpura and Peninsular Plateau.
2. The waterfalls are less in number. 2. Waterfalls are more in number.
3. They are navigable. 3. They are Not navigable.
4. These rivers form deep valleys. 4. They flow in broad valleys.
5. These rivers form meanders. 5. Meanders are not formed.
the river courses often shift.
6. Receive water from ice and snow. 6. The flow of water depends only on
Monsoon rainfall.
4.3 Lakes of India
A Lake is an accumulation of water lying in a depression in the earth's surface.
Lakes are formed due to various reasons. The Amount of salt dissolved in water makes
the lake water salty or fresh. Artificial lakes are also built by constructing dams on
rivers. Lakes are important for tourism, fish farming, formation of salt etc.

Some important lakes of India
Wular lake is the glacial lake of Kashmir. There are a few lakes in South India like
the Lonar in Buldhana district of Maharashtra, the Chilka in Orissa, the Koleru in Andhra
Pradesh and the Pullicat in Tamil Nadu. Lakes formed due to glacial erosion in Uttra
Khand are Nainital, Bhimtal and Rakshastal etc. The Sambhar Lake of Rajasthan is
famous as a salt-water lake. Prepare a list of rivers and dams from the map.
4.4 Adjoining seas
The Indian Peninsula is surrounded by seas on three sides. To its south lies the Indian
Ocean, the Arabian sea in the west and the Bay of Bengal in the east. The Andaman Sea is
in the east of Andaman & Nicobar Islands. The Gulf of Mannar separates India and Sri
Lanka. The Gulf of Cambay and Rann of Kutch are located in the coastal part of Gujarat.
4.5 Role of Rivers in the Economy of the country
Our country has an important contribution of rivers in its economy. Rivers play an
important role in the economy of our country. Alluvial plains formed by rivers are used
for agriculture. Rivers provide fresh drinking water. In the ancient times villages and
cities were located on the banks of the rivers. Religious and cultural centres are located
on the banks of rivers. Dams are built for hydroelectricity and irrigation.
4.6 River pollution and control
On one hand we consider rivers as sacred and on the other hand we are polluting
them. Effluents from industries and sewage from houses are discharged in the rivers,
dead animals are thrown in the rivers, all this increases pollution. Spread of Water
Hyacinth also pollutes the rivers.
Rivers are the basis of our economy. Discharging industrial effluents in the rivers
is banned by the Govt. to overcome the problem of pollution. The water of sewage line
is purified. Rivers are cleaned. Awareness is being created regarding this problem.

Inland drainage : Rivers crossing the deserts get lost in the sandy surface and are
unable to reach the Sea.
Lake : A water body lying in a depression in the earth's surface and
surrounded by landmass on all sides.
Fault : A plane along which there has been a fracture of rock layers
leading to displacement of strata.
Meanders : A loop like structure or a curve formed by the deposition work of
a river in the plains.

I. Choose the correct Answers:
1. River in its last stage forms-
(i) Waterfall (ii) Flood plains
(iii) Delta or Estuary (iv) Ox-Bow lake
2. Which of the following is not a characteristic of the rivers of Northern India?
(i) Less number of Waterfalls (ii) Used for transportation
(iii) Meanders are not formed
(iv) Receives water fom snow and rainfall.
3. Which of the following separates India and Sri Lanka?
(i) The Gulf of Cambay (ii) The Rann of Kutch
(iii) The Bay of Bengal (iv) The Gulf of Mannar
4. Which of the following rivers is known as Dakshin Ganga?
(i) The Narmada (ii) The Krishna
(iii) The Kaveri (iv) The Godavari
5. Which states are drained by river Krishna?
(i) Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh
(ii) Maharashtra, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh.
(iii) Maharashtra, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
(iv) Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisagrh, Orissa.
II. Fill in the blanks :
1. The state of five rivers is known as ...................... .
2. The river Ganga rises from ............. glacier.
3. The Narmada rises from the ........... plateau in Madhya Pradesh.
4. Hirakund Dam is built on the river ............................... .
5. Nagarjun Sagar Dam is built on the river ......................... .
Very short answer type questions
1. What do you mean by a Drainage System?
2. What do you mean by River capturing?
3. Name four tributaries of river Ganga.
4. Name five tributaries of river Indus.
5. What are the different names of river Brahmaputra in Bangladesh?
6. Name five major lakes of India.
7. Name two rivers which drain in the Arabian Sea.
8. Which place is known as the region of five rivers?
Short answer type questions
1. Explain the Indus river system.
2. Describe the characteristics of the rivers of Northern India.
3. How do rivers affect the economy? Explain.
4. Explain the location of adjoining seas of India.
5. What is river pollution? How could river pollution be prevented?
Long answer type questions
1. Describe the drainage system of Northern India.
2. Compare the rivers of Northern and Southern India.
3. What is the importance of rivers in the economy? Explain.
Questions related to skill Development
Show the following in the outline map of India
(i) The Nilgiri Mountains (ii) The Narmada River (iii) The Sardar Sarovar Dam
(iv) The Krishna River (v) The Hirakud Dam
(i) The Himalayan Mountain (ii) The Satpura Ranges (iii) The Ganga drainage system
(iv) The Chambal river (v) The Gandhi Sagar Dam

Project work
● The Students should prepare a model of a river originating from the Himalayas.
● Prepare a model or chart of dams/Canals or different projects made by man on
the rivers and give a classroom presentation.
❖❖ ❖❖ ❖❖
India : Climate
In the geographical study of a place, country
We Will Study  or a region the study of climate is of great
5.1 Meaning of weather and significance. Climate not only affect the land,
climate soil, vegetation, agriculture and animals of that
5.2 Factors affecting cli- place but also help in the economic, social,
mate of India religious and cultural activities of the human
5.3 Monsoon - Meaning, beings. In this way climate is the most potent
origin and characteris- element out of all elements of geographical
tics environment.
5.4 Distribution of tem-
perature and rainfall 5.1 Meaning of weather and climate
5.5 Effect of climate on Weather is the study of the atmospheric
human life conditions like temperature, pressure, wind,
humidity and rainfall over a short period of time
or at a specific time at a particular place. These atmospheric conditions are called the
elements of weather and climate. These elements are not stable, they change from place
to place and time to time. So, the total atmospheric conditions of a place for a short
period of time (days or weeks) is known as weather whereas climate is the sum total of
the atmospheric conditions for a long period of time. In other words, the average
weather conditions, over a long period of time of a particular place are known as climate.
India has a monsoon type of climate. The typical geographical location and vast area of
India is responsible for a great diversity of climatic conditions.
5.2 Factors affecting climate of India
Factors affecting climate of India are as follows
(1) Latitude: Latitudinal location of India plays an important role in affecting
its climate. India is situated in the northern hemisphere to the south of the
continent of Asia. The Tropic of Cancer passes through the centre of the
country. Due to this specific location, its southern part has a tropical climate
and the northern part has a continental type of climate.
(2) Distance from the sea : The Tropic of Cancer divides India into two
zones - the tropical and the sub-tropical zone but the effect of the distance
from the sea is very clearly seen on the distribution of temperature in India
that is why the northern plains have a continental type of climate.
(3) Relief features : The relief features of the country influence the
temperatures as well as the rainfall. The Himalayas on the northern boundary
of the country extending from east to west protect India from the cold breeze
coming fom the North in the winter season. They intercept the moisture
bearing monsoon winds and help in precipitation.
(4) Distribution of water and land : Peninsular India is surrounded by seas
on three sides. The bay of Bengal is in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west
and the Indian Ocean in the south. India is a part of the Asian continent. During
summers the northwestern plains of India get very heated and a centre of low
pressure is established here. This low-pressure area attracts the winds coming
from the Indian Ocean. During winters this area becomes colder and a centre
of high pressure develops here and wind starts blowing from land to sea. In
other words these land breezes and sea breeze are the monsoon winds which
influence the climate of India. Rainfall occurs due to the winds coming from
the sea.
(5) Jet streams blowing in the upper atmosphere : The climate of India
is also affected by the movement of the jet streams blowing in the upper
atmosphere. A westerly jet stream blows above northern India in winter
season but in the rainy season it moves northwards above the Tibetian plateau.
Easterly jet stream develops at about 15° N latitude. The nature of these jet
streams is responsible for the summer monsoon. The shifting of jet streams
towards north and south is the cause of uncertainity and irregularity of the
southwest monsoon in India.
(6) Monsoon winds : India lies in the belt of trade winds but the effect of
the monsoon winds is seen on its climate. In our country in the summer
season these winds blow from the sea to the landmass and in winter season
from landmass to sea. This change in monsoon winds changes the weather and
seasons in India.
5.3 Monsoon - Meaning, origin and characteristics
India possesses a monsoon type of climate. To understand the monsoon type of
climate it is necessary to understand the meaning of monsoon. Monsoon means the
winds blowing on the earth's surface which change their direction in summer and winter
season. The word monsoon has been derived from the Arabic word "Mausim" which
means 'season' or blowing of wind according to season. This word was first of all used
for winds blowing on the Arabian Sea, which blow from North -East for six months and
from South-West for the next six months. On the basis of this wind, the regions which
change their direction seasonally are known as the Monsoon winds. The regions where
monsoon winds blow are called regions of monsoon climate. India also comes under this
climatic region.
Origin of Monsoon winds
Monsoon winds are related to the weather because they blow from land to sea for
six months and from sea to land for the next six months. Several concepts have been put
forward to explain the origin of monsoons but the thermal concept is important.

Summer Monsoon

Winter Monsoon
According to this concept, the monsoon winds are infact land and sea breezes on a large
scale. By differential heating of the land and the sea winds blow from sea to land in the
daytime and from land to sea in the night, similarly in the summer season winds blow
from the high pressure system on the sea to low pressure system on lands. During
winters, a complete reversal takes place with high pressure on the land and a low
pressure over the sea. At this time winds start blowing from land to sea. This is called
the monsoon (see this concept in the map.)

Characteristics of Monsoon
● Monsoon winds are seasonal winds. They blow according to season.
● Seasonal winds blowing in the summer season are called the summer
monsoon and winds blowing in the winter season are called the winter
● Due to the peninsular shape of India summer monsoon winds divide into
two parts. The Arabian Sea monsoon and the Bay of Bengal monsoon.
● In summer season these winds blow from the south-west to the North-
east and in winters from the North-east to the south-west in India.
● These winds are hot and humid in summer season as they blow fom sea
to land whereas in winters they are cold and dry because they blow from
land to sea.
● Rainfall in India is due to monsoon winds. The maximum amount of
rainfall is received from the Southwest monsoon winds.
● Rainfall received from Indian monsoon is uncertain many times. The
time of monsoon and amount of rainfall vary. Rainfall is the main source
of irrigation in India. So the amount of rainfall affects agriculture.

5.4 Distribution of temperature and Rainfall

There is a complete reversal in the direction of the monsoon winds, as a result of
which a cycle of season goes on. Therefore on the basis of monsoon and rainfall four
seasons are recognised in India.
A. The North East monsoon season
(1) Winter season - December to February
(2) Summer Season _ March to May
B. The South West monsoon season.
(1) Rainy season - June to September
(2) Retreating Monsoon season - October to November

Winter season : Western Cyclonic disturbances:
This season starts from December. In this They originate in the winter
season the temperature goes on decreasing as one season due to the westerly Jet
goes from the from south to the North. See the Steams coming fom the
temperature of January in the given Temperature Mediterranean Sea. The North
Map of India. In January temperature in Kerala and northwest regions of India
and South Tamil Nadu are around 25°c, they are are affected by these
between 10°c to 15°c in the Northern plains. The disturbances.
weather is fine and delightful, borne out by the Tropical cyclones originate
facts such as clear skies, low temperatures and in October and November also
humidity, cool breeze and rainless days. During apart from is the monsoon
this season, Northern India experiences a slight months and affect the coastal
rainfall from the Western disturbances. These areas of the country.
disturbances cause heavy snowfall in Kashmir and
Himachal Pradesh. Occasionally these disturbances are followed by cold waves.

In the winter season the north-east monsoon absorbs moisture from the Bay of
Bengal and the Coromandal coast receives rainfall. This is also called rainfall from
retreating monsoon.
Summer Season :
The Summer season is from March to May. In these three months the highest
temperatures are found in the Deccan plateau, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and North west
India. See the temperature of July in the given Temperature Map of India. You will find
that the maximum temperatures are in the Northwest region of India.
During this time due to high temperatures a low-pressure area develops from Chota
Nagpur plateau to the Thar Desert. The moisture-laden winds are attracted towards the
periphery of the trough. A sudden contact between dry and moist air masses gives rise

to local storms of great intensity. These storms are associated with violent winds,
torrential rains and even hailstorms. Pre monsoon showers are a common phenomenon
in the peninsular plateau. Locally they are known as 'Mango showers'. They are also
known as 'blossom showers' in Kerala because they are beneficial to the coffee
plantation as flowering starts with these rains. Assam and Bengal receive showers with
thunder and lightning, locally known as ‘Kalbaisakhi’ (Calamity of the month of Baisakh).
Rainy Season
In the northwestern part of India due to the rise in temperature high pressure of the
winter season is replaced by intense low pressure. This low pressure attracts winds from
the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. The trade winds of the Southern Hemisphere join
the winds of the southern monsoon winds and are known as the south west monsoon.
Slowly the winds move from South to North and by the end of June the monsoon covers
maximum parts of the country.
There are two branches of the south west monsoon in India- (1) the Arabian Sea
branch, which causes rain in maximum parts of peninsular plateau. (2) the Bay of Bengal
branch, which turns towards low pressure areas causing rainfall in the plains of the
Ganga. A branch of it turns eastward causing widespread rains in Northeast India,
Myanmar and Thailand. The monsoon engulfs the entire country. The amount of rainfall
decreases westward in the Northern India and eastward in the peninsular plateau region.
Retreating Monsoon
The months of October and November are known for the retreating monsoons.
During this season, the trough of pressure in northwest India becomes weaker and shifts
southward. In the first week of September the monsoon winds withdraw from Rajasthan.
In November the winds are above Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. By mid December the
monsoon retires completely from the peninsular plateau. Tamil Nadu receives sufficient
rainfall from the retreating monsoon whereas the rest of India remains dry.
Distribution of Rainfall
India receives 75% of its total rainfall from southwest monsoon in the rainy
Season, 10% in summer season, 13% during the retreating monsoons and 2% in the
winter season. The average annual rainfall of India is 105 cms, but the spatial distribution
is highly uneven. On the basis of the total annual rainfall India can be divided into four
regions. (See these regions in the map of Average Annual Rainfall)
● Areas of Very High Rainfall : This includes the Western Ghats (Kerala,
Goa, Coastal Karnataka and coastal Maharashtra) Assam, Meghalaya and
Eastern Himalayas. Here the rainfall is above 200cms.
● Areas of High Rainfall : This includes Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Eastern
Utter Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. The annual average rainfall is

100 to 200 cms.
● Areas of Normal Rainfall : This region includes Madhya Pradesh, Western
Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab and
Haryana. Average rainfall is 50 cm to 100cms. Uncertainty of rainfall results
in drought.
● Areas of Low Rainfall : Rajasthan, Laddakh plateau, rain shadow area of
Southern plateau are included in this area, where average annual rainfall is less
than 50 cms.
5.5 Effect of climate on Human life
The climate of a country affects its socio-economic life. The effect of diversities
of climatic conditions can be seen in our country also. Monsoon is said to be the center
of Indian economic life.
1. Due to the climates of India. agriculture is normally possible throughout the year.
Here temperatures are suitable throughout the year for various crops. Agriculture
is possible even in the months of May and June with the help of irrigation facilities.
2. Amount of monsoon rainfall is sufficient for agriculture.
3. Different climates create a favourable environment for the production of various
crops. The climate of Punjab and Uttar Pradesh is suitable for wheat, the climatic
conditions of West Bengal for Jute and rice and the climatic conditions of Madhya
Pradesh and Maharashtra are favorable for cotton. So, the crops of both the tropical
and the temperate regions are sown in the country.
4. The maximum rainfall is in the months of June, July and August, which is beneficial
for early ripening of crops like jawar, bajra, maize.
5. Fodder is also available due to rains which helps in cattle rearing.
6. The country remains dry or there are no rains for a long period of the year during
which the grasses dry up resulting in scarcity of fodder. That is why there are no
evergreen pastures or grazing land in the country.
7. Sultry hot weather is followed by widespead rains, which gives rise to many
diseases. Water is stored in the pots and ponds, which become the birthplace of
mosquitoes and these spread diseases.
8. The uncertainty of rainfall largely affects the agriculture.
9. Drought and famine are the serious problems of Indian farmers. Heavy rainfall
some times causes floods.
10. Hot and humid climate in the summer season affects health badly. It makes us lazy
and affects the efficiency and working capacity.
11. "Loo" hot winds blowing in the summer season makes outdoor life impossible, due
to which working hours in our country are less than in other developing countries.
12. Good quantity of crops is produced when adequate amount of rain is received at the
proper time, but if monsoon is late and the amount of rainfall is less it adversely
affects agriculture. That is why Indian agriculture is said to be a ‘gamble in
monsoon’ because in many areas agriculture depends on monsoon.
13. Climatic diversities result in diversity in the forest resources, animal resources,
industries, transport and human life. These are the important elements of our
economic life.

Tropical Climate : Average temperature is above 18°c.
Continental type of climate: A wide annual range of temperature with warm summers,
cold winters and low relative humidity. The phenomenon
is called continentality.
Jet stream : A high altitude wind blowing at approximately 7.5-15
Km. above the earth's surface. It has a high velocity. Jet
steams occur in various latitudes. However, one of the
most important is that associated with the mid latitude
frontal zone with a strong, though discontinuous flow
from west to east along the junction between polar and
tropical air. They cause western cyclonic disturbances
in north and northwest India.
Trade winds : Winds that blow from the area of high pressure in the
tropics to the low pressure area that is a permanent
feature in the equatorial region.
Rain shadow Area : A comparatively dry area on the leeward side of the
highland which stands in the path of rain bearing clouds.
Cyclone : A low pressure system in the lower atmosphere where
winds tend to converge towards the centre of low
pressure. Mid-latitudinal cyclones are called
I. Choose the correct answer-
1. The time of the south west monsoon in India is-
(i) October to November (ii) June to September
(iii) March to May (iv) December to February
2. Which state receives the lowest rainfall due to southwest monsoon?
(i) Rajasthan (ii) Karnataka
(iii) Tamilnadu (iv) Punjab
3. Coromandal coast in India receives maximum rainfall in-
(i) January - February (ii) June - September
(iii) March -May (iv) October - November

4. Maximum variation in the amount of rainfall is found in
(i) Maharashtra (ii) Assam
(iii) Andhra Pradesh (iv) Rajasthan
II. Very short answer type questions :
1. what do you mean by chimate?
2. Which type of climate region is India called?
3. What is the meaning of "Monsoon"?
4. What are the main branches of monson?
III. Match the following :
1. Jet stream 1. Hot winds of the summer season
2. Assam 2. The region which receives rainfall from retreating monsoon
3. Tamilnadu 3. Area of less than 50 c.m. rainfall
4. Rain shadow area 4. Area of very high rainfall
5. Loo 5. High wind blowing at 270 to 300 north latitude.
Very short answer type questions
(1) How do the relief features of India affect the climate?
(2) Why is the climate of northern India uneven?
(3) Why does the Tamil Nadu coast receive rainfall in the winter season?
(4) Which are the high rainfall areas of India?
(5) Why is Indian agriculture called a gamble of monsoon?
(6) How does climate affect health?
(7) How do monsoon winds originate?
Long answer type questions
(1) Explain the factors influencing the Indian climate.
(2) Explain the main characteristics of the monsoon and describe the different
(3) Show the distribution of rainfall in the map of India and name the different
(4) Describe the effect of climate on human life.

❖❖ ❖❖ ❖❖

India : Natural Vegetation and Wild Life
6.1 Meaning of Natural Vegetation
We Will Study & Plants, trees, grasses and bushes that
6.1 The meaning of Natural grow naturally without man's interference are
Vegetation called natural vegetation. It includes forests
6.2 Elements affecting Vegetation and vegetation. Our country is one of the
6.3 Types of forests and twelve countries having biodiversity.
distribution of wild life Approximately 47,000 different types of plants
6.4 Medicinal Herbs are found here. So India is at the tenth place
6.5 Importance of forests in the world and at the fourth place in Asia. In
6.6 Measures of forest 2003 the total forest area in the country was
conservation 6.8 lakh kms. which was 20.55 percent of the
6.7 Conservation of wild life total geographical area of India.
6.8 Animal life, National Parks
The vegetation which is basically Indian
and Sanctuaries in Madhya
is known as endemic vegetation but plants
which are brought from out of India are called
exotic plants. In India endemic and exotic
both types of vegetation is found. Many exotic plants have created problems for us. They
reduce the coverage of useful vegetation and also hamper the growth of economically
profitable plants. Some of them such as lantana and Water Hyacinth have become
problematic. Lantana have spread in our forest and grazing fields and the Water hyacinth
has closed the source area of rivers and entrance of drains and ponds to a great extent.
In West Bengal water hyacinth is called the terror of Bengal with reference to its growth
in rivers and drains.
6.2 Factors affecting Vegetation
The geographical factors or elements affect the development of vegetation of a
particular area. The important elements are rainfall, temperature, humidity, soil, altitude
and geological structure.
1. Earth Surface : It includes relief features and nature of soil.
Land : Land affects Vegetation directly and indirectly. Mountains, Plateaus and
Plains do not have the same type of Vegetation. Plains are useful for agriculture. Forests
and grasslands are found on rugged and uneven surface, which are the habitat of wild life.

Soil : Different types of soil are found in different places which is a base for
different types of vegetation. Mangrove forests are found in the delta regions of rivers.
Whereas conical forests on the slopes of high mountains areas are favourable for
agriculture and deciduous forests are found on plateau regions normally.
2. Climate:
Temperature : A favourable temperature is required for the germination, growth
and reproduction of plants. A variety of plants grow in the tropical zone because of high
temperatures and humidity. Increase in temperature by 6°C to 9°C results in a stunted
growth of the plants. Temperatures are low on high mountains therefore the growth
period of the vegetation is short.
Sunlight : Duration of sunlight at any place depends on latitude, altitude from sea
level and the season. Plants grow rapidly in the summer season because in summers the
duration of day light is more. As the Southern slopes of the Himalayan mountainous
regions receives more sunlight as compared to northern slopes, dense vegetation is
found here.
Rainfall : In the areas of heavy rainfall the forests are very dense with tall trees.
In the areas of low rainfall dwarf trees, grasses and shrubs are found sparsely.
In desert areas plants have long roots. To prevent the loss of moisture due to
transpiration some plants have wax-coated and thorny leaves. Vegetation of the Thar
desert is thorny due to scanty water.
6.3 Types of forests and distribution of wild life
A large area covered by plants
and shrubs is called a forest. We Forest Area in India
can study Indian forests by l From the point of view of the total forested area,
North East India ranks first. 70% of the total area
classifying them from the
is under forest in Arunachal Pradesh. Meghalaya,
administrative viewpoint and on the
Mizoram and Nagaland.
basis of nature. l 44% area in Sikkim and 55% in Tripura is under
1. Administrative forests.
classification : Forests are l More than 25% area is covered by forests in
classified in three categories from Assam, Kerela and Goa.
the administrative viewpoint. l 30% area is under forest in Madhya Pradesh and
Reserved forests: The forest
l Only 9% area is under forests in West Bengal.
which are permanently reserved for
l In Punjab, Delhi, Rajasthan and Gujarat 5% area
timber or other forest produce;
is under forests.
agriculture and grazing is strictly l Lowest forest area is in Haryana i.e. only 1.2%
banned, such forests are called of the total area.

Reserved Forests.
Protected Forests: The forests where local inhabitants are allowed to graze their
cattle and have permission for agriculture with normal restrictions is given are called
protected forests.
Unclassified forests: The forests, which are neither reserved nor protected, are
unclassified forests.
2. Natural classification: On the basis of natural classification forests are
classified into five divisions.
Tropical Evergreen Forests: These forests are of two types.
(A) Tropical wet evergreen forests: These forests thrive in areas having
annual rainfall above 300cms. and dry season is short. These forests are
similar to equatorial type of vegetation. These forests are very dense, length
of the trees is 60m or more. Layers of different heights can be seen in these
forests. Shrubs, climbers and creepers are found under tall trees. Grass is
generally not found in this region. The maximum varieties of plant species are
found per unit area due to which commercial utilization is not possible. The
wood of these trees is hard and heavy, so cutting and transportation requires
more labour. These forests do not have a distinct season of shedding of
leaves, so these forests appear to be evergreen. The main trees found here are
Rubber, Mahogony, Cincona, Bamboo and Palm.
(B) Tropical wet semi evergreen forests: These forests are restricted to the
areas where annual rainfall is between 200 to 300 cms. So these evergreen
forests are found in the Central parts of temperate moist deciduous forests.
These forests are found in Meghalaya, Mizoram and Andaman and Nicobar
Islands. They are less dense than wet evergreen forests. The important plants
here are Rosewood, Ebony, Telsur, Champa, Jun, Gurjan, Icewood and Laurel.
These forests are being destroyed due to shifting agriculture and excessive
Wild life of Tropical evergreen forests: Elephants, monkeys, lemur, deer and
one horned rhino are mainly found in Assam and the marshy areas of west
Bengal. Along with these many types of birds, bats and reptiles are also found
(C) Tropical Deciduous forests: This is the largest belt of India, these
forests are also known as monsoon forests. They cover 39% of the total
forest area. (See the distribution of these forests in the vegetation map)
On the basis of availability of water these forests are classified into two parts,
moist deciduous forests and dry deciduous forests. Moist deciduous forests
are found in the area of 100 to 200 cm. rainfall in India, North-east states,
foot-hills of Himalayas, Jharkhand, Western Orissa, Chhattisgarh and the
eastern slopes of Western Ghats. Teak is the main species of these forests.
Other trees are Bamboo, Sal, Sheesham, Chandan, Khair, Kusum, Arjun and
Mulberry. Trees of these forests shed their leaves during the dry season for
6 to 8 weeks. To fulfill the demand of wood, these forest have been exploited
and cleared for cultivation.
The areas with 70 to 100 cms. rainfall are Dry deciduous forests. The main areas
of these forests are Peninsular Plateau, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. The main
trees are Teak, Sal, Peepal, Neem and Mango.
Wild life in Deciduous forests: Lion, Tiger, Bison, Blue bull, Wild boar, Deer,
Elephant, different types of birds, Lizards, snakes and Turtles is the main wild life of
these forest.
3. Mountainous Forests
There is a difference in vegetation in the mountain areas due to low temperatures
and high altitudes as compared to other areas. This difference is like that of the Tropical
region to the Tundra region. Mountainous vegetation can be divided in two parts.
(A) Peninsular mountain forests
1. On the high altitudes of the Peninsular Plateau open wavy grasslands are
found with shrubs or undeveloped forests.
2. Dense vegetation is found under tall trees in these forests. Heterotrophic
plants, mosses and plants with small leaves are found in these areas.
3. Maglonia, Laurel, Elm are the common trees where as Cincona and
Eucalyptus were brought from foreign countries and planted here.
4. These forests are found in the Nilgiris, Palni, Annamalai, the Western
Ghats, Mahabaleshwar and Satpura and Maikal ranges.
(B) Mountainous forests of Himalayan Ranges : In the Himalayan mountainous
region due to increasing altitude and decreasing temperature a difference in natural
vegetation is seen. In the Shivalik ranges, at an altitude of 1000 meters in the
foothill region, Bhabar and Tarai tropical deciduous forests are found. It is then
succeeded by temperate moist evergreen forests between 1000 and 2000 meters.
These are the dense forests with tall trees. Oak and Chestnut are found on eastern
Himalayas and Pine on western Himalayas. At an altitude of 2000 to 3000 meters
forests of Deodar, Silver fur, and Spruce are sparsely distributed. Sal is mainly
found at low altitudes. On the slopes of the high altitude mountains, where
temperatures are low and rainfall is less than 100cms dry temperate vegetation
similar to that of the Mediterranean vegetation, is found. Olive, Babool and hard
Savanna grass is found with Oak and Deodar trees. Alpine vegetation is found
between the altitude of 3000 to 4000 meters. These are less dense forests and the
height of the trees decreases towards the Snowline. At higher altitudes alpine
pastures are found. Silver fur, Juniper, Birch and Pine are the main species of these
4. Mangrove forests or Tidal forests
Mangrove or Tidal vegetation is found on the coastal areas of India where the tides
occur. Mangrove is a type of vegetation with submerged roots. This vegetation is found
in the delta region of the Ganga, Brahmaputra, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri
rivers. Sundari is a well-known mangrove tree found in the delta region of the Ganga-
Brahmaputra. Coconut, Palm and Angar trees are also found in this region.
Wild life of Mangrove forests: The Royal Bengal Tiger is famous in these
forests. Tortoise, Crocodile, Alligators and different types of snakes are also found here.
5. Tropical thorny forests
The areas with less than 70 cm annual rainfall have thorny forests and shrubs. This
type of vegetation is found in the northwestern parts of the country. It includes Gujarat,
Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and semi arid regions of Haryana. Date Palms,
Babul, Cactus is the main vegetation here. These plants have long roots spread in a radial
pattern in search of water. Leaves are small to reduce evaporation.
Wild life in thorny forests and Shrubs : Rats, rabbits, fox, wolf, wild asses,
horses, camel, tiger and lion are found in the thorny shrubs.
Some of the marshy areas are famous for the migratory birds. A large number of
Siberian cranes can be seen in winters. Their favourite place is the Rann of Kutch. The
place where the desert land meets the ocean, thousands of flamingoes with beautiful
pinkish to scarlet plumage can be seen.
6.4 Medicinal Herbs
From the ancient times India is famous for medicinal herbs. About 2000 plant
species are described in Ayurveda, out of which at least 500 are in continuous use. Some
of the important plant species used as medicine are Sarpgandha, Tulsi, Neem, Jamun,
Babul, Kachnar and Arjun etc.
Sarpgandha - To control blood pressure
Tulsi - For cough and cold.
Neem - As an antibiotic
Jamun - To improve digestion, useful in Diabetes.
Babul - Useful in boils and to increase physical strength
Kachnar - Useful in boils and Asthma.
Arjun - To control blood pressure and ear pain.

6.5 Importance of forests

Forest is a national wealth. It has various uses for human beings. Forests
contribute in the economic development of the country in two ways — production
activities and conservation activities. We have two types of benefits from the forests.
Direct benefit and Indirect benefit.

Direct benefits
They give us timber, fuel wood, fodder, raw material for small and cottage
industries, valuable minor products (fruits, flower, grass and leaves) and raw material for
medicines. It is a main source of livelihood for many people.
Indirect benefits
1. Indirect benefits of forests are more important than direct benefits. They
are an essential part of our nature and culture. They increase human values,
provide spiritual strength and are the habitat of entertainment and recreation.
2. Forests affect the temperature of the air. Control the speed of wind and
control the climate helping rainfall.
3. Forests control floods and soil erosion by controlling the flow of rivers.
4. Forests increase the fertility of soil by adding humus formed due to the
decomposition of the leaves and branches of the trees.
5. Forests are natural habitat of birds and animals.
6. Forests are the symbols of natural beauty.
7. Forests are the source of natural balance.
6.6 Measures of forest conservation
The forest is a national wealth. Looking at the problems which have originated due
to decreasing forest resources, their conservation is very necessary. Human needs are
unlimited whereas the natural resources are limited. So, efforts for afforestation are
being encouraged by the government. The following measures have been taken for the
conservation of forests-
1. The dangerous tendency of the destruction of forests should be immediately
controlled. The main objective of the National Forest Policy is the maintenance of
environmental stability and restoration of ecological balance.
2. Forest Conservation Act, 1980 is to prevent the destruction of forests and to prevent
use of forest land for other purposes.
3. The main objective of social forestry and agro-forestry is to provide fuel wood and
minor wooden resources to the farmers. Farmers are encouraged to do plantation.
4. Afforestation and development of waste and degraded land.
5. Reforestation in the existing forest areas.
6. Controlled cutting of forests by scientific method.
7. Establishment of Watch Towers and surveillance to prevent forest fire.
8. Ban on grazing, poaching and cutting trees and shrubs for fuel wood.
9. Controlled and limited trade of timber.
10. Controlled Jhuming agriculture.
11. Controlling harmful insects like termites, cockroaches and gubrela.
12. Creating awareness among people regarding ago-forestry, extensive forestry,
development of social forestry and forest conservation, Chipko Movement and
Van Mahotsava are all included as the measures of forest conservation.
6.7 Wild Life Conservation

India has a rich wild life. 6.5% wild life species of the world are found in India.
Lion, tiger, elephant, deer, kashmir stage, leopard, rhinoceros, the great Indian bustard,
ducks, crocodiles, turtles, lizards and python belong to the forests. Due to destruction
of forests the existence of plants and animals is in danger and many species of wild
animals and birds are on the verge of extinction. Earlier elephants were found in the
whole country but now they are disappearing from Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh,
Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh. The Great Indian bustard and one horned Rhinos are
also no longer in existence. Wild animals are on the verge of extinction due to hunting
by British officers, kings and princes in the past and poaching. So wild life conservation
is necessary. For the protection and conservation of wild life, 89 National Parks and 449,
wild life sanctuaries and many zoos have been established in the country. They cover an
area of about 1.56 lakh km2 which is 4.7% of the total geographical area of the country.
See the National Parks and sanctuaries in the given map of India.
Measures for conservation
Out of 5 lakh animal species of the world 75,000 are found in India. Similarly about
12,000 species and 900 sub species of birds are available in India. The Beginning of wild
life conservation was an effort of the ecologists' movement.
1. In 1972 the Wild Life Conservation Act was passed in India. This act gives protection
and preservation to endangered species of wild life and bans the trading of related
2. The Tiger Development Programme Project was launched in 1973. Today there are
27 Tiger Reserves in 14 states of the country.
3. Crocodile Breeding and Management Project was started in 1975 to conserve
4. To increase the number of elephants, the Elephant Project was launched. Economic
and scientific assistance was made available for this project.
5. Project Tiger movement was started to conserve the endangered species of the Tiger.
17 Tiger Reserves were established for this purpose. The natural habitat of lions in
the country is the Gir forest of Gujarat.
6. For the management and upkeep of zoos The Central Zoo Authority has been
established. Responsibility of 200 zoos established in India has been given to this
7. There are 14 Biosphere Reserves set up in different regions of the country. Out of
which Sunderbans (West Bangal), Nanda Devi (Uttaranchal), Gulf of Mannar
(Tamilnadu), Nilgiri (Kerala, Karnataka and Tamilnadu) are included in the Biosphere
Reserves of the world. Other Biosphere Reserves are Nakrak, Great Nicobar, Manas,
Simlipal, Dihang-Dibang, Dibru-Saikhova, Augustmalai, Kanchenjunga, Pachmarhi,
Achanakmar-Amarkantak. See the statewise location of the main Biosphere Reserves

of the country in a map.
6.8 Animals, National Parks and Sanctuaries in madhya pradesh
Madhya Pradesh is rich in forest wealth. 30% of the total land is covered with
forests in which a variety of wild animals are found.
National Parks
A National Park is relatively a large area where different ecosystems exist.
Exploitation and acquisition could not change this region. For special scientific,
educative and recreative interests plant and animal species, with their geomorphological
sites and habitats are persevered here. Hunting, grazing and human interference are
totally banned in national parks.
Wild Life Sanctuary
A wild life Sanctuary is similar to a national park, but is dedicated to protect
wild life and conserve species. Without permission hunting is restricted in a Sanctuary
but grazing and regular movement of cows and other animals is permitted. Human
activities are allowed in a sanctuary.
Multipurpose Biosphere Reserve
These areas are reserved to preserve the biodiversity, plants, animals and
microorganisms together. These natural areas are suitable for scientific study. Human
interference is not allowed in this area.
Black buck, Leopard, Chinkara, Monkey, Bluebull, Spotted deer, Sambhar, Tiger,
Bear, Alligator, Crocodile, Turtles and the great Indian Bustard are the main wild life,
animals and birds of Madhya Pradesh. National Parks and wild life Sanctuaries are
developed to provide safe habitat and a secure place for all the species of wild life.
See Appendix No. 1 Detailed information of the wild life sanctuaries is given in
Appendix No.1
National Parks of Madhya Pradesh
S.No. Name District Area Wild Animals
(Sq. Km.)
1. Kanha Mandla 940.00 Tiger, Leopard, Spotted deer,
2. Bandhavgarh Umaria 437.00 Tiger, Leopard, Spotted deer,
3. Madhav Shivpuri 375.00 Leopard, Spotted deer, Sambhar
4. Panna Panna 543.00 Tiger, Leopard, Spotted deer,
Sambhar, Chinkara

5. Sanjay Sidhi 467.00 Tiger, Leopard, spotted deer
6. Pench Seoni- 293.00 Tiger, Leopard, Spotted deer,
Chhindwara Sambhar
7. Satpura Hoshangabad 585.00 Tiger, Leopard, Spotted deer,
8. Van Vihar Bhopal 4.45 All types of animals found in state.
9. Jeevashm Mandla 0.27 Fossils of vegetation
National parks of Madhya Pradesh are shown in the above table. See the location
in the wild life Conservation Map of India.

Deciduous forests : Heavy trees which shed their leaves during a part of the year.
Bhabhar : In the foot hills of the Himalayas there is a narrow belt of
pebbles parallel to the river stream which is 8 to 16 Km.
wide and is known as Bhabhar.
Tarai : Wet and marshy area near Bhabhar where dense forests and
a variety of wild life exists.
Social forestry : A programme to encourage plantation in urban habited area.
Ecosystem : A system, which comprises the physical environment, and the
organisms, which live therein.
Migratory Birds : Birds coming from North Asia to India for a short period of
time are called migratory birds.
Biosphere Reserve : A protected area to preserve the genetic diversity and
conservation of an ecosystem.
Choose the correct answer.
1. State with the minimum forest area in India is-
(i) Assam (ii) Rajasthan
(iii) Jharkhand (iv) Haryana
2. Sundari trees are found in-
(i) Tropical forests (ii) Himalayan forests
(iii) Mangrove forests (iv) Tropical deciduous forests
3. Natural vegetation of Rajasthan is-

(i) Tropical moist evergreen forests
(ii) Tropical moist semi-evergreen
(iii) Tropical thorny forest
(iv) Alpine forests
4. Natural habitat reserved for Indian lion is -
(i) Gujarat Gir forest (ii) Kaziranga forest area of Assam
(iii) Sundarban of West Bengal (iv) Nilgiri forest area.
Very short answer type questions
1. What do you mean by Natural vegetation?
2. What is a forest?
3. What are Mangrove forests?
4. What is the meaning of Endemic and Exotic vegetation?
5. What is a sanctuary?
6. Classify the forests on the basis of administration.
Short answer type questions
1. What are migratory birds?
2. What is the meaning of forest conservation?
3. Describe the vegetation of the Himalayan region of India.
4. Differentiate between a National Park and a Sanctuary.
5. Distribution of plants and vegetation depend on which factors in India? Explain.
6. Differentiate between evergreen and deciduous forests.
7. Explain the chief characteristics of Tropical moist evergreen forests.
8. Describe how forests are useful to man.
9. How are indirect benefits of forests more important as compared to direct
benefits? Explain.
Long answer type questions
1. Describe various types of vegetation in India.
2. Why is conservation of forest resources is necessary? Give examples of different
measures for their conservation.
3. Write about the different measures taken for wild life conservation.

Map work
Show the following areas in the outline map of India.
1. Tropical evergreen forests and tidal forest
2. Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary and Silent Valley
3. Kanha Kesli and Corbett National Park
4. Nanda Devi, Nilgiri and Sundarban Biosphere Reserve

Project work
● Collect the medicinal herbs from your surroundings and prepare a list and
write the uses of medicinal herbs.
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India : Population

We Will Study  7.1 Population of India

India is the second most populous country
7.1 The Population of India
of the world next to China. According to the
7.2 Distribution of Population
census of 2001 the population of India was
7.3 Factors affecting distribution
102,70,15,247. 16% of the world population
and density of population
lives here, whereas the total geographical area
7.4 Population Growth in India
is only 2.41 percent of the total area of the
7.5 Causes of Population Growth
world. Thus, populationwise India is the second
7.6 Measures to control
largest and areawise the seventh largest country
population growth
of the world. How large is India's population
7.7 Sex-ratio in India
can be gauged from the fact that it is more than
7.8 Status and distribution of
the total population of North America, South
literacy in India
America and Australia put together. In other
7.9 Population policy of India
words every sixth person of the world lives in
The first census of India was held in 1872. But, the first complete census was done
in 1881 only. Since then Censuses have been held regularly every tenth year.
On 11th July 1987 the world population touched the figure of 500 crores. The 500
croreth child was born in Yugoslavia. In this reference 11th July is celebrated as world
population day every year.
This huge population of our country is dependent on limited resources, which
presents a wide range of social, economic and political challenges. Poverty and
environmental degradation are two major problems of India. Besides the huge size,
social inequality, predominantly rural structure and unequal distribution of population are
the other aspects of the problem, which are influencing the process and pace of socio-
economic development. As a human resource, the population of any country becomes
significantly useful when it is of high quality. For economic development, high quality
of population is also essential along with high quantity.
7.2 Distribution of Population
The distribution of population is unequal in India. The density is more in the plains
than in the hilly, forest and desert areas. Similarly population is found more in the fertile
plains of rivers and coastal areas. The statewise distribution of population is given in

Appendix No.2, on the basis of this we find many statewise inequalities.
For example, the population of the small Himalayan state of Sikkim, is only 5.4
lacs. On the contrary, the population of the big state of Uttar Pradesh is 16.6 crores. On
the whole, there are about 10 States which have more than 5 crore population each. Some
states are of low population inspite of having a large area. For e.g., Rajasthan and Madhya
Pradesh both are large States areawise. More than half of the country's population lives
only in five States (U.P., Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh)
Density of Population: The ratio of population of a country or state and its per unit
area (square km). is called its density. The following formula is used to calculate the
density of the population of a country or State.
Population of a country or State
Population Density = ___________________________________
Area of a country or State (in Square Km.)
In the year 2001 the population density of India was 324 persons per square km.,
whereas that of the most populated country of China was 129 persons per square Km.
Among the countries of the highest population density in the world Bangladesh is the
first (with 849 persons per square km.) and Japan is the second ( with 334 persons per
square km.). India stands at the third place. Hence, the excessive pressure of population
on land is a serious problem in the way of the country's economic development. The
density is also continuously increasing. In 1921, it was only 81 persons per km2; it
increased to 117 persons in 1951 and 267 in 1991 and at present it is 324 persons.
The density of population is also unequal in India. This is evident from the fact that
on the one hand according to the census of 2001, the population density was only 13
persons per km2 in Arunachal Pradesh, whereas on the other hand, it is 9294 persons per
sq. km2 in Delhi.
On the basis of population density India can be divided into four categories. Areas
of high density, medium density, normal density and low density See the statewise
distribution of population in the density map of India.
1. High Density Areas :
If we look at the population density map of India, we find that more than 501
persons reside in per square km. area in Uttar Padesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Kerala.
The fertile land and availability of water provide enough facilities of sustenance. In these
areas urbanization and industrialization have provided people with sufficient employment
opportunities and services.
2. Medium Density Areas :
These include areas having population density of 251 to 500 persons per sq.km.
Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Goa, Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, Jharkhand, Punjab, Haryana,

Tripura, Dadra and Nagar Haveli fall under this category. Developed agriculture, availability
of minerals and industrial development are some of the reasons for high population
density in these areas.
3. Areas of Normal Density :
These include all those states which have a population density ranging from 101 to
250 persons per sq. km. The States included in this category are M.P., Rajasthan, Orissa,
Chhattisgarh, Uttaranchal, Meghalaya, Manipur and Nagaland. These are hilly and dissected

semi arid, forest covered regions. Here the means of livelihood are quite limited.
4. Low density Areas :
These include Jammu and Kashmir, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Sikkim and
Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Hilly areas, lack of transport facilities, under development
of agriculture and industries are the responsible factors for low density. The means of
livelihood are very limited here. In Arunachal Pradesh, density of population is as low
as 13 persons per sq. km.
2.2 Factors affecting Distribution and Density of Population.
Following factors affect the distribution and density of population. (1) Physical
factors (2) Socio-economic factors.
1. Physical factors : Terrain, climate, soil and minerals are the main
physical factors. Terrain affects distribution of population the most. On the one hand,
dense population is found in the plains of the Ganga - Yamuna and coastal areas, whereas
on the other hand in the hilly state of Arunachal Pradesh density of population is the
lowest. Climatic conditions also influence density and distribution of population. Suitable
climate is helpful to the health and efficiency of man. The dry deserts of western
Rajasthan and Arunachal Pradesh are sparsely populated due to bad climate. A fertile soil
is ideal for agriculture. The agricultural crops are the fundamental bases of livelihood
and sustenance. Therefore, population clusters around the fertile plains of rivers.
Availability of minerals and industrial development based on them has attracted population
in the mineral areas of the Chota Nagpur Plateau. Thus population has become very dense
in the Chota Nagpur Plateau region.
2. Socio-economic and cultural factors : Socio-economic and cultural factors
also play an important role in the distribution and density of population. The cultural,
social, historical and political factors have together raised the size and density of
population in the Mumbai-Pune industrial area. Many years ago, the Mumbai area was in
significant, but after the advent of the Europeans its importance kept increasing and
gradually it turned into a commercial and industrial centre. As a result, its population
● The birth rate is calculated in terms of the number of live births per thousand
population per year.
● The death rate is known as the number of deaths per thousand population per year
in a given area.
● The difference between these two is called the natural growth rate per year.

