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Constructing Quality Concrete

Pavements, Innovations

Air Void Analyzer (AVA)

Entrained Air Content

Air content is routinely measured at the jobsite


Specifications vary by state, but usually target
about 5-7%
Entrained air is critical for freeze-thaw durability
Common problems associated with improper air
are spalling, scaling and poor performance
The question is…what are we measuring and what
do we need?

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Test Methods / Standards

Fresh concrete total air content


ASTM C231: Pressure Method
ASTM C173: Volumetric Method - Air
AASHTO T199: Chace Indicator - Air
ASTM C138: Gravimetric Method

Hardened concrete air characteristics


ASTM C457: Petrographic examination

Spacing Factor

(Diagram per Ken Hover)

Air Void Analyzer allows …

More control of air-void characteristics in fresh


concrete
Quantify the air-void structure in the field
Rapid QC/QA testing, useful for concrete placed in
extreme climates

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AVA Equipment

Data AVA
Analysis
Tools

Concrete
Sampling
Equipment

(Photo Couresty of DBT)

How the AVA works

A cement mortar sample is


placed in the analysis liquid.
They are stirred together.
The air bubbles
contained in the Bubbles
mortar are released.
Large bubbles rise
to the surface faster
than small ones.
Mortar &
Liquid

AVA Results
Change in Apparent Mass of Dish

The large air bubbles


0.30 are released early
Change in Buoyancy or

0.25 in the test


0.20
(g/min)

0.15

0.10

0.05

0
0 5 10 15 20 25
Time (min)
(Magura, D. D. Air Void Analyzer Evaluation. May 1996. FHWA-SA-96-062)

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AVA Advantages

Immediate Results = Immediate Improvements On site,


the fresh concrete mix can be altered.
Each test takes ~40 min.
25 min. to run & 15 min. for clean-up
Using petrography on hardened concrete, results typically
obtained 2 weeks after sampling

Testing can be conducted almost anywhere – AVA is


completely contained in a carrying case
Minimize concrete repair & replacement costs

AVA Applications

Pre-qualify/accept a mix
QC/QA at time of construction
Warranty specifications
Control of concrete strength and
elastic modulus
Large projects
Critical Applications (environment/traffic)
Repetitive situations (standard mixtures)

GSI
GOMACO Smoothness Indicator
“Revolution in Profiling”

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Pavement Smoothness

Pavement smoothness is necessary to meet


public demands
Smoothness also has an effect on long-term
pavement performance
The problem has been that by the time we
measure smoothness, diamond grinding is the
only option
Is there a method to determine the as-constructed
smoothness of the pavement behind the paver?

GSI
GOMACO Smoothness Indicator

GSI Used on MS SR-304

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GSI Used on MS SR-304

GSI Mounted on Paver

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PI Comparison (GSI & Cox)

Top Trace: Cox Profilograph Bottom Trace: GSI

Analysis Software

Full analysis report


Job Details
Yield
Deviation Volume
Projected Volume
Actual Volume
Project Parameters
Cut / Fill Summary

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Stringless Paving

Stringlines

Stringlines are responsible for both line and grade


of the final pavement (smoothness)
Stringline set-up is time consuming and requires
constant checking
The