Growth rate in India (1901-2001)
Census Year Population in crores decemial growth (%)
1901 23.84 -
1911 25.21 5.75
1921 25.13 -0.31
1931 27.90 11.00
1941 31.87 14.22
1951 36.11 13.31
1961 43.92 21.15
1971 54.82 24.80
1981 68.33 24.66
1991 84.63 23.87
2001 102.70 21.54

Today a large group of people goes to stay from one place to another and from one
country to another. This is called population migration. Population migration also affects
a country's population growth.
The growth rate of population may be positive or negative. Positive growth rate
means growth in the number of people living in an area, whereas negative growth means
the number of people living in that area declines. Find out the population growth rate in
India from the table given above and see when the growth was negative.
7.5 Causes of population Growth
In India causes of population growth are as follows -
1. Birth rate and death rate : During 1911 to 1921 birth rate and death rate
were 48.1 and 47.2 respectively, i.e. both were quite high. From 1921 to 1951 ever
though the birth rate decreased slowly, the death rate also decreased rapidly. Between
1991 and 2001 the difference between the two increased to 17.4 resulting in continuous
growth of population. The cause of decline in death rate was because of the increase in
health facilities and adequate facilities of livelihood.
2. Increase in life expectancy : The difference between birth rate and death
rate is called the natural growth rate. The average age of life is known as life expectancy.
In our country, life expectancy (average age) was 50 years in 1921 which increased to
62 years in 1991. Hence due to longevity, population kept on increasing.
3. Lack of Education : Illiteracy gives birth to superstitions. Most of the

uneducated people believe that children are the gift of God. Believing this they keep on
begeting children and hence population also increases. Desire for sons is also responsible
for many children in one family. The lower class hesitate in adopting family planning
4. Other causes : Poverty, lack of means of entertainment, low standard of
living, child marriage etc. are other causes of population growth.
Due to the growth in population many problems have come up in our country, such
as poverty, unemployment, decline of standard of living, hunger, increasing crimes,
housing problem, transport problems, lack of medical facilities and increasing pollution
7.6 Measures to control population growth
If the population growth is not checked immediately, the pace of development will
be hampered in the future. The following measures are essential to control the growth
of population.
1. Family planning programmes should be adopted.
2. Spread of education, especially among the rural people including women,
should be increased.
3. Child marriage should be prevented.
4. Standard of living should be improved.
5. Social security should be rapidly extended.
7.7 Sex Ratio in India
Sex ratio means the number of females per thousand males. According to the
census of 2001 the sex ratio for the country is 933 (there are 933 females per thousand
males) meaning that the number of females is far less than the number of males. This
means that the sex ratio in India is adverse. When number of females is more than that
of males then the sex ratio is said to be favourable. There are wide regional disparities
in the sex ratio in India. See the map of the distribution of male-female ratio. Kerala
record a favourable sex ratio (1058) whereas in Chandigarh it is adverse (773)
The status of the sex ratio in India is shown in the table given on the next page. On
the basis of the data of the last hundred years it can be said that the sex ratio in India
has continuously been declining. The sex ratio in 1901 was 972 which has declined to
933 in 2001.
Sex Ratio in India from 1901 to 2001
Year No. of females per thousand males
1901 972
1911 964
1921 955
1931 950
1941 945
1951 946
1961 941
1971 930
1981 934
1991 927
2001 933
Decline in sex ratio in India may be attributed to the factors given below.
1. Literacy is low among females.
2. High maternal mortality rate.
3. Desire of male child in a male dominated society.
4. Increasing female foeticide.
5. Neglecting girl child and considering girl child a liability.
6. Dowry system in the society causes female foeticide and encourages
females to commit suicide.
Socio-religious superstitions and traditional beliefs are responsible for the decreasing
sex ratio in our country.
7.8 Distribution and status of literacy in India
If any person who can read and write after understanding any language he/she is
called literate. If one can read but can not write he/she is not literate. For being literate
formal education is not essential. Our country is the second most populous and the
seventh largest country in the world, but literacywise still she is far behind. After
independence we had fast development in all fields but in the field of literacy continuous
efforts are still needed.
The literacy rate has increased in the last hundred years. It is evident from the table
of the status of literacy in India given on the next page that in the beginning of the
century in 1911 the literacy rate was about 6%. After independence by 1951 it had
increased to 18.3%. It has increased from 52.21% in 1991 to 65.38% in 2001. The
female literacy rate was 1.1% in 1911 which has since increased to 54.16 % in 2001.
It is the outcome of the policy of the Central Government which aims at providing free
primary education to all.
Status of literacy in India ( In percentages)
Census Year Total literacy Male Female
1911 6.0 N.A. 1. 1
1951 18.33 27.17 8.86
1961 28.30 40.40 15.35
1971 34.45 45.96 21.97
1981 43.57 56.38 29.76
1991 52.21 64.13 39.29
2001 65.38 75.85 54.16

Disparities in literacy rates : There are wide regional disparities in the literacy
rate. See the state wise distribution of literacy in the map. It varies from 47.5 % in Bihar
to 90.9 percent in Kerala. Kerala is closely followed by Lakshadweep (87.5 percent) and
Mizoram (88.4 percent). Bihar ranks last in literacy among the states and union
territories of India.
The male female differentials are also wide. Only 54.16 percent of the females are
literate as against 75.85 percent of males. There is much difference in the literacy rate
of rural and urban populations. In 2001 the literacy rate in urban areas was 79.9 percent,
whereas in rural areas it was only 58.7 percent. Detailed information of state wise
literacy in India is given in Appendix No.3

Population 2001 At a Glance

No. Area India Madhya Pradesh
1. Density of population 324 196
2. Total population 1027015247 60385118
3. Percentage of total Urban population 27.82% 26.46%
4. Percentage of total Rural population 72.18% 73.54%
5. Total Literacy 65.38% 64.11%
6. Male Literacy 75.85% 76.80%
7. Female Literacy 54.16% 50.28%

7.9 National population policy 2000

According to the new population policy, qualitative change of life is essential for
socio-economic development. This will ensure use of man as a productive capital for
society. The policy has three objectives:
1. Short term objective : To develop health and basic infrastructure for the
extension of contraceptive measures.
2. Mid term objective : To reduce the total rate of reproduction by 2010.
3. Long Term objective : To achieve the target of a stable population for
sustainable economic development by 2045.
In order to meet the above objectives following socio-demographic aims were also
declared under the new policy-
● To pay attention to all the needs related to basic reproduction and health
services, supplies and basic infrastructure.
● To impart free and compulsory school education till the age of 14 years. To
reduce the number of dropouts among primary and middle standard boy and
girl students up to 20%.

● To bring down the infant mortality rate below 100 per one lakh live births.
● To implement universal vaccination against diseases.
● To encourage late marriage among girls. To stress the importance of marriage
at the age of 20 or above.
● To ensure 100% presence of trained midwives at all maternity homes.
● To find out cheaper alternatives of contraception.
● 100% registration of birth, death, marriage and conception.
● To check the spread of AIDS, encourage integration between Aids control
organizations with regard to Reproductive Track Infection (RTI) and Veneral
diseases (VD).
● To make ample efforts for the prevention and control of infectious diseases.
● To integrate various types of Indian medicinal systems for providing
reproductive and child health services at the doorstep.
● To solidly encourage the norm of a small family in order to reduce fertility
● To develop family welfare as a people oriented programme.
National Commission on population
Following the National Population Policy 2000, a National Commission on
Population has been established. The Prime Minister is the president of this commission.
Chief ministers of all states and Union territories, administrators and ministers, in
charge of all related departments and central ministers, renowned demographers and the
representatives of public health and professional organizations and non-government
organization are its members.
Following the National Population policy 2000, state level population commissions
like the National level population commission have also been formed. The chief
ministers of the respective states are their presidents.

Census : Official enumeration of population after a fixed time interval.
In our country it is conducted every ten years.
Birth Rate : The number of live births for thousand persons.
Death Rate : The number of deaths per thousand population in a year.

Life expectancy : The average age of people calculated on the basis of specified
Sex Ratio : Number of women per thousand men in the population.
Population Growth Rate : It shows the rate of growth of population. The population of
the base year is compared with the increased population
from the growth rate. Annual or decinneal growth rate is
I. Choose the correct answer
1. In which of the following periods did the growth of population increase
(i) 1901-21 (ii) 1921-51
(iii) 1951-81 (iv) 1981-2001
2. According to 2001 census which is the most densely populated state?
(i) Uttar Pradesh (ii) Bihar
(iii) Kerala (iv) West Bengal
3. Which state has the highest percentage of literacy?
(i) Uttar Pradesh (ii) Kerala
(iii) Goa (iv) Delhi
4. Which is the most densely populated Union Territory?
(i) Chandigarh (ii) Pondicherry
(iii) Delhi (iv) Lakshadweep
II. Fill in the blanks :
a. World population day is celebrated on .................... every year.
b. Populationwise India is the................ country in the world.
c. In India the female population is ............... than male population.
III. True or False :
a. Population density is unequal in India.
b. Madhya Pradesh has the highest percentage of literacy in India.
c. The National Population policy has been decleared in the year 2000.
Very short answer type questions
1. What is Birth rate?
2. What is Death rate?

3. What was the density of population in India in 2001?
4. What was the sex ratio in India in 2001?
5. Population wise and area wise what is the position of India in the world?
Short answer type questions
1. Write about any three problems resulting from population growth.
2. Why is the sex ratio declining in India? Give reasons.
3. What do you understand by National Population commission?
4. What do you mean by sex ratio? Explain its distribution in the country.
Long answer type questions
1. Give the main causes of population growth in India and the measures being
taken to control it.
2. Explain with examples the factors affecting the density of population in India.
3. In how many parts can India be divided on the basis of density of population?
4. What is National Population Policy 2000?
5. What is the status of growth in literacy rate in India? Suggest ideas to increase
female literacy.

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Map : Reading and Numbering

We Will Study 
8.1 Meaning of Map
In the study of Geography, maps have a special
8.1 Meaning of Map importance. Without maps the geographical study of a
8.2 Importance of Maps
country or a part of the earth is incomplete because a
8.3 Elements of Maps
map shows pictorial features of a particular area. In
8.4 Types of Maps
8.5 Representation of Geography we not only study the physical features of the
Relief Features earth's surface, but also the interaction between man and
8.6 Numbering and nature and their effects on each other. To know this
Interpretation of a interrelationship understanding of maps is very essential.
topographical sheet Maps help in understanding the physical, political and
other features.
Maps can be seen in books, Atlases and on walls. These maps are two dimensional
(length and breadth). We know that the earth is spherical. It has three dimensions
length, breadth and height. The surface of the earth is spherical (i.e. three dimensional)
but the maps are plane or flat (i.e. two dimensional). Different projections are used to
represent the spherical surface on the plane surface. Map projection is a systematic
drawing of parallels of latitudes and meridians of longitude ( graticule) on a plane
paper or cloth for the whole earth or a part of it on a certain scale. There are certain
standard signs and symbols to represent the topographical features on the map known
as conventional signs. So with the help of a scale, suitable projection and conventional
signs and symbols the location and the description of topographic features of the earth
or a part of it is represented.

A Map is a representation of selected features of the whole earth or a part

of it on a plane surface, with conventional signs, drawn to a scale and
projection so that each and every point corresponds to the actual terrestrial

8.2 Importance of Maps

The importance of Maps is increasing in recent times because :
● Any part of the earth's surface can be studied with the help of a map.
● It is a technique of representing a fact in an interesting manner and in brief.

● A map is a language of social science which can be understood in every country.
● A lot of information is provided by maps in a short period of time.
● A map is an authentic document to solve the boundary dispute between
two adjacent countries.
● Topographical maps are used in regional planning.
● Maps help in the economic development of a region by showing the
location of the available resources on the map.
● Maps are useful for the State Reorganization Commission when the
boundary of the new state, district or tehsil is marked.
● Topographical maps are most important for military purposes. At the time
of war maps are useful for soldiers.
● Maps are very useful in the Tourism Industry for showing tourist places and routes.
● Maps are also useful in other sciences like Climatology, Oceanography,
Botany, Political Science, History, Geology etc.
8.3 Elements of Maps
There are certain points which are necessary in a geogrpahical map
called Elements of a Map Without these elements a map is incomplete and
we call it a sketch map. Elements of a map are as follows:-
Direction N
A direction is indicated on a map at a suitable place with which Direction
different directions on the ground are (N,S,E,W) identified. Generally the Symbol
North direction is represented by the alphabet 'N' or with an arrow at the
top indicating 'N' direction.
Other directions are identified
from the North.
Title and Sub-Title
Each map represents the
physical, political or any other
feature of an area. Names of
the area, title, features shown
in the map and the sub title are
mentioned either below the
map or above the map or on
the right side of the map.

Conventional Signs

Conventional Signs
The topographical features like mountains, Plateaus, plains, rivers and man made
structures like settlements, railway tracks, roads etc. are shown with the help of pictures
in the map. They are called conventional signs. Apart from this, some geographical
features are shown with the help of symbols. A list of conventional signs is released by
The Survey Department. Understanding these signs is necessary is order to read a map.
A list of conventional signs is given.
Map - Meaning, Uses and Types
A map can not be drawn without a scale. It is not possible to draw a map of the
whole earth's surface on a paper because finding a huge paper is difficult. Suppose we
did get a huge paper even then it would be impossible to draw a map and transport it
from one place to another. So to draw a suitable map we use scale, according to which
some topographic features are drawn on a plane paper in a map. There is a ratio between
the distance of two points on a map and the distance between the corresponding points
on the actual ground. This ratio is known as scale.

Scale is the ratio between the distance of two points on a map and the actual
distance between the corresponding points on the ground.
For example the distance between two points on a map is 1cm. and the actual
distance on the ground between the same two points is 10 km. So the scale of such a map
will be 1 cm represents 10,00,000 cm. or 10 km.

1 cm . 1 cm . 1 m . = 1 0 0 cm .
= 1 km . = 1000 m
1 0 ,0 0 0 × 1 0 0 cm . 1 0 ,0 0 ,0 0 0
1 k m . = 1 ,0 0 ,0 0
There are three ways in which scale is represented on the map. They are as follows:
Statement Scale : Scale represented in the form of a statement like 1 cm to 10
kms. is called statement scale. This scale shows that 1 cm represents a distance of 10
km. on the ground.
Linear scale : This is a pictorial scale in which a line of 10 to 15 cms is drawn.
This line is divided into primary and secondary divisions. First primary division is again
divided into secondary divisions. After the first primary division 0 is numbered and then
distances according to scale are numbered, as shown in the fig. below. This is also known
as graphical scale.

km. km.

Representative Fractions
The scale of a map is also indicated by a fraction called the representative fraction
(RF) in which the numerator is 1 and represents the distance on the map and the
denominator represents the distance on the ground. The Representative Fraction is
independent of any particular unit of measurement. The advantage here is that one can
judge distances on a map even if he is not familiar with the linear measurements of that
country. So this is a standard method of representing scale and therefore in all the maps
scale is represented in R.F. with a linear scale in standard units.
For example, if the R.F. in a map is stated to be 1:1,00,000 this means that one unit
on the map represents 1,00,000 of the same unit on the ground. If this unit is centimeter,
then 1 cms on the map represents 100,000 cm on the ground i.e.: 1 cm represents 1
Kilometer. If it is an inch then 1" on the map represents 100,000" or 2778 yards or 1
mile 4 furlong 138 yards on the ground.
8.4 Types of Maps
There are different types of Maps. They may be classified on the basis of scale,
size or purpose. Maps drawn on the basis of utility may be classified into four parts.
1. Physical Map : On these maps relief features like Mountains, Plateau, Plains,

Valleys etc. are shown by different colours such as brown, yellow and green according
to contour lines. So mountainous regions are shown with dark brown colour in the given
map of M.P.
2. Political Maps :
These maps show different
countries, their administrative
units, capitals, cities,
transportation routes etc.
Physical and cultural features
are also sometimes seen in
the background. Find out the
location of different districts
of Madhya Pradesh, their
headquarters and the
neighbouring states of
Madhya Pradesh from the
given Political Map
(Administrative Blocks) .

3. Distribution
Maps : These maps
display the distribution of
elements found on the
Earth, Continent, Country
or on any part of the
country. Distribution of
rainfall, temperature,
presssure, crop
production, minerals,
flora, fauna, industries,
trade, means of transport,
population and tourist
places etc. are shown on
these maps. Locations of
tourist places of M.P. are
shown in the given map.

4. Special Maps: These maps are drawn for some special purpose and are
used for giving specific information. These include many types of maps as- Relief Maps,
Geological Maps, City planning Maps, Weather maps, Ocean routes and air route maps,
Military maps etc.
8.5 Representation of Relief Features
The surface of the earth is not the same everywhere. It has various landforms like
mountains, plateaus, plains, rivers, valleys etc. The three dimensional representation of
various relief features is known as representation of relief features.
The height or depth of a place is measured from the sea level. The imaginary lines
joining places having the same elevation above or below the sea level are called contour
lines. The height of the contour lines is measured from the mean sea level. This level
is known as Datum Plane. The height at this plane is considered as zero and with
reference to this base line the height of a place is measured. In small scale maps like
wall maps and atlas maps, relief features are indicated by a scheme of graded colours.
Each altitudinal zone is indicated by a particular colour. Usually low lands are indicated
by shades of green. Higher elevations are represented by shades of yellow, brown, red
and violet. Snow capped peaks are shown as white or left uncoloured. Heights are
indicated in metres or feet. Depth of the sea is shown by varying shades of blue. Darker
shades indicate greater depth of
the Ocean. Thus the highest part
(mountains) or the deepest part
(Oceans) are indicated by the
darker shades and less deeper parts
are represented by lighter shades.
In this way relief features like
mountains, plateaus and plains are
Study your atlas map and
prepare a scheme of layer
colouring. Are similar shades of
colour used to indicate the same
height in all maps?
On lage scale maps, like
topographic maps relief features
are shown by contour lines.
In the maps places of the same
height above sea level are shown

by contour lines. Contour lines
are based on a detailed survey of
heights of several places in an
area. The heights of each one of
these places is marked on a map
and contour lines are drawn by
interpolation. These lines are
drawn at definite intervals such as
20, 50 or 100 metres. It should
always be in numbers ending with
zero. Spacing of contours gives an
idea of the slope or gradient. If
contour lines are closer, it
indicates a steep slope and gentle
slope is indicated when contours
are widely spaced. Contour
diagrams of some of the major
landforms are given in the figure
which will help you understanding
the slopes. See the contour
diagrams of slopes, hills, plateaus, escarpments, cliffs, river valleys and lakes and
differentiate between the contour lines. Now you can easily understand a topographical
8.6 Numbering and Interpretation of Topographical Sheet
The maps of our country are made by the National Survey of India. Its head office
is in Dehradoon (Uttaranchal). The maps in which the relief and other features are
represented by conventional signs and symbols are known as topographical sheets. These
sheets are drawn on a large scale- when the scale is 1:250,000 or 1 Inch = 4 miles then
it is said to be a large scale.
If the actual distance is more than this then it is called a small scale. In a large scale
map small objects can also be represented clearly. Topographical sheets are not easily
Interpretation of toposheet
The interpretation of a toposheet is an art. We can collect sufficient information
of the related area successfully by continuous practice. The descreption of landforms is
shown by conventional signs and symbols in the map. So understanding of conventional
signs and symbols is very necessary. Some conventional signs are given on the previous
page. Keeping them in mind interpret a topographical sheet.
Map interpretation is an interesting subject. Two or three students can interpret a
map together. Each conclusion should be written pointwise. The Toposheet of district
Sehore can be interpreted as follows:
Title: The given topographical sheet is of district Sehore of Madhya Pradesh. Its
sheet No. is 55
Scale: The scale of the sheet is 2 cm represents 1 km. RF is 1:50,000.
Latitudinal and Longitudinal Extent : It extends from 23° N to 23°10' N and
77° to 77°10' E.
Physical Features : In a topographical sheet landforms are identified on the basis
of the height of the contours. The maximum contour lines are showing the height of 500
mtrs. which is flat plain region and its height above sea level is 500 mtrs. The contour
interval is 20 mts.The southern part of the region is comparatively high. A 560 meter
high hill is shown in the sheet, identify it.
Water Bodies : Sewan river is shown in the north west region. Jahangirpur pond
is in the south east and a dry pond named Jamunia pond is in the north east. See the
location of a river and a pond in the sheet.
Settlement : Sehore and its adjoining areas are shown in this sheet. Apart from
Sehore the other settlement areas are Jahangirpura, Mogram and Bijouri.
Means of communication : Sehore is connected by rail-route and roads to other
regions. The rail route runs towards Ujjain in north-west of the sheet and towards Bhopal
in the north-east and Ashta, Ichhawar, Shyampur and Bhopal are connected by road.
Forest Areas : The south-west part of the sheet is shown with green colour which
represents a forest area.
In the nearby areas some trees are shown which represent vegetation.
Apart from the above points if some other important features are shown in the
sheet they should be mentioned. In this way we can collect geographical information by
interpreting a topographical sheet.

Atlas : A collection of maps or a book of maps.
Projection : A grid of latitudes and longitudes drawn according to scale and rules.
Scale : The ratio which a distance between any two points on a map bears to
the actual distance between the corresponding points on the ground.
Contour lines : Imaginary lines joining all the points of equal elevation or altitude
above the mean sea level.
Gorge : A deep narrow valley with steep sides formed as a result of rapid
down cutting by a stream.
Cliff : Along the sea coast soft rocks are eroded by sea waves but the hard
rocks can be seen above sea level, a high, steep or perpendicular face
of rock is known as a cliff.
Escarpment : Perpendicular or steep slope of a hill is known as escarpment. It is
formed by the erosion of gently inclined strata or from faulting.
Valley : An elongated depression between hills, with a river flowing at the
base is called a valley.
Conical Hill : A cone shaped elevated landform whose height is less than 1000
metres from the surrounding area.
Plateau : An elevated tract of comparatively flat or level land, is called a
Convex Slope : A type of slope with steep slope in the lower part and less slope in
the upper parts.
Concave slope : Steep slope in the upper part and less slope in the lower part.
I. Choose the correct answer:
1.Which element is related in proportion to distance in a map?
(i) Scale (ii) use of colour
(iii) Grid of Latitudes and Longitudes
(iv) Use of conventional signs.
2. Which is not a type of map?
(i) Physical map of Kerala (ii) Political map
(iii) Sketch map of India (iv) Distribution map.
3. Which scale is a Representative Fraction (R.F.)?
(i) One inch is equal to ten miles (ii) 1 cm = 1 km.
(iii) One cm for ten Km. (iv) 1:10,000.
4. Conventional signs are certified by-
(i) Central Information Department (ii) Indian Constitution
(iii) Survey Department (iv) Parliament of India.
II. Match the following :
A. B.
1. Physical map 1. Land features
2. Political map 2. Town & country Planning
3. Distribution map 3. Administrative Boundries
4. City map 4. Industries and trade

Very short answer type questions:
1. What is a map?
2. Write the important elements of a map.
3. Name different types of scale.
4. What is represented by a physical map?
Short answer type questions
1. Differentiate between a Sketch map and a map.
2. What is the importance of scale in a map?
3. What is Representative Fraction?
4. Explain statement scale.
5. What is the utility of interpretation of a map?
6. What are contour lines?
Long answer type questions
1. How many types of maps are there on the basis of utility?
2. What are maps? Write the importance of maps.
3. Explain numbering of maps.
4. Explain the types of maps on the basis of utility.
Questions related to development of skills
1. If the distance between two place is 5 cm and the actual distance between the
same places on the ground is 50 km. then what is the scale?
2. Identify and name the relief features in the given contour maps.

400M 600M

Mark the following in the outline map of India -

(1) Tropic of Cancer (2) Nilgiri Mountains (3) Narmada river
(4) Tidal forests (5) Mumbai
(1) Standard meridian for India 82°30' (2) Satpura Ranges (3) River Ganga
(4) Western Ghats (5) Delhi
❖❖ ❖❖ ❖❖
Appendix - 1
Wild Life Sancturaries of Madhya Pradesh
No. Name District Area (Sq. K.m.) Wild Animals
1. Bagdara Sidhi 478.90 Black buck, Leopard,
Chinkara, Blue bull
2. Bori Hoshangabad 518.00 Tiger, Leopard, Spotted deer,
Sambhar, Bison
3. Fen Mandala 110.74 Tiger, Leopard, Spotted deer,
4. Gandhisagar Mandsaur 368.62 Blue bull, Chinkara, Leopard
5. Ghatigaon Gwalior 512.00 The great Indian Bustard,
Black buck
6. Karera Shivpuri 202.21 The great Indian Bustard,
Black buck
7. Ken Chhatarpur /Panna 45.00 Alligator, Crocodile
8. Khivani Dewas /Sehore 55.00 Leopard, Sambhar, spotted deer
9. National Morena 3902.00 Alligator, Crocodile, Tortoise,
Chambal Dolphin
10. Noradehi Sagar 1034.52 Blue bull, Black buck, Spotted
deer, Sambhar, Chinkara
11. Pachmarhi Hoshangabad 461.85 Tiger, Leopard, Spotted deer,
Sambhar, Chinkara
12. Panpatha Shahdol 245.84 Tiger, Leopard, Spotted deer,
Sambhar, Blue bull, Four horned
13. Panpur Morena 345.00 Tiger, Leopard, Spotted deer,
Chinkara, Black buck, Sambhar
14. Pench Seoni / 449.39 Tiger, Leopard, Sambhar,
Chhindwara Spotted deer, Bison, Sambhar
15. Ratapani Raisen 688.79 Tiger, Leopard, Sambhar, Spot-
ted deer, Blue bull, Chinkara
16. Sanjay Sidhi 364.59 Tiger, Leopard, Spotted deer,
(Dubari) blue bull, Chinkara
17. Singhari Raisen 287.91 Tiger, Leopard, Spotted deer,
Sambhar, Blue bull, Chinkara
18. Son Sidhi-Shahdol 209.00 Alligator, Crocodile, Tortoise
19. Sardarpur Dhar 248.12 Kharmour
20. Sailana Ratlam 12.96 Kharmour
21. Orchha Tikamgarh 45.00 Spotted deer, Blue bull
22. Narsinghgarh Rajgarh 57.19 Leopard, Spotted deer,
Sambhar, Blue bull, Bison,
Appendix - 2
India - States and Union Territories : Population and Density (2001)
S.No. State/ Population Percentage of Density/Km2
Union Territory (In thousands) population (2001)

1. Uttar Pradesh 166,198 16.16 689

2. Maharashtra 96,879 9.42 314
3. Bihar 82,999 8.07 880
4. West Bengal 80,176 7.79 904
5. Andhra Pradesh 76,210 7.41 275
6. Tamil Nadu 62,406 6.07 478
7. Madhya Pradesh 60,348 5.87 196
8. Rajasthan 56,507 5.49 165
9. Karnataka 52,851 5.14 275
10. Gujarat 50,671 4.93 258
11. Orissa 36,805 3.58 236
12. Kerala 31,841 3.10 819
13. Jharkhand 26,946 2.62 338
14. Assam 26,656 2.59 340
15. Punjab 24,359 2.37 482
16. Haryana 21,145 0.06 477
17. Chhattisgarh 20,834 2.03 154
18. Delhi 13,851 1.35 9294
19. Jammu and Kashmir 10,144 0.99 99
20. Uttaranchal 8,489 0.83 159
21. Himachal Pradesh 6,078 0.59 109
22. Tripura 3,199 0.31 304
23. Meghalaya 2,319 0.23 103
24. Manipur 2,294 0.22 107
25. Nagaland 1,190 0.19 120
26. Goa 1,348 0.13 363
27. Arunachal Pradesh 1,098 0.00 13
28. Pondicherry 974 0.09 2029
29. Chandigarh 901 0.09 7903
30. Mizoram 889 0.09 42
31. Sikkim 541 0.05 76
32. Andaman &Nicobar Islands 356 0.03 43
33. Dadra & Nagar Haveli 220 0.02 449
34. Daman and Diu 158 0.02 1411
35. Lakshadweep 61 0.01 1894
Total 1028737 100.00 324
Source : Government of India Census Report, 2001
Appendix - 3
Literacy status of states and union territories of India (in percentage) (2001)
S.No. State/ Male Female Total
Union Territory literacy literacy literacy
1. Jammu & Kashmir 65.75 41.82 54.46
2. Himachal Pradesh 86.02 68.08 77.13
3. Punjab 75.6 63.5 69.9
4. Chandigarh 85.65 76.65 81.76
5. Uttaranchal 84.01 60.26 72.28
6. Haryana 79.25 56.31 68.59
7. Delhi 87.3 74.7 81.82
8. Rajasthan 76.46 44.34 61.03
9. Uttar Pradesh 70.23 42.98 57.36
10. Bihar 60.32 33.57 47.53
11. Sikkim 76.73 61.46 69.68
12. Arunachal Pradesh 64.07 44.24 54.74
13. Nagaland 71.77 61.92 67.11
14. Manipur 77.87 57.70 68.87
15. Mizoram 90.69 86.13 88.49
16. Tripura 81.47 65.41 73.66
17. Meghalaya 66.14 60.41 63.31
18. Assam 71.93 56.03 64.28
19. Jharkhand 67.94 39.38 54.13
20. Orissa 75.95 50.97 63.61
21. Chhattisgarh 77.86 52.40 65.18
22. Madhya Pradesh 76.80 50.28 64.11
23. Gujarat 80.50 58.60 69.97
24. Daman and Diu 88.40 70.37 81.9
25. Dadra and Nagar Haveli 73.32 42.99 60.03
26. Andaman and Nicobar Islands 86.07 75.29 81.18
27. West Bengal 77.58 60.22 69.23
28. Pondicherry 88.89 74.13 81.49
29. Maharashtra 86.27 67.51 77.27
30. Andhra Pradesh 70.85 51.17 61.11
31. Karnataka 76.29 57.45 67.04
32. Goa 88.88 75.51 82.32
33. Lakshadweep 93.15 81.56 87.52
34. Kerala 94.20 87.86 90.92
35. Tamil Nadu 82.33 64.55 73.47
India 75.85 54.16 65.38
Source : Government of India Census Report, 2001

History of Ancient India
9.1 Historical Chronology of Ancient
We will Study  India.
9.1 Historical Chronology
India's archaeological, cultural and historical
of Ancient India
tradition has been extremely rich and glorious. The
9.2 Indus valley history of ancient India includes the Indus or Harappan
civilization or
civilization, Vedic civilization, the Epic period, Jainism
Harappa civilization
and Buddhism the Mauryan Empire, the Gupta Empire
9.3 Vedic civilization and the rule of Harshavardhan. These civilizations and
9.4 Civilization of the Epic dynasties had their own distinct identities. Indians had
period a strong historical apititude since ancient times.
9.5 The Age of Janpads and There are enough sources to throw light on ancient
Mahajanpads Indian history. These include:-
9.6 Jainism and Buddhism
1. Literary Sources:- Indian literature has
9.7 Mauryan Empire worldly and religious elements. Vedas (Rigveda,
9.8 Gupta Empire Samaveda, Yajurveda and Atharvaveda) Aranyakas,
9.9 Harsha's Empire Upanishads, Vedangs, Sutras, Epics ( Mahabharat and
Ramayana) Smrities, Puranas, Buddhist literature, Jain
literature, Vishakhadutta's Mudrarakshas, Kautilya's Arthashastra, Patanjali's Mahabhashya,
Panini's Ashtadhyayi, Kalhan's
Rajtarangini and other literary Chief Civilizations and Chronological
sources are the chief sources dynasties of Ancient India order
of information about ancient (Approximately)
Indian geographical, political, ● Indus civilization 2500 B.C. 1750 B.C.
cultural, religious and ● Vedic civilization 1500 B.C. - 600 B.C.
economic life. ● Janpads and Mahajanpads 600 B.C. - 400 B.C.
2. Archaeological ● Mauryan Empire 322 B.C.- 187 B.C.
Sources: They are the most ● Gupta Empire 320 A.D. - 570 A.D.
important sources of ● Harshavardhan's Empire 606 A.D. - 646 A.D.
information about ancient India.
The discovery, excavation and study of inscriptions - rock edicts, writings on copper
plates, birch bark, currency, statues and monuments are of a great help in the study of
ancient history.
3. Accounts of foreign travellers - writings of foreigners give us useful
information. Persian, Greek, Chinese, Tibetan and Arab merchants, travellers, diplomats
and philosophers' descriptions help in the study of the stages of development of ancient
Indian society. Though many of the accounts of the foreign travellers are influenced by
folk lore and therefore cannot be fully relied upon yet they have an important place in
the study of Indian history.
9.2 Indus Valley
Civilization or
Harappan Civilization
The urban culture that
developed in India and
Pakistan's north western
part in the Indus river basin
and its tributaries is
generally called the Indus
valley civilization. From
the geographical point of
view it was the world's
largest civilization. This
civilization spread to
Pakistan, Southern
Afghanistan, and in India
in the states of Rajasthan,
Gujarat, Jammu and
Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana,
Western U.P. and
Maharashtra. The main sites of this civiliztion are- Mohenjodaro, Harappa and Chanhudaro
(Pakistan) Ropar (Punjab) Rangpur (Saurashtra), Lothal Surkotda, Dhaulavira (Gujarat)
Kalibangan, Banawali, Rakhigarhi (Haryana) Manda (Jammu and Kashmir), Alamgirpur,
Hulaas (Uttar Pradesh) etc. Look at the above mentioned cities in the given map.
The Indus valley civilization was discovered in 1921 by Dr. Dayaram Sahni in a
place called Harappa which is situated on the banks of river Ravi. Mohenjodaro which
literary means 'The Mound of the Dead' was discovered in 1927 by Rakhaldas Banerjee.
The famous Great Bath was found here : Kalibangan situated in Hanumangarh district of
Rajasthan on the bank of river Ghaghar (ancient Saraswati) is also an important city of
this civilization. According to the archaeologists tradition they have named this civilization
on the name of the first known site as the Harappan Civilization. In due course of time

abundant remains of this
civilization were found far
away, from the Indus valley,
in the extinct Saraswati river
basin and in the Ganga-
Yamuna basin and in the
Narmada-Tapti basin. On this
basis some archaeologists
have named this civilization
as the Indus-Saraswati
Saraswati River
Whether or not there is Pictures obtained from geo stationery satellite of
a mutual relationship between ancient Saraswati and Yamuna and its tributaries.
the initial civilizations namely
the Indus civilization and the Vedic civlization is a very big historical question. Latest
researches and possibilities indicate that these two civilizations were not two individual
civilizations, but to some extent both were interlinked. New discoveries have revealed
that almost two-thirds of the Indus civilization was spread in the areas of the extinct
Saraswati river and its tributaries. The contribution of Dr. Vishnu Shreedhar Wakankar's
research on the river Saraswati is of vital importance. During the Vedic period the
Saraswati was a very big river. It has been constantly referred to in the Vedas. Efforts
have been made in the last 20 years through airial and land surveys to mark the area
drained by the Saraswati river. It is believed that the river Saraswati must have originated
from the Shivalik ranges of the Himalayas and from there it flowed to Ambala, Thaneshar,
Kurukshetra, Pahova, Sirsa, Hansi, Agroha, Hanumangari and via Kalibanga to Anupgarh
to Suratgarh. In due course of time due to ecological changes the Saraswati river slowly
dried up and became extinct after some time. There is a continuous research going on
about the civilization that developed around the Sarswati river.
In the 20th century, while writing the history of ancient India, historians and
archaeologists devised an order of the development of the ancient civilization in India. The
first in this order came the Harappan (Indus) civilization, then the advent of the Aryans and
after that came the decline of the Indus civilization. A new cvilization developed afterwards
known as the Vedic civilization. But some modern historians and archaeologists on the basis
of latest researches do not agree with the above chronology. They do not accept that Aryans
came from outside, they believe that Harappan and Vedic civilizations both developed and
flourished in one region (the Sapta - Sindhu reign) therefore both these civilization are in
inseparable. They stake three established parameters for this claim - first, both the
civilizations developed in the same geographical region. Secondly, the time period of both

these civilization is almost the same or both the periods were entwined together. Thirdly the
cultural structure of both the civilizations is amazingly similar.
Archaeologists draw attention to the fact that no literary evidence about the origin of
the Harappan culture is available and no archaeological evidence of the Vedic literature have
been known. The scholars believe that both the cultures are in fact two facets of the same
coin. City culture became well known as Harappan civlilization and the spiritual aspect of
the culture came to be known as the Vedic civlization. However more research and
publication of facts in this direction is required.
Social life in the Indus civilization : The study of the archaeological sources of the
Harappan civilization proves that the society was divided into various groups. The
prominent among them were
potters, carpenters, weavers,
plumbers, masons, artisans,
brick makers, beadmakers and
sculptors. During the period,
priests must have occupied an
important position and
performed special duties. The
remains found at Mohenjodaro Male statue coveed
point in this direction. with Shawl

Besides these,
Ornamanets obtained from Harappa
bureaucrats, military and government officials,
intellectuals, traders and labourers also resided here. The people of the Harappan
civilization had an artistic bent of mind. The people of the Harappan civilization were
well versed in the art of hairstyling, and indulged in ornaments and cosmetics. During
this period people excelled in singing, music, dance etc. The statue of a dancing girl
found during the excavation certifies the same. Food habits of this period included both
vegetarian and non-vegetarian food. Ornaments were made of copper, bronze, shells,
ivory, clay beads, beads made of horn and bones, hair clips, finger rings, bangles,
necklaces, armulets, bracelets, anklets and earrings which were worn as ornaments. They
were also fond of hunting. From the remains found at Mohenjodaro a Yogi's image on
one of the seals (resembling Pashupatinath - Shiva) Rock Lingas (resembling Shiv Linga)
we can form an idea of the religious beliefs of the people. Besides these, evidences of
worship of snake, trees, the sun and water have also been found from the excavations.
Economic Life in the Indus civilization : The economy of this period was well
developed. Agriculture was the main occupation. Besides agriculture, animal rearing,
industry, internal and external trade, statue making industry, bricks industry, sculpture
etc. were the chief industries. Indus valley people had trade relations with foreign

countries. The contact with foreigners was both through land and water route. On land
bullock carts and in water ships were used. The uniformity of various objects found from
the Indus civilization indicates that the control of a well-organized system of
administration in the economic sphere must have existed.
Public Bath : In the excavations of Mohenjodaro a big bath has been found which
is rectangular. It has a balcony on all the four sides and there are rooms behind the
balconies, swimming pool and big wells to fill in water. Every corner of the bath has a

Great Bath Mohanjodaroo

staircase and the bath is made of baked bricks. This bath probably had a religious
significance and on sacred occasions people bathed in it. The great bath was so well
constructed that it exists even today.
Political Structure : Much information about the political organization of the
Harappan civilization has not been found. On the basis of sources found from the site -
well-planned city, agriculture and industry it can be concluded that there must have been
a centralized system of control in the Indus region. Perhaps officials ruled over different
cities. For maintaining and keeping the city clean waste disposal terracota pots (dustbins)
and tins were placed at different places. Every city must have had an institution similar
to the Municipality for the construction and renovation of roads, bridges, canals, public
buildings, for controlling shops and types of construction of individual homes buildings,
windows, drains etc. and for monitoring labour, prices, weights and measures as per rules
and regulations.

Charecteristics of Indus Valley Civilization

● The Indus civilization was familiar with city culture. It had a well-organized
city planning system.
● It has knowledge of an efficient water drainage management.
● They were familiar with sea trade.

● It made magnificent contribution (building construction, painting, statue
making, utensils and art of ornament making)
● Religious belief and worship of nature was present.
Downfall of Indus valley civilization
Historians have different opinions regarding the downfall of the Indus valley
civilization. It must not have declined suddenly. It was perhaps because of the occurrence
of floods in the river, changing of the river course, perhaps due to the occurrence of
earthquakes, or change in climatic conditions or spread of an epidemic which must have
resulted in the downfall of the Indus valley civilization.
9.3 The Vedic Civilization
Life as shown in the Vedas the Rigveda, the Yajurveda, the Samveda and the
Atharvaveda together with other contemporary literary works depict and tell us about the
Vedic civilization. The entire vedic
period tested an extensive period ● Veda mean knowledge of sacred spiritual
of time. The entire vedic period knowledge.
indicates an extensive time period. ● There are four Vedas - Rigvieda, Yajueveda,
For study purposes we can divide it Samveda and Atharvaveda.
into two parts. The Early Rigvedic ● Rigveda is the most ancient epic.
period in which the Rigveda was ● Rigveda Yajurveda and Samveda are known as
composed. This period is believed Vedatrayi (Three veda)
to extend from 1500 B.C. to 1000
B.C.The rest of the three vedas were composed in the Later vedic period. This period is
believed to have been between 600 B.C. to 1000 B.C. The Purans, the Upanishadas, the
Epics and the Smritis have also been placed in the same period.
Social Life : The Indian society during the Vedic period was formed of 'Aryans'.
Aryans had thousands of domesticated animals. They settled wherever food and fodder for
animals was available. The chief basis of social organization of the Aryans was the family
or the clan. The oldest male member was the head of the family. Joint family system was
prevalent during the period in which people of many generations lived together. Varna-
system was prevalent during the Vedic period. There were 4 Varnas - Brahmins, Kshatriyas,
Vaishyas and Shudras. These Varnas were however not hereditary. For regulation of the
social system Aryans considered life expectancy to be 100 years and divided it into four
Ashrams. These were Brahamcharya, (for learning and education), Grahastha (family life),
Vanprastha (retirement from family life), Sanyas (renouncing the worldly affairs)
Women enjoyed a high status in the society. They participated in all social and religious
activities. They received higher education. Social evils like dowry, Purdah system and child
marriages were not prevalent.

Cotton, woollen, Silk clothes were used. Women took a keen interest in dressing
up. Vedic literature refers to different hairstyles and use of scented oil and ornaments.
Rice, barley, ghee ( processed butter) and, milk formed the main food of the Aryans.
Chariot racing, horse riding, hunting, dancing, gambling, and games of dice were the
chief means of entertainment.
Economic Life : The Vedic civilization was rural and was primarily agrarian.
Wheat, Jowar, Urad, Masoor (pulses) and sesame were basically cultivated. The Irrigation
system was well developed. Along with agriculture, animal husbandry was the chief
occupation. The status of a person in society was determined by the number of cows one
had. Horses, cows, buffaloes, sheep goats etc. were domesticated. Domestic system of
production and artisanship were highly developed. Carpenters, blacksmiths, goldsmiths,
cobblers, had great importance. Both Internal and external trade flourished. Barter
system was prevalent. Initially the cow was the chief medium of exchange. Rigveda
refers to exchange of Indras statues for ten cows. After the cow, 'Nishka' as a medium
of exchange was used.
Religious Life : Aryans made great progress in the religious and the spiritual
sphere. The chief features of their religious lives were as follows:
● Vedic Aryans were nature worshippers. They worshipped various forms of
nature. Sun, moon, wind, clouds (Megh) Usha (Goddess of Light) were
their chief Gods and Goddesses.
● There was a provision of "Yagya' for every Aryan. They believed that Yagyas
please God and fulfill all wishes. Yagyas were the chief basis of rites and
● Though Aryans worshipped many Gods, they still believed in Monotheism.
In the Later Vedic period the religious canvas of society changed and religious
refinement and complexities came in. Maha Yagyans like Ashwamedha, Rajsurya and
Vajpai were performed during this period. Atharvaveda refers to worldly religion and
beliefs. Moral behaviour was estblished in the Grahastha ashram through five Mahayagyans
and three Rynas (Loans). Different philosophical thoughts developed during the same
Political Life :
● Vedic Aryans were organized into various 'Janas' or tribes. A tribe had
members of the same clan or family.
● The basis of the political system was the clan. The father was head of the
clan. Many clans together formed a 'tribe or village'
● Many villages together formed the 'Vish', the head of the Vish was called
the Vishapati.

● Many 'Vish' together formed 'Jana' the head of which was "Gopa".
● 'Janpads' were established during the Later Vedic period.
The Rigvedic people organized themselves into communities which were called
"Janas". The chief of the tribe the Pradhan or leader was called 'Rajan' or Gopit, who was
responsible for the safety of his community and animals. The Vedic period administrative
system was primarily monarchical. The position of the king was hereditary. The position
and powers of the King increased during the Later Vedic period. The chief duties of the
king were - protection of the subjects, waging wars, maintaining peace and giving justice
to the subjects.
There were many subordinates to assist the King. The chief among them were the
Purohits or the priest. The commander of the army Senani, Gramin (village officer
Sangrahita or the treasurer, revenue collector, charioteer, Palagal' (Kings friend and
amuser) these were the others who helped the king.
Sabha and Samiti : The Sabha and the Samiti were important and effective
political organizations of the vedic period. Probably they checked the arbitrary decisions
of the King. The Rigveda refers to these institutions.
Military Organization : Military Organization and the art of warfare were
considerably developed during this period. Infantry, cavalry and charioteers formed the
main army. The main objective of wars was self defence to gain, victory and the
destruction of the glory of neighbouring kingdoms.
The above description clarifies that the administrative and cultural values of the
vedic civilization are relevant even today.
9.4 Epic period Civilizaton
India's two great epics are the Ramayana and the Mahabharat. Nothing certain about
the period of their composition can be said, but the Ramayana was composed much
earlier than the Mahabharat. The reference to cities like Ayodhya and Mithila are found
in the Ramayana whereas the Mahabharata refers of cities of Kurukshetra, Indraprastha,
Hastinapur and Dwarika. Archaeological excavations have proved that probably most of
these towns existed.
Republican and monarchical, both types of states existed during the period. The
position of the king was hereditary. But the King was not an autocrat, and was regulated
by his duties and religion. There were two institutions to assist the King. A Council of
ministers (mantri parishad) and the Sabha (General Assembly). For administrative
convenience the state was divided into many units. There are references of many
republics in the Mahabharata

9.5 The Age of Janpads and the Mahajanpads
During the early phase, Aryans settled in the valleys of the rivers Sutlej, Jhelum,
Vyas (Beas) and the Saraswati. Slowly they settled in the fertile plains of the Ganga in
the southwest. They cleared the forests and prepared land for agriculture. They established
Janpads here.
Janpad means a region of human settlements. The nomenclature of these Janpads
was on the Jana or clans who established them. The Mahabharata refers to many Janpads.
Big and powerful Janpads were called Mahajanpads. Some small Janpads were
under their domination.
There were many states during the period where the post of the king was not
hereditary. These states were called Republics. Unlike in the Janpads and Mahajanpads,
the position of the King was not hereditary in the Republics. The King of these states
was elected by the people just like we elect our Government today. Some of the
Republics were very small such as the Vajjis of Mithila, the Shakyas of Kapilvastu and
the Mallas of Pava etc.
There were matrimonial relations between the people of various Janpads,
Mahajanpads and Republics. Inspite of the matrimonial relations, there were wars between
these Janpads, Mahajanpads and the Republics over the expansion of their Empires. Slowly
4 powerful Mahajanpads were formed from 16 Mahajanpads. These were Avanti, Magadh,
Kaushal and Vatsya. Magadh was always at war for increasing its power and expanding its
empire. As a result, it became the most powerful among all Janpads and Mahajanpads.
After the later Vedic period, Janpads and Republics regulated the political systems.
In course of time out of the 16 chief Janpads and 4 chief Mahajanpads there was a rise
of the Magadha empire. Magadha was ruled by Haryanka dynasty, Shishunag dynasty and
Nanda dynasty respectively. After defeating Dhanand of the Nanda dynasty, the Mauryan
Empire was established over Magadha under the leadership of Chandra Gupta. Its Prime
Minister was Kautilya (Chanakya) who wrote the Arthashastra.
Advent of Alexander to India : This Greek ruler came to India as a part of his world
victory campaign. He was the son of Philip, the ruler of Macedonia. After the death of
his father, he inherited the throne at the age of 20 years. He was a highly ambitious ruler.
After defeating Persia he entered India which was called the golden bird ( Sone Ki
Chidiya), Alexander had to fight against the tribal ruler Hasti, called Asthus by the Greek
who gave a tough resistance to Alexander. After the death of Hasti his Queen and other
women continued to defend their state and fought till their last breath. Finally Alexander
emerged victorious. and he marched ahead. The ruler of Takshashila Ambhi surrendered
before him. But the ruler of the Jhelum region Porus refused to surrender. Both the armies
confronted each other across the river Jhelum. Alexander realised that in the face of the

opposition by the enemy, it would not be possible to cross the river. Therefore, he attacked
Porus at night. Porus fought bravely against Alexander but finally Alexander emerged
victorious. Later, looking at the bravery and self-respect with which Porus defended his
kingdom, Alexander treated Porus as one King treats another King and returned his
kingdom. Alexander died enroute in 332 B.C. while returning to his kingdom.
9.6 Jainism and Buddhism
The period 6th century B.C. has a prominent place in Indian history. Jainism and
Buddhism rose during this period. The purpose of these was to remove the superstitious
and malpractices that had creptin, in religion.
Jainism : Vardhaman Mahavir was the 24th Tirthankar of the Jain religion. Mahavir
was born to King Siddharth of Kundgrama. Vardhaman (Mahavir) was thoughtful and sober
since childhood. He renounced the world after the death of his father. He attained Kaivalya
(highest knowledge) after 12 years of penance and meditation. He was called a Jina (or
victor over the senses) as he got victory over his senses; and his followers were called Jains.
The main principle of Jainism is Ahimsa or non-violence. According to Jainism non
violence is not only refraining from violence but violence in thought, speech and allowing
violence by others. Mahavir stated the importance of the five vows (Ahimsa, Satya,
Achorya, Aparigrah, Brahmchrya).
Buddhist Religion : The founder of Buddhism was the Buddha who was born in
the royal family of King Shuddhodana, the ruler of Kapilvastu, at a place called Lumbini.
Right from his childhood, Siddharth was thoughtful, quiet and composed. In the search
of salvation and freedom from the worldly pains, Siddharth left his home and wife and
after wandering, meditated under a pipal tree. On the day of Vaishakh Poornima he
attained enlightenment. The tree under which he attained enlightenment is called the
'Bodhi tree' and the place became famous as Bodh Gaya. The disciples of Buddha
compiled Buddha's sermons and lectures in the form of Tripatikas. The Buddha was
primarily a religious reformer who tried to remove the evils that had crept into religion.
Mahatma Buddha was of the opinion that man's life was full of suffering from the
beginning till the end. In order to be free from sufferings, he stated the four noble truths
and the ‘Eight fold path’. Besides India, Buddhism spread to Srilanka, China, Japan, Java,
Sumatra and many other countries.
9.7 Mauryan Empire
The Mauryan Empire was one The famous rulers of the
of the greatest Empires in India. Mauryan Empire (The time period approximately)
During the reign of Chandragupta, ● Chandragupta Maurya 322 B.C. to 298 B.C.
Mauryan political unity was ● Bindusar 298 B.C. to 273 B.C.
established in India for the first time. ● Ashoka the great 273 B.C. to 236 B.C.
During the same period.
chronological writing began. We get information about the Mauryan period chiefly from
Kautilya's Arthshastra, Vishakhdutta's, Mudrarakshas, Megasthenese's Indica, description
of Greek writers, various inscriptions of Asoka, and from the books 'Deepvamsha' and
Chandra Gupta Maurya is considered to be one of the greatest rulers of India. With
the help of Kautilya he defeated the Nandas and laid the foundation of the Mauryan

dynasty. Greek writers have referred to him as, 'Sandro Kottis'.

Chandra Gupta Maurya great victor, great diplomat, able administrator,
religious, benevolent ruler. He was the first ruler in ancient India to
implement a new political system. He gave direction to central, provincial,
city and village administrative system.

Chandra Gupta defeated the Greek Commander Selucus Nector around 305 B.C. and
expanded his kingdom to regions of Kabul, Kandahar, Hirat and Baluchistan. Selecus
married his daughter to Chandra Gupta and entered into a treaty. Megasthenes came as an
Ambassador to Chandra Gupta's court. He has described the then society in his book, Indica.
After his victory over Northern India Chandragupta won over Kathiawar, Saurashtra, and
parts of southern India.
In his last days Chandra Gupta embraced Jainism. He renounced his throne and the
grandeur of his kingdom and went to the Sravanbelagola hills of Southern India and later
died there.
Administrative system : We learn about Chandra Gupta's administrative system
through Megastheneses; 'Indica and Kautilya's Arthashastra. The chief featues of his
administration were as follows:
1. The King was the highest official of the Empire. He was the head of the army and
the administrator of justice. He was involved in the works concerning the
welfare of his subjects.
2. There was a council of ministers to assist the King.
3. An Espionage system, a Judicial system and military organization was strong.
4. Land revenue was the main source of the state's income; 1/6th of the produce
was taken as the tax.
5. The officer collecting taxes was called Samaharta.
6. The Empire was divided into provinces. They were governed by Princes or
members of the royal family.
7. There were six commitee for city administration. Each had 5 members.
8. The military system was very strong. It was looked after by six commitee. These
were - Admiral commitee, Infantry, Cavalry, war chariots, elephant army
commitee which managed military transport.
9. Code of punishment was very strict.
10. From Kautilya's Arthashastra we come to know that there were two types of
Courts - civil (Diwani) and criminal (Faujdari).
Chandra Gupta Maurya was succeeded by his son Bindusar. He has been given the title of
Amitraghat or slayer of enemies. He was brave, courageous and daring. He had friendly relations
with the Greek ruler of western Asia. He was successful in defending and organising the
kingdom inherited from his father.

Ashoka the Great
Ashoka was the third and most famous Emperor of the Mauryan dynasty. He proved
his ability and talent during his father Bindusar's reign. Asoka was crowned in around 269
B.C. In the initial years of his rule he pursued his Grandfather Chandra Gupta Maurya's
legacy of imperialism and Digvijay (military conquests).
He fought a war with Kalinga. The province of Kalinga is in Orissa. There was a
tough war between the armies of Asoka and Kalinga. Asoka emerged victrious in the end.
According to the 13th rock edict of Asoka, 1,50,000 persons were carried away as
captives, 1,00,000 persons were slain, and many times that number died. Asoka was filled
with profound sorrow and grief after the bloodshed in the war and also with remorse and
self realisation. The important result of this war was a change in Asoka's attitude and he
began to follow a policy of peace rather
than that of war. The era of military
Chief features of Ashoka's Dhamma.
conquests or Digvijay was over and an
era of spiritual conquest or Dhammavijay ● Sovereignity
began. He also became a follower of ● Importance given to self-discipline and
Buddhism. The Kalinga war gave a new ettiquette.
direction to Asoka's life. ● Non-violence and religious tolerance.
Ashoka's Dhamma ( Religion) ● Prominence of moral values.
After the Kalinga war, Ashoka's ● Emphasis on practising truth in life.
embraced Buddhism. In his inscriptions
he not only propagated the fundamental principles of Buddhism but also moral principles.
His Dhamma was the summary of all religions. Ashoka's Dhamma aims for the welfare
of all, and aims at mental, moral and spiritual upliftment of all living beings. His
Dhamma was extremely simple and practical.
Mercy for all beings, speaking the truth, wishing for the well being of all, respect
to parents and teachers, were the chief features of Ashoka's Dhamma. He sent messengers
for the spread of Buddhism in foreign countries. Ashoka's got many rock inscriptions and
pillar inscriptions made. His son and daughter Mahendra and Sanghamitra went to
Srilanka for propogating Buddhism. He got Stupas constructed, inscribed religious
inscriptions, established a department of religion and appointed officers called Dhamma
Mahamatras. Most of the inscriptions of Asoka describe him as 'Devanam Priyadasi'
which means favourite of the Gods.
Causes of the Downfall of the Mauryan Empire
1. The successors of Asoka were incapable. They divided the Empire among
themselves and could not keep the Empire of their ancestors intact.
2. The oppression of Provincial officers.

3. Lack of nationalism in the subjects.
4. Asoka's policy of non-violence made Military administration weak. There
was lethargy also in the administrative system.
The last ruler of the Mauryan Empire Brihadrath was killed by his commander
Pushyamitra Sunga, and the Mauryan dynasty came to an end. Pushyamutra Sunga performed
the Aswamedha Yagya. After the Mauryas, the Sungas, the Kanvas, the Satvahanas, the Sakas
and the Kushansdynastics ruled over India. During the rule of Kanishka the "Fourth Buddhist
council" was called in
Prominent rulers of the Gupta Dynasty. (Approximate Chronology)
Kundan Van in
Kashmir. Shri Gupta (founder) 275 A.D. to 300 A.D.
Ghatotkacha 300 A.D. to 319 A.D.
9.8 The Gupta
Chandra Gupta I 319 to 335 A.D.
Samudra Gupta 335 to 375 A.D.
After the
Ram Gupta 375 A.D.
Mauryas, the Gupta
rulers re-established Chandra Gupta II 'Vikramaditya' 380 A.D. to 412 A.D.
the political unity in Kumar Gupta 413 A.D. to 455 A.D.
India. There was Skanda Gupta 455 A.D. to 467 A.D.
progress in the economic, social, literary, cultural and artistic fields during the period.
The Gupta period is known as the golden period in Indian history.
Shri Gupta
The founder of the Gupta dynasty was Sri Gupta. He was succeeded by Ghatotkatch
(300 A.D.- 319 A.D.)
Chandra Gupta I
Ghatotkatcha's son Chandra Gupta I, took over the reigns of the Gupta Empire after
him. He is described as 'Maharajadhiraj' or King of Kings. Chandra Gupta was married
to a Lichhavi princess Kumar Devi. During the same period the 'Gupta Era' began. He laid
the foundation of a powerful empire and expanded his empire.
Samudra Gupta
After Chandra Gupta I his son Samudra Gupta inherited the throne. He extended the
boundaries of the Empire inherited by him and gave political unity to India. In his victory
campaigns Samudra Gupta conquered nine powerful states of northern India and merged
them with his Kingdom. He also conquered the Atavika states of central India. In his
conquest of the south 'Dakshinapath he won over 12 states but returned them to the
Kings. These states gave annual taxes to the Gupta rulers. Due to his victory over
Aryavrata and Dakshinapath the frontier states and republics got scared and they accepted

the sovereignity of Samudra Gupta. After his victory he performed the Ashvamedha

Yagyan and issued gold currencies. References of his victories are mentioned in
Harisen's Allahabad pillar inscription.
Samudra Gupta was a great military commander, efficient politician and an invincilble
The famous historian Smith has called Samudra Gupta the ‘Indian Napoleon.’ Some of
the Indian historians call Samudra Gupta greater and more practical than Napoleon because
Samudra Gupta accomplished many victories but never incorporated the states he won into
his Empire nor did he try to impose his will upon these states. He only took gifts or taxes
from the rulers and allowed the rulers to be independent and friendly states.

Samudra Gupta left behind a very well organised and extensive empire to his
successors, where there was peace, prosperity and well being, where all around there
were vanquished but friendly rulers. There was an excellent environment for cultural
development. During his reign art, literature, trade and occupation, music, religion etc.
made progress. In short, the country was on the path of development.
The Dasavatar ( Ten incarnation) statues related to the Vaishnav religion were first
carved out during the Gupta Empire.
Chandra Gupta II, Vikramaditya
Chandra Gupta II consolidated and stengthened the Gupta Empire inherited from his
father. Subhudra gupta
● Chandra Gupta II married Kubernaga of the Naga dynasty. This led to friendly
relations between both the dynasties. He married his daughter Prabhavati Gupta
to Rudrasena II the Vakataka King. This relationship secured Chandra Gupta's
control over the Sakas. These matrimonial alliances proved to be politically
very important. The daughter of Kadama dynasty was also married into the
Gupta dynasty. Due to this matrimonial alliance the glory of Chandra Gupta II
spread to southern India as well.
● An important achievement of Chandra Gupta II's reign was victory over the
Sakas. As a result of this victory western Malwa, Gujarat, Saurashtra, states of
Kathiawad came under the Gupta Empire. The western boundaries of the Gupta
empire reached the Arabian sea.
● Chandra Gupta II is also described as Vikramaditya. He was an able poltician.
He was a great victor, able administrator, admirer of knowledge, benevolent,
and protector of intellectuals. Among the Navratnas (nine Gems) in his court
Kalidas held a prominent place. During Chandra Gupta's period, science,
architecture and sculpture saw remarkable progress. The Chinese traveller
Fahein came during his reign and stayed in India from 405-411 A.D. In his
travelogues, he has described the contemporary political social and economic
condition of India.
Vikramditya was a lover of justice ruler of Ujjain, he won over the Sakas and
started a new era, which is known as the Vikram Era. Presently, the Vikram
Era is prevalant in India and the Chaitra Shukla Pratipada marks the
beginning of the new year.
Kumar Gupta
He was the successor of Chandra Gupta II. He inherited the empire from his
forerunners. The Gupta Empire reached its pinnacle of glory due to peace, stability and
good organization.

Skanda Gupta
After Kumar Gupta, Skanda Gupta ascended the throne. He protected India from the
Hun attacks. He realized the importance of western frontier states and made arrangements
for their defence. Thereafter, he was succeded by Puru Gupta, Kumar Gupta, Buddh Gupta,
Vanya Gupta, Bhanu Gupta, Narsingh Gupta, Kumar Gupta III, Vishnu Gupta and others.
Administrative Organization
Like the Maurya rulers, the Gupta rulers also made public welfare the basic
foundation of their administration. The King was the highest official of the state. The
final authority of the state was in his hands. There was a council of ministers and other
officials to assist the King. The chief source of income was land revenue, which was
called 'Bhaga'. This was generally one sixth of the produce. The Gupta Empire was
divided into three parts- Central, Provincial and Local administration. The chief objective
of the Gupta rulers was public welfare. For this they made hospitals, Dharamshalas, or
resthouses schools, roads etc.
Administrative Organization during the Gupta period.
Central Provincial Local
Administration Administration Administration
● King ● Bhukti (Province) ● City administration.
● Council of Ministers ● Pradesh
● Officials ● Vishaya ● Village
● Judicial Organization Administration
● Military Administration
● Revenue Organization
Gupta Period - The Golden period of Reasons why the Gupta age is called the
Ancient Indian history Golden age–
1. Era of great rulers
There was all round development
2. Era of peace
during the Gupta period. Therefore this 3. Era of political unity
period is referred to as the golden period. 4. Ear of Economic prosperity
During this period there were great rulers 5. Era of Artistic progress
like Chandra Gupta I, Samudra Gupta and 6. Era of Literary progress
Chandra Gupta II, Vikramaditya. 7. Ear of Scientific progress
The rulers paid great attention 8. Security from foreign aggression
towards the welfare of their subjects.
They maintained peace and good administration. Each ruler made efforts to organize India
into one political unit. There was economic prosperity every where. Consequently art and
literature saw remarkable growth. The period produced mathematician and astronomers like

Varahmihira Aryabhatta and Bhramagupta. Aryabhatta in his 'Surya-Siddhanta explained the
causes of solar and lunar eclipses. He also declared that the earth revolves round its axis. He
also wrote a book 'Aryabhatiya'. The invention of zero and decimal system was also
introduced during this period. The prominent mathematicians of the Gupta period were also
skilled in astrology. Besides, astrology and mathematics, literature, painting, architecture,
physics, metallurgy and knowledge of astronomical occurrences was at its peak.
Causes of Downfall of Gupta Empire
1. There were no able rulers after Skanda Gupta in the Gupta dynasty. They
failed to protect their Empire from internal revolts and foreign attacks.
2. Attacks of the Huns gave a severe blow to the Gupta Empire.
3. The law of inheritance was not well defined. This resulted in increase in
mutual conflicts which weakened their power.
4. Economic conditions became weak during the later Guptas.
5. Increasing ambitions of the provincial administrators became an important
reason for the downfall of the Guptas.
6. Another important reason for the downfall of the Guptas was too much
power being given to the Feudal Lords.
9.9 Harshas Empire
Emperor Harshavardhan was the son of the ruler of Thaneshar Prabhakar Vardhan.
After Prabhakar Vardhan his son Rajyvardhan ascended the throne. When Rajyavardhan
learnt of war between the rulers of Kanauj, Grahavarman, husband of his sister Rajshree,
he fought against the King of Malwa Devgupta who had killed Grahavarman. Rajyhavardhan
defeated Dev Gupta but the king of Bengal Shashank, who was also the friend of Dev Gupta
treacherously killed Rajyavardhan. Under these circumstances Harsha became the ruler of
Thanesar. He ascended the throne in 606 A.D. at the age of 16. Since his sister Rajshree
did not have any issues the throne of Kannauj also came into his hands. In this way he
became the ruler of both Kannauj and Thanesar. His empire spread from the Himalayas in
the north to the river Narmada in the south, to Bengal in the East to the Indus in the west.
He had political relations with China and Persia (Political Expansion Map).
Administrative Organization : Besides being a conqueror, Harsha was also an
able administrator. With a few changes he followed the Gupta organization.
The pattern of Harshas administration was monarchical. The Emperor had the most
prominent place in the central administration. He was the chief of the army and the
highest court of appeal. The main aim of the rule was the welfare of the subjects. There
were many ministers and secretaries to assist the Emperor. The King was not bound by
the decisions of the council of ministers. There were departmental heads like Mahabaladhi
krut (Commander in chief) and Maha Sandhivigrahadhikrit (secretary of war and power).

For administrative convenience the vast empire was divided into provinces. Provinces
were called Bhukti or Desh. The administrator of Bhukti was called Uparik. Only the
princes of the royal dynasty or members of the royal family were appointed to these
positions. Each province was divided into various Vishayas (districts). The administrators
of these vishays were called Vishayapati. He supervised the Various activities of the
district. The smallest unit of administration was the village. Harsha had a large army.
The code of punishment during Harsha's period was very strict. There was capital
punishment for some crimes. Due to the strict code of punishment the rate of crime was
low. The sources of information on Harsha have been derived from Bana's Harsha Charita
and the Chinese traveller Huen Tsang's travelogues.

The Chief source of the state's income was land revenue. Generally land revenue
was one/sixth of the produce. Taxes could be paid in the form of grain. Besides markets
river banks, tax on traders and fines were the chief sources of state income.
Harsha was one of the greatest rulers of India. It is generally believed that
Harshvardhan had control over the entire northern India. He was a great conqueror, able
administrator and promoted the welfare of the people. He was a religious person and a
patron of learning. Due to his victories and spread of religious works he has been called
a person with Virtues of both Samudra Gupta and Asoka.

Excavation : digging
Nishka : Vedic period coins used for exchange.
Monarchy : Hereditary rule of the king.
Republic : A type of Government in which the head of the subjects/people
is elected.
Janpad : State with defined boundaries
Epic : Eloborate poetic composition related to a great character.
Tripitaka : Compilation of Buddha's words and lectures. His close disciples.
Organized into Vinay Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka and Abhi Dhamma
Eight fold path : According to Gautam Buddha the path that leads to liberation
from sufferings and attainment of Nirvana is called the eight
fold path.
Tirthankar : Jain sages. Founders of the Jain religion.
Five Vows : Five vows prescribed for Jain disciples- non injury (ahimsa)
speaking the truth (Satya), non-stealing (asteya) non-adultery
(Brahmacharya) and non-possession (aparigraha)
Asteya : Donot take or think to take anybodies object without his
Aparigraha : (non-possession) - Refraining from acquiring material
Aryavarta : Northern India.
Dakshinapalth : Southern India.
I. Choose the right answer
1. Which of the following cities is not related to the Indus civilization?
(i) Mohenjodaro (ii) Kalibanga (iii) Lothal (iv) Pataliputra
2. Which was the foreign traveller came to India during Chandra Gupta Maurya's
(i) Fahien (ii) Arian (iii) Hieun Tsang (iv) Megasthenese
II. Match the following :
1. Chandragupta Maurya 1. Kautilya
2. Arthshastra 2. Mahatma Buddha
3. Lumbini 3. Vikramaditya
4. Chandragupta II 4. Magadh
5. Ashoka 5. Kalinga war
III. Fill in the blanks :
1. Founder of the Jain religion ................................ .
2. Mahatama Buddha attained enlightenment under the ................. tree.
3. India's two great epics are the ................. and .................... .
4. Founder of the Gupta's dynasty ........................ .
Very short answer type questions
1. Write the names and the number of Vedas.
2. Write the names of the four chief cities of the Indus civilization.
3. Who was Megasthenese? Name the book written by him.
4. Write the names of the Chief Education Institutions of ancient India.
5. Who was Kautilya? Write the name of the book written by him.
6. Which Gupta ruler was succesful in repulsing the Huna attacks?
Short answer type question
1. Who discovered the cities of Mohenjodaro and Harappa?
2. Write about the new information received about river Saraswati.
3. What is the importance of the Kalinga war in Indian history?
4. State the political significance of matrimonial alliances formed by Chandra Gupta II.
5. Write about the chief features of the administrative organization during the Gupta
6. Write about the expansion of Harsha's Empire.
Long answer type questions
1. Write about the contribution of the Indus civilization.
2. Describe the Vedic civilization.
3. State the chief features of Chandra Gupta Maurya's administrative organization.
4. Write about Ashoka's Dhamma and mention its chief features.
5. “Gupta period is known as the golden period of India history.” Justify the statement.
6. Briefly describe the victory campaign of Samudra Gupta.
7. Write about the administrative organization of Harshavardhan.
❖❖ ❖❖ ❖❖
Medieval India
10.1 Meaning of the Medieval period
We Will Study  The period between the ancient period
10.1 Meaning of medieval period and modern period is referred to as the medieval
and sources of medieval period. Historians have called the 8th century
history A.D. as the beginning and the 18th century A.D.
10.2 Kingdoms of South India as the end of the medieval period. The 8th
10.3 Kingdoms of North India century A.D. is considered as the beginning of
10.4 Attacks of the Arabs and the the medieval period because a lot of changes
Turks were taking place in the social life of India and
10.5 Struggle with the Turks these changes affected various aspects of social
10.6 Delhi Sultanate life in India. These changes influenced the
10.7 Vijaynagar and Bahmani political and economic life of India viz. social
Kingdoms life, religion, language, art etc. Therefore 8th
10.8 Mughal Empire century A.D. marks the beginning of the
10.9 Opposition to Mughal medieval period. Similarly the downfall of
power in India Mughal Empire and the advent of the British in
India in the 18th Century also brought about
many changes. Therefore the 18th Century A.D. marks the end of the medieval period.
Sources of Medieval Indian History:
We have adequate archaeological and literary sources to study the history of this
period, which are as follows:
Sources of Medieval Indian Histo

Literary Sources Archae

● Rajtarangini ● Monuments
● Tuzukh-e- Babri ● Coins
● Prithvi Raj Raso ● Copper plates
● Padmavat ● Statues
● Akbarnama etc. ● Temples, Mo
● and paintings

After the death of Harshavardhan there was a political vacuum in India. The forces
of decentralization led to the rise of feudal powers which destroyed the political unity
of India. There was the rise of new dynasties during this period. For example the Gurjar
Pratihars, the Pala dynasty, the Chalukyas, the Parmars and the Chauhans in northern India
were the chief dynasties. In southern India the Pallavas, the Rashtrakutas, the Chalukyas
of Kalyani, the Cheras, the Pandyas and the Cholas were the chief kingdoms.
From the point of view of study, the medieval period has been divided into two
parts. The period from 8th Century A.D. to 12 th Century A.D. is known as the early
medieval period.
10.2 States of South India
In the 8th Century A.D. South India was divided into numerous small states. The
chief among them were the following:-
The Pallavas - The Pallavas rose in the southern region of river Krishna (Andhra
Pradesh and Tamil Nadu). Pallava Kings ruled for nearly 500 years. Narasimhavarman-
I and Narasimhavarman II were valiant rulers. In due course of time the Pallavas entered
into a continuous struggle with the Chalukyas, Pandyas and the Rashtrakutas. The Cholas
defeated the last ruler of this dynasty, Aparajit Varman and established their rule over the
kingdom. The Pallavas had a well organized administrative system.
Chalukyas - The Chalukya dynasty ruled
Characteristics of Chalukya in southern India from the 6th Century A.D. till
Administration: the middle of the 8th Century A.D. Its capital
● The Chalukyas ruled for nearly was Vatapi (Karnatak) from where the dynasty
200 years. rose to political power. Therefore these
● Monarchical form of Government Chalukyas are also known as Chalukyas of
was prevalant. The Emperor was Badami (Vatapi). The Chalukya kings tried to
the pivot of the administrative unite southern India into one political power.
system. The prominent rulers of the Chalukya dynasty
● They gave the feudal lords the were- Pulakesin I, Kirtivarman, Mangalesh,
right to govern over their Pulakesin II Vikramaditya, Tailap II,
conquered territories. Vikramaditya V, Jaya Singh II, Someshwar I,
● The Village was the smallest unit and Vishnuwardhan. The Chalukya king
of administration. Pulakesin II defeated the Cheras and the
Pallavas and expanded his Empire.
The Chola Empire - The most powerful ancient dynasty in Southern India was that
of the Cholas. The ancient Chola rulers have been described in the Sangam literature. The
most valiant ruler of the dynasty was Karikal. During his period the Chola Empire reached
its pinnacle. Raja Raja of this dynasty was also a famous and valiant ruler, who ruled from
about 985 - 1014 A.D. During King Raja Raja's period his boundaries included the entire

southern India up to the Tungabhadra river. Parts of Maldives and Srilanka also formed his
Empire. Rajendra III (1279 A.D.) was the last ruler of this dynasty. The Chola dynasty is
known in history for its administrative reforms. Their naval power was highly developed
during the period and they had a big naval fleet.
Characteristics of the Chola Administration
● The King was the highest official of the State.
● Administration was done with the help of a Council of ministers.
● The Empire was divided into provinces, Mandalams, Valanadus
● The smallest unit of administration was the Gram and this
important unit Grama was divided into 3 parts - i.e. (assembly of
the common people) Sabha (intellectuals, Brahmins) Nagaram
(trades, shopkeepers, sculptors). There were several committees
for the administrative organization of the Grama.
● Agriculture and trade were well developed.
● The chief source of the state's income was land revenue and tax on trade.
● Trade and means of communication were developed and there was
foreign trade too.
Rashtrakutas - The name of the first ruler of the dynasty was Nanraj (630-650
A.D. approx.) The second ruler of the dynasty Dantidurga ( 650-665 A.D.) made a lot of
efforts for the expansion of his Empire.
Rashtrakutas are known for their power and political expansion in south India.
Krishna I, Govind II, King Dhruva, Dharavarsh Govind III, Amoghvarsha and Krishna II
were the other prominent rulers of this dynasty. Their capital was at Mankhet. Rashtra
Kutas had to fight consistently for establishing their domination over Kannauj in
Northern India against the Gurjar, the Pratihars and the Pala dynasty. This weakened their
power. In about 973 A.D. Chalukya King Tailap II defeated the last Rastrakuta ruler Karka
II and established his domination over his empire.
Chera State - According to Asoka's rock edicts the Chera dynasty was established
in the ancient period. Their kingdom included the Malabar, Trivendrum, and Cochin. The
harbours of the Chera Kingdom were big centers of trade. The Chola dynasty had
matrimonial alliances with the Chera dynasty. They ruled for a very short period. In the
8th Century A.D. the Pallavas, in 10th Century A.D. the Cholas and in the 13th Century
A.D. the Pandyas established their control over the Cheras.
The Pandya Kingdom - The Pandya state was a prominent state among the
ancient Tamil states. Their capital was Madurai. Atikeshari Marvarman was a famous
Pandya ruler.

10.3 The Kingdoms of Northern India
The chief kingdoms of the 8th Century A.D. of North India were as follows:
The Gurjar Pratihar - The Gurjar Pratihar dynasty ruled from the 8th to the
11th Century A.D. They not only ruled for a long time over a large geographical area of
India but also checked the Muslim attacks from the Indus region into north India.
Nagabhatt I was the founder of this dynasty. The rulers of this dynasty ruled over Madhya
Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, and some parts of Rajasthan for a long time. Nagabhatt
I, Vatsraj, Nagabhatt II, Mihirbhoja, Mahendra Pala etc. were the prominent rulers of this
There was a struggle for control over Kannauj between the Pratihars and the Palas
and the Rashtrakutas of the south for about 200 years. This is known as the Tripartite
The Pala dynasty - The rulers of the Pala dynasty of Bengal established a big
empire in the middle of the 8th century in north India. The founder of this dynasty was
Gopala. The Palas had conflicts with the Pratihars and the Rashtrakutas for control over
Kannauj . The prominent rulers of this dynasty were Dharmapala and Devpala. The
famous Vikramshila University was founded by Dharmpala. It was an important center of
learning of Buddhism. The Pala rulers were patrons of learning and religion.
The Chalukya dynasty (Solanki) - The founder of the Solanki dynasty of
Gujarat was Moolraj. Mahmood Gaznavi attacked Gujarat during the reign of Bhima I of
this dynasty, in which Bhima I was defeated. After Bhimdev's death his son Karandev sat
on the throne in 1064 A.D. The most able king of the Solanki dynasty is considerded to
be Jaysingh Siddharaj. After Siddharaj, Kumarpal became the ruler. Jainacharya Hemchandra
Acharya was Kumarpala's advisor. After Kumarpala, Bhimdev II sat on the throne. The
attack of Monammad Ghori took place around this time.
The Parmar dynasty - The founder of the Parmar dynasty was Upendra Raj.
The prominent rulers of this dynasty were Siyak II Munj, Sindhraj, Bhoja, Jai Singh, and
Udaiaditya. Siyak II defeated the Rashtrakutas and established an
The famous Bhojpur
independent kingdom in Malwa. King Bhoja was the most valiant
temple and lake of
ruler of this dynasty. He was a great warrior, writer, poet, patron
Bhopal belong to
the reign of Raja of learning and an intellectual. Many intellectuals and poets found
Bhoj. patronage in his court. He got many temples and ponds constructed.
During his reign the city of Dhara ( present district of Dhar in
Madhya Pradesh) was an important melting pot of literature and culture. This dynasty
ruled over Gujarat and Rajasthan along with Madhya Pradesh. This dynasty is chiefly

known in history for its temple construction. During this period many temples of
architectural splendour were constructed.
The Chahman (Chauhan) dynasty - The rule of this dynasty spread from
the central Sambhar region of Jodhpur and Jaipur. Later, this dynasty became famous as
the Chauhan dynasty. The first independent ruler of the dynasty was Vigrahraj II. Ajayraj
of the same dynasty laid the foundation of the city of Ajaymeru (Ajmer). He got splendid
palaces and buildings constructed here. The last and most powerful ruler of the Chauhan
dynasty was Prithiviraj Chauhan.
The Chandel Dynasty - The Chandela rulers had supremacy over the Bundelkhand
region. The capital of this kingdom was Khajuraho. The prominent rulers of this dynasty
were Nanuk, Yashovarman, Dhanga, Vidyadhar, Kirtivarman and Parmadridev. The reign of
the Chandela rulers is famous for the progress made in the temple architecture. The
famous temples of Khajuraho were constructed by the rulers of this dynasty.
The period from the 13th century A.D. to the 18th century A.D. is known as the
later medieval period. During this period, foreign invaders carried on their destructive
activities one after the other (on India) which Indians strongly resisted from time to
time. However after a hard struggle the invaders were able to establish their rule in India.
10.4 Arab and Turk Attacks
During the Rajput period, foreign invaders attacked India a number of times. Arabs
attacked in the beginning but they could not achieve any major success. Mohammad bin
'Quasim attacked Sindh where Dahir and later his queen struggled with courage and
bravery, but they were defeated. After the death of Quasim, Junaed attacked the regions
of Rajasthan and Gujarat but the powerful rulers of northern India prevented him from
entering India. Pulakesin Raj the Chalukya ruler, the Pratihar ruler Nagabhatt II, Lalitaditya
Muktpeed and Yashovarma defeated the Arabs. The extremely powerful Indian kings were
the chief reason for the failure of the Arabs.
The invasion of the Turks into India began in the middle of the period between 974
- 977 A.D. The chief among them were the invasions of Mahmood Ghazni and Mohammad
The Invasions of Mahamood Ghaznavi - Mahmood was an ambitious ruler
of a small principality of Western Asia. He needed money for his army. He had heard
many legends about Indian wealth. In order to plunder India's wealth, he invaded many
parts of northern India from about 1000 to 1027 A.D. Mahmood made 17 (seventeen)
successful attacks on India. Punjab, Multan, Bhatinda, Nagarkot, Narainpur, Kashmir,
Thanesar, Mathura, Kalinjar and Somnath were prominent centers of invasion. Look at
the above places on the given map. Ghaznavi destroyed many religious places, looted and

carried away immense wealth to Ghazni. The famous writer Alberuni who came to India
with Mahmood Ghaznavi has written about the carnage of Mahmood's destruction. His
attacks led to great economic and cultural loss to the country. The contemporary Hindu
rulers faced Mahmood Ghaznavi but were unsuccessful due to lack of political unity.
Mahmood Ghaznavi died in 1030 A.D. (Approx.).
Mohammad Ghori's invasion - After 150 years of Mahmood Ghaznavi's
invasion, Mohammed Ghori the ruler of a small principality, Ghor, in Afghanistan,
invaded north west India. Taking advantage of the mutual conflicts of the Indian rulers
Ghori first invaded India in about 1175 A.D. and brought Multtan and Sindh under his
domination. The objective of Mohammad Ghori's invasion of India was acquiring wealth

and propagating Islam. During this time, the Hindu states in northern India included - the
Chouhan state of Delhi and Ajmer, the Solanki Kingdom in Kannauj, the Sena Kingdom
in Bengal- Bihar, and the Chandel kingdom in Bundelkhand. In southern India Devgiri and
Warangal and Hoysal were prominent states.
10.5 The Struggle with the Turks
Prithviraj Chauhan's struggle with the Turks:
Mohammad Ghori attacked Gujarat around 1178 A.D. where Bhimdev II was ruling.
Bhimdev's army defeated Mohammad Ghori. Ghori had to run away to save his life. He
did not dare to attack Gujarat again. After his victory over the Punjab, Multan and Sindh,
he attacked the fort of Bhatinda on the Punjab border with a view to attack the prominent
Emperor Prithviraj Chauhan of north India.
Prithvi Raj Chouhan was an able, brave, valiant and
powerful Emperor. He had a fine army and army
commanders. Prithviraj faced Ghori in 1191 A.D. on the
plains of Tarain, this is known as the first Battle of Tarain.
Ghori's army could not withstand the massive attack
launched by Prithviraj Chauhan's army and was forced to
flee. Ghori also fled in a wounded state. Prithviraj did not
chase the fleeing army as it was against the Rajput honour
and tradition to chase a fleeing army. Consequently Ghori
managed to escape. Ghori could not forget his disgraceful
Prithvi Raj Chauhan defeat and again made preparations for the war and attacked
India the very next year. There was another battle fought in
the plains of Tarain in 1192, which is known as the second battle of Tarain. Prithviraj
fought valiantly and compelled the forces of Ghori to retreat but through diplomatic
manovers Ghori imprisoned Prithviraj Chauhan. Historians are not unanimous about how
Prithviraj Chauhan died. However Hasan Nizami's view is that Mahmood Ghori got him
killed. In this manner Md. Ghori gained control over Ajmer and Delhi. Many Rajput kings
supported Prithviraj Chauhan but the king of Kannauj Jaichand did not support him due
to personal enemity. In about 1194 A.D. Ghori attacked Kannauj and defeated Jaichand.
10.6 Delhi Sultanate
The Slave dynasty : The first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanat was the Slave
dynasty. The credit for its foundation goes to Qutubud-din Aibak. Md. Ghori died in 1206
A.D. He had handed over the charge of the organization of the Indian states to his slave
and commander Qutub-ud- din Aibak. After the death of Ghori, Qutub-ud-din Aibak
became the ruler of Delhi and its dominant states. He ruled from 1206 to 1210 A.D. He
won many battles for his master Md. Ghori. He won over Hansi, Ajmer, Meerut, Aligarh,

Ranthambhor. The credit of the construction of the Qutubminar
goes to him. He died while playing Chaugan (Polo) in 1210 Iltutmish started a
A.D. After the death of Qutub-ud-din, Aramshah was declared new Arab style Coin
the Sultan of Delhi but he could rule only for a few months. Tanka and bronze
coin Jital. Tanka was
Iltutmish made of silver and
The most efficient ruler in the Slave dynasty was Iltutmish. gold.
He was an Ilbari Turk. Qutub-ud-din freed him from slavery as
a reward of his bravery against Khokhars on the recommendation of Md. Ghori. Iltutmish
became the Sultan of Delhi after removing Aram Shah in 1211 A.D.
There were many difficulties faced by Iltutmish after coming to the throne. The
north western frontiers were not secure due to Mongol attacks and other foreign
invaders. Yaldoz of Ghazni and Qubacha of Sindh and Multan along with the Subedars and
Sardars of the Sultanat were against him. He crushed the power of the rebel Subedars and
Sardars and formed a union of the Turks. Due to his far sightedness and diplomacy he
saved Delhi from the attacks of the Mongol leader Chengiz Khan. Iltutmish attacked
Ranthambor, Mandor, Nagod, Sambhar, Nayana, Jalore, and Gwalior to contain the rising
Rajput power. He won the Gwalior fort in 1232 A.D. The Sultan attacked Bhelsa and
Ujjain, parts of Malwa empire in 1234 A.D. and won them. He
died in 1236 A.D.
Raziya Sultan (1236 A.D.-1240 A.D.)
The sons of Iltutmish were incapable of ruling. Therefore
he appointed his able daughter Razia as his successor. Raziya
sat in the court and led the army. Crowning a daughter instead
of a son was a novel step in medieval history. In the whole of
the history of the medieval period, Raziya was the first and
only Muslim woman Sultan of Delhi.
Amir Turk Sardars could not tolerate a women Sultan and
started conspiring against her and revolted. The most powerful
among the revolts was the one led by Altunia of Bhatinda, Raziya Sultan
Raziya attacked Lahore to crush the revolt. In the war her
military commander Yakut was killed and Raziya was murdered.
After Raziya, Bahram Shah, Alauddin Masood Shah and Nasiruddin Mahmood
became the rulers of the Delhi Sultanat, only for name's sake while the real power was
in the hands of the Amir Sardars.
Ghiyas-ud-din Balban (1266-1286 A.D.)
Balban was bought by Sultan Iltutmish. Balban impressed his master with his ability

and services and was soon made a member of the Group of 40 Amirs, 'Chalisa'. Balban
served Iltutmish and his successors with full loyalty. He sat on the throne in 1266 A.D.
after the death of Nasruddin Mahmood.
Balban followed the policy of 'blood and Iron' for regulating his administration. He
did not hesitate even a bit in finishing off his opponents. He organized a despotic
monarchical administrative organization. He believed in the divine right of kings. He
believed the position of the Sultan to be superior and glorious. He gave strict punishments
to those who did not obey his orders. He reorganized the army for the security of his
kingdom and established a powerful espionage system.
The Khilji Dynasty
The Khilji dynasty was established by Sultan Jalal-ud-din Khilji in 1290 A.D. He
occupied a prominent place among the other commanders of the armies of Delhi before
becoming the Sultan. He killed Kaikubad the weak successor of Balban and became the
Sultan himself. After becoming the Sultan, he liberally distributed offices and gifts
amongst his loyal supporters. He married his daughter to his nephew Allaudin and made
him his son-in-law. He appointed Allauddin as the Subedar of Kara and Manikpur. But
Jalal-ud-din proved to be an inefficient and weak ruler. As a result there were revolts in
the state. In 1296 A.D. Alauddin killed Jalal-ud-din Khilji and himself became the Sultan.
Alauddin Khilji- (1296 A.D. to 1316 A.D.) -Allauddin was very ambitious.
His desire was to become the Emperor of the whole of India. In order to accomplish this
aim, he attacked Sindh, Multan, Gujarat, Jalore, Jaisalmer, Ranthambor, Chittor, Ujjain
and Chanderi and won them. In order to win over the four kingdoms of the south, Devgiri,
Warangal, Dwar Samudra and Madura he sent his military commander Malik Kafur. He
organized a big army and an espionage department. He crushed the power of the revolting
Sardars and Amirs. In order to make goods available to his army at a low prices he
implemented market control in Delhi, which benefitted the people of Delhi. He also
implemented the rationing system He made Government granaries keeping in view the
sudden changes in the weather. He fixed the rates of goods not on the basis of one's
wishes but in accordance to the cost of production. Barni in his book Tarikh-i-Firozshai
has given a descriptive account of market control and a list of prices of goods. Excessive
taxes were imposed on farmers, traders and Hindus. Taxes were collected strictly and
without respite.
With the death of Alauddin Khilji in 1316 A.D. the Khilji dynasty also declined.
Meanwhile the danger of Mongol attacks loomed large over India. For about a century
Mongol danger remained a matter of concern for the Muslim Empire.

Tughlaq dynasty
In 1320 A.D. Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq removed the last ruler of the Khilji dynasty
Nasir-ud-din Khusro and became the Sultan of Delhi. He led military campaigns to
Warangal Orissa and Bengal after becoming the Sultan.
Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (1325-1351 A.D.) - Juna Khan meaning
Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq became the Sultan of Delhi by killing his father Ghiyasuddin. He
was the most controversial Sultan of the Delhi Sultanat. He is considered to be an able,
talented, progressive and intelligent Sultan. He became famous in world history due to
his ambitious plans. Increase in taxes in the doab region, transfer of capital from Delhi
to Daulatabad (Devgiri) issue of copper currency in place of gold and silver currency
plans of victory, were planned and subsequently taken back. Making of plans, implementing
and then withdrawing them was a waste of time and money. Due to these plans and torture
of his subjects he has been called by various adjectives like mad, blood thirsty, egoist,
adamant, 'before his time' and a 'mixture of opposites'.
Firoz Shah Tuglaq ( 1351-1388 A.D.) Muhammad bin-Tughlaq died in 1351
A.D. After his death his cousin Firozshah Tughlaq became the next Sultan of Delhi. After
coming to the throne Firoz made successful attacks on Bengal, Jajnagar, Nagarkot, Thatta
etc. He took several steps to remove the administrative complacency of Muhamman-bin
Tughlaq's period.
Attack of Taimur Lang
The ruler of Samarkand Taimur was extremely brave, courageous and ambitious.
The immense wealth of India lured him to attack India. Besides, the aim of his attack on
India was religious. In 1398 A.D. he entered India with a large army and soon established
his control over Delhi. He had no desire to rule over India so after plundering, carnage
and a great setback to agriculture he went back to Samarkand.
The Sayyed dynasty ( 1414 A.D.-1451 A.D.)
After the downfall of the Tuglaq dynasty the Sayyed dynasty established their
domination over Delhi. In this dynasty Khizr Khan, Mubarakshah, Muhammed Shah and
Alam Shah became the Delhi Sultans who did not make any special contribution worth
mentioning in history.
The Lodi dynasty ( 1451-1526 A.D.)
In 1451 A.D. Bahlol Lodi became the Sultan of Delhi. He spent most of his time
in making Delhi safe from his opponents. In 1489 A.D. his son Sikander Lodi became
the Sultan. Sikander died in 1517 A.D. and his son Ibrahim Lodi became the Sultan of
Delhi. He had to face internal rebellion. He entered into a war with Rana Sanga of Mewar
and Mansingh of Gwalior. His attack on Gwalior was successful.

During the reign of Ibrahim Lodi the Delhi Sultanat was attacked by Babur, the ruler
of Kabul. There was a tough battle fought at Panipat between the two armies in 1526 A.D.
It is known as the first battle of Panipat. Ibrahim was killed. Delhi and Agra came under
Babur's control. With Babur's victory, Delhi Sultanat also declined.
10.7 Vijaynagar and Bahmani kingdoms
Alauddin-Khilji's period was a great blow to Hindu religion and culture of south
India. Slowly the Hindus started protesting for self-defence, religion and their culture.
The famous religious leader and intellectual of Southern India Madhav Vidyaranya
contributed a lot to this. The feeling of Hindu renaissance was responsible for the
establishment of the Vijaynagar Empire. The misgovernance and revolts during Muhammed-
bin-Tughlaq's period gave momentum to this movement.

The credit for the establishment of Vijaynagar goes to two brothers Harihar and
Bukka. Their father's name was Sangam. Therefore their dynasty is also known as the
Sangam dynasty. When Muhammed Tughlaq attacked Warangal and won it, both the
brothers were imprisoned and sent to Delhi.
The Sultan was impressed with their ability and service and took them in his army.
Both the brothers were sent to South India to crush the revolt. Here they came in contact
with the famous Saint Madhav Vidyaranya of South India. Here they were also inspired
to protect Hindu culture. In 1336 A.D. Harihar laid the foundation of the Hampi-
Hastinavati Kingdom on the southern banks of river Tungabhadra. The city was named
Vijaynagar, which later took the form of a big Empire. Look at the borders of Vijaynagar
Kingdom in the given map.
Harihar I - The first ruler of Vijaynagar was Harihar. He ruled with the help of
his brother Bukka and expanded his Empire. In a short span of time he extended his
Empire from Krishna river in the north to Kaveri river in the south and till the sea coast
in the east and the west. He established a firm administration.
Bukka - After the death of his brother Harihar he became the ruler of Vijaynagar.
Traditional rivalry with the Bahmani Kingdom started with Bukka's period. Bukka won
the Muslim state of Madurai and expanded his Kingdom to Rameshwaram in the farthest
south. He did a lot of work for the protection of Hindu culture and took the title of 'Ved-
marg- pak. He gave religious freedom to the believers of Jainism, Buddhism and Islam.
He encouraged Telugu literature and centralized administration. He also sent his
ambassador to China.
Harihar II - Harihar II became the ruler in about 1377 A.D. He took the title of
'Maharajadhiraj'. He won the cities of Mysore, Kanjivaram, Chingalpur, Trichinapaly etc.
He fought a battle with the Bahmani Kingdom. He invested most of his time in proper
organization of administration and religious works. He got many Hindu temples
constructed and donated liberally. Sayan the famous scholar was his Prime Minister.
After the death of Harihar II in 1406 A.D. there was a war of succession among his
sons Virupaksha I, Bukka II and Devraya I became the rulers. After this Ramchandra and
Veer Vijay became the kings.
Devraya II - Devraya II was the most efficient ruler of the Sangam dynasty. There
were two terrible wars with the Bahmani Kingdom during Devraya's period in which
Vijaynagar had to face severe losses. Devraya attacked Lanka and collected taxes. He
promoted sea trade. He patronized literature and Shaivism.
The End of the Sangam the dynasty - After Devraya II Malikarjun (1446-
1465 A.D.) and Virupaksha II (1465-1485 A.D.) came to the throne but were weak rulers.
In the end, the feudal leader of Chandragiri Narsingh Sulva in around 1486 A.D.
established his control over the Kingdom and laid the foundation of the Sulva dynasty in
The Sulva dynasty - The Sulva dynasty ruled over Vijaynagar from around 1486
A.D. to 1505 A.D.
Narsihma Sulva (1486-1490 A.D.) - Narsihma Sulva was a brave, powerful
and able ruler. He crushed the revolts taking place in the Empire and re-established his
control over the states won by the Bahmani Empire. For the organization of a powerful
army he bought fine horses from Arab traders. He patronized literature. During his
period, the famous book Jemini Bharatam was written.
Narsingh Sulva died in 1490 A.D. His son Imadi Narsihma became the ruler but
he was weak because of which the responsibility of administration came to Naras Nayak
the military leader.
The Tulva dynasty-
Veer Narsimha (1505-1509 A.D.) - after the death of his father Naras Nayak
Veer Narsimha killed Imadi Narsimha and laid the foundation of the Tulva dynasty in
Vijaynagar. Veer Narsinhma ruled till around 1509 A.D.
Krishna Dev Rai (1509-1529 A.D.) - The most efficient ruler of the Tulva
dynasty was Krishna Dev Raya. He was the cousin of Veer Narsihma. He was a brave
soldier, successful military commander and able administrator. He established peace in
his kingdom and paid attention towards economic progress. He crushed the revolts and
by defeating the neighbouring states, made his frontiers secure. He waged successful
wars against the Bahmani states - Orissa, Golkunda and Bijapur. He established friendly
relations with the Portuguese for political reasons and promotion of trade. He was an
admirer of knowledge and art. His court had eight of the finest poets and artists. The
Portuguese traveller Peida has praised him a lot. Krishnadev Raya himself was a great
scholar of Telugu and Sanskrit. He wrote many books of which Ayukta Malyad and
Jambvanti Kalyanam are available even today. Due to his admiration of literature, he is
also called the "Bhoja of Andhra".
He got Mandaps and Gopurams with a hundred pillars constructed in various parts
of his Empire. He got Vijay Bhavan, Hazaram temple and Vitthal temple constructed. He
also founded a city called Naglapur.
After Krishnadev Raya his cousin Achyut Devraya beame the King in about 1529
A.D. Krishnadev Raya's son-in-law was also given a share in the administration. The state
of the kingdom started becoming bad. Many influential people started controlling power.
Achyut died in 1542 A.D. His minor son Venkat I became the ruler but power remained
in the hands of his maternal uncle Salakraj Sirumal. After some time Achyut's nephew
Sadasivraj became the ruler, but he also proved to be a weak ruler. The real power to
govern came in the hands of the minister Ram Rai.
Battle of Talikota- The minister of the Vijaynagar kingdom, Ram Rai was a
diplomat. He wanted to follow a policy of planting seeds of disunity between the five
Kingdoms which were formed after the collapse of the Bahmani Empire. But all the five
Kingdoms - Bijapur, Bidar, Berar, Golkunda and Ahmednagar got united in the name of

religion. All five Kingdoms together attacked Vijaynagar. In about 1566 A.D. the battle
of Talikota was fought. The armies of Vijaynagar were defeated and Islamic armies
destroyed Vijaynagar.
The AarVeedu dynasty - Ram Rai's brother Tirumal made Pendugonda the capital
and made an attempt to preserve the existence of the Vijaynagar Empire. In around 1570
A.D. he removed Sadasiv from the throne and laid the foundation of the Aarveedu dynasty.
Tirumal died in 1572 A.D. His successors were not able to take care of the declining
Vijaynagar Empire and soon Vijaynagar Empire was divided into many small independent
Administrative Organization of Vijaynagar
The form of administration of Vijaynagar Empire was despotic monarchy. The
powers of the king were un-controlled and unlimited. The basis of the state was Hindu
religion. The administration of Vijaynagar was divided into Central, provincial and local
In the Central administration of Vijaynagar the Emperor, the ministers council, the
King's assembly and the prince played an important role.
The Emperor had the chief position in the State and was called the Raja. All powers
of the state were concentrated in his hands. He himself administered the state. Declaration
of war and treaty, appointment of officers and workers, organization of law and justice
etc. were in his hands.
There was a central secretariate for the administration of the state in which there
were various departments, their Chairmen, secretaries and officers.
The officials and workers of the state received land in lieu of salaries. This
arrangement was called the Naykat arrangement. Military officials were also given
cultivable land. Military officers were called Nayaks and the land that was given was
called Amaram.
The king was the highest judge for the administration of justice. He himself
appointed the judges. Provincial officers (Prantapati) in the provinces and Panchayats in
the villages administered justice. No delay was done in the administration of justice.
Hindu code of justice was prevalant. The laws of criminal cases (Faujdari) were severe.
Amputation of hands feet and death punishment were mostly given.
The state made efforts for the development of agriculture and irrigation. Spices
were exported. The state encouraged irrigation work. The construction of canals and
ponds was considered to be a nobel deed.
The land revenue was determined according to the fertility of the land. Land
revenue was not uniform throughout the state. Grazing tax, marriage tax, property tax, tax
on trade, garden tax, tax on handicrafts were imposed by the State. The subjects were

happy inspite of heavy taxation.
Provincial administration - The Empire was divided into provinces. Provinces
were divided into Kottams or Valanadus. Kottam was a district which was divided into
Nadus. Nadus were divided into cities. A Village was the smallest unit of the state.
The responsibility of the province was in the hands of a member of the royal family
or powerful feudal lord.
Local Administration - The smallest unit of administration was the village.
There was representative body ( Pratinidhi Sabha) for the administration of the village
which had the representatives of the village. The Pradhan ( chief) of the Gram Panchayat
was called Iyengar. He was also given some powers to give justice and punishment. He
also collected royal taxes. The Gram Sabha could donate or sell the land under it. The
Gram Sabha was given the power to decide some diwani ( revenue) and Fauijdari
(criminal) cases.
The Bahmani Kingdom
After the establishment of the Delhi Sultanat in the north, the various states of the
south remained independent. Due to the difficulties in communication and being located
in distant regions the Sultans of Delhi remained away from the politics of the south.
Alauddin Khilji was the first Sultan of Delhi who estalished his supermacy over the
southern states through force. But after his death, the southern states became independent
once again. Muhammad bin Tughlaq made efforts to establish his supremacy over the
southern states, and also became successful but within a short span of time he had to face
continuous revolts. During Muhammad bin Tughlaq's reign the Muslim amirs of the south
revolted and the Bahmani Kingdom was founded. The Bahmani Kingdom emerged as a
powerful Muslim state.
The Muslim amirs of south India became angry with the policies, oppression and
plans of the Delhi Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq and revolted. The armies of the Sultan
were unsuccessful in crushing the revolt. The revolting people established their control
over Devgiri. In about 1357 A.D. Hasan Gangu Kohsan Abdul Muzzafar sat on the throne
with the name of Allaudin Bahman Shah. The Bahmani Kingdom flourished in south India
from 1347 to 1526 A.D.
The inefficiency of the Sultans, and torture of the people, continuous wars with the
neighbouring states, struggle between the southern and foreign amirs, the murder of
Mahmood Gavan, differences amongst the Amirs and other causes led to the decline of
the Bahmani Kingdom.
10.8 The Mughal Empire
Babur, who laid the foundation of the Mughal Empire in India was the son of the
ruler of Fargana state in Central Asia and a descendant of Taimur. During the time of
Babur's attack there was political instability in north and south India. There was
predominance of mutual fightings, struggle and conspiracies. Babur took full advantage
of this political disorder.
Babur attacked the borders of India and he was succesful. In 1526 tanks came to
the plains of Panipat where Ibrahim Lodi the ruler of Delhi faced him. Ibrahim was killed
in the battle and success came to Babur. Babur got control over Delhi and Agra.
Babur wanted to crush the Rajput power to rule over India. On the other hand the
Rajput rulers, under the leadership of Rana Sanga, were determined to out the Mughals
from India. There was a fierce battle between the armies of Babur and Rana Sanga in
1527 A.D. on the plains of Khanwa which Rana Sanga faced bravely but due to the use
of tanks and the Tulguma warfare Babur got a decisive victory.
Babur died in 1530 A.D. Babur has described his life, the beauty of India and
contemporary politics in his book 'Tuzukh-e-Baburi' .

Humayun - After the death of Babur his elder son Humayun sat on the throne in
1530 A.D. Humayun had to face the discontent of his relatives, brothers, Rajputs,
Afghans, his subjects and also an emptry treasurey. The Afghan Sardars were his rivals
among whom Sher Shah was the chief. Sher Shah defeated Humayun in 1539 A.D. in the
battle of Chousa and forced him to leave Delhi. During the times of difficulty the Rajput
king of Amarkot, king Veersal gave him asylum. Akbar was born in Amarkot in 1542 A.D.
Sher Shah Suri - Sher Shah Suri was the son of an Afghan chief of a small Jagir
in Bihar. Even after the defeat at the hands of Mughals in Panipat and Ghagra the Afghans
were not completely crushed. Sher Shah reorganized them and removing Humayun from
the throne of Delhi conquered Delhi. Humayun had to live a life of exile for about 15
years. During this period Sher Shah and his successors ruled over Delhi. Sher Shah's
brief period of rule has an important place in Indian history because he restored the lost
Afghan pride and rekindled the old administrative system with fundamental reforms
which proved to be the foundation for the future. Sher Shah gave utmost importance to
the welfare of the people and laid the foundation of a strong administration, the
advantage of which went to the Mughals. He started many works in the field of military
administration, judicial system, and land revenue system which were later adopted by
Akbar. Sher Shah divided his empire into Sarkars and the Sarkars into Parganas. He made
reforms in the currency system. The silver coin started by him was known as the
'Rupaiya'. In the field of education he constructed Madarsas. For travellers he made
arrangements for Sarais (Guest houses) and wells and got trees planted. Sher Shah got
the entire land surveyed and measured. He reconstructed the old royal road from Kolkata
to Peshawar the 'Grand Trunk road' (Present G.T. road), from Agra to Rajasthan and
Gujarat and in the south to Burhan he got new roads constructed. He had a strong
espionage system.
In 1545 A.D. Sher Shah Suri while laying the seige to Kalinjar died when a fire
broke out due to explosives. The successors of Sher Shah Suri proved to be ineffective.
Chief Sardars and officers started fighting amongst themselves.
Humayun took advantage of this situation With the help of the Shah of Persia,
Humayun won over Kandhar, Kabul, Punjab, Delhi and Agra and became the ruler. He
slipped from the staircase of his library and died in 1556 A.D.
Akbar (1556-1605 A.D) - At the time of Humayun's death Akbar was with his
guardian Bairam Khan in Gurdaspur district in Punjab at a place called Kalanaur. Bairamkhan
crowned him there in Kalanaur in 1556 A.D. Akbar was 13 years old at that time.
Soon after the death of Humayun the Afghan ruler Adilshah Suri's minister Hemu
captured Delhi. He assumed the title of Vikramaditya and sat on the throne of Delhi. In
1556 A.D. Akbar reached the plains of Panipat with his guardian Bairamkhan. There was
a fierce battle between Hemu and Akbar's forces. This is known as the second battle of
Panipat An arrow struck Hemu's eye from the enemy's side. Hemu was caught and
Bairamkhan killed him. In this way Akbar gained control over Delhi and Agra.
In the beginning Akbar ruled under the guardianship of Bairamkhan but started
ruling independently in 1560 A.D. In 1562 he abolished the system of enslaving the war
prisoners and in 1563 abolished the pilgrimage tax. In 1564 A.D. he abolished Jeziya
which was imposed on Hindus. In this manner he was able to make Hindus his friends.
Akbar followed a policy of diplomacy and friendship to win over entire India. Akbar
won Malwa, Jaunpur, Chinnaur, Meerut, Gondwana, Ranthambhor, Kalinjar, Marwar,
Gujarat, Bihar, Bengal, Kabul, Kashmir, Sindh, Orissa and many parts of south India. After
a long struggle in 1567-1588 A.D. he conquered Chittor. Rajputs gave a tough challenge
to Akbar under the leadership of Jaimal and Fatta. The prominent powers which
challenged Akbar's authority was from Gondwana under Rani Durgavati and the ruler of
Mewar Maharana Pratap. Though both the powers were defeated by Akbar's army still
Akbar had to struggle and work hard to win their kingdoms.
Akbar was a clever ruler. He understood that Rajputs were loyal and served their
masters even at the cost of their lives, it was therefore necessary to work in association
with the Rajputs. He did not have the courage to finish the entire Rajput states therefore
he followed a separate policy towards the Rajputs. Akbar befriended the Rajputs and took
fine and loyal and brave Rajputs in his service, which prolonged the duration of Mughal
empire. Akbar gave high mansabs to some Rajput kings like Bhagwandas, Raja Mansingh,
Birbal and Todarmal. Akbar also established friendly and matrimonial alliances with the
Rajputs. Akbar married the princess of Amer (Jaipur) Bikaner and Jaisalmer. In this
manner Rajputs had an important contribution in the realization of Akbar's dream of a
powerful and extensive empire.
He waged wars against the Rajput Kingdoms who did not accept his soverignity.
Akbar established a universal religion. Din-e-Illahi. He got as Ibadatkhana constructed in
Fatehpur Sikri where he held religious discussions with the followers of all religions.
Jehangir (1605-1627 A.D.) - After Akbar's death his son Jehangir sat on the
throne. Jehangir was born in 1569 A.D. Jehangir got married many times, prominent
among which was the marriage with the widow of Sher Afghan–Noor Jahan.
Jehangir was so influenced by the personality of Noorjahan, that he entrusted the
entire responsibility of administration on Noor Jahan. The result of this was that his last
days were spent in sorrow. One of Jehangir's son Khurram (Shah Jahan) revolted due to
which the situation of the state became a cause of worry. Jehangir died in 1627 A.D. and
Shah Jahan acquired the throne after killing his brothers.
Shah Jahan (1627-1658 A.D.) - After Jehangir, Shah Jahan became the
Emperor. Soon, he had to face and crush the revolt of Khanjahan Lodi, a revolt of feudal

Lord Jagatsingh of Bundelkhand and Nurpur. He fought a war against the Portuguese and
defeated them. In order to strengthen his empire he attacked Ahmednagar, Golkunda, and
Bijapur in south India. The Mughals also had to fight against the Maratha armies. The four
sons of Shahjahan were Darashikoh, Shahshuja, Aurangzeb and Murad. The war of
succession for the throne started during Shahjahan's period itself, in which Aurangzeb
was successful. He imprisoned Shahjahan. Shahjahan was an admirer of architecture, so
he got a number of buildings constructed. The money spent on the construction of
buildings was collected by the imposition of heavy taxes on the subjects, due to which
people had to face several severe hardships.
Aurangzeb (1658-1707 A.D.) - The war of succession between the sons of
Shahjahan started during his period itself. Aurangzeb emerged victorious in the war of
succession and sat on the throne after killing his three brothers. He imprisoned his
father in the Red Fort of Agra where he died after 8 years in 1666 A.D.
Aurangzeb made the Rajputs, the Jats, the Sikhs and the Marathas his rivals due to
which there were continuous revolts in the kingdom. Shivaji fought against him due to
his anti-Hindu policy and laid the foundation of an independent Maratha Kingdom. The
Sikh Guru Teg Bahadur was killed after torture. After this, Guru Gobind Singh organized
the Sikh army (Khalsa) to face Aurangzeb. Rajputs like Durgadas Rathor challenged
Aurangzeb.Tarabai gave a tough resistance to Aurangzeb for the independence of Marathas.
Aurangzeb died in 1707 A.D. and with him the decline of the Mughal empire also
started. Though the Mughal Empire continued in Delhi from 1707 to 1857 A.D. but it
was only in name.
10.9 Opposition to Mughal Power in India
Babur had laid the foundation of the Mughal empire in India in 1526 A.D. by
defeating Ibrahim Lodi. The Mughal empire established in 1526 A.D. continued till 1707
A.D. From 1707 A.D. - 1857 A.D. the Mughal empire was only in name in Delhi from
1526 to 1707 A.D. Babur, Humayun, Akbar, Jehangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb followed
all methods and tactics, diplomacy and war, friendship and alliances in order to keep the
entire India under their sovereignity in which they were successful. Kings from different
parts of India kept challenging them. In order to deal with the problems of the state -
Hindu Rajput kings had two options - surrender like other Rajput kings had in front of
Akbar, and become a part of the Mughal organization and live a dependent life. The
Second option was to maintain their independence and defend the glory of their nation.
For following this policy they had to be prepared for fierce wars and to leave all
pleasures and family life. To protect their values, thoughts and respect of India some
Rajput kings determined to follow the other path, i.e. they decided to fight against the
Mughals. These Indian kings and rulers neither befriended nor surrendered, but gave a

tough challenge to the Mughal rulers with bravery. The prominent among them were the
rulers of Mewar Rana Sanga, Maharana Pratap, Rani Durgawati of Gondwana, the Maratha
ruler Shivaji, and the Sikh leader Govind Singh.
The ruler of Mewar Maharana Pratap
Rana Sanga gave stiff resistance in the plains of
Khanua. Unfortunately, Rana Sanga was defeated but till he
was alive he did not accept defeat. After the death of Rana
Sanga in 1528 A.D. Babur led his expedition forward.
After the death of Rana Sanga Mughal power was
resisted by Maharana Udai Singh (1537-1572 A.D.). After
Udai Singh's death in 1572 A.D. his son Rana Pratap
became the ruler of Mewar. He had to face many problems
at home and outside after becoming the king. He spent a
tough time with his father in jungles, valleys and mountains.
He was very popular with the people of the mountainous
Maharana Pratap
region. The People of the hilly region addressed him as
Kika (small child). Mewar had faced many attacks of the Mughals therefore the
administration of Mewar was not satisfactory. There was no social and political stability.
The Mughals had established their control over many parts of the kingdom due to which
the income and prestige of the state declined. Maharana Pratap gave a tough challenge
to Akbar till he lived. Rana Pratap started organizing Mewar to give the Mughals a fight.
He organized feudal lords (Samants) and Bheels. For the first time Rana Pratap included
the Bheels in his army and honoured them by giving them high positions. He shifted his
residence from Kumbhalgarh to Gogunde so that Akbar could not attack it easily.
Through public relations he created awareness against the Mughal power. These efforts
brought unity and the entire Mewar rose against the Mughal power.
The battle of Halidighati (1576 A.D.) - The independence of Mewar was a
sore in the eyes of Akbar. Rana Pratap refused to accept the sovereignity, friendship or
offer of entering into a matrimonial alliance with Akbar. Akbar made several attempts to
convince Rana Pratap but was not successful. In the end Akbar had to resort to a war to
destroy the independence of Mewar. War started between the two armies on 21st June
1576 A.D. Akbar's armies were led by Mansingh. Thousands of soldiers on both the sides
were killed. Rana Pratap with his aides Lunakarna, Ramshah, Tarachand, Poonja, Hakim
Sur reached near Mansingh's elephant piercing the enemy's armies Rana's horse Chetak
kept his front feet on the elephant's tusk. Rana attacked Mansingh with a spear but he
escaped. Enemy forces encircled Rana, but the brave Rajputs whisked Rana away from
the enemies. Wounded Chetak died on the way, but the war went on. Akbar's armies
conquered Gogunde.
Rana Pratap had to lose a part of his Empire but he did not accept defeat. He carried
on war against the Mughals and managed to win back many of the lost areas of his state.
He made a new capital at Chawan and established good administration in the state. He
died on 19th Jan 1597 A.D. Akbar remained unsuccessful in suppressing Maharana Pratap
till the end. In this way Maharana Pratap fought with bravery and courage till his death
and crushed Akbar's ego.
Rani Durgawati - Rani Durgawati was, one of the
most a valiant warrior's of medieval Indian history. She faced
the Mughal emperor Akbar's greed for expansion of the Empire
with bravery, courage and patience. Rani Durgawati a the Chandel
princess of Mahoba. She was trained in horseriding, armaments
and kisher (iron claw) right from childhood. She was married
to the king of Garha Dalpat Shah. The kingdom of Garha also
included the northern districts of present Madhya Pradesh.
Dalpatshah transferred the capital of his state from Garha
to Singorgarh. About eight years after his marriage Dalpatshah
died. Durgawati had to shoulder the responsibility of the state Rani Durgawati
as guardian to her minor son Veernarayan. The Rani managed
the affairs of the state with courage and bravery. She cleverly repilsed Baj Bahadur's
(ruler of Malwa) attacks. When Akbar the ruler of Delhi heard about the economic
prosperity of Garha state, he sent Asaf Khan with a big army to attack Garha state for
extending his empire. Rani Durgawati decided to fight rather than surrender. Asaf Khan
attacked Garha in 1564 A.D. Rani Durgavati along with her son Veernarayan faced
Asafkhan. Veernarayan was wounded.
Rani Durgavati bravely fought against the forces of Asaf Khan but in the end was
wounded seriously. In the wounded state brave Durgavati was unable to continue the war
but she did not want Akbar's soldiers to imprison and humilate her. Therefore she killed
herself with a sword and her son Veernarayan died while fighting. Finding themselves
unsafe the women of the palace committed Jauhar. In this manner Asaf Khan conquered
Garha and obtained the kingdom, palace and money and wealth. Though Garha was
defeated, Rani Durgawati through her bravery proved that Emperor Akbar could not
conquer a woman's empire without fighting the war on Garha. Garha is a blot on Akbar's
administration. He imposed a war on a peaceful state and won it.
Chatrapati Shivaji - The strongest opposition to the Mughal Empire was given
by the Marathas under the leadership of Shivaji. In the rise of Shivaji and the Marathas
the Mughals lust for increasing their Empire, anti Hindu policy and religious orthodox
policy were the important factors.

Religious leaders like Saint Tukaram, Ram Das, Vaman Pandit and Eknath sowed the
seeds of a national religion among the Marathas. The
feeling of national religion played an important role in
arousing the feeling of nationalism among Marathas.
Maharaja Shivaji was born on 20 April 1627 A.D. in
the hilly fort of Shivner in Maharashtra. His mother's
name was Jeejabai and father's name was Shahji Bhonsle.
Shivaji received the education of the Hindu religion and
rites from his mother and teacher and guardian Dadaji
Konddev. During his childhood he also received military
education. He learnt the lessons of honesty, charracter,
bravery and religiousness from his mother. Shivaji did
Chatrapati Shivaji not like his father serving under the Sultan of Bijapur.
Therefore he decided to fight against the Sultan and
organized an army. He won the first Fort Torana in 1646 A.D. from Bijapur. He got fort
Raigarh constructed five miles east of Torna. Hereafter he won one fort after the other.
He won over Chakan, Kondana, Purandar, Javali, Konkan etc.
The Sultan of Bijapur sent Afzal Khan under the pretex of talks for a peace. Shivaji
anticipated Afzal Khan's designs and killed him.
Aurangzeb made several plans to trap Shivaji, but was not successful. Disappointed
after many defeats Aurangzeb sent the famous militry commander Raja Jai Singh against
Shivaji. There were many confrontations between the armies of Jai Singh and Shivaji but
as there was no outcome both the sides signed the Treaty of Purandhar in 1665 A.D.
Shivaji went to meet Aurangzeb with Raja Jai Singh but Aurangzeb trecherously
imprisioned him. Aurangzeb wanted to kill him in jail. Shivaji pretended to be sick and
to get cured, started distributing sweets amongst saints. One day Shivaji and his son
Shambhaji escaped from Agra in one of the sweet baskets. Aurangzeb became extremely
angry on Shivaji's safe escape.
Shivaji crowned himself in 1674 and became Chhatrapati. He made Raigarh his
capital. After his coronation Shivaji organized the entire state and the states administrative
system. Shivaji's administration was based on public welfare. In his administration
Ashtapradhan was important. By Ashtapradhan is meant the eight ministers who were
responsible towards Shivaji. He died in 1680 A.D.
In management and administration Shivaji attained the highest success. He built a
powerful state. Shivaji played an important role in routing out Mughal power from
southern India. After Shivaji his successors Shahji, Raja Ram Sahu, Tarabai etc. continued
their struggle against the Mughals. Later, the Peshwas gaves serious challenge to the

Mughal power at Delhi. The goal with which Shivaji laid the foundation of the Maratha
State was carried forward by the Maratha Commanders who worked in the direction of
national interests.
The followers of the religion established by Gurunanak are
called Sikhs. By the 17th century Sikh religion had become the
religion of many artisans and farmers of Punjab. Gurunanak was
the first Sikh Guru. After him other Sikh leaders (Gurus) took
the Sikh community ahead. The last Sikh Guru was Guru Gobind
Singh. The initial Gurus paid attention only towards the religious
aspects but slowly the Sikh Gurus also became their military Guru Govindsingh
leaders. After the death of the seventh Guru, Aurangzeb tried to
take advantage of a quarrel for succession among the Gurus. Meanwhile the power of the
Sikh Gurus was steadily increasing. To check this rising power Mughal administration in
1675 A.D. ordered Guru Tegbahadur to be hanged which made the Sikh community very
angry with Aurangzeb. Guru Gobind Singh the tenth Guru organized the Sikhs into a
military organization to fight against the Mughal armies. Guru Gobind Singh established
an organization called Khalsa in 1699 A.D. Khalsa was a casteless organization in which
there was a provision to include everyone without caste discrimination. The members of
the Khalsa organization had to adopt the five K's - kada (Bangle), kripan (Sword), kesh
(hair), kaccha (under pant) and kangha (comb).
He started the practise of prefixing the word 'Singh' among Sikhs. The Sikh
community put many challenges before the Mughal Empire.
Causes of the decline of the Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire, the foundation of which was laid by Babur, declined from the
period of Aurangzeb. After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707 Mughal power declined
rapidly. The chief causes of the decline of this massive empire were as follows:
Aurangzeb's Empire, his policys and war - Aurangzeb's policies can mainly held
responsible for the decline of the Mughal Empire. His orthodox religious policy and anti
Hindu policy was one of the chief cause. Due to his policy of opression he made the Jats,
the Rajputs, the Marathas, the Sikhs etc. his enemies. He oppresed the Hindus, due to
which he stopped getting the support of the Rajputs. The Marathas and the Jats gave
severe blows to his Empire, due to which the Mughal Empire declined.
To bring the kingdoms of the south under his subordination Aurangzeb fought for
25 years with different states of South India, in which he had to face severe loss of men
and money. These wars shook the foundation of the empire.

Excessive Taxes - The Mughal rulers imposed heavy taxes on the people for their
pleasures and wars, paying which became impossible for the people. There were voices
of revolt among the common people.
Vastness of the Empire - The vasteness of the Mughal Empire in and outside
India also became a cause of decline of the Mughal Empire. A vast Empire could have
only been regulated through a centralized authority. Due to a weak central authority the
Mughal Empire also started breaking up. Akbar had saved the Empire by his diplomacy
but his successors were not successful in this.
Revolts of Chieftains and Prince - Revolts of Loyal Chieftains and Princes
also helped in the decline of the Mughal Empire. The revolts of royal leaders like
Saleem, Khusro, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb also gave a blow to the unity of the Empire.
War of Succession - The war of succession for power also harmed the Mughal
Empire. There was no certain rule of succession in Muslim royal power. There were
many claimants to the throne due to which the successor was decided on the point of a
bayonet. The war of succession between the sons of Jehangir and among the sons of
Shahjahan for power aided the decline of the Mughal Empire.
Moral decline of Mughal rulers - Early Mughal rulers were loyal and virtuous
towards their state. But the Mughal rulers after Jehangir were pleasure seeking and
Religious Policy - The religious policy of the Mughals was based on Islam. Most
of the rulers were staunch followers of Islam. They supported the spread and growth of
Islam, harmed other religions and their followers, due to which the Mughal Empire could
not get their support.
Rise of Hindu powers - The rise of new Hindu powers also played a role in
the decline of the Mughal Empire. The Marathas, the Jats, the Sikhs, the Rajputs etc.
reorganized themselves and rose against the Mughal empire.
Continuous wars and autocratic rule, decline of military power, moral decline of Amirs
(nobles), groupism and other reasons also aided the decline of THE Mughal Empire.

Amirs : Turk leaders
Subedars : The highest officer of a Suba.
Policy of blood and iron : The policy of sword and war.
Tulguma warfare : Military formation of the Mughals.
Jeziya : A tax levied on non-Muslims
Mandalam : Province
Valanadu : District
Gopuram : Entrance door of a temple
Wazir : Chief military commander or Prime Minister.
Jauhar : Self immolation collectively done by Rajput women
for guarding their self-respect and honour.
Din-e-Illahi : A religious policy started by Akbar. Din-i-Ilahi means a
religion of worship of one God.
Ashtapradhan- : Shivaji's committee of eight ministers which gave advice
to the Maratha king in matters of administration
Khalsa : Guru Gobind Singh organized the Sikhs and gave them
a military form which was called Khalsa which means
I. Choose the correct alternative:
1. Mahmood Ghazani was the ruler of-
(i) Multan (ii) Ghazni
(iii) Bahmani (iv) Iraq
2. The founder of the Slave dynasty was-
(i) Iltutmish (ii) Mohammad Ghori
(iii) Qutub-ud-din Aibak (iv) Balban
4. Who injured Ghori in the Ist battle of Tarain-
(i) Prithiviraj (ii) Krishnaraya
(iii) Govindraj (iv) Deepakraj
5. Which empire did Harihar and Bukka found?
(i) Bahmani Empire (ii) Vijaynagar Empire
(iii) Delhi Sultanate (iv) Mohammad Nagar
6. Who killed Afzal Khan-
(i) Shivaji (ii) Raja Ram
(iii) Sahu (iii) Tarabai

II. Fill in the blanks :
1. The ancient chola rulers have been described in the ...................... .
2. The founder of the Parmar Dynasty was ...................... .
3. Mahmood Ghaznavi made ........................ successful attacks on India.
4. Balban followed the policy of ....................... for regulating his administration.
III. True or false :
1. The name of Shivaji's mother was Jijabai.
2. The battle of Haldighati held between Akbar and Rani Durgavati.
3. After Jehangir, Shah Jahan became the Emperor.
4. Humayun was the elder son of "Babur."
5. Krishna Dev Rai had wrote a book named "Jambvanti Kalyanam".
Very short answer type questions
1. How many times did Mahamood Ghaznavi attack India?
2. Who laid the foundation of the Mughal Empire in India?
3. Who founded the Vijaynagar Empire?
4. Who was the founder of the Bahmani Empire?
5. Who started the religion 'Din-I-Illahi?
6. Who was Guru Gobind Singh?
Short answer type Questions
1. Who was Iltutmish? How did he overcome his difficulties?
2. What was the market policy of Allaudin?
3. How did the Tughlaq dynasty establish power over the Delhi Sultanate? Examine.
4. Write the contribuiton of Shershah's administrative organization in Indian history.
5. Write the contribution of Prithiviraj Chauhan in India history.
6. Describe why Maharana Pratap is famous in Indian history.
Long answer type questions
1. What were the objectives of Mahmud Ghaznavi's and Mohammed Ghori's attack on
India? Write the causes of their success.
2. Describe the administrative organization of King Krishna Dev Raja and its impact
on the people.
3. Examine the Rajput and religious policy of Akbar.
4. Who were the Indian Kings and rulers who resisted the Mughal power in India and
what role did they play? Describe.
5. Write down the causes responsible for the decline of the Mughal Empire.
❖❖ ❖❖ ❖❖

Major Cultural Trends
11.1 Meaning of cultural trends and
We Will Study  chief cultural trends.
11.1 Meaning of cultural trends and
chief cultural trends Cultural trends familiarize us with the
11.2 Cultural trends from the an- ancient historical background. The History of a
cient period to the Rajput pe- country is only important when its cultural
riod- Literature, painting, parameters are studied on a scientific basis.
architecture, sculpture, dance Indian culture is one of the world's most ancient
and music, the performing arts cultures. Since ancient times, India has been
11.3 Cultural trends from the Sul- known in the world for its rich culture. Its chief
tanate to the Mughal period- speciality, along with continuity, are forces of
Literature, painting, architec- antiquity, spirituality, unity and integrity. Indian
ture, sculpture, dance and mu- culture is a valuable asset of human society.
sic fine arts.
The meaning of culture in itself is very broad.
The stages of development of every civilization attain a level where it establishes
mental, moral and spiritual ideals. They intermingle in such a way in man's comunity life
that the entire society gets absorbed in its major and minute specialities.
The creative progress and flourishing of major and minor elements of civilization is
called culture. The major elements of a progressive culture are its quest for truth,
expression of beauty and love for humanity. It is easy to outline the broader elements of
civilization but for the actual understanding of culture, is possible only through unbiased
research and deep thinking. In a nutshell we can say that if civilization is the body then
culture is its soul.
11.2 Cultural trends from the ancient period to the Rajput period
The contemporary social, cultural and political life can be understood through
literature, painting, architecture, sculpture, dance and music and other performing arts. By
cultural trends we mean the form of Indian culture which includes literature, painting
architecture, sculpture, dance, music and other per-
forming arts. In this chapter we will study these in a
sequential manner.
Literature : Literature is considered as the
mirror of society. Indian literature is as prosperous
and glorious in Indian history. Literature is written
Indus Script

Vedic Literature

Rigvedic Later Rigvedic Sutra pe

Literature Literature Literatur
● Rigveda ● Yajurveda ● Srautash

● Saamveda ● Grahast
● Dharma
● Atharvaved
● Brahmanas
● Aranyakas
● Upanishads

evidence. Indian literature has a vast store of Sanskrit literature.

The Indus civilization had the knowledge of script. We find many evidences of this
though the script still remains a mystery for scholars. Some scholars have claimed to have
deciphered it. More that 2500 inscriptions has been found here till now. The longest
inscriptions have 17 alphabets. The Indus script seems to be pictographic. But there is a
stronger possibility of it depicting alphabets. The development of a script among the Indus
inhabitants points towards their literary interest.
Vedic period literature is very prosperous from the creativity point of view. The
literature of this period has a very lively description of ancient life and values. Vedic
literature includes- the Vedas, the Brahamanas, the Aranyaka, the Upanishads, the Vedanta,
the Epics, the Smritis, the Puranas etc. The Vedas are four in number-the Rigveda, the
Yajurveda, the Samveda, the Atharvaveda. The oldest of Vedic literature is the Rigveda.
During the epic period epics like the Mahabharat and the Ramayana were written which
depict the social and political life during the period. The Ramayana was composed by
Maharishi Valmiki and the Mahabharat was composed by Vedvyas.
Jain literature has three branches. Religious books, philosophical and secular
writings. These chiefly have prose, legends, grammar and dramas. Out of these most of the
compositions are still in the form of manuscripts and are found in the Chaityas of Gujarat
and Rajasthan. The compositions are-Angas, Pangas, Prakirn, Cheda, Sutra and Malsutra.
Towards the last stages while writing discourses, the Sanskrit language was used instead of
Prakrit. The work in grammar and poetry writing in Sanskrit contributed a lot to the growth
of this language. The prominent books in Jain literature are Kalpasutra of Bhadrabahu,
Parishisht Parwan of Hemachandra.
Buddhism has greatly enriched the Pali and Sanskrit language. Buddhism has Tripitikas
meaning three baskets- Vinaypitika, Sutta pitika and Abidhamma pitika. Vinaypitika contains
the rules of daily life. The Sutta pitika contains virtues and Buddha's discourses and sayings
on the four eternal truths.
Author literary work Abhidhamma pitika contains
Harisena - Allahabad pillar inscription the philosophical development
Kalidas - Abhigyan Shakutalam, of teachings of Buddha.
Malvikagnimitram, Meghduta, Buddhist literature also includes
Kumar Sambhava, Raghuvansham, Deepvansh, Mahavansa, Divya
Ritu Sambhara Dan, Milind Panha, Mahabodhi
Vishakhdatta - Mudrarakshsa, Devi Chandraguptam Vansa, Mahavansa like
Shudraka - Mricha Katikam Aryamanjushree, Mulkalp etc.
Vajjika - Kaumudi Mahotsava There are sufficient evi-
Vishnu Sharma- Panchtantra dences of Mauryan period lit-
Aryabhatta - Aryabhatiyam erature. Through the inscrip-
Varahmihir - Vrihta Sahita tions of Asoka, it seems that
two types of scripts were used-
Brahmi and Kharosthi. Kautilya wrote the Arthashastra during this period. During the same
time the third Buddhist council compiled the tripitakas and composed the contents of the
Abhidamma pitaka. Many scholars believe that most of the Acharsutra and Bhagvati Sutra of
Jain religion were composed during this period.
During the Sunga Satvahana period there were scholars like Patanjali who wrote the
Mahabhashya on Panini's Ashtaadhyas and presented the rules of Sanskrit language revised
form. Kalidasa's Malvikagnimitram describes the Ashvamegh yagya of Pushya Mitra Sunga
and Agnimitra's war with the state of Vidharbha. The famous book Charak Samhita was
written during this period. The Buddhist book "questions of Milind" (Milind panha) was
written by Nagasena.
The Gupta period was the Golden age of litera-
ture. The Gupta period gave Sanskrit the status of a state Author Books
language. The form in which literature flourished during Bharvi Kiratarjunya
the period of the Gupta rulers is unparalleled. During this Magha Shishupala Vadha
period there were literary creations in many fields of Kalhan Rajtarangini
science and knowledge. Smriti Literature was composed Vilhan Vikramank Charitra
during this period. Yajanvalkya, Narad Smriti, Kavya Smriti Parimal Navsahasank Charitra
are the chief among them. The Ramayana and the Ballah Bhao Praband
Mahabharat were written in this period. The Bud-
dhist philosopher Asanga composed the Mahayan The introduction of the principle of
Sutranka and Yogacharya Bhoomi Shastra. Vasubandh zero and the decimal system is to the
composed the Abhidarma Kosha. The chief Jain credit of the mathematicians of the
writers were Jenchandra, Siddhasena and Devnandini. Gupta period, in which the Kapithya
school (present Kayatha, Ujjain) es-
From the Gupta period literature, we can understand
tablished by Varahmihir had an impor-
that the prevailing education system must have been tant role

excellent. The Nalanda University was established during this period. Kashi, Mathura,
Ayodhya and Pataliputra were the chief centers of education.
Harshavardhan respected the scholars. Banabhatta was a great writer of the period
who wrote two books-Harsha Charitra and Kadambari. Harshavardhan himself wrote three
Sanskrit plays-Nagananda, Ratnavali and Priyadarsika. They are important in Sanskrit litera-
ture. In Harsha's court besides Bana, Mayur, Haridutt,Jayasena, Matang, Divakar were other
famous writers and poets.
The creation of literary and extremely flowery language work was on the rise during
the Rajput period. Literature was predominantly romantic. Rajput rulers were scholars of
the highest order. King Munja, Bhoja, Amoghvarsha were prominent among them. King
Bhoja's intelligence and poetic skills were well known. During this period books were
written on medicine, astrology, grammar, sculpture and various other subjects.
Along with North India there was a lot of literary creation worth mentioning in South
India as well. Pulkesin's vassal wrote a book called Shabdavatar. Scholar Udaidev wrote a
book called Jainendra Vyakaran. South India made a special contribution to Sanskrit
literature during the Pallava rule.Bharvi who lived in Travancore wrote the epic 'Kirat Arjun'.
Mehandra Verman I wrote a book "Matvilas Prahsan". There was growth of Tamil
language during the time of the Pallavas and the Cholas. The most or famous writer of the
Tamil period was Jaigondar who wrote Kaligtuprani. Kamban wrote the Ramayana in Tamil.
The famous books of Ramanuj are-Shree Bhashya, Vedarth Sangraha, Vedant Deep etc.
Kanchi was the chief centre of learning where people from far off places came for
Painting : Expression of man's thoughts are
depicted artistically through paintings. The rich
tradition of Indian painting reflects the sensitivity
of Indian art towards colours. During different
periods paintings have been made by the painters
of contemporary society. In India paintings of pre-
historic times can be seen on various rocks and Rock Art of Bhimbetka
stones. In the Bhimbetka caves near Bhopal, we
can see fine example of this art.
The People of the Indus valley civilization had a knowl-
edge of painting. We have enough evidence of this. Many
paintings can be seen in the utensils and seals found here.
Painting was also done on the walls of the buildings. In the
paintings natural scenes and animals both can be seen. Col- Specimens of paintings on the pots
of Indus civilization
ours were also used in the paintings.
On the basis of their literature it can be said that these people expressed their feelings

on walls, utensils and also through embroidery on the clothes.
Mauryan period painting grew as folk-art. Paintings were
depicted on Mauryan buildings and pillars. Some of the paintings in
the Ajanta caves belong to the 1st century B.C. The painting of
Chhadat Jatak in cave No. 10 is worth mentioning.
Painting was based on scientific lines during the Gupta period.
The finest examples of paintings are in the Ajanta caves. These have
been included in the world heritage sites. These paintings are mostly
based on religious themes. They depict the Buddha and the
Bhodisattva. Descriptive scenes from Jataka stories can also be
seen. These paintings are original, lively and impressive. The paintings Paintings of
Ajanta caves
of this period can be seen in the caves of Bagh (in M.P., Dhar
district). The themes of the pictures in these caves are worldly. During this period beautiful
colours have been used in the pictures.
During Harsha's period paintings were made on cloth. References to skilled painters
during marriage celebrations have been found. These painters have painted various scenes.
Women on such occasions, painted on utensils of clay.
During the Rajput period the art of painting had developed fully. During this period
many regional styles of painting had developed. Such as the Gujarat style, the Rajputana
style etc. The Gujarat style has scenes depicting the Jain life style and religion. In the
Rajputana style, romantic scenes of Radha Krishna have been depicted. Frescoes were made
to decorate temples and palaces. The art of miniature painting also developed during this
period. These paintings were made to decorate books.
Architecture : Architecture throws light on the customs and traditions of life and
culture and the organizations of that period. The history of a period can be understood by
the buildings constructed during that period. Architecture depicts the local, economic,
religious, political and cultural history of the period.
The excavations in the Indus valley provide information about the contemporary
architecture. People of this period were experts in the field of architecture. Big granaries,
well planned houses and cities, big palaces, ports, the great bath throw sufficient light on
the architecture. The modern developed cities can be compared to the buildings of the
period. Covered drains, doors and windows of buildings, direction away from the main road,
kitchen inside the building, bathroom, adequate provision of ventilators, construction of
ordinary and state buildings etc. are unique examples of architectures of the Indus
civilization. It is an evidence of the first urbanization of towns in India.
The knowledge of architecture existed during the Vedic period. Different aspects of
life have been mentioned in the Rig-Veda and the many other Vedas. There is a reference
to Yagyavedi, Havan Kunda (for performing yagyans), Yagyanshalas, stone palaces, buildings

with pillars, ashrams etc. We find references to big royal palaces and buildings, the
architecture of which is splendid.
Mauryan architecture includes the palaces at Patalipurta rock cut sanctuaries on the
Barabar hill and Nagarjun hill. Asoka's
pillars, Buddhist stupas constructed by
Ashoka, Chaityas, Viharas are prominent
among them. Rock cut caves built during
the period have an extremely glossy
polish which reflects the expertise of
the period. There is a reference to
eighty four thousand stupas being
constructed during this period by Asoka.
Of these Sarnath, Bodh Gaya and Sanchi
stupas are famous. Sanchi Stupa
The best
= Inscriptions : The written description regarding contemporary
specimens of
administration, war and public life. These are descriptions written
Mauryan archi-
on stones, pillars, caves, rocks etc.
tecture are the
= Stupa: Inverted bowl shaped dome constructed with stones or
pillars of Asoka,
bricks to keep Buddha or Boddhisatvas relics safely.
which were con-
= Chaitya: Temples of collective worship.
structed by him
= Vihars: Maths for Buddhist monks.
for propagation
= Caves: Caves constructed by cutting rocks.
of the the teach-
ings of Baudha Dhamma.
These pillars are nearly 20 in number and located in various parts of India, such as
Sarnath, Prayag and Kaushambhi in Uttar Pradesh. Pillars have been found in Lumbini and
Nigilva in the plains of Nepal. Besides these in Sanchi, Lorya, Nandgarh and at various other
places too. Besides these, Asoka pillars have been found in Sanchi, Lorya, Nandgarh and
Various other places. The capital on the pillars was extremely creative.
The famous architecture of the Mauryan period are the pillar edicts of Sanchi
(Madhya Pradesh) and of Sarnath in Uttar Pradesh. The cave edicts of Barabara, Nagarjun
(Bihar), the Stupas at Sanchi (Madhya Pradesh) in Bodhgaya (Bihar).
There was a change in the style during the Sunga and Satvahana period from the
Mauryan period. Wood and brick was primarily used. During this period the use of stones
Architecture was at its peak during the Gupta period, the specimens of which can be
seen. The special achievement of the period was in the field of temple construction.
Temples were constructed with stones and bricks. The temples constructed during the Gupta
period had flat roofs.
The first 'shikhar' was constructed at the Dasavatara in the Devgarh temple (Jhansi
U.P.). After the construction of this temple, the construction of shikhars in the temples
started. Many of these temples still exist- such as - the Buddhist Shrine in Sanchi, in
Vidisha district of M.P., Bheetargaon in Uttar Pradesh and the temple at Deogarh are a few
examples. The Ajanta caves no 16,17 and 19 are believed to be of the Gupta period. Udaigiri
caves (in Vidisha dist. M.P.) Bagh caves (Dhar, M.P.) were also constructed during the
Gupta period. The sculptors of the Gupta period were experts in working with iron and
bronze. The iron pillar at Mehrauli in New Delhi is an exceptional specimen of technology.
It was built in the 4th century A.D. and has not rusted till date.
Architecture was at its peak during Harsha's period. Harsha got a building constructed
for holding assemblies at Kannauj which had two massive rooms. In each of the rooms
1000 people could be seated. Besides, buildings, Stupas and Viharas were constructed
which throw light on the architecture of that period.
In the early medieval period rulers constructed magnificient temples to show their
splendor. Therefore the architecture of this period can be seen in the temples. The most
prominent among these are the group of temples at Khajuraho which were constructed by
the Chandella rulers. There are nearly 30 Brahmanical and Jain temples in Losia near Jaipur.
The Kalika devi temple at Chittorgarh is worth seeing .The Jain temples at Mt. Abu are fine
specimens of the period.

Prominent temples of Rajput period

Name Place
Kandariya Mahadev Khajuraho
Dilwara temple Mt. Abu
Lingraja temple Bhubaneshwar
Mukteshwar temple Bhubaneshwar
Sun temple Konark
Rath temple of Tamil Nadu
Kandariya Mahadev temple of Khajuraho
Brihadeshwar temple Tanjore

Besides north India many temples were constructed in the South and East India. The
temples constructed during this period are classified into two styles - the Nagar style and
the Dravidian style.

Nagar Style Temple Dravida Style Temple
The Nagar style temples were mainly constructed in north India and the Dravid a style
temples were constructed in south India. The difference between the Nagar and Dravidian style
temples can be seen in the 'shikhars' of these temples. In the Nagar style the 'shikhar' is nearly
spiral. On the top is found a round dome and a kalash. In the Dravidian style temples the
'shikhars' are rectangular, constructed by placing rectangular blocks, one over the other.
Sculpture : "The Art of making statues". With reference to art, traditionally India uses
the wood 'sculpture'. Sculpture is handwork, the expertise of hand and intellect.
Very few stone statues have been found in the Indus civilization. The reason behind
it could have been availability of less stones in the adjoining regions of civilization. The
statues of this period have been made from baked clay, lime stone, sandstone and slate
The practice of making metal statues started during this period. A bronze statue of a
dancing girl has been found in Mohenjodaro. A statue of a bronze chariot of this civilization
has also been found. The two-wheeled chariot is being pulled
by two bulls and a man is driving the chariot. The artists
depicted their artistic skills on seals in the form of elephants,
rhinoceros and Buffaloes. The Humped bull is found on most
of the seals found here. Other animals on the seals include
dogs, pigs, monkeys and other birds and animals. The clay
statues of women are found in large numbers in the Indus
civilization. The sealb of the Indus civilization are rectangular
and spherical. They are made of 'Gomed', 'Chirt' and clay.
Copper seals have been found from Desalpur in Lothal. On one
of them is Pasupati Siva seated on a stool surrounded by an
elephant, a cheetah, a rhinoceros, a buffalo etc.
During the Mauryan period the art of sculpture grew.
The sculpture of the Mauryan period has a Persian influence.
Bronze statue of a dancer
Some scholars consider it to be Indian influence. The Asoka npillars, the animal statues in
the capital, beautifully decorated with plants, point towards the sculpture of the stone
statues that have been found from Pataliputra, Mathura, Vidisha and other regions. A distinct
glossy polish can be seen on those. The statues of the Yaksha and Yakshinis are very
beautiful and realistic.
A new era started in the field of sculpture during the 1st century B.C. Mention of the
Mathura and the Gandhara schools of art has been found during the Kushana period. The
caves of the period are sculpted with various Gods-Goddess, Yakshas, Nagas, Sharduls etc.
The Haledourus's Garuda-pillar found at Basenagar in Vidisha is a unique example of Sunga
art. The Gandhara style developed near Pushkalavati, Taxila, Purushpur (Peshawar) whereas
the Mathura art developed in Rajasthan and the Uttar Pradesh regions. The coins of the
Kushan period show Greek influence.
Sungas and Satvahanas : While renovating the stupas at Sanchi and Barhut got
realistic statues constructed on the Sungas and Satvahavas of gateways and pillars which
gives information about their excellent sculpture base.
Two main schools of sculpture developed during the Kushana period-Gandhara art
and Mathura art.
Characteristics of Gandhara art :
● The subjects of Gandhara art were
Indian while the technique was
● Statues were mostly built of slate.
● Creased clothes have been shown
on the statues.
● Mahatma Buddha is also shown
seated on a throne.
Features of Mathura art:
● Remains of Buddhist, Jain and
Brahmanical all three religions Buddha Statue in Buddha Statue in
have been found at Mathura. Gandhara style Mathura style
● The statues of Lord Buddha and
Boddhisatvas have been found in
the Mathura art.
● The statues of Buddha are covered with drapery.
● Statues have been constructed using sand stone.
The art of sculpture attained new heights during the Gupta period. The statues
sculpted during this period were completely Indian and Greek influence was fading slowly.
The statues of the period started showing spiritual beauty. In the Gupta period statues,
emphasis was laid on shape, pose, emotions and beautification due to which they became
more realistic and lively. The most important accomplishment of the Gupta period was the
sculpting of Dasavatar statues of Vishnu and many other statues of Brahmanical religion.
Sculpture during this period reached maturity and became more refined.
No separate information about sculpture during Harsha's period has been found. He
got Stupas and Viharas constructed for the propagation of Buddhism. The art of sculpture
flourished moderately in that period.
Early medieval period : The statues of Buddhist and Brahmanical religion of this
time are comparatively more beautiful. The statues of the period have more religious
expressions. The influence of Tantric ideology during the later Rajput period can be seen on
the statues. Multihanded statues started to be sculpted during the period. In this the four
handed statue of Vishnu and statues of Goddesses are famous. Linga statues of Shiva are
found in large numbers. Many statues of Boddhisatvas of that time have been found in North
India. The double storeyed Kailash temple at Ellora is a fine example of sculpture in which
the temple has been chiseled out of rock. The Shal Bhanjika Statue of the early medieval
period to the 10th -11th century found from Gyaraspur in Vidisha is famous in the world for
its decoration and expression. Presently it is kept in the Gujari palace museum at Gwalior.
Beautiful specimens of stone and metal sculpture have also been found from southern India.
Various Gods and Goddesses have been sculpted. The Natraj bronze statue is famous for
being artistic.
Dance-music: The tradition of dance and music is very ancient in India. The artist
expresses his art through dance. Whereas music was the need for entertainment and was
played on religious and cultural occasions.
Clear evidence of the Indus civilization having a tradition of dance and music are
available. The bronze statue of a dancing girl found from Mohenjodaro shows that dance
was a form of recreation. The Dholak found on seals also gives an example of the existence
of music during the period. In this manner we can say that the art of music and dance must
have been popular in the Indus civilization.
Dance and music was extremely popular among the Aryans during the Vedic period.
The art of music was in a developed form during the Rigvedic period. Vocal and Instrumen-
tal, both were well developed. In instrumental music, wind and string instruments were used.
These were-the veena, the dundubhi, the flute, the shringa, the shell, the mridanga etc.
Singing and dancing was organized during celebrations. This practice continued in the later
Vedic period.
Music and dance continued to be the chief forms of entertainment during the Mauryan
period. Mention of singers, instrumentalists and dancers of the period has been found. Even
after the Mauryan period music and dance continued to be the means of entertainment.

The art of dance and music prospered during the Gupta
period like in the earlier periods. During this period too, people
were fond of music. Dance and music were practised in the
contemporary period during Vasant Utsav, Kaumidi Utsav,
Deepotsav etc. Information of ‘Ganikas’ in that period is also
found; their job was to dance and sing. The Gupta rulers them-
selves patronized the artists. Samudra Gupta himself was an
Picture of Samudra Gupta
accomplished Veena player. In order to keep this memory alive playing the Veena
he got coins minted showing him playing the veena. In the Bagh
caves an important scene of dance and music of the Gupta period has been found, which is
a symbol of the splendour of dance and music in that period. From Malvikagnimitra we
come to know that there were art institutions for unparting education in music in towns.
There were Acharyas (teachers) in the towns for teaching dance. In Malvikagnimitra
Ganadas is referred to as a music dance Acharyas (teacher). In this way ample evidence of
music and dance during the Gupta period is found.
During Harsha's period a tradition of dance culture was maintained in the social
organization. Dance and music was a source of entertainment in that period.
In the early medieval period too, the tradition of dance-music was carried on.
Dancers danced and played instruments in the assemblies of Rajput kings.
Other Fine Arts
Other Fine arts include dramas. ‘Rangoli’ (ground dry colours of stone and drawing de-
signs with them) and tribal art can be mentioned. They can be seen as a part of the Indian tradi-
tion from most ancient times.
Fine arts were in practice during the Indus civilization. The ‘Agnivedica’ built on a
raised platform found at Rakhigahri, decorated bricks found on the floor of Kalibanga made
of baked brick, statues, decorated ornaments, glossy paint on the utensils and circles on
them. geometrical lines and depiction of birds and animals, sacred symbols of well being
like the swastik, chakra, the sun etc. throw light on the practice of fine arts of the
contemporary society. Besides a place like a theatre has also been mentioned in the
contemporary time which was probably used for drama, dance and music.
A mention of fine art has been found in the Vedic period. During this period folk
culture developed along with religion. During this period also sacred symbols, decoration
of buildings art of magic and references of Yagyavedika have been found.
Folk art was prevalent during the Maurya period. There were many people who per-
formed shows for entertaining people. References to dancers, people imitating voices to en-
tertain, dancing on ropes, people working in dramatics for livelihood have been mentioned.
Fine arts were also prevalent during the Gupta period. Beautiful depiction on coins
as the best example of this period. Many dramas were written in the contemporary period
in Sanskrit. Interesting themes have been brought alive through these dramas, romantic
songs along with these, wood sculpture, stone sculpture, metals sculpture, talisman, ivory
ornaments are examples of contemporary art. Ornamentation in caves, temples, paintings on
the walls, dancing girls, sentries with spears, statues with elaborate hairstyles. yaksha, birds,
animals, depiction of fountains etc. are unique examples of the same. Theatre also
developed in that period. Terms like 'Prekshagraha' and 'Rangshala' have been used for
dramat schools.
Harsha Period - The growth of fine arts continued in the Harsha period as well.
These arts were prevalent in the early medieval period also. References to nata,
magicians, craftsmen who worked with ivory are found in context with beautiful art work.
In the same way beautiful decorations are found on Rajput coins. Statues made on the walls
of temples, raga-ragini, pictures of actors-actresses, plants flowers and animals are also
Besides, historical and Puranic dance drama also had an important place in the early
medieval contemporary art.
11.3 Cultural trends from the Sultanate period to the Mughal period
The growth of literature continued in the medieval period. The literature of the period
throws ample light on the
Author Books
Mughal period organization. In-
Babur Tuzukh-e-Baburi (Baburnama)
dividualistic history writing had
Gulbadan Humaynama
started in that period.
Abbas Khan Tarikh-i-Shershahi
The creation of religious
Abul Fazl Akbarnama, Ain-i-Akbari
and secular literature started
Malik Mohammad Jayasi Padmavat
during the period. The Dohas
Surdas Sursawali
and puzzles written by Amir
Tulsidas Ramcharitmanas
Khusro are popular even today.
Sanskrit literature was patronized by Hindu rulers. (Vyayapar, Warangal , Gujarat). Turkish
sultans were interested in Persian literature.
Many languages prevalant today developed during the Mughal period. Compositions
of Namdev, Ramanand, Guru Nanak, Kabir etc. have a place of special importance in Hindi.
Meera used words from Rajasthani and Maithli. In Bengal the Ramayana and the Mahabharat
were translated from Sanskrit to the Bengali language. In MaharashtraNamdev and Eknath
were the most famous saints and literary writers of Marathi. Mughal period rulers were
admirers of literature. All of them patronized scholars. Literary writing was done in Persian
and the Turkish language during the period. The prominent works of the period are as
Urdu literature developed the most during the Mughal period. Though Urdu evolved
during the Sultanate period initially, Urdu was known as 'Zaban-i-Hindarva'. Akbar got many
Sanskrit books translated into Persian.

Painting :
The art of painting declined during the Sultanate period. Painting was looked down
upon by the Sultans. Still painting remained alive in Gujarat, Rajasthan and regions of
Malwa. Scenes related to religious and day to day life were presented. Slowly the Malwa
and the Rajasthan School of art developed. The books written on 'birch bark' in Gujarat by
Jain monks have a very high quality of small illustrations. In Bengal and Bihar too
manuscripts written by the Buddhist monks had small images drawn by using leaves. The
paintings drawn on the temples of South India also used leaves.
Mughal paintings were started during the rule of
Humayun. Akbar gave an organised form to Mughal
paintings. He established a separate department for the
painters and famous painters were housed there. The
first Mughal period painting collection in Mughal style
painting is the Hamzanama which is also popular as
Dastan-e-Amir Hamza, the specialty of these paintings is
that they were made form the juice of foreign plants,
trees and their leaves and flowers. Minutest details of
decoration and architecture and images of women are
shown. In Rajasthani paintings with decorative elements.
Rajmanama, the Ramayana and Akbarnama are illustrated
manuscripts of the period. Fresco painting started for
the first time during the Akbar period. Mughal period painting
Jehangir's period is known as the golden period of Mughal paintings. Jehangir
himself was a painter. Jehangir established a painting school (Chitrashala) under the
guidance of the famous painter Akarizh. During Jehangir's period portrait painting, natural
scenes and paintings related to people's lives started. Jehangir also gave titles to the foreign
painters which includes famous painter Ustad Mansoor who painted birds and portrait
painter Abul Hasan.
During Shahjahan's reign borders and underlines in paintings progressed. Aurangzeb
considered painting to be against Islam and banned it. Therefore painting in the courts came
to an end and painters settled elsewhere. In this way styles of regional paintings developed.
The influence of Islamic architecture can be clearly seen on the medieval architec-
ture. In the buildings constructed during the reigns of various Sultans and Mughals, there
was intermingling of Indian architecture with Persian, Turkish and Indian styles and the
architecture prevalent in other Islamic countries. Primarily mosques, mausoleums, palaces,
massive gates (Torans), domes, mehrabs and minars were constructed in Islamic architec-

The Qutub-ul -Islam mosque in Mehrauli (Delhi) was con-
structed in 1139 A.D. and is believed to be the first mosque in
India. The Qutub minar was constructed during the Sultanate
period. It is 238 ft. high and narrow towards the top. At various
heights there are open balconies, which makes it distinct. The
mosques of the period had minarets on four sides.
There are enough evidences of Mughal period architec-
ture. In the history of architecture a new era started during the
period. Scholars have called the new architectural style as Mughal
architect. The Mughal style developed as a result of fusion
between foreign and Indian styles. Hence Mughal period architec-
ture has a mixed influence of Jain, Buddhist, Rajput, Persian,
Baghdad styles.
The engraving of diamonds in white marble, pietra dura and
running water in the palaces are some of the salient features of
Qutub Minar Mughal architecture. The chief architectural places were Mosque
of Kabuli Bagh, Mosque of Panipat, Babri Mosque at Ayodhya,
mosque at Agra fort.
Not much progress in the field of achitecture was made duirng Humayun's reign.
During his reign two mosques were constructed at Ferozabad in Hissar. Shershah showed
great interest in architecture. The most important architectural structure of Shershah's
period is a mosque constructed on a raised platform in the midst of a lake at Sasaram in
Bihar. A beautiful amalgamation of Indian and Islamic architecture can be seen here. During
Akbar's period there was an intermingling of Persian style with Hindu and Buddhist
architectural styles. Buildings of Akbar's period were constructed of red sandstone. Akbar
got Fatehpur Sikri built. The chief features are the intermingling of Chapakar and Dharnik
styles. Fatehpur Sikri's Diwan-i-Aam, Diwan -i-Khas, Agra Fort, Palace of Jodhabai, Panch
Mahal, Jama Masjid and Buland darwaza
are specimens of Akbar's period archi-
tecture. Jehangir got Akbar's and Itmad-
ud-daula's mausoleum built. Raja
Mansingh's palace at Gwalior and
Jaisingh's palace at Jaipur are unparal-
leled examples of architecture.
Shajahan's period is known as the
golden age of Mughal architecture. The
chief features of the architecture of
the period were carved Mehrabs, and
Taj Mahal
minars. The famous buildings of
Shahjahans period are the Red fort, Delhi, the Diwan-i-Khas, the Jama Masjid and the Taj
Mahal at Agra. The biggest accomplishment of the period is the Taj Mahal when architecture
reached its pinnacle of progress. The Taj Mahal is a 313 Ft. high square mausoleum made
of white marble which has been built on a 22 Ft. high platform. The four corners of the
Mausoleum have a minar each. It is two storeyed, on top of a dome.
The Gurudwara of Harminder Sahib at Amritsar is a unique creation of that period. It
was constructed between 588 and 1601 A.D. After Shahjahan, Mughal period architecture
started declining.
There was a splendid development in the field of sculpture in south India during the
medieval period. Statues and sculptures were used to decorate the interiors and outer parts
of the temples. Islam did not believe in idol worship. This affected medieval sculpture.. The
art of sculpture began during Akbar's period. Sculpture was also encouraged during reign
Jehangir's. In Agra fort Amar Singh's and Karna Singh's statues were put up beneath the
window. The Elephant gate entrance at the palace of Fatehpur Sikri is decorated with two
massive elephants. The art declined during Auangzeb's reign. On the whole sculpture did not
flourish during the medieval period which affected its development.
Dance and Music
The tradition of dance and music of the ancient period was carried forward in the
medieval period. Some books were compiled on dance and music. Of these Bhoja,
Someshwar and Sarangdev's Sangeet Ratnakar are very famous books. In the later period
many more books on music were written. Jaydev's Gita Govind in the 13th century can be
called an important step in this direction. Bhakti or devotional music received more
importance in the medieval period. People sang with devotion the "bhajans" (devotional
songs) of Meerabai, Tulsidas, Kabirdas and Surdas.
Hindustani music was introduced to new instruments and Ragas in the Sultanate
period. Though the Quran prohibits music it was encouraged from time to time by Sultans
and Khalifas. The most famous musician of the period was Amir Khusro who has written
about his music in the book Noor Siphr. The book tells that Indian music touches the heart
and the soul. It not only affects human beings but also hypnotizes animals. Deer stand still
while listening to the music and are easily hunted. Amir Khusro invented new ragas through
the fusion of Indian and Persian music. The originator of the qawwali was Amir Khusro. Due
to new trends in music like Khayal and Tarana there were changes in the form of music in
the contemporary period. Music was the chief means of recreation.
The art of dance and music flourished during the Mughal period. Babur himself was
fond of music. In Tuzukh-i-Babri description of music meetings is found. Humayun and
Sher Shah Suri were also fond of music. The Mughal Emperor Akbar patronized musicians.
He himself played exquisitely on the Indian instrument Naggarah. He was interested in the
science of music. Of the nine gems in Akbar's court the most renowned was Miya Tansen
who was an accomplished singer. Abul Fazil writes about Miyan Tansen that " a singer like
him has not been in India for the last thousand years." Tansen received his education in
Gwalior. Baba Haridas of Vrindavan was his Guru. Besides Tansen 36 other singers received
patronage at Akbar's court. of these Bazbahadur, Baizbaksh, Gopal, Haridas, Ramdas, Sujan
Khan, Mianlal, Baiju Bawara were prominent. In course of time Dhrupad singing was
replaced by Khayal singing. During the Mughal period in Jehangir's reign Khurram, Dad,
Makhu Chatur Khan, Hamja etc. were prominent musicians. Similarly during Shahjhan's
reign Ramdas, Jagannath, Sukhsen and Lal Khan were prominent musicians. After the death
of Shahjahan the art of music declined as Aurangzeb was against music.
The classical styles of Indian dance can be seen in the medieval period. Of these
BharatNatyam, Kuchipuddi, Kathakali, classical styles were prevalent in south Indian
regions. Bharatnatyam and Kuchipuddi dances were based on Krishnalilas. This was con-
fined to the Bahaman families of southern Indian. Whereas Kathak was initially confined to
Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan Punjab and Madhya Pradesh. Dances were based on Krishna Lilas
and Puranic stories. Dances and music were a part of the courts.
Fine arts.
The creative expression continued during the medieval period. Ras Lilas were staged
in Vrindavan and Mathura. During this period, besides epics, dramas were also based on
historical characters. Vijaynagar's ruler Harihar II's son Veerupaksha wrote a play Narayana
Vilas and Unmata Raghav. Goswami composed Vidaghmadhav, Lalit Madhav and Dankeli
Chandrika. In the same sequence Ramchandra wrote a drama Jagannath Vallabh. In staging
dramas social and religious dramas were given preference. Calligraphy also developed
during that period. Besides decorated utensils, decorated wall carvings on minars and
mausoleums, clothes of Zari, Kashidakari, art of Pachikari, carved fountains, carpets etc.
throw light on the art of the period.

Arynyakas : To be read in the forests
Brahmanas : Explanation of Vedic mantras based on Vedas.
Upanishad : The knowledge that leads to self-realization.
ShrotaSutra : The subject of this Yoga.
Grihasutra : The subject of it is domestic life.
Dharmasutras : It includes subjects of Dharmasutra and Grihasutra.

Pietra dura : Inland decoration with precious stones in floral design.
Mride Murti : Statue made of clay.
Akshyana : Narrating stories through singing.
Choose the correct option
1. Where has the bronze statue of a doneer have been found?
(i) Daimabad (ii) Mohenjodaro
(iii)Kalibanga (iv) Punjab
2. When did the first urbanization take place?
(i) New stone age (ii) Indus Civilization
(iii) Mauryan period (iv) Gupta period
3. Who talked about the scientific basis of teaching?
(i) Vatsayan (ii) Asoka
(iii) Samudra Gupta (iv) Kumar Gupta
4. Which dynasty started coins with the Veena emblem?
(i) Maurya dynasty (ii) Gupta dynasty
(iii) Vardhan dynasty (iv) Rajput dynasty
5. Who was the originator of the Quwali?
(i) Akbar (ii) Shahjahan
(iii) Tansen (iv) Amir Khusro
Match the following :
A. B.
1. Scholar Udaidev (a) Temple of Khajuraho
2. Chandell rulers (b) Mt. Abu
3. Dilwara Temple (c) Mohan Jadaro and Haddappa
4. Indus Valley (d) Jainendra Vyakaran
5. Mahendra Verman-I (e) Gupta period
6. Udaigiri Caves (f) Matvilas Prahsan
Very short answer type questions
1. How many alphabets are there in the longest inscription of the Indus civilization?
2. To which literature are Deepavansa, Mahavansa and Divyadan related?
3. To which religion are the literacy creations Kalpasutra and Parishishta Pawan related?
4. Which Bhakti worship was followed by Tulsidas, Surdas, Meerabai, Raskhan?
5. In which period were the Ellora temples constructed?
6. Who built the Taj Mahal?
7. Who was Tansen?
Short answer type questions
1. Write the features of the Gupta period paintings.
2. Write the characteristics of architecture during the Indus civilization.
3. Write a note on the Asoka npillars.
4. Mention the features of the temples of the Gupta period.
5. Write the differences between the Nagara and the Dravidian styles.
6. Write the differences between the Mathura and the Gandhara art.
7. State the features of medieval period paintings.
Long answer type questions
1. Which are the main cultural trends of India? Write a comparative description of any
one with reference to ancient and medieval period. Describe.
2. How did literature grow from the ancient to the medieval period?
3. Write the features of painting from the ancient to the medieval period.
4. Describe the Mughal period architecture.
5. How did sculpture develop in the medieval period? Describe.
6. Give an analytical description of the growth of music and dance during the medieval
7. How did the fine arts develop from the ancient to the medieval period?
Project work
● Collect the pictures of Nagar style and Dravid style temples and write the differences.
● Collect the pictures of Buddhist statues under Gandhara and Mathura Art and write the
● The Teacher can divide the class into groups and divide the work among them for
collection of information on literature, painting, architecture, sculpture, dance, music
and other performing arts from the ancient to the Mughal period. Arrange this
information in a chronological order and prepare a scrap book on any one which can
depict any one cultural trend in a sequential manner.
❖❖ ❖❖ ❖❖

We Will Study  12.1 Concept of Democracy: Meaning
and Definition
12.1 Concept of Democracy,
meaning and definition There have been various administrative
12.2 Fundamental Principles of systems in the political development of the
Democracy human race of which Democracy is considered
12.3 Types of Democracy to be the most important system. The main
12.4 Features of Democracy concept of it is that the entire power of the
12.5 Merits and Demerits of state vests in the people and not in any
Democracy individual, group or a dynasty. Therefore
12.6 Importance of Democracy participation of the people is the basic
12.7 Democracy in India foundation of Democracy. All must participate
in the taking of such decisions or work which
affects everyone.
In the initial period of Democracy when the population and geographical boundaries
of the state were small, the entire population was a part in decision making in
administration. Therefore it was practiced in states with limited boundaries and populations.
The beginning of direct Democracy is believed to have started from the city states of
Greece. Since the geographical boundaries and population of the states in the present
times has increased considerably, direct Democracy is no more possible. Therefore
people indirectly participate, through the representatives elected by them, to exercise
power in administration. Therefore in the present times Democracy is practised in an
indirect form. It is an administered Democracy through the representatives of the people.
By 'Democracy' is meant a system of governance where public welfare is of utmost
importance. Democracy is not confined to a system of governance. It's a form of state
and a society. Therefore it is a mixture of state, society and governance. Domocracy
gives the power to rule the people, to control and to dismiss the government. As a form
of a society Democracy is a social system where the thought and behaviour of equality
is strong. There must be equal importance to dignity of individuals and all must have equal
opportunities of growth. It's a total way of life. It's a system of values where the
individual's welfare is the end and the development of personality its goal. It is based on
the pre-conceived notion of freedom, compatibility and mutual cooperation.
The word democracy has been derived from two Greek words 'Demos' and 'cratia'
which respectively mean 'people' and 'power'. It means a type of governing system where

the power to govern rests with the people and administration is either done directly by
the people or through their representatives. It is also referred to as 'Loktantra' or
● Aristotle has called Democracy as the 'Rule of Many'.
● Abraham Lincoln has called Democracy as a ‘rule of the people, by the
people and for the people.’
● According to Dicey ‘Democracy is a form of government where the ruling
community is a comparatively bigger part of the entire nation.’
The import is that the Democratic system is related to a welfare state. It lays
emphasis on the freedom and importance of individuals and the fact that sovereignty lies
with the people.
12.2 Fundamental Principles of Democracy
The principles of Democracy are as follows -
The classical principle of Democracy - According to this principle the basis of
governance is the consent of the people, but if the government does not come up to the
expectations of the people, then the people can remove the government through next
election. The welfare of the people is the aim of the government. This is also known as
the liberal principle of Democracy, because it lays emphasis on the freedom of the
people and supremacy of the society.
The elitist principle of democracy - This principle has been propounded since the
beginning of the 20th Century. It lays emphasis on the basic natural inequalities among
men and believes that in all political systems there are two classes - the ruling and the
ruled. Though the ruling class is in a minority, as a center of power it is still an elite class.
The power of governing is in the hands of this elite class. Generally people think that they
are participating in the political process but actually their influence is confined to
elections. The basis of the elite is selection on the basis of superiority. Their superiority
can be on any basis - nature, thought, economic status, social and educational background,
which makes them different from the common people. The Elite also consider themselves
different and superior but they act and react with the common people. In this way
integration of peoples' sovereignty is attained. The Elite have an influential role in
deciding the policy or in the money and wealth of the society but in a democracy
everyone has an equal opportunity to enter this elite class. On the other hand a regulated
and an open election process acts as a hindrance for the elite to work for the welfare of
the people.
Pluralist Principle - This principle believes that in a democracy a person has the
freedom to organize himself into various groups for the fulfillment of various interests.
These groups are autonomous in their region and pressurise the Government for fulfillment
of their interests. In this way all groups share power to the extent of fulfillment of their

interests. This principle also believes that actually power is divided among these groups
therefore its basic concept is decentralization of power. According to this, the state alone
does not have the right to supreme power. In a democracy all groups of the society have
a share in political power and power to govern.
Marxist Principle - In the later 19th century a new principle of democracy based
on the ideology of the modern propounders of communism, Karl Marx and Lenin came
up. According to this, in classical democracy or a liberal democratic system real
democracy is not possible because in this governance is controlled by a small resourceful
class whereas actually democracy is based on the welfare of all and equality among all.
According to this principle for the establishment of true democracy a classless and
stateless society should be established first. The Resourceful class is empowered with
political power therefore the state itself becomes a group of exploiters. The Marxist
principle believes that political power must be vested in the entire society but for this it
is important that the economic power should be in the hands of the entire society. In such
a condition alone will the administration be regulated for all and in the interests of all.
This principle of democracy lays more emphasis on economic equality rather than on
political and civil equality. It recognizes that if a person has no food, clothing or shelter
then the right to vote or to get elected is meaningless for him. For the establishment of
a real democracy Marxism gives the following suggestions.
1. Social ownership of means of production and distribution.
2. Equal distribution of wealth and fulfillment of everyone's fundamental
3. For the representation of people with similar economic interests the
complete power to administer must be in the hands of one party. Marxism
believes such a democracy to be the actual and best Democracy.
After the first World War till 1990 this was practised in the Soviet Union. AT
Present China is a republic partially based on this principle.
12.3 Type of Democracy
Generally Democracy is of two types, Direct democracy and indirect or
representative democracy.
Direct Democracy - When the people residing in a state themselves directly
discuss public issues on the basis of which policies are decided and laws are made, then
such a governance is called direct democracy.
Direct democracy is possible only in states with less population and those which
are small in size. In the present times when in big states the number of citizens is in
crores, direct democracy is not possible. Direct democracy today is prevalent in some
cantons of Switzerland and under the Panchayati Raj system in the Gram Sabhas in India.

Types of Democracy
Democracy -
Democracy (Rule of the People)
When the people
participate in the
making of laws
and controlling
Direct Democracy Indirect Democ
the working of the
Direct participation Representative Dem
administra-tion of the people in (Participation in
through the Governance Government by the
elected represe- through elected repres
ntatives it is
called Indirect Democracy. In the present times indirect democracy is practised. In this
the people choose their representatives for a definite period who form the legislature and
make laws. In this system the wishes of the people are expressed through the elected
12.4 Features of Democracy
The aim of every individual is self growth. For this every individual needs some
opportunities. Democracy is the only
administrative system in which all get equal Features of Democracy
opportunities without any discrimination for ● Accountable ruling system.
their alround development. The Democratic ● Rule based on equality
system is based on the dignity and equality of ● Strengthening system of freedom
citizens, freedom, brotherhood and justice. The ● Rule of Law
fundamental features of democracy are as ● Free and fair elections
follows - ● Existence of written constitution
● Independent and Impartial Judiciary.
1. Accountable Ruling System -
In a democracy people rule directly or through
their elected representatives. In this, the people have continuous influence over the ruling
class. The people can make the Government work in an accountable manner by asking
questions and criticising it. Here the power to govern is basically with the people which
is handed over to the representatives for a fixed term. Therefore the accountability of the
government is essential for the people, otherwise they have the right to hand over the
power to any alternative political party in the next elections.
Rule based on Equality - Democracy is based on the principle of equality. In this
form of government all citizens without any discrimination have equal civil and political
rights. Elections within a fixed time period are essential for democracy. All adult citizens
have an equal right to vote and contest elections as candidates in these elections. The
present democracies emphasise social and economic equality as well. No discrimination
on the basis of religion, race, caste, gender, social status and availability of minimum
economic needs is considered to be the aim of democracy. The basic traits of democracy
are equal social and economic opportunities and equal importance to an individual's
personality. Therefore one person one vote is the axis of democracy.
Strengthening the system of freedom - In a democracy various types of freedom
are given to the citizens for their alround development. Besides political freedom, rights
to various types of religious and cultural freedoms are also given to the citizen. In a
democracy citizens have the right to vote, get elected, hold public offices, give speeches,
freedom to express themselves, form associations, organize meetings, address people or
practise any profession or trade. If the citizens do not agree with the policies of the
Government then they have a right to protest. Freedom is the soul of democracy, without
freedom democracy is not possible.
Rule of Law - In this system the Government formed on the wishes of the people,
works according to law therefore it is also called as Rule of Law. By rule of law is meant
that everyone is equal before law. Similar punishment is given for similar crimes,
whatever be the status and position of the individual. Its not the rule of any individual or
Therefore it is important to have a constitution where the fundamental laws are
mentioned. Ensuring the rights of the citizens and ensuring that they are abiding by the
laws is the responsibility of an independent judiciary. The Judiciary can give verdict
against the Government also if it works against the Constitution. In a democratic country
the fundamental laws are stated in the constitution. The Government makes laws according
to the conditions and requirements. These laws are above all.
Independent and Impartial Elections - Conducting elections only is not enough
in a democracy but elections must be conducted in an independent and impartial manner
so that the possibility of winning or losing an election for the people in power is not
there. There should be no pressure on the voters during elections and the election
process should also be impartial. The will of the people is supreme in a democracy. In
this form of Government elections are held from time to time. For forming the
Government various political parties and independent candidates also have the freedom
to participate in these elections. Most of democratic countries along with India have a
system of open election. The practical aspect of democracy is based on the fearless
voting by voters for the candidate of his/her choice.
Existence of a Written Constitution - Definite fundamental principles and¢
procedures of administrative organization is the most important feature of Democracy so
that any ruling party on the basis of its majority may not define or change it according
to its whims and fancies. The constitution of organs of government, procedures etc. must
be clearly defined in the Constitution. Therefore a written constitution is considered to
be very important. Democracy is based on equality and freedom of the citizens.

Therefore it is necessary to define them in the fundamental laws of the constitution.
Independent and Impartial Judiciary - An independent and impartial judiciary is
of paramount importance for putting into practice the provisions of the constitution. The
judiciary has been made supreme to make the government work in accordance with the
constitution, secure the rights of the citizens and punish those who violate the constitution.
Therefore in order to make democracy practical an independent and impartial judiciary
is very important.
12.5 Merits and Demerits of Democracy
The merits of Democracy are as follows -
Based on the highest values of humanity -
Merits of Democracy
Democracy is based on high values like equality,
● Based on higher values of
justice and brotherhood and everyone is treated with
equality respecting every individuals dignity. It
● Public welfare
develops virtues like self respect and self-reliance in
● Political education
the citizens as it is based on sovereignty and
● Growth of patriotism
partnership of the citizens.
● Minimum possibility of
Public Welfare - In a democracy the violent revolution.
representatives of the people who are elected by the
people for a definite period govern. They are always afraid that if they do not work in
accordance with the wishes, feelings and needs of the people then they will be defeated
in the next elections. Therefore the government is responsible to the people in a
democracy and is always vigilant about their interests. Therefore public welfare is always
kept in mind in a democracy.
Political Education - Democracy is the best means of political education. People
take interest in the political field naturally, due to the right to vote and freedom to hold
a political position. Freedom of expression and the use of means of communication,
promote the tendency to exchange ideas among citizens. All political parties keep
campaigning continuously which gives political education to the masses. Therefore in a
democracy citizens receive administrative, political and social education.
Growth of the Feeling of Patriotism - A Democracy is the rule of the people
for attaining public welfare for the people. People feel associated with the Government
and state since they are politically conscious. This association promotes the feelings of
love and commitment for the nation. This leads to the cultivation of nationalism. Citizens
feel that the Government is formed by them and they alone have all rights and powers.
After the 1789 Revolution the French loved their nation because after the Revolution
they got freedom and equal participation in the governance of France.
Minimum possibility of violent revolution - Democracy is a philosophy of

peace and tolerance. It is based on understanding and consensus. The opposition also has
a right to put forth its views. Therefore the opposition also criticises and condemns the
Government. If the majority of the people are dissatisfied with the ruling class they can
easily remove them through constitutional methods. Therefore there is least possibility
of a violent revolution in a democracy.
Democracy is the best system based on the rule of the people on theoretical
grounds, but there are practical difficulties in putting this system into practice.
These are some demerits of the system. The main demerits of the system are as
follows -
Emphasis on quantity rather than on quality - In a democracy more importance
is given to quantity than quality. Only the
votes are counted in this system. The vote of Demerits of Democracy
every voter has equal value irrespective of the ● Emphasis on quality rather than on
fact whether he is capable or incapable, quantity.
educated or illiterate. The basis of democracy ● Rule of the Incapable
is the concept that everyone is equal whereas ● Waste of public time and money.
the potential of all in the society is not equal. ● Dominance of the rich.
Every voter has right to one vote in a ● Weak during wars and emergencies.
democracy meaning that it considers everyone
equal. Therefore the views/opinion of more capable people are not correctly evaluated.
Rule of the Incapable - Governance is an art. For this special knowledge and
qualifications are required. The aim of welfare of the entire society cannot be realized
if the ruler does not have the knowledge of this art. Only a few people have the art,
capability and the potential to govern. But in a democracy there is a rule of the majority
and a capable person is also equated with an incapable one. In developing countries the
situation is even more pitiable. Therefore critics also call democracy as a rule of the
Waste of Public time and money - Only after a long and complex procedure is the
legislature formed. Sometimes it takes years to make important laws. Lot of money is
spent on the election process. A lot of money is also spent on the members of parliament,
members of legislative assembly, ministers and officers attached to the legislature.
Therefore there is a waste of both time and money in a democracy.
Domination of the Wealthy - To say that everyone participates in the political
process in a democracy is only theoretical. Practically elections have become so
expensive that common people cannot even think of participating in the election for any
position. To contest elections based on money has become a common feature of the
Democratic system. Candidates contesting elections spend a lot of money in campaigning.

This has led to the transformation of Democracy from 'Rule of the people' to the 'Rule
of the Rich.'
Partisanships - For the regulation of the present democracy political parties are
becoming essential. Ideally political parties are formed on the basis of ideologies but in
practice their main aim is to acquire power. Political parties level baseless charges
against each other to influence people and win popularity Opposition for the sake of
opposing and not for principles or values becomes the aim of the political parties.
Political parties become a battle ground for those who influence the feelings of the
people through negative campaigning and find ways and means to fulfill their selfish
motives and establish their supremacy. Their immoral behavior during elections embitters
the entire environment. Partisan interests become more important than public welfare and
they also use political power to fulfill their selfish interests.
Weak during wars and emergencies - There is a need to take quick decisions
during a war or an emergency, but a democracy proves to be ineffective during such
times. Due to the distribution of power in a democracy it takes a lot of time to take
decisions and enforce them.
12.6 Importance of Democracy
Democracy is not only a special type of rule but it has a special perspective towards
life. Democracy is a system of governance based on freedom, equality, participation and
brotherhood. It can also be called a social system. Under this the entire life of man is
based on the democratic belief that every individual has equal importance in the society.
If the importance of a person is only in the political field then democracy will remain
incomplete. For realization of true democracy it is important that individuals get equal
opportunities of growth in the political, social and economic sphere of life.
In the political sphere of man's life, democracy means a political system in which
the power to take decisions does not vest in an individual but in the hands of the elected
representatives of the people. Therefore the rule is based on the feelings of the people.
In the social sphere of man's life democracy implies a society where there is no
discrimination on the grounds of caste, religion, colour, gender, race, creed or wealth.
Everyone must have equal right's and opportunities to grow equally without any
discrimination and society must have the underlying feeling of brotherhood and mutual
In the economic sphere of man's life by democracy is meant a system, where every
member of the society gets the freedom and the right to choose his means of livelihood
or any profession. An effort to establish such a system is made where there is no
exploitation of one by the other. An effort is made to provide basic facilities so that he may
fulfill his minimum economic need and live a dignified life. The Government is expected

to provide the facilities of food, clothing, shelter, health, education, employment etc.
The Democratic system believes in an organized and regular change of the rulers.
Democracy also believes that whatever changes have to be done in the political, social
and economic spheres can be done in a peaceful manner. This is the only administrative
system which ensures the participation of the people in the political process. Therefore
it is valued more than any other system of governance.
Need and importance of a constitution for a Democracy
In the present democratic system the government is formed by the elected
representatives of the people. The fundamental belief of democracy is that the power of
governing must be in the interests of the governed for protecting the rights of the people.
In a democracy the common people easily get to know the procedure of formation of the
Government and rights and duties of the citizens. There should also be a provision to
ensure that the constitution may not be easily changed. In this manner it is important to
have a written constitution for safeguarding democracy. Democracy is therefore called
the Rule of Law. Here the Law is above an individual or a group of individuals, which is
ensured through a written constitution. Therefore a constitution is very important for a
Democracy. For strengthening democracies, democratic traditions are also important
which give flexibility to a written constitution.
12.7 Democracy in India
Form of Democracy in Ancient India - Democracy and ideas of democratic
institutions are not new for India. It is believed that from around 3000 BC to 1000 BC
during the Vedic period the tradition of representative consultation was prevalent among
Indians. During the later Vedic period the Republican form of Government and local self
governing institutions were prevalent. In the Rigveda and the Atharvaveda a reference of
Sabha and Samiti is found. After the war of Mahabharat big empires started disappearing
and many republician states rose. During the Mahajanpad period there was a birth of
sixteen Mahajanpads which included Kashi, Kaushal, Magadh, Matsya etc. Some of the
Mahajanpads were monarchical and others republic. Mahavir and Gautam Buddha both
came from Republics. Many rules of Buddhist monasteries resembled the rules of the
modern parliamentary system. For example - Seating arrangement, various types of
proposals, calling attention quorum, counting of votes, motion, thoughts related to justice
etc. In the Vajji union everyone assembled for a meeting. It was a form of direct
democracy. The Union of Vajji was formed by the association of six republics. There was
an elaborate system of self government in villages and cities during the Mauryan period
in India. Indian society was predominantly agrarian where the fundamental unit was self
governing and independent villages. The political structure was based on these village
communities. The village was administered by an elected Panchayat. The center of the
village was a Panchayat Ghar where young and old assembled. All the members of the

village elected the Panchayat every year. These elected Panchayats had all rights in the
matters of the village and the right to administer justice. Panchayats distributed the land
and collected taxes for the Government from the entire village. Some committees were
formed from the elected members of the Panchayats. Each committee was formed for
one year; if any member misbehaved he could be immediately removed. If a member was
unable to give a proper account of the public exchequer he was declared incapable. At the
central level the king ruled. The king did not have autocratic rights based on Divine rights
like kings in Europe. If the king misbehaved the subjects had the right to remove the king.
There was a state council to give advice to the king. The king worked in accordance with
the wishes of the people and the advisors of the king (ministers / officers) respected the
Panchas at the local levels. Therefore in ancient India the meaning of 'Rule of King' was
serving the subjects.
Democratic Institutions during the British Rule - British rule tried to give
limited powers to the Indians. For this the various Acts passed by the British parliament
and the laws made by British rule in India can be termed as a partial forerunner of Indian
Democracy. The ancient heritage of Indian society and culture has democratic values
from the beginning therefore the legal systems of the British rule period were easily
accepted by the Indians. Though they only had a formal form of democracy they can still
be called as the initial form of a democracy. In 1858, 1861 and 1892 the above systems
were limited to local administration only. The Acts of 1909, 1919 and 1935 made a
major contribution in the growth of the Parliamentary system in India.
Present Indian Democracy
In the present times India is the world's largest democratic country. After independence,
the Indian Constitution came into force on 26th Jan. 1950. India became a sovereign
democratic republic after the enforcement of the constitution. Citizens were given universal
adult suffrage in accordance with the fundamental principles of democracy by the
constitution. All adult Indian citizens were given the right to vote without any discrimination,
by which the people could elect the representatives of their choice and form a popular
Indian citizens have shown an active participation and maturity in all the parliamentary
and legislative elections. Barring the exception of emergency (1975-1977) holding of timely
and impartial elections is an indicator of perpetual democracy in India. Besides the elections
for village panchayats and city municipalities and municipal corporation are also examples of
the Indian democracy being broad based.
There are some challenges to Indian democracy. Indian democracy is getting affected by
illiteracy, casteism, linguism, regionalism, separatism, communalism, political violence,
social and economic inequalities, dominance of money and muscle power, corruption and
politics of vote banks.
Indian democracy can be freed from these demerits by removing social-economic
inequalities, expansion of education and establishing moral values. The commitment of

Indian people towards democracy is clear from the various timebound peaceful elections
and through change in power from time to time through constitutional methods. Therefore
we can hope for perpetuation and success of democracy in India

Sovereignty : The supreme power of the state.
State : A group formed by a defined geographical area, population,
government and sovereignty is called a state.
Canton : Switzerland's political or administrative province / unit
Communism : It is an ideology whose main aim is to establish economic
equality so that the minimum needs of each individual are
Elite : A group of such people who have made a special place in the
society. This word is also used for leaderships of various
regions like a political elite.
Republic : The head of the state will be elected by the people and not
from any dynasty or royal dynasty.
Forerunner : Beginning background / Preceding.
End : Aims, for example the aim of the state is to establish a
welfare state.
Choose the correct alternative -
1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a Democracy?
(i) Government of elected representatives.
(ii) Respect of Rights.
(iii) Centralization of power in the hands of one person.
(iv) Free and impartial elections.
2. Which is the Democratic concept?
(i) Freedom (ii) Exploitation
(iii) Inequality (iv) Individualism
3. Which one of the following is not a demerit of democracy?
(i) Waste of public time and money
(ii) Dominance of the wealthy

(iii) Partisanships
(iv) Public welfare
4. Democracy is a rule of the people, by the people for the people -
(i) Machiavelli (ii) Lincoln
(iii) Rousseau (iv) Hautes
Fill in the blanks :
1. Aristotle has called Democracy as the ............................ .
2. The propounders of communism was ....................... and ...................... .
3. A ................... constitution is essential for a successful Democracy.
4. There is a wastage of .................. and ..................... in Democracy.
Very short type answer -
1. What has been mentioned with reference to democracy in the later Vedic Period?
2. What was the basic unit of administration in ancient India?
3. What right does the Marxist principle of democracy lay emphasis on?
Short answer type questions -
1. Write any two definitions explaining the meaning of democracy.
2. State the importance of Democracy.
3. What do you understand by indirect or representative Democracy?
Long answer type questions
1. What do you understand by democracy? Write down its chief characteristics.
2. Describe the merits and demerits of democracy.
3. Describe the fundamental principles of democracy.
4. Describe the form and importance of democracy in India.
5. What is the concept of Democracy? Describe the present form of Indian
Project Work
● Collect information of the student council elections in your school. Write
the process or procedure adopted in the elections of class representatives or
student council. Make a beautiful chart of all representatives and office
● Collect information of the elections of your village Panchayat. Make a
chart of winning and defeated candidates. Write the role of people of the
village in the election process of the Panchayat.

❖❖ ❖❖ ❖❖
13.1 Meaning and need of Election
We Will Study 
We have adopted the parliamentary type of
13.1 Meaning and need of
government in our country. In this type of
government the elected representatives form the
13.2 Conditions of receiving
government. The people participate in the
government through election. Election is a process
13.3 Political party system
in which citizens of a country elect their
characteristics, function
representatives. The representatives are elected
and types
for a fixed period. The people of our country
13.4 Political parties of India
exercise their political power by participating in
-importance, role of
elections. India is a large and multilingual country.
In our country every citizen has an equal right to
13.5 The Indian Election pro-
participate in the election of a representative
(without any discrimination). This system of
13.6 Election Commission and
franchise is called universal adult franchise. All
its functions
those citizens who have attained the age of 18
years and whose names are included in the voter's list, have the right of voting.
India has adopted secret suffrage system. In India the Election Commission has
been constituted for holding free and impartial elections.
Election is a process through which people of democratic countries
elect their representatives for a fixed period of time.

13.2 Franchise
The preamble of the Indian Constitution declares that sovereignty rests in the hands
of the people. People exercise their supreme power through their elected representatives.
The Public is the source of the entire power of government. Citizens have the right to
elect their representatives. The management of the government is done through the
elected representatives. The right to elect representatives is called suffrage. This is an
important political right. The modern age is an age of Democracy. The public of those
countries which do not have democracy also want to adopt it. In our country every adult
citizen has been granted the right to vote. This system of suffrage is called Universal
Adult Franchise.

Universal Adult Franchise
The granting of the right to vote to an adult male and female of the country
without any discrimination is called Universal Adult Franchise. In this system
after attaining a specified age, all citizens are granted the right to Vote.
In our country all males and females who have attained the age of 18 years have the
right to vote. But this has to be kept in mind, that suffrage is not only a right but also
a duty. Insane or mad persons, declared insolvent by the court or persons who are not
citizens of India do not have the right to vote.
At the time of framing of our constitution, the citizens of some countries of the
world had limited franchises. But the creators of our constitution decided to grant
franchise to all the citizens without any discrimination. On 17th November 1949 these
words were said in the Constituent Assembly :
“Without Universal Adult Franchise, democracy is meaningless.”
Franchise is a unique provision of our constitution. It has so many advantages. The
following are its characteristics.
1. Equal importance of vote of every citizen.
2. It is in conformity with the principle of equality.
3. All citizens participate in administration.
4. Change of government is possible peacefully.
5. Political education to people.
6. It instills self respect among citizens.
It is a serious question for all democratic systems that what should be the basis of
franchise? Whether this right should be given to all
citizens of the state or only to some selected Principles of franchise
citizens. In this reference the following are the 1. Principle of Tribal Franchise
principles of franchise- 2. Principle of knight.
1. Principle of Tribal Franchise - 3. Principle of nature.
According to this franchise to each individual of 4. Principle of Law.
the state should be granted, because it is not a 5. Principle of Moral
specific right or facility but it is a natural and active 6. Principle of universal Adult
part which influences the life of every citizen. This Franchise.
opinion was prevalent, within the old meetings of 7. Principle of pluralistic
ancient Greece, Rome and other states where franchise.
franchise was done by raising hands. Probably the 8. Principle of weighted
compulsion of citizenship in the modern age is its franchise.

2. Principle of Feudal Franchise- According to this principle only those
people who possess property can exercise the right of suffrage. This opinion was
especially prevalent in the medieval times when the right of franchise was a symbol of
honour. In the modern age, the necessity of having property for the right of suffrage is
based on this principle in many countries.
3. Principle of nature - According to this principle the government is a man
made machinery. It is based on the consent of the people. Therefore, the right to choose
the ruler is a natural right of the people. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
this principle was very popular.
4. Principle of Law - According to this principle franchise is not a natural
right of the people but this is a political right. It is only the government which decides
to whom the franchise should he granted. Every government decides it according to its
conditions and social position.
5. Principle of morals - According to this principle for the development of
personality, man should have the right to decide through franchise who will govern him.
It gives birth to political sensitivity and makes him aware of the policies and programmes
of government.
6. Principle of Universal Adult franchise - This is the most prevalent
principle among the democratic states. According to this every adult citizen of the state
can exercise the right to vote without any discrimination. The demand for Universal
franchise and sovereignty of the people was raised during 17th and 18th centuries. The
right of adulthood was included in it .The age of adulthood is eighteen years in America,
Britain, Russia and India. In Australia the government can declare it compulsory for
citizens to exercise the right to vote and can punish a person who does not exercise his
right to vote without some genuine reason.
In most countries, this system of adult franchise is exercised. Therefore it is
necessary to know its merits and demerits.
● As democracy means participation of people in administration therefore
universality of franchise is desirable. Participation in administration of
people is the life line of democracy.
● A representative who is related to all should be elected by all.
● Franchise is the origin of democracy because it is in conformity with the
principle of equality.
● Unless franchise is universal there is no hope of a government which aims
at public interest.
● In the opinion of thinkers like Maikale and Hensigen, the uneducated and
ignorant people also get the opportunity of franchise.
● It is also said that franchise should not be granted to a majority of people
as it increases political unstability.
7. Principle of Pluralistic Franchise - The principle of "One man one
vote" is accepted everywhere in the modern democratic system, but the system of
pluralistic franchise has also been prevalent in several states for the last few years.
According to the basic concept of this principle of suffrage the number of votes of
persons should be made less or more on some basis.
8. Principle of weighed franchise - According to this principle votes are
not counted but weightage is given to them. Here weight means importance that is in
electing the government the weight of the vote of a person who is adorned with any
specialty such as education, wealth or property will be more than that of an ordinary
13.3 Political party system
Different political parties are essential for the parliamentary type of democracy
political parties are organsied groups of citizens having similar ideology. They are
committed to their policies and programmes. They work in a form of power and they are
always attempting to gain power and continue it. There are some general characteristics
of political parties.
Functions of political parties.
Political parties have many important
Characteristic of political parties
functions in democracy. The main functions
● To maintain a clear identity
are as follows-
● To opine clearly regarding policy
1. They work as a bridge between the matters
government and the public. ● To obtain public opinion in support of
2. They form public opinion about its policy continously
various issues of national interest. ● Registraion in election commission
3. They select candidates for elections. ● Be United by one regulation.
● They have in Main aim to win election
4. They make efforts to control the
for obtaining power
arbitrariness of the ruling party.
● To create public opinion against anti-
5. The main function of political parties public policies by keeping an eye on
is to get victory in elections and to the ruling party
form the government. ● Have a Party symbol for identity

6. They help in preparing voters lists.
7. They impart political education to people.
8. They do social and economic work also.
Type of party systems
On the basis of the number of political parties the party system is divided into three
a. Single party system- In a country where there is only one political party, it
is called a single party system. In the countries having single party system a
single party is recongnised and the existence and idiologies of other parties
are restricted.
b. Bi-party system- In a country if only two main parties exist and the ruling
power shifts between these two parties only, then this system is called Bi-
party system. For example in America the main two parties are the democratic
and republican parties, and in Britain Labour and Conservative Parties. Thus
the bi-party system is prevalent in the United States of America and Britain.
c. Multiparty system - When in a country several political parties exist then it
is called a multi party system. We have multi party system in our country. In
the elections many small and insignificant parties take part, but they are not
When there is no majority of any single party then a coalition government is
formed. Two or more parties are united in a coalition government.
The main demerit of the multiparty system is
Coalition Government
changing of party by politicians. During elections
When a single party does not several types of problems arise. In this system it
get a majority and few parties becomes very difficult to differentiate between the
together form a government, policies of different political parties. The number of
that government is called individual parties increases in the multiple party system.
association government. This Due to political ambitions, the formation of new
is also called as collation parties begins and existing political parties break up.
13.4 Political parties in India, Importance
and role of opposition.
In India some major political parties came into existence before independence.
After independence the Election Commission was formed. In India political parties are
registered and recognised by it.
Political parties in India are of three types-

1. National Political Party
At the time of the parliamentary election in the year 2004, 6 political parties were
recognised as national political parties. These are- 1. The Indian National Congress, 2.
The Bhartiya Janta Party, 3. The Bahujan Samaj Party, 4. The Communist Party of India
(Marxist), 5. The Communist Party of India, 6. The Nationalist Congress Party
The party symbols of national parties are uniform in the whole country. Although
a party is a national party, it does not mean that it will have equal popularity in every
state. The influence of national parties varies from state to state. To be recognised as a
national political party, any one of the following conditions should be fulfilled.
Any political party which obtains at least 6% vote in the election of parliament or
State Legislative Assembly or if any political party obtains at least 2 percent of total
seats of the parliament and this position should be in minimum three states, this party
will be considered a national political party.
2. State Political Parties
At the time of the parliamentary election in the year 2004, there were 36 regional
political parties in India. They are recognised for one or more than one state. Their
election symbols are reserved in these states. For example- the Akali Dal in Punjab, the
Telugu Desham in Andhra are regional parties. A party can be recognised as a state party
if it obtains 6% votes in the related state legislative election or parliamentary election
or it obtains three seats in Legislature. State parties are known as regional parties.
3. Registered Political Parties
More that 750 parties are registered in the Election Commission. For example the
Gondwna Gantantra Party and the Bhartiya Janshakti Party are registered as political
parties. During elections such registered parties do not get time slot on radio and
television. Their election symbols are not reserved in the entire state. Their influence is
restricted to a limited area. Some registered parties merge themselves with other parties
if required or form a separate party in case of difference of opinion. Such parties are
generally the result of the desire and influence of the president of the party.
Importance of Party System
The party system makes democratic rule possible. In the modern age the work of
government is done with the help of political parties. They help government make policies.
With their help it also becomes easier to bring changes in the policies. Due to the party
system, the government becomes welfare oriented and works in the interest of people. They
stop arbitrariness of the government. The desires and expectations of the public reach the
government through them. They impart political education to people. Everybody gets an
opportunity to become a part of the government through these parties. Political parties
protect the independence of citizens. They establish the unity of the nation.

Importance of political parties
The importance of political parties in democracy can be explained in the following
way -
1. Formation and expression of public opinion is possible only through
political parties. The political parties organise processions and conferences
for the formation of public opinion.
2. At present adult franchise is adopted by most of the countries of the world.
Parties nominate their candidates from their parties and campaign for them.
3. Today in the huge democratic ruling system, opposition parties are essential.
Parties in minority or opposition parties have equal importance in democracy
like parties with majority.
Role of Opposition
After the general elections, among all the political parties, the party with the
majority or coalition of parties form the government or becomes the ruling party and the
parties which do not get majority are called parties of the opposition. The party which
has gained a majority forms the government. The opposition parties keep a check on the
government. In a parliamentary democracy the public do not keep the work of government
under direct control. This is done by the opposition party . In our parliamentary based
democratic country the ruling party and the opposition are bound to work for the public
welfare with alertness due to the active role of the opposition parties in the parliament
and legislatures.
The opposition parties in parliament and legislative assemblies also suggest new
policies and functions.
The government performs its responsibilities with more alertness due to the
presence of deliberation and discussion. The opposition cooperates to remove the
defects of law. During the sessions of legislature and parliament the role of the
opposition becomes more important. The opposition pressurises the government by
asking questions in the house, calls attention to notices or adjournment motions. Thus
the opposition establishes its efficacy before the public and it places the mistakes and
weaknesses of government before them. It compels the government to rectify its
mistakes by criticising the policies and action of the government. The government gets
influenced by the propoganda and tactics of the opposition.
13.5 The Indian Election Procedure
Elections are an important task. They are done through a specific procedure. You
are the future citizens of India therefore it is necessary for you to know about it. The
election procedure is the same whether it is the general election, mid-term election or

bi-election. The whole procedure of election can General Election
be complied in the following way - Elections which take place at
1. Preparation of Electoral Rolls - a fixed period of time are known
This is the first and the most important stage of as General Elections.
the elections. Before each and every election, Mid Term Election
electoral rolls are prepared by the District Election If the Lok Sabha or State
Officer's as per the directions of the Election Legislative assemblies are
Commission. Any Indian citizen who has attained dissolved before their tenure then,
18 years of age can get his name included. Voter's the elections which take place are
identity cards are also prepared by the district Mid Term elections
election officer. In the absence of voter's identity Bi-Election
card the citizens have to bring other documents to In any area, if any post is
show their identity. vacant due to the resignation or
2. Notification of Election - Every death of any candidate then such
election procedure begins with notification of elections are called Bi-Elections.
election. Notification of general, mid-term or bi-
election to parliament is issued by the President, notification to state legislative
assembly is issued by the Governor.
After the deliberation with the Election Commission the notification is published
in the Government Gazette. After issuing the election notification the Election
Commission announces the election programme. Along with this the moral code of
conduct is enforced for the political parties.
3. Nomination for Election - Different political parties decide the names
of their candidates for participation in the election. The candidates who want to fight
election file their nomination papers personally and deposit them in front of the
elections officer. After the scrutiny of the nomination papers the list of nominees is
announced on a fixed date. Within a fixed period a candidate can withdraw his/her name.
The final list of nominees is issued after the time for withdrawal of names is over.
4. Election Symbols - The election symbol of each recognised party is
already fixed. The election symbol of their party is allotted to the concerned candidates.
At the time of elections, the election symbol of the candidate is printed on the ballot
papers or shown on the Electronic voting machine against his name. In India, a large
number of voters are illiterate. Therefore the election symbols are helpful for the
identification of the candidate.
5. Election Campaign - The Election campaign is an important aspect of the
voting procedure. Each candidate presents his party's programme on the election
manifesto regarding the work which will be done by his party in the coming five years
before the people and tries to get the favour of the voters in different ways. The political
parties issue their election manifesto which consists of their programmes and policies.
Public meetings and rallies are organised. News papers, posters, banners, pamphlets are
used for canvassing. Now time is given to political parties on radio and television also.
Canvassing is stopped forty
eight hours before the polling
6. Polling - Each
constituency is divided into
many polling centers. The
polling centers are fixed for
each voter, where he casts his
vote on the day of polling. An
identity card bearing the
photograph of the voter is
issued to each voter for his identity. This is known as identity card of the voter. The
voters who do not possess this identity card, can prove his/her identity through him
ration card, driving license or any document related to her/his identity.
At a polling booth a presiding officer and polling officers are appointed as per the
requirement. On the day of polling, voters come and line up in a queue. Before casting
of vote the voter's identity is verified then the voter who has come to cast his vote has
to put append his signature / thumb impression on the voters' list. If an electronic voting
machine is used then the voter puts his signature or thumb impression on the register.
After the marking of indelible ink he can cast his vote. Voting can be done in two ways-
(1) by Electronic Voting Machine (2) Ballot System.
To keep the vote confidential two or more polling booths are made at every polling
center, where the electronic voting machine or the ballot box is kept. In the electronic
voting machine, the vote is cast by pressing the button in front of the name of the
candidate and his corresponding election symbol.
In the ballot paper voting system, a ballot paper with the signature of the election
officer is given to the voter. The voter goes to the polling room with that ballot paper
and puts the seal on the symbol of the desired candidate. The ballot paper is folded and
put in the ballot box. After the period of voting is over, the electronic voting machine
is closed and sealed. After the ballot boxes are used, these are closed first, then through
the special paper seal obtained along with the voting material, these boxes are sealed.
7. Counting - All ballot boxes and electronic voting machines are collected
on a fixed date. Counting takes place in front of district election officer. The candidate
who obtains maximum number of votes is declared elected. The elected candidate is the
representative of his area. The district election offices gives a certificate to the elected
candidate after the results of the elections are declared.
The aim of the Election Commission is to conduct impartial and independent
elections. On the day of elections a public holiday is declared so that all citizens get an
opportunity to cast their vote. On the day of the election all liquor shops of that area are
closed. Special security arrangements are made so that nobody scares or threatens the
Shortcomings of the Indian Electoral Shortcomings of Elections system
System ● Lack of complete participation
The future of the democracy depends ● Use of black money in elections
upon the fairness of elections and independent ● Influence of muscle power in the
voting i.e. without any inducement and pressure. elections
The Election Commission makes efforts for ● Misuse of Government machinery
an unbiased and independent election. Even ● Teh great number of independent
then there are some problems. The following Candidates
are the main defects of our electoral system- ● The attempt to influence the
1. Lack of complete sentiments of voters
participation in voting - The aim of universal ● Frauds
Adult Franchise is to make every citizen
participate in the government indirectly. We have seen that a large number of voters do
not exercise their right to vote in the parliamentary and state legislative elections.
Therefore the elected candidate getting the maximum votes does not represent the public
in the real sense. Therefore participation of all citizen in exercising their franchise is
2. Use of money in elections - The increasing expenses in elections is a big
problem. For every election a ceiling on election expenses is fixed but a lot of money
is spent by the candidates. Therefore, sometimes due to lack of money honest and wise
persons are not able to contest the election. The use of money in elections is an immoral
act on the part of a person, which is a very serious problem from the point of view of
the reformation of the election system.
3. Influence of muscle power in elections - Sometimes the candidates try
to win the election by unfair means. For this they take help of criminals also. Often with
the use of muscle power, booth capturing is resorted to and voters are made to vote in
some one's favour by threatening them or by voting illegally.
4. Misuse of Government Machinery - Before the time of elections
charming promises are made by the ruling party. During the elections, high officials are
transferred and government, money and vehicles and other means are misused. They also
try to influence the election officers. All these affect the impartiality of the elections.
5. The number of independent candidates- Sometimes there are too many
independent candidates in the election race. This creates problems for managing the elections.
6. Attempts to influence the sentiments of the voters - At the time of
elections some candidates try to influence the sentiments of the voters on the basis of
religion, caste, region and language. Political parties select their candidates on the basis
of caste. The biggest defect of the Indian election system is the attempt to influence the
election by provoking the sentiments of the public.
7. Impersonation (Fraud franchise) - Some times some persons vote in
place of other persons, include their names in more than one electoral rolls, cast votes
without the inclusion of their names in the electoral roll etc. all are fraudulent franchise.
This is also a big problem of our election system.
8. Other defects - The name of the citizen should compulsorily be included
in the electoral roll to allow him to vote for a candidate in an election. We often see that
several names of the voters are not included in the electoral roll while the names of
persons who have left that constituency or have expired are not deleted from the
electoral rolls. The political parties do not make efforts to arouse awareness among the
people. A large number of voters on one voting booth is also a problem. Some-times one
candidate contests from more than one constituency. If he wins in both the constituencies
then the candidate resigns from one constituency. In that condition bi-elections takes
place. The government money as well as the money of the candidates is wasted.
In our country the Election Commission is continuously trying to make elections
free and impartial. The Election Commission makes efforts to remove the defects of the
elections. The identity card system of the voters is a valuable step taken by the Election
Commission. Continuous efforts are being made to remove the defects of our election
13.6 The Election Commission and its functions
The Election Commission is an independent institution constituted under the
provisions of the constitution. It conducts free and impartial elections in India. Elections
of the parliament, state legislature, office of the President and vice-president are all
conducted under the supervision of the Election Commission. The office of the Indian
Election Commission is at Delhi. In the Election Commission there are three
commissioners. One chief and two others. All the three have equal powers. In cases of
difference of opinions, the decisions are taken by a majority. The President appoints the
Elections Commissioners.
The tenure of the Election Commissioner is 6 years or 65 years of age whichever
is earlier.
The procedure for the removal of the Election Commissioner is similar to that
prescribed for the removal of the Supreme Court judges. It means a resolution, which is
passed by a majority of the total members and two third majority of the present and
voting members, is sent to the President from both houses of parliament separately. Then
only can he/she be removed from the post.
Functions of the Election Commission Functions of
In our country the entire responsibility of Election Commission
conducting elections lies with the Election ● Delimitation of the
Commission. The constitution is the source of constituencies
the power and functions of the Election ● Preparation of electoral Rolls
Commissioner. The following are the main ● Allotment of election symbols
functions of the Election Commissioner - ● Registration and recognition of
1. Delimitation of the political parties
Constituencies - Before any election the area ● Holding elections.
of each constituency is demarcated. Earlier the ● Giving their opinion for fixation
delimitation of constituencies was done by the of dualities of members of
Election Commissioner in the general elections. parliament and legislature
Now this is done by a Delimitation Commissioner. ● Preparation and implementation
The Chief Election Commissioner is the president of the moral code of conduct
of this Commission. ● Miscellaneous functions
2. Preparation of Electoral Rolls - This is the second important function
of the Election Commission. the Election Commission prepares a list of citizens who
are eligible to vote in accordance with the concerned polling booth before every
election. This is called an Electoral roll. The names of the citizens who have attained the
age of 18 years is included in the new list and some names of the persons are removed
from the list who have either left the constituency or expired. The electoral roll is also
known as a voter list.
3. Allotment of Election Symbols - The election symbols of national and
regional political parties are fixed and reserved by the Election Commission. The
distribution of electoral symbols to the newly formed parties or the parties formed after
their division is done by the Election Commission. The election symbols are very
important signifiers for the political parties. During the elections the candidates ask for
votes on the basis of their party symbols.
4. Registration and Recognition of Political Parties - Registration of
political parties and the need, to give them recognition as national or regional parties on
the basis of the votes obtained in the last elections of Parliament or Legislative
Assembly are the functions of the Commission. The Election Commission takes due
care for strict compliance of the election rules.
5. Holding Elections - The election programme is announced by the Election
Commission. It makes arrangements and all efforts for holding free and impartial

elections. During elections it issues the code of conduct i.e. directions to be followed
by the political parties and candidates. The commission has the right to supervise and
control the elections. The Election Commission makes efforts for free and impartial
6. To give their opinion regarding disqualification of the members of
Parliament and Legislative Assembly - To give their opinion regarding the
disqualification of the representatives is also the function of the Commission. The
President had sought advice of the Election Commission in the year 2006 regarding
office of profit and on the basis of its advice the membership of some parliamentarians
had been terminated.
7. Miscellaneous work - The Election Commission is empowered to fix the
limit of expenses of the candidates. It also provides means for the improvement of the
election procedure and also for training of candidates.

Polling Area : Voters of a specific geographical area, who elect a representative
for that area.
Time Bound Elections Programme :Commencement of elections after a fix period
of time, like after every five years.
Code of conduct : The terms and condition of maintaining law and order and
instructions to be followed by the parties and candidates during
Election manifesto : A document, through which political parties describe their
policies and programmes. In this the party promises the
formation of clean and capable government to the public.
Indelible Ink : Ink applied on the fingers of voters so that they are not able to
cast votes again in the same election. This gets removed after
many days.
I. Choose the right option and write:
1. Out of these, who can be granted adult franchise -
(i) Minor male and female (ii) Only male
(iii) Adult Male and Female (iv) Only Female
2. Who does not have right to vote?
(i) Insane or mentally handicapped (ii) Minor age group
(iii) Declared bankrupt by court (iv) All the above

3. In India, the election procedure is said to start after which of the following-
(i) After filing of nomination paper by candidate
(ii) After notification of election
(iii) After beginning of campaigning
(iv) With organising of public meetings.
II. Fill in the blanks :
1. In our country all males and females who have attained the age of .............. years
have the right to vote.
2. When few parties together form a government, that is called as ............ government.
3. .................... commission has been formed for registration and recognition of
palitical parties.
4. The granting of the right to vote to an adult male and female of the country without
any discrimination is called ............................ .
Very short answer type questions
1. What is meant by election? Write.
2. What is franchise? Write.
3. What are political parties? Write.
4. Who appoints the Chief Election Commissioners?
5. In India, where is the office of the Election Commission situated?
6. What is a coalition government?
Short answer type questions
1. What is known as a National Political party? Write.
2. Write about the characteristics of political parties.
3. What is a mid term election?
4. Write about the main functions of the Election Commission.
5. What is an electoral roll? Write its uses.
6. Write four functions of political party.
7. Write four characteristics of a political party.
8. Describe the role of the opposition party.
9. Write down the functions of the election commission.
Long answer type questions
1. Explain the type of political parties on the basis of the number of political parties.
2. What is the political party system? Explain its importance.
3. Explain the major demerits of the Indian Election procedure.
4. Write about the Indian election procedure.
5. Describe the importance and functions of political parties.
6. Explain the principles of franchise.
7. Write about the functions of the election commission.
❖❖ ❖❖ ❖❖
Constitutional Rights and Duties of Citizens

14.1 Fundamental rights, Meaning and

We Will Study & importance
14.1 Fundamental Rights: The Indian Constitution is divided into 22 parts.
Meaning and importance In the Indian Constitution Fundamental Rights have
14.2 Fundamental Rights been enumerated in chapter three, Directive Principles
incorporated in the of state policy in chapter four and Fundamental
constitution Duties in chapter 4(A); this was added to it
14.3 Directive principles of afterwards. In fact they are parts of the same system.
the state policy It is an effort to establish the declared aims of the
14.4 Differences between fun- Constitution i.e. justice, freedom, equality, fraternity
damental rights and di- etc. in practice. These are the foundation and
rective principles of state essential parts of the democratic life style adopted
policy in India. Rights are those conditions of life which
14.5 Fundamental Duties are essential for the complete development of the
14.6 Legal Rights available to people. In a democratic society a citizen needs some
citizens rights to lead a free life. These are associated with
● Right to Property their basic needs and dignity. Therefore we call them
● Right to Information 'Fundamental Rights'. The society recognises them
because they are essential for all. The state
recongnise them. In case of violation of these rights they can be enforced through the
courts. In fact the fundamental rights are a sort of restriction on the arbitrary proceeding
of the state government to the officers working is it. These are provided for the physical,
mental, moral, cultural and all round development of an individual. A citizen develops his
personality to the fullest due to these rights.

The rights which are essential for the all round development and dignity of a
citizen are incorporated in the constitution of the country, and are protected by
the Judiciary and called the Fundamental rights.

Fundamental Rights

Right to Right to Right against

Equality Freedom Exploitation

Right to Cultural and Right t

Freedom of Educational Constituti
religion Rights Remedi

14.2 Fundamental Rights incorporated in the Indian constitution-

The following six fundamental rights have been included in the Indian constitution:-
Rights to Equality-
The following rights to equality are provided to us-
i.Equality before the law : Article 14 of the Constitution guarantees to each
citizen equality and protection before the law. Nobody is above the law and the law is
considered paramount authority, and every person whatever be his rank or position, is
subject to the jurisdiction of an ordinary court regarding a common offence. It aims to
restrict the arbitrary power of the legislature as well as the executive body.
Article 15 of the constitution provides that no discrimination shall be made by the
state between citizens on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex and place of birth. No
one can be barred from using shops, public places, hotels and all places of public
entertainment on the above grounds.
No person or state shall discriminate on any ground for the use of wells, tanks,
bathrooms, roads, fairs etc. which have been made for public use. The state is empowered
to make special public rules. The state is empowered to make special provisions for
women, children and socially backward persons. Such provision shall not be deemed to
be inequality.
ii. Equal opportunities in Public Appointments : Article 16 of the
Constitution provides for equal opportunities for all citizens in matters of public
employment. The state will provide equal opportunities for all citizens according to their
qualifications. There shall be no discrimination on the basis of religion, caste, sex, race
and place of birth in this regard. The state is empowered to lay down the necessary
qualification for state services. The state shall make provisions for reservation in
accordance with article 16(4) for the services under it for members of any backward
classes in case there is no adequate representation of these classes. Under the 77th
amendment to the Constitution the state may also make reservations for promotions.

iii. Abolition of untouchability : Article 17 of the constitution has abolished
untouchability with a view to bring social equality among its citizens. Civil Right
Protection Act of 1955 provides that the practice of untouchability by the state or
citizens be a punishable offence. Therefore no person shall be prohibited from entering
public institutions, places and religious areas etc. No person can be humiliated on
account of there caste or any other basis.
Practice of untouchability in any form is a punishable offence
under the Indian Constitution.
During the Birtish rule citizens were conferred titles such as Rai Bahadur, Khan
Bahadur and Sir etc. These titles created impediments in the unity and equality and
generated the feeling of being high and low. Therefore with the enforcement of the
constitution these titles have been abolished. Special honours relating to military, education
and science and non military citations such as the Bharat Ratna, the Padma Vibhushan and the
Padamshri conferred by the President of India after independence for laudable works/
services are an exception.
2. Right to Freedom
Articles 19 to 22 of the constitution guarantee the Right to freedom to citizens. This
article provides them the right to freedom of expression, belief, religion and worship. This
helps them in developing their personality. We enjoy the following freedoms.
i.Freedom of Speech and Expression : All the citizens of India have full freedom to
express their ideas. Speech is its powerful means. They can express their ideas through the
newspapers, the radio, the
television and painting. But a
Freedom of speech
person should express his ideas
and expression
keeping in view the
sovereignity, integrity, security Freedom to assemble
public order, decency, morality, peacefully without arms
friendly relations with foreign
countries and respect to courts. Freedom to form
The state can impose reasonable Associations and Unions
restrictions on the aforesaid
basis on speech and freedom of Right of
Freedom of movement
expression. Freedom
ii. Freedom to Freedom to live and
assemble peacefully without settle in any part of India
arms : Under this right citizens
have the freedom to assemble Freedom to take up any job
for meetings, processions and or trade anywhere in India

demonstrations. These should take place peacefully and without arms. The government
can impose reasonable restrictions on this right. Keeping in view the sovereignity,
integrity and public security of the country.
iii. Freedom to form Associations and Unions : Freedom to form unions.
A Union is a group of people assembled and organised to achieve a common objective.
The constitution grants the freedom to form unions and associations to the citizens
according to their will. These unions may be commercial, economic, political, cultural
or any other type of partnership, club, labour, union type of associations. The state may
impose restrictions on these unions too, keeping in view the sovereignity, integrity and
public order of India.
iv Freedom of Movement : India is a vast country in which people of
different castes and religions reside. All the citizens of India have the right to move
freely in the territory of India without any restrictions.
v. Freedom to live and settle in any part of India : The citizens of India
can reside and settle in any part of the country. It has been considered essential for the
national integrity and unity. Therefore the people of one province and language can
reside among the people of another province and in any other part of the county. The
rights to move and reside in any part of the country are mutually inter-related, and
support the integrity of the nation. The state can impose proper restrictions in the
interest of the public at large and for the security of the culture, custom and language
on their freedom.
vi. Freedom to take up any job or trade anywhere in India - Any citizen
of India can choose any legal means of livelihood, trade or occupation. Along with the
above what right, he shall have the right to close down close down according to his will.
It means a citizen can not be compelled to do a job against his will. The state can
prescribe the professional or technical qualifications essential for a particular profession.
Restrictions can be imposed on any trade which is considered against the interest of the
general public. For example the restriction is imposed on the citizens against trade of
dangerous and intoxicating goods, adulterated goods, of trafficking in children and
Protection against conviction for an offence : No person shall be convicted of
any offence except for violation of a law in force at the time of the commission of the
act charged as an offence. A person may be subjected to only those penalties which were
prescribed by law in force at the time when the offence has been committed. A person
can be punished for the same offence only once. No person can be compelled to give
evidence against himself.
Protection of Life and Personal liberty : According to article 21, no person
shall be deprived of his life and personal liberty except according to the procedure
established by law. Every person has the right to live with human dignity along with the

right to life and personal liberty. It includes the opportunity of dignified livelihood and
freedom from the practice of bonded labour. But no one can exercise the freedom other
than the procedure prescribed by the Constitution.
Protection against Arrest and Detention - Article 22 provides the following
safeguards against arrest and detention -
l No person can be arrested without being informed about the offence.
l No offender can be deprived of his right to consult his lawyer for his defence.
l No person can be detained without the permission of the court, for more
than 24 hours. Meaning thereby that every such person should be produced
before the nearest Magistrate within 24 hours.
Preventive Detention - Preventive Detention can be made to restrict a person
from committing an illegal act. The person who attempts to disturb national security,
peace and public order can be arrested for some period of time. This can not exceed
three months. In such cases the person has to be informed of the reasons for his
detention and has to be provided the right to file his representation.
Suspension of the Right to Freedom - In the event of external aggression and
internal disturbances, the right to freedom under article 19 may be suspended under the
order of the President, but the right to freedom guaranteed under Article 20 & 21 can
not be suspended.
3. Right against Exploitation -
Articles 23 & 24 of the Constitution prohibit immoral traffic in human beings,
begging, forced labour and employment of children below 14 years of age in factories
and hazardous employment. Provision has been made against their exploitation. Its aim
is that no person or the state can force any other person to work against his will and no
person act can be permitted to misuse any human body. The state can impose essential
services for public order such as for the armed services.
4. Right to Freedom of Religion -
The Republic of India has been declared a secular state. It means that the state has
no religion of its own or is atheistic and this means that every religion has been given
equal respect in the state. There shall be no discrimination on the ground of religion.
Every person shall have the right to profess and have equal freedom to practice his/her
own religion. Articles 25-28 explains the right to freedom of religion.
i.Freedom of conscience and religion - All persons are equally entitled to
freedom of conscience and the right to freely profess, practice and propagate their
religion. This freedom is also limited for ensuring public order, good conduct and health
of the citizens. The state can make rules related to religion for the regulation of state
ii. Freedom to manage religious affairs - All religious communities shall
have the right to establish and maintain religious institutions. They can collect and
manage funds. But it should be in accordance with the law.
iii. Taxes can not be imposed for the maintenance of any particular religion.
iv The constitution prohibits imparting of religious education in the
government aided educational institutions. In the matter of other institutions no person
shall be compelled to acquire religious education or worship.
5. Cultural and Educational Rights:
Cultural and Educational Rights are provided to all citizens of India under articles
29 and 30 of the Constitution of India.
The following are the provisions in this regard.
(i) Every citizen of India shall have the right to conserve his/her own language,
script or culture. The state shall not, in granting aid to educational institutions, discriminate
against any educational institution on the ground of religion caste, sex, language etc. No
educational institution can deny admission on these grounds.
(ii) All minorities, whether based on religion or language shall have the right
to establish and administer educational institutions of their own choice. They shall
manage them also. But in the case of maladministration the state shall have the right to
6. Right to constitutional remedies:
The arrangements for the security of the Fundamental Rights have been made in the
articles of the constitution from 32 to 35. The state cannot enact a law which may limit
or abolish fundamental rights. Any person can move the courts for the protection of his
fundamental rights. The court can nullify such laws which disregard the fundamental
rights. Thus the enforcement of the fundamental rights is guaranteed by the Constitution.
The court for this purpose can issue five types of writs.

Writs for Constitutional Remedie

Habeas Prohibition Mandamus Certio

Court writs
(i) Habeas Corpus - The court can issue an order to the detaining authority to
present the detained person before the court.

(ii) Mandamus - The court issues orders to an officer or institution to perform an
act which falls within its jurisdiction.
(iii) Prohibition - It is a writ issued by High courts to lower courts when they exceed
the limits of their power or jurisdiction.
(iv) Certiorari - The writ of certiorari is exercised by the High Court. The High
Court can summon the record file or a case from the lower court in order to verify
the records.
(v) Quo Warranto - When a person, officer or an institution does such a work which
is legally not in his jurisdiction then this writ of Quo Warranto is issued by the
High Court to the lower courts. These writs are issued for the violation of
fundamental rights, against those persons or institutions who have violated them.
The constitution provides us with the fundamental right to property also, but from
the very beginning it was very controversial. Therefore through the 44th amendment
Act of the constitution in 1979 the right to property was eliminated from the list
of fundamental rights and it is now an ordinary legal right.
14.3 Directive Principles of State policy
The directive principles of state policy are included in the Constitution, to
establish a welfare state and to provide all the citizens social, economic and political
justice. The Directive principles of state policy are the directions given to the Central
and State government by the framers of the Constitution, to decide their policies. These
are the directions which guide every officer of the government and administration
regarding their behavior. If functioning is not in accordance with these, then citizens
cannot appeal in court, as can be done with respect to the fundamental rights. Directive
principles of state policy have been considered as the duties of the state. These are
special features of the Indian constitution and have been added keeping in view socialistic
and liberal principles.
Directive Principles of state policy is the dream of the fulfillment of
economic and social revolution in India. These aim to fulfill the basic requirements
of the common man and to make the Indian public equal and free in the true sense by
bringing about a change in the structure of the society. These are enumerated in the
articles 36 to 51 of part 4 in the constitution. They aim at-
(1) a welfare state
(2) developing India in accordance with the ideals of Gandhiji.
(3) promoting international peace and security by the state.
(1) The Welfare System
(i) to make available equal means of livelihood for both men and women.
(ii) utilisation of resources of the country for the welfare of the people.
(iii) wealth and means of production should not be concentrated in the hands of
a few but their utilisation should be for public welfare.
(iv) there should be equal pay for equal work for both men and women. Their
health and their children's health and energy should not be misused.
(v) The youth and children should be protected from economic and moral
(vi) There should be employment and education for all and the state should
help in case of unemployment and inability.
(vii) The State should provide just and humane working conditions.
(viii) All should be provided a dignified standard of living, enough leave and social
and cultural facilities, the standard of food and health should be good.
(ix) Compulsory and free education should be made available for children. The
86th amendment of the constitution 2002, provides equal opportunities of
education to children between 6-14 years of age.
(2) Directive principles in accordance with the ideals of Gandhiji
(i) To promote cottage industries.
(ii) Organisation of village Panchyats and to make them function as self
governing units.
(iii) Promotion of educational and economic interests of scheduled castes,
scheduled tribes and other backward sections and to save them from
(iv) Prohibition of consumption of intoxicating goods (except medicins).
(v) To organise agriculture and animal husbandry on a modern and scientific basis.
(vi) To protect and improve the breeds of milk and draught cattle.
(vii) Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests
and wild life.
(viii) Protection of important national and historical monuments.
(ix) Separation of judiciary from the executive in public service.
(x) To frame civil and criminal laws for the country.
(3) Promotion of international peace-
(i) To promote international peace and security.
(ii) To maintain just and honourable relations between nations.
(iii) To respect international laws and treaties.
(iv) To make efforts for the settlement of international disputes by arbitration.
The above directive principles of state policy will help in the establishment of a

welfare state. The evaluation of success can be made on the basis of implementation.
Government can keep a check on political riots for maintaining social economic and
democratic order. It will also help in building the nation and establishing world peace.
These are the sacred wishes of the framers of the Constitution, and are also the
principles of social and economic ideals and are the mirror of public opinion.
14.4 Difference between fundamental rights and Directive principles
of state policy-
Following are the major differences between fundamental rights and directive
principles of state policy.
(1) The constitution stands behind the enforcement of fundamental rights,
where as public opinion is the force behind directive principles of state
policy. If there is a violation of fundamental rights of citizens by any law
of the government then for its protection the court declares the law as null
and void. If there is any law against the directive principles of state policy
then the court cannot declare those laws as null and void. But the state
cannot violate these principles easily due to the fear of public opinion.
(2) Fundamental Rights are prohibitory whereas directive principles of the
state policy are not prohibitory. Fundamental Rights can stop the
Government from performing some functions, whereas directive principles
of state policy direct the government to fulfill their duties.
(3) The aim of fundamental rights is to establish political democracy whereas
directive principles of policy aims at the establishment of economic and
social democracy.
(4) Fundamental Rights are for citizens whereas directives principles of the
state policy is the duty of the government. These are the instructions given
to the government for policy making and practice.
14.5 Fundamental Duties
When the Indian constitution was framed, only fundamental rights were incorporated
in it, there was no discussion on duties in it, whereas rights and duties are two sides of
the same coin. Through the incorporation of fundamental rights only, citizens become
aware of their rights but remained indifferent about their duties. For correcting this
drawback, 10 fundamental duties were enumerated for the citizens by adding part IV-A to
the constitution in the year 1976, by the 42nd constitutional amendment by the
parliament, which are the following :-
1. To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the
National flag and the National Anthem.

2. To respect and follow those noble ideals which inspired our national
struggle for freedom.
3. To protect the sovereignity, unity and integrity of India.
4. To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do
5. To promote harmony and the spirit of brotherhood amongst all the people
of India.
6. To maintain the tradition of rich heritage of our composite culture.
7. to protect and improve the natural environment.
8. to develop a scientific temper and curiosity.
9. to safeguard public property.
10. to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective
It is the responsibility of every citizen of the state to follow the fundamental
Duties and Rights are two sides of the same coin. We cannot enjoy rights without
fulfilling the duties. If citizens fulfill their fundamental duties then it will be easier for
them to enjoy their fundamental rights. If citizens do not follow their duties then there
will be irregularities and the environment will be disturbed. Fulfillment of fundamental
duties develops a healthy social environment. There is no legal action for violation of
fundamental duties in the constitution. There is no provision for punishment if these are
disrespected but they are our responsibilities towards our nation. Fundamental duties are
the inspiration for strengthening the country's cultural heritage, national property,
individual and collective progress, defence system of the country etc. and to protect the
environment, to respect national ideals and to maintain social harmony.
14.6 Legal Rights available to citizens
Besides the fundamental rights, certain legal rights are also available to the
citizens. Legal rights are those rights which do not fall under the category of fundamen-
tal rights but are available to the citizens under Law. Legal rights can be withdrawn by
the Government at any time; constitutional amendment is not needed for this purpose.
Under this category two rights are important viz. 1.Right to property and 2. Right to
● Right to property
The right to property was available to the citizens as a fundamental right in the
constitution earlier. But this remained debatable right from the beginning. This funda-

mental right was therefore withdrawn with effect form June 1979 vide the 44th
constitutional Amendment Act of1978, although it is still available as a legal right.
● Right to information -
The Right to Information is an important step in the direction of strengthening the
democracy. The Government of India, through an act viz. The Right to Information Act
2005 has given this right to the people of the country to obtain information from any
Government office. For the past many years, lot of efforts have been made for ensuring
people's participation in the development programmes. Introduction of the Panchayati
Raj system and associating the local community in supervision and monitoring of public
works is an important step in this direction. However, people were not able to effectively
participate in the development programmes, public services and facilities provided by the
Government because of lack of information about the rules and regulations relating to
those works and schemes, but now it has become possible to ensure transparency in the
government schemes and works. This is an important step in preventing favouritism
during the process of decision making and putting an end to corruption in government
working .
Important features of the Right to Information Act
❖ Who has the right to Information - This right is available to every
citizen of the country. Any citizen can obtain information from a public authority relating
to that organisation. Besides, all public authorities display important notices for public
information relating to their day to day functioning.
❖ Meaning of Public Authority - All such authorities ('Pradhikarans') and
institutions which have been set up under any law of Parliament or a Legislative
assembly, come under the Category of Public Authority. Besides, corporations / Socie-
ties etc. which are autonomous or non-government but receive government grant or are
under the control of the Central or State government are also covered in the Act. Thus
Public Authorities comprising of Government organisations, Departments and bodies
constituted under the Constitutions are covered by this Act.
What information can be got under Right to Information?
● Information relating to Government or any department relating to Government.
● Photocopies of Government contracts, payments, estimated expenditure,
measurements of construction works etc.
● Samples of material used in the construction of roads, buildings, drains etc.
● To see completed works or works under progress.
● If any complaint has been made and application has been given, then
information about the progress in the matter of can be obtained.

● Information about government projects which are implemented by any
government department or voluntary organisation.
● Under such circumstances the Information Commission may recommend
disciplinary action against the Public Information Officer as per the service conduct
rules applicable to that P.I.O. Under the Right to Information many types of information
can be obtained. Any information relating to Gram Panchayat, services provided in the
village like of 'Anganwadis', ration shops, health centres and government hospitals, tahsil
office, land records, police station, Forest Department, Agriculture department, 'Krishi
Upaj Mandi', bank, post office, Railways department, Public Health Engineering Depart-
ment, Rural Engineering Services, Court, School, College, University, Janpad Panchayat,
Zila Pachayat, Collectorate, office of Superintendent of Police etc. i.e. any sort of
information relating to government offices and related bodies can be obtained from
Janpad district and state level office under this Act.
❖ How to obtain information - Information can be obtained in two ways :
1. Through published information - Government Departments and organi-
sations publish information about their activities, their achievements, progress
etc from time to time; thus information can be had from such publications;
2. By submitting applications - The applicant has to submit an application
on simple paper, to the competent officer of the concerned department or
orginisation requesting for the type of information or copy of a document
needed. Some fees may be charged for such informaiton / copy of the
❖ Forms in which the information can be had-
Information can be had under the Right to Information from Government Office or
organisation in following ways:
1. Photocopies of documents
2. Copy of C.D., floppy, video cassette etc. of a document or data
3. Publications which the concerned organisation may have published
4. Documents can be perused in the concerned office itself
❖ Exemption from disclosure of any information -
Some informations which can not be made public in the interest of the sovereignty
and integrity of the nation, national security, information of strategic importance or
disclosure of which may harm the economic or scientific interest. The Government or
organsations are not obliged to furnish the following types of information:
● Disclosure of which is likely to have an adverse effect on the sovereignty
and integrity of the country, relating to defense and strategic importance,
which may have an adverse effect on the scientific and economic interests
or foreign relations of the nation.
● Which may lead someone to commit a crime.
● Disclosure of that which has been forbidden by any court of Law or
Tribunal or may amount to contempt of court.
● That which may amount to breach of privilege of the Parliament or
● That which is likely to harm the (commercial or business) interests of any
third party.
● Information available to a person in his fiduciary (i.e. based on trust)
relationship; unless the competent authority is satisfied that disclosure of
it is needed in the larger public interest.
● Information received in confidence from a foreign government.
● Information disclosure of that which would endanger the life or physical
safety of any person.
● Information, which is likely to adversely affect investigation of any crime,
arrest of a criminal or the prosecution process.
● Papers and documents relating to the cabinet including documents relating
to discussions with the cabinet secretaries and other officers.
❖ Fees for obtaining information -
No fees are charged from applicants who are living below the poverty line; for
others, a sum of Rs.10/- in cash or in the form of a stamp paper of that amount is
charged. Application addressed to the Public Information Officer may be typed or
handwritten. Fees for application before the first Appelate officer is Rs. 50/- and for
second appeal before the State Information Commission is Rs. 100/-.
After submission of the application the applicant is informed by the Public
Information Officer about the amount of expenses that the would be required to be paid.
A receipt is necessarily to be given by the Department/ Organisation for the fees charged
for the application or other costs. There is a provision that the Public Information
Officer should ensure disposal of the application within 30 days of its receipt.
❖ Action on complaints and appeals and time limit
In case of incomplete information or information which is not fully correct the
applicant may put up an appeal within 30 days before the first Appelate Officer. On
receipt of appeal from the Appelate Officer, normally action has to be taken within 30
days and a maximum of 45 days; the applicant should also be informed accordingly. In
case the first Appelate Officer does not take action on the complaint within 30 days and

informs the applicant, then the applicant may put up a second appeal, within 90 days,
before the State Information Commission.
❖ Punishment for non furnishing of information -
Officers who do not furnish information are punished under the following situa-
tions :
●In case the Public Information Officer or the Assistant Public Information
Officer refuses to accept the application.
●The information is not furnished within the prescribed time limit.
●For furnishing deliberately wrong, incomplete or misleading information.
●If an attempt is made to destroy the information asked for.
Under the above circumstances the Information Commission may punish the Public
Information Officers with a fine ranging from 250/- per day to a maximum of Rs.25,000/
-. The Commission may also recommend to the concerned Head of the Department,
disciplinary action against the Public Information Officer.
Constitution of the Information commission
Under the Right to Information Act there is a provision of constituting a Central
Information Commission at the national level and a state Information Commission at the
state level. In the State Information Commission there is a provision of appointment of
a Chief State Information Commissioner and a maximum of 9 Information Commission-
ers. The State Chief Information Commissioner and Information Commissioners are
appointed by the Governor as per the advice of a committee headed by the Chief
Minister. Other members of this Committee are Leaders of the opposition in the Vidhan
Sabha and a minister nominated by the Chief Minister. The term of office of the Chief
Information Commissioner and Information Commissioner is 5 years.
Functions and powers of the State Commission
1. The function of the State Information Commission is to enforce the Right
to Information. It ensures that the bottlenecks and difficulties experienced by
people in obtaining information under the Act are removed; it hears com-
plaints / appeals with regard to the Act.
2. The commission may order an enquiry in any case relating to the right to
3. The commission is vested with all powers relating to a civil court.
Under these powers, the Commission can issue summons, ensure the presence of
the concerned party at the time of hearing and order to put up witnesses.

Principles behind the Right to Information
The Right to Information is mainly based on three principles. These are :
1. Answerability - Ours is a democratic government. The Governments
under democracy work for the public good. They do not function only for particular
persons or a class. Therefore, the Government and its related organisations and authorities
have been made responsible (and answerable) to the people. It is necessary that
information should be given to the public by these organisations.
2. Participation - In a democratic set up, most of the works are done for the
people and with the cooperation of the people. It is necessary that people are also
associated in the formulation of plans so that necessary and timely amendments and
corrections are made in the plans in the larger interests of the people.
3. Transparency - The third basis is transparency in the government func-
tioning. Transparency in the work of government is necessary to prevent wastage of time
and money spent on government schemes, prevent misappropriation of public funds and
also corruption. Transparency will put a check on corrupt people and honest people will
be able to work fearlessly and impartially.
Importance of right to information
Under democracy the government is of the people, for the people and by the
people. Well informed people and transparency in information are the basic needs of
democracy. The importance of right to information will ensure the following things -
1. Enable people to effectively use the fundamental rights - The right to
information is inherent in the fundamental rights. It protects the right of freedom of
speech and expression. In the absence of information and facts, a person can not frame
and express opinions effectively. The Supreme Court has related this right to the
provision under Article A 21 of the Constitution relating to the right to live.
2. To make the Government responsible - It makes the Government
responsible as it is based on the principle of answerability. So long as Public and other
organisations are not made answerable to the people for their deeds and accounts of
income and expenditure, the possibilities of slackness in work, corruption and misuse of
public funds will increase.
3. To make Government working transparent - One of the important
objective of this Act is to bring about transparency in Government functioning whether
the peoples' representatives are making proper use of their rights and funds, are being
properly used or not, this information should be known to the people. The right to
Information will bring about increased transparency in government functioning and
pressure will be built in favour of careful use of public funds.

4. To increase peoples' participation in Government functioning - The
Indian constitution is based on participatory democracy. Till recently, due to absence of
necessary information of schemes and government works, people were not active and
their participation in Government functioning was limited only to casting of votes in the
elections. Thus this Right will prove to be an effective tool in increasing peoples'
participation in government functioning.
5. Check on corruption - The right to work is an effective tool to curb the
increasing corruption in the Government. Due to transparency and answerability, corrupt
person / persons will immediately be identified and legal action can be taken against
them. This will help in preventing people form doing illegal work and this right will be
helpful in ensuring good governance.
6. To make Governement schemes successful - Right to information plays
an important role in making government schemes successful. The success of government
schemes depends on two things - one, schemes are completed in the desired manner and
the in scheduled time and secondly, benefits of the scheme reach the real beneficiaries.
The Right to information is an effective tool in achieving both the objectives. This helps
in curbing procedural delays also.
Thus we see that 'Right to Information' is an important right.

Constitution : Supreme Law of country. It consists of the fundamental laws
for running society and politics of any country.
Constitutional : The changes in the constitution of any country brought about
Amendment by the Parliament of that country.
Secular : Citizens have full right to follow any religion, but there will
be no state religion. Government respects all religious beliefs.
Reservation policy : Policy to reserve some posts and seats in some educational
institutions in government service for victims of
discrimination and deprived and backward people and groups.
Writ : Formal written order issued by High court or Supreme Court
to the government.
I. Choose the right option and write.
1. Which fundamental right has been eliminated from the list of fundamental
rights through 44th amendment Act?
(i) Right to property (ii) Right to Freedom
(ii) Right to equality (iv) Cultural and educational rights
2. Which function out of these comes under the category of child labour?
(i) A child of less than 14 years of age working in hotels, construction
(ii) Movement and acquiring education by a child below 14 years of age.
(iii) Playing of children below 14 years of age.
(iv) Doing physical exercise by children below 14 years of age.
3. Which of these rights is not associated with the fundamental right of freedom?
(i) Right to freedom of speech (ii) abolition of titles
(iii) Freedom to reside and settle in any part of India
(iv) Freedom of movement
4. Through which writ can the High Court or Supreme court summon any record
of life from its lower court?
(i) Habeas Corpus (ii) Certiorari
(iii) Quo Warrants (iv) Mandamus
5. Right to free and compulsory education of all children between 6 to 14 years
of age comes under which fundamental right -
(i) Right to equality (ii) Cultural & educational rights
(iii) Right to freedom (iv) Right to constitutional remedies.
6. Out of the following who protects the fundamental rights -
(i) Parliament (ii) Legislative Assemblies
(iii) Supreme Court (iv) Government of India
7. In case timely information is not furnished, first appeal is made to -
(i) Head of the Department ii) Public Information Officer
(iii) Information Commission (iv) Chief Minister
8. Out of these which is the directive principle of state policy -
(i) Bound by law (ii) Eligible for justice
(iii) Creative directions to the state (iv) Directives of Judiciary
II. Fill in the blanks :
1. The ................ stands behind the enforcement of fundamental rights.
2. The Right to information act is a strong medium to stop the .................. .
3. Article ............... of the constitution guarantees to each citizen equality and protection
before the law.
4. Practice of .................. in any form is a punishable effence under the Indian
5. The ................... as a fundamental right had been withdrawn with effect vide the 44th
constitutional Amendment.
Very short answer type question
1. What is meant by equality before the law?
2. Write the names of different types of fundamental rights.
3. In the constitution what provisions have been made for abolition of
4. For whom are the Directive Principles of policy meant?
5. Who has the right to information?
6. Which Act has been passed in Madhya Pradesh for availing right to information?
7. On which principles is the right to information based?
Short answer type questions
1. What is the difference between fundamental rights and directive principles of the
state policy? Explain.
2. How do fundamental rights get judicial protection? Explain.
3. Fundamental rights and fundamental duties are two side of the same coin. Explain
the above statement.
4. What are the directions for the promotion of international peace in the directive
principle of policy? Write.
5. What freedom have been provided to us through the Right to freedom?
Long answer type questions
1. What are fundamental rights? Explain the importance of fundamental rights.
2. What are the freedoms enjoyed by the citizens under Right of freedom?
3. What are the main writs issued by the court under right to constitutional remedies?
4. Describe any two principles on which Right to Information is based. In case desired
information is not furnished in time, what step should be taken.
5. Explain the importance of Right to Information and write about the constitution of
"Information Commission."
6. What are fundamental durites? What are the fundamental duties described in the
7. Mention and explain the types of directive principles of policy.
Project Work
● What are the freedoms you experience in your day-to-day life? Prepare a list and
see how they help in your development by this. Try to learn about the fundamental
rights related to freedom. Describe it in the form of a project.
● Prepare a chart about the fundamental duties and put that up in your classroom. Read it
once daily and try to recollect how many duties you have followed in a day. In this manner
inspire your friends also to be aware towards all your duties.
❖❖ ❖❖ ❖❖

Growth of Rural Economy

We Will Study  In a country's economy, are included all kinds

of natural resources available in that country and
15.1 Measurement of the economic activities being conducted. The term
economy and rural economy is associated with a country but it can
economy also be associated with city, town and village. A
15.2 Development of village city's economy includes factories, shops, offices,
based ancient economy schools, banks and all other work places located in
of India that city. Similarly a village economy includes
15.3 Steps taken by the gov- firms, shops, and all other establishments where
ernment to develop ru- people work. Thus an economy is a system where
ral economy people earn their living.
15.4 A comparative study of
An economy is a system by which people
ancient and modern ru-
earn their living and it comprises of the
ral economy
production units existing in that area. In
15.5 Concept of ideal village
other words we can say, an economy of a
15.6 Economic study of a se-
country includes shops, mines, banks, roads,
lected village of Madhya
schools, colleges, universities, hospitals etc.
which provide employment to people and
produce goods and services which are used by the people of that place.
India is an agriculture based country. It has been the main occupation since the
beginning. From the bronze age, the Indus civilization till today agriculture has been the
main occupation of Indians. In the Vedic Age, agriculture was the main basis of the
economy. The contribution of animal husbandry, hunting and handicrafts was also very
important. The chief jobs were of carpenters and black smiths due to excessive number
of wars in the medieval period. Inspite of this agriculture was the main occupation in
India in the Medieval period too. Due to this reason different rulers made efforts from
time to time to develop it. Canals were constructed by Mohammed bin Tughlaq to
increase facilities of irrigation. Measurement of land was done by Sher Shah Suri.
During Akbar's reign Todarmal got the measurement of land done in an accurate manner
and on that basis decided the amount of tax. At that time the main source of income of
every big and small state was agricultural production. During this period there was
special growth in textile production. As far as quality is concerned Dacca was famous for

its muslin dyeing, weaving of silk cloth, shawls and mats producing industries were also
important. Trade and commerce was greatly developed. Therefore the economic structure
was sound.
On the basis of the characteristics, Indian economy can be divided into two
categories - Geographical and work based. If we take the geographical basis then it is of
two types - Rural economy and urban economy. We will study in detail about rural
economy in this chapter.
15.2 Growth of Rural Economy
Most of the population in India resides in villages. Therefore the importance of
rural economy is great. We can divide Indian rural economy into three parts for the
convenience of study - (i) Rural economy before the arrival of the British, (ii) Rural
economy after the arrival of British, (iii) Rural economy of India after Independence.
(i) Rural economy before the Arrival of the Britishers.
In ancient times also the majority of the population resided in villages. In fact
villages were a major unit of the economy. At that time villages were self sufficient,
prosperous and happy. The ancient rural economy was very different from the present
villages. Its characteristics can be explained on the basis of the following points.
Structure of working
community : There were three
main components of the working Main parts of Working Community
population or community in ancient
villages - Farmers, artisans and
village officers. Farmers Artisans Village
Farmers : The most important Officer
component of the rural economy
was the farmer. The special feature
was that every farmer in the village
Chief Maal Kotwat
had his own house and share in the
land. They were resourceful.
Livelihood was the primary
objective of farming.
Artisans : In every village all types of artisans were there — carpenters, blacksmiths,
potters, gold smiths, craftsmen, cobblers, weavers etc. They fulfilled the needs of
villages in the village itself. The remuneration for their work was paid in the form of
grain or commodities.

Village officers : The village officers Characteristics of Rural Economy
were of three types. (a) Head (Mukhia)- He Before the arrival of the British.
was the chief officer of the village and was Structure of rural working community :
responsible for collecting the rent from the ● Self Sufficiency
farmers and then paying it to the ruler. (b) ● Barter System
Maal gujar- Record keepers of land revenue. ● Simple division of labour
(c) Kotwal- Who informed the ruler about ● Immobility of labour
criminals and provided other important ● Lack of contact with the outer world.
information to the ruler. ● Indifferent attitude towards the state.

Characterstics of the rural economy

before the arrival of the British
Self sufficiency - Villages were self reliant and self sufficient. Self sufficiency
meant that villagers fulfilled their needs through local resources only. It was possible
because of two reasons. First the needs of villagers were limited and second there was
lack of means of transport and communication.
Barter System - Barter system of exchange was prevalent in the ancient rural
economy. The farmers obtained the required goods and services from artisans and money
lenders and gave them food grains in exchange. All the payments for the services of the
pandit, the doctor, the barber, the washerman were made in the form of grains or other

Barter system of exchange was a system in which goods were exchanged

directly with goods or services. Money was not used.
Simple division of Labour - Economic activities were divided. The division of
work was hereditary or based on tradition as farming and animal husbandry, and on caste
or in accordance with traditions e.g. blacksmiths, gold smiths, carpenters, cobblers,
barbers, washermen etc. This division of labour was absolutely simple.
Immobility of labour - It was a significant characteristic of ancient economy. Due
to lack of means of transport, the caste system, the problem of language and food habits,
labourers used to stay in their villages. Generally they did not go out of their villages.
Indifferent attitude towards the State - The villagers were not interested in the
activities of the state.
(ii) Rural Economy of India after the arrival of Britishers
We know that the Britishers made India their colony and ruled over our country for
about 200 years. They exploited India as well as Indians in every way. They adopted such
policies due to which prosperous India had to face poverty and starvation. It affected
agriculture and industry adversely and the nature of Indian economy also underwent a
The following changes were seen in the structure of the economy-
Decline of workmanship and handicraft - As a result of policies of the British
the handicraftsmanship in Indian villages declined.
Characteristics of Rural The artisans of the villages became unemployed.
Economy after arrival of the Prosperity and wellbeing of villages came to an
British end.
● Decline of workmanship and Changes in the structure of rural
handicraft community - The rural community which was
● Change in the structure of the divided into three parts - farmers, artisans and
rural community village officers. This was now divided into several
● End of self sufficiency of villages parts - Zamindars, farmers, landlords, land-less
● Transfer of agricultural land farmers, cultivators, agricultural labourers etc.
● Backwardness of agriculture This division was an important reason of
backwardness of agriculture.
End of self sufficiency of villages - As a result of commercialisation of
agriculture the crops were transported and sold out of the villages and the required
commodities were brought from outside to the villages. Thus, the self sufficiency of
villages came to an end.
Transfer of agriculture land - Farmers started meeting their requirements by
taking loans due to widespread poverty. But due to the inability to repay loans the
moneylenders started confiscating their land. Thus the agricultural land was transferred
to the money lenders from farmers. As a result the farmers became land-less and
Backwardness of Agriculture - The Zamindari system started by the English had
a bad effect on farmers and farming. The farmers became poor and in debt. Neither the
government nor the Zamindars showed interest in the improvement and productivity of
the land which resulted in the exploitation of farmers and farming.
(iii) Modern Rural Economy ( After Independence)
Even after half a century of India's Independence 72.2 percent of the total population
of India resides in villages and only 27.8 percent population resides in urban areas
according to the 2001 census. In the same way the number of villages is 6,38,588 while
the number of cities is only 5,161. It means that out of every 10 persons, 7 reside in
villages. Today also India is a country of villages, and the economy is Agro based. 2/3rd
population of the country directly or indirectly depends upon agriculture for their
livelihood. But the contribution of agriculture to the gross product of the country is only
26 percent. Rapid economic growth has taken place through the five year plans and the rural
economy has also not been left untouched due to this. The economic condition of the

villages is changing. Several changes can be observed in Characteristics of rural
the rural economy. Of those, the chief are as following- economy after Independence
The structure of the community on the basis ● Structure of community on
of ownership of land - We can divide the farmers the basis of ownership of
into four categories on the basis of ownership of land land.
available to them - ● Multi cropping.
● Migration of population
(i) Big farmers - These who own land between
towards urban areas.
2-10 hectares.
● Rise of Monetary System
(ii) Medium farmers - Those who own 2 hectare ● Inadequate facilities of
or a little more than 2 hectare of land. transport and
(iii) Small farmers - who own less than 2 communication.
hectare of land. ● Development of subsidiary

(iv) Landless farmers - who do not own any and cottage industry.
land, are tentant farmers or are agricultural labourers. ● Institutional changes
● Extension of education and
Multiple cropping- Now mainly three crops
health facilities.
are produced during a year. Kharif, Rabi and Jayed.
Kharif crops are crops of the rainy season which are harvested around September-
October. Jayed is crop of summer. Today apart from traditional crops cultivation of cash
crops is also being practised; for example farming of flowers, oilseeds etc.
Migration of population towards cities -
Percentage of Rural & Urban The rural population is migrating towards urban areas
population after independence. due to poverty, starvation, unemployment, lack of
Year Rural Urban basic facilities etc. In 1951 out of the total population,
1951 82.7 17.3 the percentage of rural population was 82.7 percent
which came down to 72.2 percent in 2001 where as
1971 80.1 19.9
the population in 1951 was 17.3 which increased to
1991 74.3 25.7 27.8 in 2001.
2001 72.2 27.8
Rise of Monetary System - The earlier system
of barter, prevalant in villags is now almost extinct. Today currency is used everywhere.
In rural areas also money is used as a medium of exchange for buying and selling.
Inadequate facilities of transport and communication- Today a lot of effort is
being made to link all villages through means of transport and communication but most
of the roads are kachha roads. Therefore in the rainy season many villages are cut off
from the neighbouring villages/areas. The rest of the year trucks, buses, trains, Jeeps,
motorcycles and cycles are being used. At present villages are also linked by means of
television and telephones.

Development of subsidiary and cottage industries - After independence a lot of
attention was paid towards cottage and small scale industries to make them strong and
developed. According to the availability of local raw material in each village, cottage
industries were developed which increased employment opportunities and farmers were
able to increase their income by working in their free time.
Institutional Changes - Comparatively, in a very short span of time the farmers
in the villages have started adopting new technology. Now pumps are being used instead
of 'Rahat' for irrigation. The plough is substituted by furrows and bullock carts by trucks
and tractor trolleys. Big machines are being used by big farmers. The use of threshers
is very common today.
Extension of Education and Health Facilities in India - Modern villages are
generally becoming aware of the heed for education and health. The children of big
farmers are acquiring higher education.
In all villages there are primary, middle and higher secondary schools. Girls have
also started studying with boys in schools. Health facilities are also available in villages.
Through means of communication, the villagers are becoming aware about their health
problems and other problems.
15.3 Government Efforts for the Development of Rural Economy
From the very beginning, the Central Government and the State Government have
endeavoured for the development of villages and village economy through five year
plans and have achieved a lot of success. But, planty work is still to be accomplished.
The government emphasised on public participation for the development programmes
through self help groups and Panchayati Raj institutions. The government efforts can be
explained on the basis of the following points -
1. Land Reforms - Through the abolition of the Zamindari system, land ceiling, land
consolidation and by bringing cultivable wasteland under cultivation uneconomic
land holdings have been made profitable. For restoration of land and to restrict its
transfer in rural areas, the government has distributed the wasteland and land
obtained through a ceiling of land holdings, and ‘Bhoodan’ among the farmers. Crop
insurance policy has also been introduced. Loan facilities have been provided for
the modernisation of agriculture by establishing rural banks and government banks
for the fulfillment of rural finance. The government decides a minimum support
price for the sale of crops at a reasonable price. The facility for storage and
marketing is also provided. Efforts have been made to connect all the villages
through road network. An aim to connect rural areas throughout the year by roads
under the Prime Minister's road scheme of the central government has been made.
2. Housing, cleanliness and health : The government has introduced Indira Awas
Yojna in villages for healthy housing systems in place of unhealthy housing
systems. The Central rural cleanliness programme has contributed a lot towards the
cleanliness of rural areas. It has some other aspects also to bring quality to life and
to provide dignity to women. Attention is also being paid towards cleanliness,
potable drinking water and basic needs in schools. In villages awareness regarding
food, health, and education is being spread through family welfare centres and
Aaganwadi Kendras. Television and Radio are also playing an important role in this
3. Cottage and small scale industries : Cottage and small scale industries play a
significant role in the development of rural areas. The government is continuously
making efforts to develop them in rural areas. Several steps have been taken such
as -
1. The Government has established special institutions to solve the problems
of these industries. All India board of Handloom Industry, Indian Cottage
Industry Khadi Gramodhyog etc. are examples of these types of institutions.
2. Bhartiya Laghu Udhyog has been established for giving financial help.
3. The government departments give preference to these sectors over other
sectors in making purchase of goods produced by small scale industries.
Apart from this, fairs, exhibitions, temporary markets etc. are arranged to
promote their sale in foreign countries as well as in our country.
4. Training centres have been set up for technical assistance.
5. Thus by providing various types of protection to these industries their
competition with large industries has been minimised.
In this manner through these steps of the government all efforts are being made for
the upliftment of villages. The ideals of Mahatma Gandhi - Father of the nation have been
made the basis for strengthening the rural economy and efforts are being made accordingly.
15.4 A Comparitive Study of Ancient and Modern Rural Economy
On Comparative Before the arrival After the arrival After
pasis of the British of the British Independence
1. Self sufficiency Villages were Self sufficiency Self suffi-
completely decreased ciency of
independent. gradually. villages came
to an end.
2. Objective The type of The type of farming Commercializa-
of farming farming was changed from -tion has become
of subsistence subsistence to the chief
commercial objective.
On Comperative Before arrival After arrival of After
basis of the British the British Independence

3. Contribution of Contribution Contribution of Contribution of

agriculture in theof agriculture agriculture agriculture is de-
National Income was maximum was maximum. creasing.
4. Economic There was Prosperity turned Poverty, unem-
condition prosperity, into poverty. -ployment still
well being Excessive exists but is
in the villages expliotation of decreasing
farmers started. steadily.
5. Landless farmers Each farmer The farmers became Zamindari system
owned a house landless. The land was abolished
and had a share was being transferred but there was
in the land. to money lenders no improvement
and Zamindars from in the condition
farmers. of landless
6. Methods of Methods of Ancient methods, At present
cultivation farming were manure and ancient and
old and irrigation irrigation system modern both the
facilities were was traditional. methods are
traditional. in use.
7. Rural finance Loan was provided Apart from local Today local
system. by big farmers, moneylenders money lenders
moneylenders (Sahukars), Zamindars (Sahukars)
(Sahukars and provided loans. Cooperative
Mahajans) The land Credit Societies,
was transferred Rural banking
due to non payment institutions,
of loans. are providing
8. Mobility There was complete Labour became Both geographical
of labour. absence of geo- mobile though and
-graphical and the percentage of professional
professional mobility was mobility
mobility of labour. very low. has increased.

Basis of Before the After the arrival After
arrival of British of British Independence
9. Transport and There was lack The Britishers laid After independ-
communication. of roads and railway lines and ence the network
means of transp- constructed roads of roads and rail-
-ortation. The only for facilitating -ways has been
means of commun- trade. Due to this greatly extended.
-ication was roads and means of The facilities of
through messengers. communication communication
became available. have been extended
For communication through post tele-
post, telegraph -graph, phone,
telephone and fax, and mobile
radio also phones. Comput
became -ers are available
available in the gram -
10. Education Education was Facility of training At present train-
and training limited to the higher was not available. -ing and education
section of society Education was has made huge
only and was not limited to high and progress. Opport-
very common. middle sections of -unity of educat-
among the rural the society. There -ion is available
people. There was no education to all groups of
was no facility among lower the society.
for training for income groups and
formers and lower castes.

Thus at present villages and villagers both have developed sufficiently. The most
important fact is that there is greater awareness among the villagers. As soon as they get
the resources, they become active for the welfare of themselves and their families. They
have knowledge and understanding of education, training, health, cleanliness and politics.
Awareness leads to increase in involvement and co-operation of people which ensures
the success of plans.
15.5 Concept of an Ideal Village
The important heritage of a country is its land and the people residing in it. The
spirit of India is in its villages. This is a country of villages. As a building is constructed
brick by brick, similarly villages together constitute the huge republic of India. Today
also 72% of population resides in rural areas. We know it quite well that inspite of the
efforts made for their improvement the state of villages is still not good. Today also
villages are scarcity stricken. As the word village comes to our mind a picture of huts
made of hay or 'kuchcha' houses, dry fields, dust, dirty sewers, naked children running
and playing animals tied inside the houses, smell of cow dung, flies, illiteracy and
malnutrition comes to our mind though the picture is now steadily changing.
Village reform is essential to make the country
Characteristics of an
a leading country. If this is accomplished then India
ideal village.
will be a prosperous, rich and happy nation. We will
● Advanced agriculture system
have to make our villages ideal villages. In an ideal
● Housing facilities
village agriculture should be developed and there
● Drinking water arrangements
should be proper arrangements for education, health
in place
and housing. In the village there should be awareness
● Health facilities
towards cleanliness, and complete use of available
● Education facilities
resources. Thus an ideal village should have the
● Facility of transport
following characteristics:
● Facility of communication
● Awareness towards energy
1. Advanced agricultural system - For
and environment the development of agriculture the small non-
● Industrial development
economic farms should be merged into one big farm.
● Administrative system
Consolidation of land should be adopted. Group
● Financial facilities
farming, use of bio and chemical fertilizers to increase
the quality of crop, use of high yielding variety seeds
and modern facilities of irrigation should be in practice. There should be proper
arrangements for storage of crops and sale of crops through cooperatives and government
2. Housing facilities - In villages there should be proper facilities of
housing. The houses should be clean whether they are 'kuchcha' or 'pucca and' along with
this there should be toilets and bathrooms in the houses. There should be separate space
for animals and a proper system of preparing biogas by collecting cow dung.
3. Drinking water facilities - The wells, tanks and 'pucca' wells with steps
should be renovated for clean and safe drinking water. Arrangements should be such that
no villager can dump waste into it. Attention should be paid for raising underground water
level in villages. There should be arrangements for proper drinking water for villagers.
4. Health facilities - In every village, there should be primary health centers,
as well as doctors and medicines so that the problems of villagers can be solved at the
village level itself. The villagers can avail the benefits of the government plans of health.

5. Education facilities - Efforts should be made to educate each and every
child of the village. There should be awareness among villagers of the need for the
education of girls. There should be provision of adult education in villages along with
traditional education. Nutritive and clean midday meal should be provided.
6. Facilities of transportation - For proper facility of transport there
should be roads in villages so that it can be connected with nearby villages, small towns
and district headquarters. Roads should be such that they can be used in all seasons by
all people.
7. Communication facilities - There should be proper provision for
communication facilities; telephones, post offices and internet facilities.
8. Awareness towards energy and environment - There should be a
provision of electricity for power in villages. If possible, alternative energy should be
used. There should be awareness among villagers towards their environment. Such a
system should be developed by which the villagers use the refuse in a proper way and if
possible recycle it. Villagers should be active towards the use of trees and plantation so
that greenery spreads in villages.
9. Industrial Development - The agro-based industries should be developed
in the village for example - dairy industry, poultry industry etc. Cottage industry should
be developed in villages through which villagers can get employment in their own
villages and their income can also be increased.
10. Administrative System - We have a system of Panchayts in our villages.
The members of the Gram Panchayat and Sarpanch should be aware of the need and be
active for the development of villages so that the facilities of cleanliness, drinking water,
health and security can be made available to villages. Administrative transparency should
be increased. The employees of each office in which the village secretariat, the
Panchayat Bhawan, Aaganwadis, Cooperative societies and school buildings are included.
They should be motivated to keep their offices clean. The name of the buildings should
be written permanently.
11. Facility of Finance - The villagers mainly depend on local money lenders
for finance. They often exploit them. In an ideal village, facilities of rural banks and co-
operative banks should be provided, so that villagers may have facilities of finance. The
saving habits in villagers can be increased by making them aware towards self-help
15.6 The Economic Study of a selected Village of Madhya Pradesh
We all want India to be an advanced, rich, prosperous and happy country. This dream
can come true only when we are able to understand the strengths and shortcomings of
the conditions of our villages and the life of people in them and bring about an

We can try to solve the inconveniences and problem of villagers with the co-
operation of villagers themselves, by studying a village and the resources and facilities
available there.
By the term economic study we mean a study of the available resources, population,
mean of livelihood, economic conditions means of transport and communication,
forestry, park, market, finance and social and common conditions of a specific area. For
the economic study of a village, first of all we have to decide the objective of the study
and thereafter decide the area of study and
prepare a study plan. For any study VILLAGE DIMNI
knowledge of statistical data is required. Area - 383 Hectare
For this tables and questionnaire are Population - 2,346
prepared. Population Density - 612 person
As an example of the study of a village Annual Rainfall - 70 cm.
of Madhya Pradesh, the economic study of Soil - Loamy,
village Dimini of district Morena was taken. alluvial rocky
Geographical situation of village : Major - 41% engaged
village Dimini is situated on Morena Occupation in Agriculture
Mahagaon state highway, 17 km. away from
Morena city in the north. From the
administrative point of view, on the extreme
north Madhya Pradesh is a revenue village of tehsil Ambah of Morena District. The total
area of this revenue village is 383 hectares.

Climate : the influence of continental and subtropical climate is clearly seen on
the climate of village Dimini. Very hot in summers and very cold in winters is a

Village - Dimni, Distt. - Morena (M.P.)

characteristic of this climate.

Rains are uncertain and irregular.
The average annual rainfall is
70 centimeters.
Soil and Vegetation : In
fact the economy of village
Dimini is agro based. Fertile
soil is therefore the basic need
of its people. Loamy, alluvial
and rocky soil is found here.
The village is affected by the River Apardan (Qwari River)
erosion caused by the river. The
western part of the village is rugged. The productivity of land is affected by soil erosion
and spread of its rugged area. The excessive flow of rain water is seen here in the
currents of the nearby river and as scanty moisture in soil. Therefore artificial irrigation
is necessary for agriculture. The river Qwari on the one hand is beneficial for the village

but on the other hand some times it becomes the cause of floods and of soil erosion.
There are semi dry (monsoon) deciduous type forests. Neem is a useful tree here. The
thorny Babul vegetation is seen all around the village which is spread in the residential
area also. Thorny trees like 'Cheekur' thorny shrubs like 'Kareel' grass type vegetation
like 'Sarpatta' and Dwau is found here if which rope is made. These are used in the
construction of huts. Banyan trees, Sheesham, Pakri and Peepal are also found here. Oak
trees are found in large numbers.
Population: In 1971-72, population of village Dimni was 1088 and density of
population of this village was 284 person per square kilometer. According to the census
of the year 2001 its population increased to 2,346 and its density of population to 612
persons per square kilometer, but according to the data obtained from a survey major part
of the population is below 18 years of age. i.e. 46% of the total population. The
contribution of the working population i.e. 18-60 years of age group is about 50% of the
total population. The percentage of the people above 60 years of age is only 35. In the
year 2006 the total population of the village was 2115. There is a possibility of
migration of some people from the village.

Structure of Populaiton - Village Dimni (2006)

S.No. Age group Male Female Total Percentage of
age group in
total population
1. Children and adolescent 537 435 972 46.0
(Below 18 years)
2. Young (18 to 35 Years) 385 349 734 34.7
3. Adult(35 to 60 years) 184 151 335 15.8
4. Old (Above 60 years) 51 23 74 3.5

Total 1157 958 2115 100

According to the available data the majority of the population is below 18 years of
age i.e. 46% Working population (18-60 Years) contributes 50% of the total population.
Nature of housing : On the basis of the nature of housing the houses can be
divided into four types. Mud houses, cemented houses, mixed houses and hut type

Nature of Housing
S.No. Nature of Housing Total No. of Percentage of house
houses out of total houses
1. Cemented houses 120 56.6
2. Mud houses (Kuchha house) 25 11.8
3. Mud and cemented, mixed house 31 14.6
4. Hut type houses 36 17.0
Total 212 100.0
In the village Dimni out of the total houses 11.8% are mud houses, which are made
of local mud and wood, 14.60% are of mixed type (made of mud and cement) The outer
parts of these houses are cemented and the internal parts are made of mud. 17% houses
of this village are hut type houses of which all the four walls are made up of mud. The
huts are situated, on the south western and eastern parts of the village. According to
ownership, in the village Dimni 98.6% houses are private and 1.4% (03) are government
houses which are rented.
Economic structure of the village : Originally the economic structure of village
Dimni was also agro-based. The Maximum no. of people of the village practise farming
or apart from doing household work directly help in farming. The work of farming is
mostly done by the males. Most of the female population is absorbed in household work.

Working population of village Dimni

S.No. Occupation Working Population Percentage of total
Male Female Total
1. Farming 310 28 338 41.00
2. Household work 02 318 320 38
3. Service 75 07 82 10
4. Labourer 49 06 55 7.00
5. Business and trade 35 00 35 4.00
Total 471 359 830 100.0

The majority of the population of Dimni i.e. 40% is involved in agriculture out of
which 92% are male and 8% are females, whereas the minimum working population is
attached to business and trade, 99% ladies are absorbed in household work.

Service class population is only 10% of the total population. Here the main

business and trade is related to different
shops of daily requirement goods,
agricultural equipment, agricultural
products and animals.
These commercial centres are
developed along the road side. The
condition of shops inside the villages is
very poor. The other workers are labourers,
artisans and members of music bands.
There is not a single child labourer in the
working population of Dimni, only at home Girls engrossed in the work of making
garlands in a village
girls help in garland making.
Family Income village Dimni
S.No. Total No. of Level Percentage
annual income families of families
per family
1. Below 5000 70 lowest 33.0
2. 5000 to 10000 39 low 18.4
3. 10000 to 20000 38 Lower medium 17.9
4. 20000 to 50000 37 Medium 17.5
5. More than 50000 28 High 13.2
Total 212 100%

The annual income of the maximum member of families i.e. one third of the total
number of families is below 5000/-
Standard of living : To measure the standard of living of the villagers the
following four criteria were fixed (1) Structure of house (2) Household articles (3) self
owned vehicles of daily use and means of communication (4) Supply of water and
electricity. To measure the standard of living on the basis of these criteria first the use
of each house hold article is evaluated according to its utility, quality and price and then
the levels are fixed. The same information is shown in the following table.

Standard of living of families in village Dimni 2006
S. Category Level Total No. of
No. families (%)
1. Double storied cemented house High 23 11.8%
(Pucca house)
* Colour television, refrigerator, washing
machine, gas burner and other articles.
* Jeep, car, telephone, mobile phone.
* Proper arrangement of water and
electricity supply
2. Cemented house (Pucca house) Medium 84 40.0%
* Moped, scooter, motorcycle, tractor,
telephone and mobile phone
* Ordinary arrangement of electric
light and water supply
3. Mixed mud (Kachha) house and Low 105 49.0%
hut type house
* Fan, stove and ordinary chulha
* Cycle, bullock cart
* Minimum necessary arrangement of
electricity and water supply
Total Average 212 100%
About half of the total number of families i.e. 49% have a low standard of living
whereas 10.8% families have been viewed as those which are high standard families.
Regarding the standard of living 40% families are of medium level and 41.9% are
below the poverty line.
As a result of the economic study the following problems of this village came to
1. The irrigated area in this village is limited. Irrigation is possible only through
tanks and wells. Therefore the productivity of land is low.
2. The rural area is affected by land erosion and erosion caused by the river. The
maximum problems are found in the south western residential area.
3. There is no proper use of water resources, whatever water resources are available
here, they have not been completely utilised. Due to the shortage of electricity
full utilisation of electric pumps is not possible.

4. Though the income is low, people spend too much money on family and social
ceremonies/functions, for example twenty thousand to ten lakhs of rupees are spent
on marriages. In the same way, Rs. ten thousand to forty thousand are spent on
rituals performed on deaths; Rs. 500 to Rs. 2000 is spent on festivals etc.
5. In a planned residential unit too no proper arrangements have been made for
dumping garbage. Therefore garbage spreads all over the roads and cannot be used
for making compost manure for agriculture.
6. There are no job opportunities in the village. The different kinds of work available
work and the crops of the village do not provide enough income for the whole year.
Villagers migrate from the village for earning money and are exploited. They have
to work on low wages.
Suggestions to solve the economic problems of village Dimni:
● Special efforts should be made to control the spread of Qwari's rugged area. Dams
should be built on the banks of the river. Rain water should be stopped at different
places and for its drainage cemented pipe lines should be constructed.
● Training programmes for villagers should be arranged, so that they can get
knowledge of preparing bio-manure and realise its importance. Effort should be
made for the development of the oil industry.
● For the economic development of farmers, godowns should be constructed for the
storage of agricultural products. Efforts should be made for the development of the
oil industry.
● Opportunities for self-employment should be increased. Attention must be paid
towards the development of the dairy industry.
● Efforts can be made to establish self-help groups to ecourage the people of save
money. Discussions can be arranged in the meetings of Gram Panchayat Shikshak
Palak Sangh etc. to raese awareness about unnecessary expenditures.
Apart from the above suggestions the villagers should solve their problems
themselves through the persons associated with gram Panchayat and education by using
the available resources in a better way. The role of teachers is very important in making
the villagers aware and active.

Zamindari system : Lord Cornwallis introduced this system in 1793 in Bengal, in
which a Zamindar was appointed to collect land revenue. They
became mediators between the government and farmers for the
collection of land revenue.
Consolidation of land (chakbandi): This is a procedure in which farmers are prepared
to be exchange this piece of land of the same size and same
quality for another. This consolidation of land is voluntary as
well as compulsory.
Land reform : It is related to each and every institutional change of our
organisation or land system. Land reform includes in it any
reform related to the ownership of land or land holding.
Division of labour : Division of work among the labourer according to their specific
Barter system : Direct exchange of one commodity for another. This system
was prevalent before the use of money as a medium of exchange.
I. Choose the correct alternative and write.
1. Who owns resources in a capitalistic economy?
(i) government (ii) Individual
(iii) Both (iv) None of the above
2. Which Mughal ruler gave priority to the construction of canals to increase
irrigation facilities?
(i) Mohammad Tughlaq (ii) Akbar
(iii) Shahjahan (iv) Humayun
3. Before the arrival of the Britishers rural economy was based on-
(i) Currency system (ii) Self sufficiency
(iii) Imports (iv) None of the above
4. The percentage of rural population India in the year 2001 was-
(i) 21.4 (ii) 32.0
(iii) 65.1 (iv) 72.2
5. When was land reform introduced in India?
(i) After independence (ii) before the arrival of the Britishers
(iii) in the Vedic period (iv) none of the above
II. Fill in the blanks :
1. An ................. is a system by which people earn their living.
2. Now mainly .............. crops are produced during a year.
3. The primary objective of farming was ................ before the arrival of the Britishers.
4. The Zamindari system started by the ........................ .

III. State true or false :
1. The government decides a minimum support price for the sale of crops at
reasonable price.
2. Villages got completely independent after the arrival of the British.
3. For the development of agriculture the small non-economic farms should be
merged into one big farm.
4. Contribution of agriculture in the National income is increasing after Independence.
Very short answer type question
1. Explain the term "economy".
2. How were the village economies in India organized before the arrival of the
3. What is meant by self sufficiency of villages?
4. What were the main categories of the working population of ancient villages?
Short answer type question
1. State the structure of the Indian rural working community before the arrival of the
2. Why did the transfer of land-holding start after the arrival of the Britishers?
3. Why did the barter system of exchange prevail in India?
4. What changes occured in the structure of rural economy after independence?
5. Why did the population migrate from villages to cities?
Long answer type question
1 Write about the characteristics of ancient rural economy of India.
2. What efforts did the government take for the development of rural economy after
3. How do cottage and small industries help in the development of rural economy of
India? Explain.
4. Give a comparative study of rural and modern economy.
5. What are the characteristics of an ‘ideal village’? Explain.
6. Discuss the efforts which are needed to make a village self-sufficient and developed.

❖❖ ❖❖ ❖❖

Poverty : An Economic Challenge for India

We Will Study  India is a country with a developing economy.

After Independence, especially during the planning
16.1 Meaning of poverty period the different aspects of Indian economy
16.2 Measurement of poverty improved qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Today
in India as a result, Indian economy is placed among the most
16.3 Statewise population powerful economies of the world. Although we have
below poverty line reached high dimensions of economic development
16.4 Causes of poverty through the growth of economy, simultaneously many
challenges have also arisen, such as - poverty, rapidly
16.5 Major programmes for
increasing population, wide spread unemployment,
solving poverty in India
rapidly increasing prices i.e. problems of price rise,
regional imbalance and increasing economic disparities, lack of basic facilities and food
shortage etc. The most severe among all these economic challenges is the problem of
poverty, which we will discuss in this chapter.
16.1 Meaning of Poverty
Scarcity of wealth is the reason of poverty. The poor economic condition of some
people does not lead to poverty but when a majority of the people of a society are unable
to fulfill the minimum requirements of life then this situation is known as poverty. If
essential facilities of housing, clothing and food are not available to the majority of
people of a society then it is called a situation of poverty.
It is very easy to identify poverty but it is difficult to define it. When we see
shattered dwellings and families living in slums all around us, beggars begging at railway
stations and cross roads, labourers working in agricultural farms, then we can call such
deprived people as poverty stricken. The people living below the poverty line are defined
as poor.
By below the poverty line family is meant that the minimum economic standard
which is necessary for their livelihood is not available to that family.
16.2. Measurement of Poverty in India:
Two criteria are generally used to measure poverty. First absolute poverty and
second relative poverty.

Absolute poverty - Absolute poverty is the inability to afford the basic amenities
(food, clothing and health). All those people living below poverty line are included under it.
Relative Poverty - means disparity of income. It implies international economic
inequalities and regional economic disparities. The National Sample Survey Organization
measures the population living below poverty line in India from time to time (generally
every five years).
16.3 State wise Population below Poverty Line
During the past years there has been a continuous decline in the population of poor
people lineing below the poverty line in India. In. 1973-74 it was 54.9 percent in 1983
it was 44.7 percent and in 1993-94 it was 36 percent and in 1999-2000 it was 26.10
percent and in 2006-07 it is 19.3 percent.
Poverty Line
According to a team of experts set up by the Planning Commission "Task
force on minimum need and effective Consumption Demand", those people
are considered below poverty line who are unable to obtain nutrition of 2400
calories per day in rural areas and 2100 calories per day in urban area. The
concept of the poverty line was first given by the Indian economist, Shri
According to the Central Rural Development Ministry -The poverty line relates to
such families whose annual income in
different states is between Rs. 13,900 to Population below poverty line in India
Rs. 16,900 per annum. This income is (in percent)
fixed for an average family of five Area 1993-94 1999-00 2006-07
members. Each state can decide a Rural 37.3 27.1 21.1
different limit of poverty line. Urban 32.4 23.6 15.1
Looking at the table indicating the Total 36.0 26.1 19.3
number of poor, we can say that the Source - Indian Economy 2006, Finance Department.
percentage of poverty has been Approved by Government of India.
continuously declining. The extent of
poverty in various states of India is not uniform. According to the report issued by the
Planning Commission in September 2005 Dang (Gujrat) is the poorest district in India,
Banswada district of Rajasthan and third is Jhabua district of Madhya Pradesh.
The estimated situation of poverty in the year 2006-07 in different states is shown
in the table. According to the table the numbers of people living below the poverty
line in India is maximum in Bihar, Orissa and Sikkim.

Statewise population below the poverty line in India
State / 2006 State / 2006
Union Territories Estimated Union Territories
Orissa 41.04 Andhra Pradesh 8.49
Bihar 43.18 Lakshadweep 4.59
Madhya Pradesh 29.52 Rajasthan 12.11
Sikkim 33.78 Gujarat 2.00
Assam 31.33 Kerala 3.61
Tripura 31.88 Haryana 2.00
Meghalaya 31.14 Delhi-National Capital area 2.00
Arunachal Pradesh 29.33 Himachal Pradesh 2.00
Nagaland 31.86 Punjab 2.00
Uttar Pradesh 24.67 Chandigarh 2.00
Manipur 30.52 Daman Diu 2.00
West Bengal 18.30 Goa 2.00
Maharashtra 16.18 Jammu & Kashmir N.A.
Pondicherry 32.00 Tamil Nadu 6.61
Andman & Nikobar
Islands 5.82 `Karnataka 7.85
Mizoram 20.76 Dadar Nagar Haveli 2.00
Source- Indian economy 2006 (awarded by Finance Ministry, Government of India).

India is a rich nation, but Indians are poor.

Often it is said about India that - India is a rich nation but its residents are poor.
It is an ironical statement. India is a wealthy nation but the second part of the statement
infers that Indians are poor. Let us understand the irony of this situation.
India is a rich nation
From ancient times India has been considered a geographically and culturally rich
nation. Here natural resources are in abundance for development. India's geographical
area is very vast, natural resources are good, climate is favourable, forest wealth is in
adequate quantity, essential resources of energy are also available in adequate quantity
and human power is also enough.
The main reasons for calling India a rich country are as below -
1. Geographical Position - The geographical location of India is suitable

from the point of view of development. In the north the Himalayas act as alert watchmen.
The peninsular location of the country and the presence of the Indian Ocean links India
with different international trade routes. India's location for airways is also very suitable.
Thus the geographical location of India is very appropriate for economic development
and foreign trade.
2. Monsoon Climate : The climatic conditions of India are monsoon based,
as a result of it different types of agricultural products are grown in the country.
Different industries of our country get enough raw material from it. Owing to different
types of climatic conditions we can grow different types of food and cash crops.
3. Abundant Water Power : We get water throughout the year from the
perennial rivers originating from the Himalayas. These rivers play an important role in
an agricultural country like India. Today we use this water power for irrigation and to
produce thousands of Kilowatt of electricity but we have not been able to make use of
this resource to the fullest.
4. Forest Wealth : Out of a total area of India, the percentage of forest area
is 19.39. We obtain fuel, oil, gums, timber wood, 'Kattha', lac, leather, dyeing material
etc. If the forest wealth of India is used efficiently then it may prove to be very useful
in the development of the country.
5. Availability of means of energy and minerals in abundance : India is a rich
country in minerals and means of power. Out of the total stock of iron in the world one
fourth stock is available in India. India also leads in the production of manganese and
mica. We have plenty of stock of coal, bauxite, gypsum, thorium and uranium materials
which are used for production of atomic power.
6. Human Resources - The 110 crore population of India is able to face
many types of challenges. If this resource is used in a planned way then the development
of the country can be enhanced.
Inspite of India being rich in the above resources Indians are poor.
16.4 Causes of Poverty in India
The main causes responsible for poverty in India are the following -
1. Defective Development Strategy - In India a contradiction of poverty with growth
is seen because the benefits of development are limited to only some people. As a result
of it the poor are becoming poorer and the rich richer. Opportunities for further progress
are available to the educated and people who have facilities while the poor are unable to
obtain higher and technical education, due to lack of money. The Government has made
job opportunities available but its progress is very slow.
2. Unemployment - Unemployment in India is widespread. According to an

estimate there are about 5 crore unemployed people in India. The number of unemployed
persons is increasing continuously, which is an important factor for poverty. In rural
areas disguised unmployment also exists along with unemployment and seasonal
unemployment. The increasing number of unemployed people decreases the productivity
of individuals and the standard of income.
3. Low per capita income : In India poverty is expanding because of low per
capita income. As compared to the developed countries of the world The per capita
income in India is very low.According to the report of the World Bank of the year 2004
the per capita income in India is only 480 Dollars (about Rs. 24,000/- p.a.). Low per
capita income is the chief reason of poverty in India.
The vicious cycle of poverty
Vicious Cycle of Poverty
Low per
Low per capita income results in Capita Income
less saving and less demand for
Low Income Less employment
consumer articles. As a result of
this capital formation and Less Saving
demand also decreases. Then in a Less Demand Less Production
form of chain reaction production
employment and income all Low
decrease one by one as a result of Capital
each other. formation

4. Rapid growth of population : The population in India is increasing

rapidly. As regards population India ranks second in the world. Every year about 1.81
crore people are added to the existing population in India. According to the census of
2001 the annual growth of population in India during the decade 1991-2001 was 1.93.
This leads to low per capita income and consumption and low standard of living. It
promote poverty.
5. Use of natural resources : Minerals, forest wealth and human resources
etc. in India are in abundance. But till now they have not been used in a proper way. The
under utilisation of natural resources is also a reason of poverty.
6. Inflation and Price rise : A huge amount of wealth is spent on the
accomplishment of the development tasks. It generates inflationary pressure on the
economy and the prices start increasing. As a result the problem of poverty becomes
more severe.
7. Low standard of technical knowledge : There is a scarcity of the
facilities for technical education and research etc. in India. About 36 percent of the

population of India is illiterate. The productivity declines as there is lack of technical
education and facilities of training.
8. Low Productivity : In India productivity is low, therefore, proper returns
from the resources are not obtained and the people remain poor. Low productivity in the
agriculture sector is the chief reason for rural poverty.
9. Uncertainity in Agriculture : Indian economy is based on agriculture,
which depends on the monsoons. The Monsoon is always uncertain due to which there
are fluctuations in the agricultural production. Natural calamities affect agricultural
production adversely, which results in poverty.
10. Lack of means of transport and communication : In India the rapid
growth of agriculture, industries, and the tertiary sector is not possible as means of
transport and communications are not fully developed.
11. Social reason : People of India spend a big amount of their income on
various programmes because of socio-cultural customs. On the one hand it decreases
savings and on the other hand it increases indebtness. Apart from this, ignorance,
fatalism, a conservative attitude are also the causes of poverty in India.
Here the question under consideration is that though India is endowed with enough
natural wealth even then it is a poor country, and Indians are leading lives in poverty and
unemployment. There are means of prosperity in India but due to inadequate use of these
means of prosperity, Indians are living in poverty.
16.6 Main programmes for eradication of poverty in India:
The Indian planners were concerned from the very beginning about the eradication
of poverty. In this direction the government is endeavoring to promote economic growth.
It has adopted many poverty- alleviation programmes and has launched many schemes to
fulfill the needs of people of the rural areas. The following are the main programmes for
the eradication of poverty.
1. Swarnjayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojna (SGSY) : It was started on 1st
April, 1999. The programme aims at bringing the poor families above poverty line within
a period of three years by organizing them into self help groups through a mix of bank
credit and government subsidy. This programme also aims at generating additional
income for the rural poor. This is being conducted through the District village Development
Agency ( Jila Gramya Vikas Abhikaran).
2. Swarnjayanti Shahri Rojgar Yojna : This scheme was launched on 11th
December, 1997 for the eradication of poverty in urban areas. The scheme aims at
providing financial aid to the poor in the urban areas for self employment and for
creation of useful assets in the village.

3. Prime Minister Rojgar Yojna : The scheme started on 2nd October,
1993. It aims to create self employment opportunities for the educated unemployed
youth between the age 18 to 35 years in rural areas and small towns.
4. Grameen Rojgar Srajan Karyakram : This scheme was launched in April
1995 with the aim to establishing projects and creating self employment opportunities
in rural areas and small towns.
5. Annapoorna Yojna : This scheme was started on 1st April, 2000. This
scheme aims to provide food security to people of 65 years of age and above who were
eligible to obtain pension under the National Old Age Pension Scheme but are not
getting it. Under this scheme per month per head 10 kilograms of food grains are
provided free of cost. In the year 2002-03 the National Social Help Program was merged
with it.
6. Janshri Yojna : This scheme was launched in August 2000, to provide
social security to the poor section of society. Under this scheme Rs. 20,000 in case of
natural death, Rs.50,000 in case of death or permanent disability in an accident and Rs
25,000 in case of partial disability is provided to the concerned person.
7. Sampoorna Grameen Rojgar Yojna : This scheme was launched in the
rural areas with the aim of increasing job opportunities along with food security. The
labourers working under this scheme are paid a minimum quantity of food i.e. 5 kilogram
of cereals and a minimum 20 percent wages in cash. The aim of this scheme is to provide
security to the weaker sections of society.
8. Gram Samradhi Yojna : A declaration to launch this scheme was made in
March 1999. The present existing Jawahar Rojgar Yojna will be changed in a way that all
the funds can be spent by the Gram Panchayats, so that they can use it in rural
development progammes. Thus they will have power to prepare and implement annual
plans related to this work.
9. Antyodaya Anna Yojna : was launched on 25th December, 2001. The main
objective of this scheme is to provide food grains to the people living below the poverty
line, who are included under the targeted public distribution system. In this scheme 35
Kilograms of cereal per month is distributed to 1.50 crore poor families on special
concessional prices. The Central Issue Prices of wheat and rice under this scheme are
Rs.2 and Rs.3 per kilogram respectively.
10. Employment Guarantee Act (2005): Its main aim is to provide 100 days
employment every year to at least one adult of each rural or urban poor and low income
family. Under this programme it is necessary to provide employment to an applicant
within 15 days. If employment is not provided within the due time then an unemployment

allowance will be given to the concerned person. The allowance would be at least one
third of the minimum wages. This scheme was implemented on 2nd February, 2006 in
200 most backward districts of the country.

Disguised unemployment : The unemployment seen in the field of agriculture
indicates to the zero marginal productivity of the
labour. It means if these labourers are transferred
elsewhere from agriculture yet it does not affect the
productivity of agriculture adversely directly or
Under employment : When a person does not get a job according to his
efficiency and works below the level of his ability and
efficiency then it is categorized as under employment.
Per capita Income : An average income obtained by a person in a financial
Cyclic unemployment : The unemployment that is generated during the
depression period of trade cycle, is called cyclic
Inflation : It is a stage when the value of currency diminishes and
prices of goods and services increase in the market.
Price rise : The difference between the price of the production of a
firm and the cost of goods purchased by another firm.
Natural resources : The free gifts of nature to human beings which help in
the economic development.
I. Choose the correct alternative and write -
1. The basis of the comparison of income level is -
(i) absolute poverty (ii) Relative poverty (iii) complete poverty (iv) None of these
2. The state having maximum population of poor, in India -
(i) Meghalaya (ii) Assam (iii) Bihar (iv) Madhya Pradesh
3. For how many days is employment provided under the Employment Guarantee Act

(i) 25 days (ii) 50 days (iii)75 days (iv) 100 days
II. Fill in the blanks :
1. An average income obtained by a person in a financial year is called .................. .
2. ...................... porerty means disparity of income.
3. The concept of ................... was first given by the Indian economist Shri Dandekar.
4. The poorest district of Madhya Pradesh is .................. .
5. To measure the poverty in India generally two criteria are used first is absolute
poverty and second .................. .
III. True or false :
1. Rapid growth of population increases the poverty.
2. Punjab is the poorest state of India.
3. Employment Guarantee Act provides 5 kilograms of cereals and a minimum 20
percent wages in cash.
4. People are considered as below poverty live in India who are unable to obtain
nutrition of 2100 calories per day in urban areas.
5. According to the report of planning commission in 2005 Jhabua district of Madhya
Pradesh is the poorest district in India.
Very short answer type questions
1. What are the main economic challenges before India?
2. What is the poverty line?
3. Mention the names of three states of India having the largest population of poor.
4. Write about the social causes responsible for poverty.
Short answer type questions
1. How does growth of population increase poverty? Explain.
2. What changes have occurred in the condition of poverty during the last years in
India? Mention.
3. Explain the statewise condition of poverty in India.
4. Write about the main characteristics of the Employment Guarantee Act 2005.
5. What is the basis to measure poverty?
Long answer type question
1. What are the reasons responsible for poverty in India?
2. Describe in brief the main programmes for the eradication of poverty in India.
3. ‘India is a rich nation but its citizens are poor’. Explain this statement.
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State of Industries in India
17.1 Meaning of industry
We Will Study  Industries play a very important role in the
economic development of a country. Industries
17.1 Meaning of industry are helpful in the rapid economic growth of the
17.2 Classification of Industry country. No country can prosper without the
17.3 Status of industries in India development of industries.
When many firms produce a homogeneous
17.4 Importance of small scale
commodity or service then they all together are
industries in India.
called an 'industry' for example - Iron and Steel
17.5 Government efforts for Industry of India includes -Rourkela, Durgapur,
development of small scale Bokaro, Tata Iron and steel Co. etc.
industry. All the entrepreneurs are included in an industry
in which goods or services are purchased through a
systematic procedure by cooperation of employers
and employees to satisfy human needs and aspirations.
17.2 Classification of Industries
Thus we can classify industries on the basis of their ownership, utility, size, nature
Classification of Indust

Based Based Based Base

on ownership on utility on size nature

Basic Consumers Heavy

Industry Goods Industries

Large Medium Small

Scale Industry Scale Industry Scale Indu

Private Public Co-operative Mixed Ag

Sector Sector Sector Sector I
of goods produced and raw material used.
In this chapter we will study the state of industries on the basis of their size. We
can divide industries into three parts on the basis of the amount of capital invested- large
scale industries, small scale industries and cottage industries.
Large Scale Industry : These industrial units are those industries in which the
capital invested on plant and machinery is more than Rs.10 crores. They are categorised
as large scale industries. for example Tata Iron and Steel Company.
Medium Scale Industries : The industrial units in which capital invested on plant
and machinery is upto 5 to 10 crores, they are categorised as Medium Scale industries.
For industrial units of tertiary sector their limit is upto Rs. 5 crores for example -
leather industry and silk industry.
Small Scale Industry : Those industrial units are included in the small scale
industries where capital investment in plant and machinery is upto a limit of Rs. 5 crores.
Regarding industrial units of tertiary sector the given limit is Rs. 2 crores. For example
- Lac industry and glass industry.
Those industrial units are categorised as very small industries where the capital
investment on plant and machinery is upto 25 lacs, and for the service sector in industrial
units or tertiary sector, the limit is Rs. 10 lacs.
Cottage Industry : Those industrial units which are run completely with the help
of members of the family in the form of full time or part time business are cottage
In these units capital investment is nominal and the production work is done by
hands for example - making baskets of bamboo, ivory work.
Village Industry : Cottage industries are run in villages as well as towns, but those
cottage industries which are run only in villages are known as village industry for
example - Handloom, Khadi and Silk Industries.
17.3 Status of Industries in India
Cotton Textile Industry: This is the oldest and main industry of India. The first
cotton mill in India was set up in 1818 in Kolkata. This is the largest and most extensive
industry of India. Its contribution to the total industrial production of the country is 14
percent, whereas its share in the gross export is 19 percent. Its share in imports is 3
percent. The cotton textile industry is mainly localised in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu,
The Capital Investment in this industry is about 5,000 crores rupees. This industry
is providing employment directly or indirectly to 9 crore people. The Government has
freed cotton industry from license through the cloth order (development and exchange)

of 1993.
Iron and Steel Industry : India
has been famous for its iron and
steel industry from ancient times.
The first attempt to produce iron
and steel by modern methods was
made in the year 1830 but failed.
After this efforts were made in this
direction continuously. First of all
Jamshedji Tata established the iron
and steel company in Jamshedpur.
There are a total of 10 plants
in India. Out of these nine are in the
Public Sector and only one (Tata
Iron and Steel Company) Jamshedpur
(West Bengal), is under the private sector. The steel plants of the public sector are
Bhilai, Durgapur, Rourkela, Bokaro, Vishakapatnam and Salem.
At present there are 196 small scale plants in the country. Out of these 170 units
are running and the remaining are closed. The capital investment in this industry is
90,000 crore rupees. It has provided employment to 5 lakh people. It was freed from
licensing in the year1991.
Jute Industry : India stands first in the production of jute in the world. Out of a
total production of the world 50 percent is produced in India. India stands second in the
export of the jute products in the world. Gunny bags, rugs, ropes, decorative products and
several other items are made of jute. The jute industry in India started in 1855.
In India 85 percent jute mills are in Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Assam and
Orrisa. Out of the total production 62% is used to manufacture gunny bags. 20 percent
as sack cloth and the rest 18 percent for other things.
At present there are 73 Jute mills running in India. The capital investment in this
industry is about Rs. 300 Crores. 2.61 lakh people are employed in this industry.
Sugar Industry : Sugar industry is a major industry of India. It is an ancient
industry. It was developed in an organised manner in 1921 when the government granted
protection to it. Therefore it is called a Protection Baby.
Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra play an important role in the production of sugar
in the country.
In 1950-51 the number of sugar mills were 138 which has now increased to 566.
In the year 1998 it was declared free from license restriction.
Cement Industry : The cement industry in India was started between 1912-1914
at Porbandar in Gujarat and Katni and Lakheri in Madhya Pradesh.
At present there are 128 big plants which have 18,209 crore tonnes production
capacity. Apart from these, there are 332 small scale cement factories having a
production capacity of 111 lakh tonnes. The capital investment in this industry is 800
crore rupees and it provides employment to about 3 lakh people.
At present India is the fifth largest cement producer of the world after China,
Russia, Japan and America. In 1991 it became free from licensing restriction. The
industry has progressed in the field of production capacity, output and processing
Information and Technology : The information technology industry is an industry
based on technology with the help of computers and its applications, computers,
communication, technology and concerned software. The knowledge reaches through
means of communication and equipment. It is a knowledge based industry.
In India, the development of Information technology is recent, but it is growing
rapidly. However, enormous efforts are required for making it competitive with developed
In India this industry developed after the International Treaty of 1994.
In 1994-95 , this industry earned Rs.6345 crore rupees which increased to 79337
crore, in the year 2002-03. It shows that this is the fastest growing industry of India.
Small scale industries in India
Paper Industry : In India the art of paper making by hand developed is the ancient
times. The first modern mill was set up at Bali near Kolkata in 1870.
At present there are several paper mills in India among which the chief are National
News Print and Paper Mill Limited. ( Nepanagar, Madhya Pradesh) and Security Paper
Mill ( Hoshangabad, Madhya Pradesh). At present there are 515 paper mills in the
Paper is produced by all types of production units, small, medium and large. The
contribution of small and medium units is 50 percent of the total product. At present
in India, around 15 lakh people are employed in this industry.
It ranks twentieth in the world in the production of paper.
The chief paper producing stages in India are Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, West
Bengal, Orissa, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh,
Bihar and Kerala.
Leather Industry : It is one of the oldest industries in India. This is a traditional
industry. There are several things which are made of leather such as coats, jerseys,
purses, playing material, toys, monkey caps, belts, hand gloves, shoes, foot wear etc. The
majority of the leather goods in the country are produced in Tamil Nadu, Kolkata,
Kanpur, Mumbai, Aurangabad, Kolhapur, Dewas, Jalandhar and Agra. Out of the total
production of leather goods 75 percent is produced by small scale and cottage industries
In India, leather and leather goods are included in the top ten lists of the products
having maximum export.
During the year 2003-04, the leather industry earned 2.1 million American dollars
as income from export.
Mostly people from the minority and poor sections are employed in the field of
leather production. Out of the total of employed people 30 percent are women. It is
estimated that 10 percent of the total supply of leather of the world is from India.
Cottage Industries in India
Glass industry : The glass industry is a very old industry of India but modernised
development of the glass industry started after the second world war only. At present in
this industry glass is being produced by modern and latest technology. At present out of
56 big factories of glass 15 are modern factories which manufacture high quality of
glass goods, completely with the help of machines.
As a cottage industry it is localised mainly at Ferozabad and Belgaon. There are
more than 225 small and big factories of glass in Ferozabad, which manufacture bangles.
In Atta Shikohabad, Fatehabad and Hathras also it is run as a cottage industry whereas in
Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar Tamil Nadu and
Orissa it is centralised as a modern industry. The maximum number of factories in the
country are situated in West Bengal.
India exports manufactured glass goods to Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Afghanistan,
Kuwait, Iran, Greece, Saudi Arabia, Burma and Malaysia etc.
Silk Industry : From the very beginning the silk industry has been one of the major
industries of India. At present of the total production of silk in the world 17 percent is
produced in India.
There are four major areas of pure silk production in India : (1) Kashmir Valley, (2)
Eastern Karnataka and the table land (plateau) and mountainous regions of Tamil Nadu,
(3) areas of Hugli in West Bengal, (4) mountainous regions of Assam.
This industry provides employment to 58 lakh people. For encouraging this
industry "The Central Silk Board" was established in the year 1949.
Lac Industry : India is a major producer of lac. Before 1950, India was the only
country where lac was cleaned but today this work is also done in Thailand. It has
affected the Indian Lac industry. Earlier 85 percent of the total world production of lac

was produced by India which at present has been reduced to 50 percent.
In India the maximum lac is produced in the plateau of Chhota Nagpur. Out of the
total production of lac in the world 50 percent of lac is produced in India. Apart from
this Chhatisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Orissa, Gujarat and Mirzapur
district of Uttar Pradesh are major centres of production.
In the year 1969-70 the total production of lac was 5,740 tonnes in India which
increased to 80,000 tonnes in the year 2000-01.
Major buyers of Indian lac are China, America, Russia and Britain. Apart from these
countries, Germany, Brazil, Italy, France and Japan are also important buyers. This
industry provides employment to about 10,000 people of the country. 60-70 percent of
the schedule tribe people do the work of collecting raw lac and pure shellac is extracted
from it.
17.4 Importance of small scale and cottage industries
Small scale and cottage industries play an important role in Indian economy. These
industries are suited to the Indian economy. These industries can be established with less
capital and require more human labour. In India due to a large population there is more
human labour and also due to poverty there is less capital. For these reasons these are
considered an important part of the Indian economy. This can be made clear by the
following facts:
1. Suitable for rural economy : Around 50.4 percent of the working
population of India depends on agriculture, but the farmers do not get work for the whole
year. Therefore small scale industries are important for them and suitable for the Indian
2. Reduces unemployment : The small scale industries reduce unemployment
as they have potential of employing a large number of workers with less capital
investment for the same.
3. Help in reducing inequalities of incomes : The ownership of small-
scale industries is distributed among lakhs of people and families as a result of this
economic power cannot be centralised hence it helps in equal distribution of income.
4. Development of individual art : Small-scale industries are helpful in
developing individual art.
5. Decrease pressure of population on agriculture : A major part of the
population is already dependent on agriculture in India and the increasing population
increases pressure on agriculture. If small scale industries are set up in rural areas it will
reduce pressure on agriculture which will be beneficial for the country.

6. Help in industrial decentralisation : Small scale industries help in the
decentralisation of industries in the country. Large scale industries get centralised in a
particular place due to some specific reasons but small scale industries are developed
in villages and small towns.
7. Less requirement of technical knowledge : Small scale industries
require less technical knowledge and less capital for their establishment. They can run
with fewer trained workers. Thus they are best suited for the Indian economy.
8. Fast producing industry : Produced goods can be obtained within a short
time after the establishment of these industries. Therefore these are called fast producing
industries. There is always a shortage of goods in India and these industries can
contribute significantly in removing this shortage.
9. Earning of foreign currency : The export of the goods manufactured by
small scale industries is increasing day by day which helps the country in obtaining
valuable foreign currency. At present out of the total export of the country the share of
the goods produced by small scale industries is 35 percent.
10. Less dependency on imports : We have to depend on imports from
foreign countries to establish large scale industries either for technology or for machine
or raw material. With small scale industries there is no such requirement, we do not have
to import machines or techniques or raw materials. Thus it decreases dependence on
11. Supplementary to large scale industries : The small scale industries
can work as supplementary industries to large scale industries for example small scale
industries can manufacture intermediate goods which can be used by large scale
industries to produce final goods.
12. Use of local resources : Small scale industries utilise local resources.
These industries help the rural people and common man to be entrepreneurs and give
opportunities of investment of rural savings.
In India the contribution of small scale industries in the gross national product is
10 percent, in gross industrial product it is 39 percent and in providing employment it
is 32 percent and 35 percent in the total exports of the country.
Due to the above reasons small scale industries have been given a significant place
in the industrial policies. The production of 590 commodities are reserved for small
scale industries.
17.5 Government efforts for the development of small scale industry :
1. Establishment of Boards and corporations : The government has from
time to time established different boards and corporations like- The All India Board of
Cottage Industries, All India Handicrafts Board, Khadi Gram Udyog Mandal, Board of

Small Scale Industry, Coir Board, National Small Scale Corporation, Indian Handicrafts
Development Corporation for the development of the small scale industries.
2. Establishment of the Council of small scale industry : The small scale
industry development corporation. Nationalised Banks, State Finance Corporation are
the members of this council and help the small scale industries.
3. Financial Assistance : Financial assistance is provided to small scale
industries through the Reserve Bank, State Bank of India, The National Small Scale
Corporation, State finance Corporation and Cooperative Banks. Loan facilities are
provided by the National Small Scale Development Banks. State Governments also
provides long terms loan in their area under the Government Assistance to Industries Act.
4. Techinical Assistance : The organisation for development of small scale
industries was established to provide technical assistance to the small scale industries.
Under these services, Indians are sent to foreign countries for training and experts are
invited to India to provide training in India.
5. Exemption from taxes : Concession in taxes is provided to small scale
industries. Taxes like production tax are not imposed on the goods produced by these
industries, if imposition of tax becomes essential then only a nominal tax is imposed. Apart
from the exemption in taxes concessions are provided in the transportation expenditure.
6. Facilities for selling of products : Many facilities are provided for the
marketing of products of the small-scale industries. Show rooms or emporiums are
being opened at various places by the Central and State Governments and by specific
corporations for the selling of products of small-scale industries. Along with this big
societies and boards are set up with the help of state governments for the sale of the
products of small scale goods.
7. Exemption from licensing : Some goods are reserved under this, to
promote small-scale industries.
8. Preference is given by the Government in their purchase : The
government gives preference to the products of small scale industries in purchasing
goods for the use of its own departments and some goods are purchased exclusively
from these industries.
9. Organising exhibitions : The government from time to time organises
exhibitions at different places to make people aware about the products of small scale
industries. Apart from this, it provides assistance to those representatives of people who
organise these exhibitions.
10. To set up research institutes : There are many research institutes
established for research work on the products of small scale industries.
11. National Equity Fund : The Central Government has set up a fund in
which 5 crore rupees have been provided by the Central Government and 5 crore rupees
by the Industrial Development Bank. The Industrial Development Bank manages these
funds, which provides loans to small scale industries in the form of soft loans upto 5
thousand rupees for seed and capital but the unit should be registered in the Directorate
of Industry as a small scale industry.
12. Establishment of Indian Development Bank for small scale industry
: This bank was established as a co-organisation of Indian Industrial Development Bank.
Its capital is rupees 450 crore rupees and its main function is to provide financial
assistance to the small-scale industries. Its offices have been opened in different states.
13. Interest on delayed payments : The government has made the arrangement
that if a buyer delays the payment for the goods purchased from a small industrial unit
then he will have to pay interest on the delayed period.
14. Credit Card Scheme for small entrepreneurs : This scheme was
implemented with the aim to make credit easily available to small businessmen, artisans
and entrepreneurs in 2002-03.
15. Improvement in the loan given to small scale industries : The following
steps were taken for the improvement in the loan given to small scale industries:
● The limit of composing loans is increased from Rupees 25 lakhs to Rs.50
lakhs. The composite loan is also given for working capital along with plant
and machinery.
● The expected parallel security on the loan upto Rs. 5 lakhs has been terminated.
● The Reserve Bank of India has set up a committee to monitor the flow of loans
given to small scale industries.
16. Removal of restrictions on ready made garments : Progress of
technology, increase in productivity, awareness towards quality, diversity of products,
increase in exports and increase in marketing related policies and maximising employment
opportunities will help this sector.
17. Setting up of integrated structural Development Centres : Under this
scheme in an industrial premises the basic needs of a developed place as electricity,
water, drainage system, tele communication is made available along with banks, raw
material, storage, sale and technology.

Cottage Industries : Those industries which are run completely by the members of
a family as part time or full time work.
Private Sector : That sector of production in which economic resources are

controlled by individuals and are used with the objective of
individual profit.
Developing country : A country having less developed economy as compared to
developed countries.
Choose and write the correct alternative:
1. The maximum investment limit of a small scale industrial unit is-
(i) Rupees 1 crore (ii) Rupees 5 crores
(iii) Rupees 3 crore (iv) Rupees 7 crores
2. Out of the total production of Jute in the world India produces-
(i) 25 percent (ii) 10 percent
(iii) 150 percent (iv) 35 percent
3. Which of these is concerned with information technology?
(i) Motor car (ii) Beautiful clothes
(ii) Computer (iv) Gold and Silver
Very short answer type questions-
1. To which countries does India export glass manufactured goods?
2. Which are the chief silk producing areas of India?
3. Which countries are the major buyers of lac products from India?
4. Mention the agro based industries in India.
5. What is the capacity of production of the cement factories established in
6. Which states in India are important for the production of silk?
Short answer type questions-
1. Explain the basis on which the different industries are classified in India.
2. Describe the state of the small scale industry of India.
3. Which articles are produced by the leather industry of India?
4. Explain the state of the paper industry in India.
5. Write a note on the glass industry of India.
6. Information and technology industry is a rapidly growing industry of India.

Long answer type questions-
1. Describe the state of large scale industries of India.
2. What efforts have been undertaken by the government to promote the small
scale industries? Write.
3. State the importance of small scale and cottage industries.
4. Write short notes on -
(i) The leather Industry .
(ii) The iron and steel Industry.
(iii) The cotton Industry.
(iv) The information and technology.

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Food Security in India

18.1 Meaning of Food Security

We Will Study  Food clothing and housing are the three main
18.1 Meaning of food requirements of life. Out of all these, availability of
security nutritive food is the most important necessity of human
18.2 Need and importance of life. Food security is related to the food related needs of
Food security man. In simple words food security means availability of
18.3 Major food crops of
nutritive food to all. Also people should have purchasing
power (money) for the arrangement and availability of
18.4 Efforts by government
food at reasonable prices. According to the World
for food security
● Promoting
Development Report, 1986 "Food security is the
Production of food availability of adequate food at all times for a active and
grains healthy life for all". According to the institute for Food
● Minimum support and Agriculture, "Food security ensures availability of
price basic necessary food for all, physically as well as
● Buffer stock
● Public Distribution
Thus on the basis of the above definitions food
18.5 Food grains and security includes the following -
co-operatives ● Availability of food for the whole population of
the country.
● Availability of enough money (purchasing power) to purchase the necessary food.
● Food should be available to all at affordable prices.
● The quality of the available food should be good.
Food security generally implies that the whole population at all times should have
access to the minimum quantity of cereals, but due to continuous changes in a
developing country there can be the following stages of food security :
1. Availability of adequate quantity of food grains.
2. Availability of food grains and pulses in adequate quantity.
3. Availability of milk and milk products along with food grains and pulses.
4. Availability of food grains, pulses milk and milk products, vegetables, fruits

18.2 Need and importance of Food Security
In the present Indian situation food security has become very important. Our
economy is developing but the population is also increasing rapidly. So to meet the
increasing demand, food security has become necessary. The causes responsible for this
can be divided into two parts - internal causes and external causes.
1. Internal causes - Internal causes include those which are related to the internal
conditions of the country. The following factors are included in these.
● Basis of life - India is a country with a large population and the birth rate is
also very high. Therefore food security is necessary.
● Dependence on Monsoon - The majority of crops in India are dependent on
the monsoon for irrigation, but the monsoon is always uncertain and irregular.
The distribution of rains is uneven too. consequently droughts and famines are
common features of our economy. Therefore food security is necessary.
● Low Productivity - In India the productivity of food-grains per hectare is
low. From this point of view also food security is necessary
● Natural Calamities - Other than the problem of the monsoon, floods,
insects and pests, cold waves, soil erosion etc. also destroy the food crops in
some or the other part of the country. So the problem of shortage of food
crops arises. In the famine in Orissa of 1835, in Punjab and Madhya Pradesh
in 1877 and in West Bengal in 1943, lakhs of people died of hunger. So food
security is necessary to face these natural calamities.
● Continuously rising prices - The prices of food grains are increasing
continuously which result in starvation. So food security is necessary to
overcome this problem.
● Progress of the country - No country can progress without self sufficiency
in food production, and for this food security is necessary.
2. External causes - External causes include those causes which are related to the
relation of other countries with our country. The following are the external causes-
● Dependence on Foreign Countries - Food is the basic need of human
beings. So when this requirement is not fulfilled it becomes the primary duty
of the government to fulfill these needs of the people. If there is a shortage
of food we have to depend on foreign countries. Whenever there is inadequate
supply of food grains in our country we have to import even if food grains are
costly or cheap, the quality is good or bad. Thus dependence on foreign
countries increases.

● Decrease in foreign Exchange - Whenever we import things like food
grains we have to spend our foreign exchange unnecessarily. We can meet our
demand for food ourselves but we cannot. This results in shortage of foreign
exchange to purchase very important commodities.
● Foreign Pressure - Countries which supply food grains to other countries
become influential and then they force them to follow their policies. These
countries dominate those countries which import food-grains from them, as
a result they lose their freedom to decide their foreign policies. In the year
1965-66 and 1966-67 due to the failure of monsoon India had to face a
devastating drought and therefore wheat was imported from America. During
these frequent emergencies of food grains India experienced that food
security is very essential to save people from starvation, to protect self
respect, honour and sovereignty and for the development of the country.
18.3 Chief Food Crops of India
India is an agricultural country and the
Chief crops of India and their chief occupation is farming. Cereals are grown
cultivation regions in about 70 to 80 per cent of the total
● Paddy (Rice) - West Bengal, agricultural land. Rice, wheat, millets and maize
Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, are the major cereals. Today India has become
Chhatisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, self sufficient in the production of food grains.
Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Orrisa, Pun- Different crops are grown in different seasons.
jab, Assam. So according to seasons these crops are divided
● Wheat - Uttar Pradesh, Punjab,
into the following categories -
Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar,
Rajasthan, Maharashtra, West 1. Kharif crops - These crops are
Bengal, Uttarakhand, Gujarat. sown in the month of July and harvested in the
● Bajra - Rajasthan, Maharashtra, month of October. They include paddy (rice)
Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Andhra millets, maize etc.
Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, 2. Rabi Crops - These crops are
Haryana, Karnataka, Madhya sown in the month of October and harvested
Pradesh. either in the end of March or in April. They
● Jowar - Madhya Pradesh,
include wheat, Oats, gram etc.
Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra
Pradesh. In India different kinds of cereals are
● Maize - Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, grown. Regarding the production of food grains
Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, India stands third after China and America. The
Punjab, Bihar, Rajasthan, Gujarat. major food grains (cereals) of India are
● Gram & Pulses - Madhya described as follows.
Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rice - Rice is the staple food of India. It
Maharashtra, Punjab, Karnataka.
is grown in about 25 percent of the total
cultivated area. Of the total world's production of rice, India is the second largest
producer of rice in the world. India accounts for 11.4 per cent of the world production.
Important rice growing states in India are West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana,
Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Chhattisgarh and Assam.
The production of rice is increasing continuously. In the field of production of rice, the
use of high yielding variety of seeds and chemical fertilizers has shown a huge rise in
its production. At present India has become not only self-sufficient in the production of
rice but has also started to export it.

Wheat - In the production of cereals in India the rank of wheat is second after rice.
As regards production of wheat India's rank is third after China and the United States of
America and as regards area of production India's rank is fifth in the world. In India two
kinds of wheat are grown -
(a) Walgair wheat - It is shining, healthy (well-sapped) soft and white in colour.
Generally it is called wheat of bread.
(b) Mikrani wheat - It is red in colour small in size and hard.
The major wheat growing states of the country are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana,
Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat. India is self dependent in the production
of wheat. Though in the current year India is importing wheat due to lack of accumulated
stock, 5 lacks tonnes of wheat has been imported.
Coarse grain
Sorghum (jowar) bajra (pearl millet) and maize are included in coarse grains.
Sorghum (Jowar) - In India Jowar has been grown from ancient times. It is used
as fodder for cattle and as food for human beings. In India it is food of the poor. In
foreign countries it is used to prepare starch and glucose. In northern India it is a kharif
crop but in southern India it is a crop of kharif and rabi both. About 87 per cent of the
total production of Jowar (sorghum) in the country is produced in Madhya Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
Bajra - It is a kharif crop in northern India. In southern India it is a crop of rabi
and kharif both. It is used as fodder for cattle. India is the largest producer of Bajra in
the world. In India the main Bajra producing states are Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharastra,
Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Punjab. Of the total
production of bajra in the country 96 per cent is grown here.
Maize - Maize is the crop of the plains and mountainous regions. It is used as
fodder for cattle and as food to eat. Man uses its different varieties for food products.
In foreign countries starch and glucose are prepared from this. In India it is grown in
nearby all states but mainly it is grown in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh,
Rajasthan, Gujarat and Karnataka.
18.4 Efforts of the Government for food security
Food security depends upon - Public Distribution System, alertness of government
and the measures taken in a situation of crisis.
Food security system has been developed in India to make food grains available at
reasonable prices to poor and other people during periods of food crisis arising due to
some reason or other or due to natural calamities. The important components of this
system are as follows -

1. Efforts to increase food grains - For food security it is important that the
production of food grains should be enough in quantity. In this the contribution of the
green revolution is quite important, Under the Green Revolution mechanization of
agriculture, use of high yielding hybrid variety of seeds, fertilizers and insecticides and
irrigation facilities were extended. Also due to promotion of consolidation of land
holdings, abolishing of mediators, today the country has become self sufficient in the
field of food grains. The progress of food grains in India can be explained on the basis
of the following table.
2. Minimum Support Price - The prices of agricultural products are very
flexible, at the time of harvesting the supply increases, due to which there is enough
decrease in price. As prices at this time go down below the fixed limit the producer finds
it difficult to get the cost of their products. Therefore the government declares a
minimum support price for agricultural products, under which when market price of food
grains becomes less than its support price, the government starts purchasing food grains
on self declared support price. Due to this farmers get inspired to produce more and
more and the government procures food grains for "Buffer Stocks."
3. Buffer Stock - If the production of food grains is less, then to face such crisis
of shortage and to distribute them through the Public Distribution System, the stock of
food grains kept by the government is known as Buffer Stock. A Buffer Stock is the stock
of food grains, namely wheat and rice procured by the government through Food
Corporation of India (FCI). The FCI purchases wheat and rice from farmers in states
where there is surplus production. The farmers are paid a pre-announced price for their
crop. This price is called a "Minimum Support Price". The government declares these
prices before the sowing season to provide incentives to farmers for raising production
of these crops. These food grains are stored in large granaries. It helps in resolving the
problem of shortage of food grains during emergencies.
4. The Public Distribution System - By Public Distribution System is meant that
system in which different consumer goods are sold in sufficient quantity at fixed prices
to the consumers, specially to the poor
sections of society. In this system different
Parts of Public Distribution System
goods (wheat, rice, sugar, imported edible
oil, coal and kerosene oil etc.) are sold The Public Distribution System includes
fair price shops, Fair Price Shops for
through ration shops or cooperative consumer
selling cloth, soft coke depot, Super
stores. The profit rate for these sellers are
markets and Kerosene shops.
fixed and they have to sell the goods to the
ration card holders at a fixed price and in
fixed quantities. There are three kinds of ration cards - B.P.L. Card, A.P.L. Card and
Antyodya Cards.

The Public Distribution System is regulated by the central and the state government
together. The central government allots food grains and other commodities to states and
determines prices also. The state has the right to add transportation charge etc. to the
prices fixed by the Central
Government. The transportation,
collection, distribution and inspection Ration Cards
of these goods processed under this ● BPL cards for people below poverty line.
system is done by the state ● APL cards for people above poverty line.
government. The state government ● Antyodaya Cards for the poorest of the poor.
can include those goods also in Public
Distribution System which it can
purchase if required.
In India the distribution of food grains is increasing continuously.
It is clear from the above table that the Public Distribution System plays an
important role in providing food grains to people.
Revamped Public Distribution System - In January 1992, the Public Distribution
System was amended and a revised Public Distribution System was introduced to supply
essential goods to consumers of remote areas, schedule tribes, backward classes,
drought affected and mountainous areas of the country. Its characteristics are as follows-
● Preference is given to the people of drought affected areas, desert areas,
mountainous area and slums in urban areas.
● It is aimed at poviding more quantity of food at comparatively low prices.
Six other chief essential commodities like tea, soap, pulse, iodised salt are
also included in it.
● "Rojgar Aswasan Plan" has been started in the development blocks included
under this plan, in which 100 days employment can be provided to 18-60
year old unskilled labour, so that they are able to earn and purchase food
grains through revamped public distribution system.
Targeted Public Distribution System :
In 1997 the Public Distribution System was introduced to ensure the availablity of
a minimum quantity of food grains to families living below the poverty line. In this
system food grains are provided to the poor on special low prices by issuing them on
ration cards. This is the largest food security plan of the world. In this system 35 kg. of
food grains per month per family are provided from 1st April 2006. In the same way
under the "Antyodya Anna Yojna" 25 kg. of wheat at Rs. 2/- per kg. & rice at Rs. 3/- per
kg. is being provided to very poor families through the public distribution system.

Under this system a differential Central Issue Price in the
price system was adopted including Public Distribution System
people below the poverty line (BPL) and
Distribution Issue price per kg. (Rs.)
also for people above the poverty line
(APL) in which different issue prices of
wheat and rice were fixed (see table) ● Below poverty line 4.15
Other than this the government is ● Above poverty line 6.10
providing food security through mid day Rice
meals for the students studying in the ● Below poverty line 5.65
school 'Antyodya Aann Yogna', 'Kaam ke ● Above poverty line 8.30
Badle Anaj Yogna' and 'United State
Development Programme' etc. schemes.
18.5 Food Security and Co-operatives :
A co-operative is a form of voluntary orgainsation of people which works for
collective interest on the basis of quality, self help and domestic system. Under this
system all those works which cannot be done by the financially weak people individually
are easily done.
The main objective of a cooperative is to work together with mutual cooperation
without the feeling of exploitation of each other.
In India the role of cooperatives is very important in providing food security. This
work is done by the consumer cooperative societies through ration shops for the sale of
food grains for the poor. In India there are different systems of consumer cooperatives
at national, state, district & village levels. Out of these National Consumers' Cooperative
(Federation) Ltd. is an oganisation at National level. State Cooperative Consumers'
Organisation is affiliated to this forum (federation). There are 794 consumer cooperative
stores at the central level (Wholesale) and 24,078 stores at the primay level. In rural
areas nearly 44,418 village level primary agricultural credit societies are distributing
essential goods along with their ordinary business. To fulfill the needs of consumers,
consumer cooperative societies are running nearly 37,226 retail selling centres in urban
& semi urban areas.
The government started a scheme named 'Sarvpiya' in July 2000. Under this plan
some selected distribution system at selling centres of state consumers cooperative
Federation, state civil supply cooperative and consumers' cooperative societies of state
government distributes the procured cereals from food corporation of India to the poor
sections of society through ration shops. Sugar, cereals, kerosene etc. are distributed to
the ration card holders through ration shops which are also known as 'Fair Price Shops'.
Any family with a ration card can buy stipulated amounts of these items, every month

from a nearby ration shop. At these shops all the items are sold at a price lower than the
market price. Today there are about 4.6 lakh ration shops in the counrty.

Subsidy (Grant) : Subsidy is the payment which the Government makes to the
producer to compensate for the market price.
Buffer Stock : Reserve stock of food grains to meet emergency situations.
Green Revolution : At term that is given to the procedure of improvement of technique
of agricultural production to increase agricultural production.
Support Price : Declaration of support price of agricultural crops means to give the
guarantee of a minimum price to farmers for their crops.

Choose and write the correct alternative :
1. Kharif crop is -
(i) Wheat (ii) Gram
(iii) Paddy (iv) Oat
2. A part of the Public Distribution System is -
(i) Shoe shop (ii) Gold & Silver shop
(iii) Ration shop (iv) Grocery shop
3. Targeted public distribution is related to -
(i) Women (ii) Gents
(iii) People living below the poverty line (iv) none of these
4. How much cereal is given under Antyodya Anna Yojna?
(i) 5 kg. (ii) 10 kg.
(iii) 15 kg. (iv) 25 kg.
Very short answer type questions :
1. Write the names of coarse cereals.
2. In which years did India face famine?
3. What is Rojgar Ashwasan Yojna?
4. What is meant by minimum support price?
5. Write the names of any two schemes launched for food security.

Short answer type questions :
1. What are the main factors of food security? Write about them.
2. What is Buffer Stock? Explain.
3. Explain Targeted public distribution system?
4. What is revamped public distribution system? Explain.
5. What is the role of cooperatives in food security? Explain.
6. Differentiate between Kharif & Rabi crops.
Long answer type questions :
1. What are the major cereals of India? Describe.
2. What is food security and why is it necessary? Explain
3. How does the government provide food security to the poor? Explain.
4. What steps has the government taken to increase food grains?
5. What is public distribution system and what are its main constituents? Describe.
6. How is the public distribution system conducted? Describe.
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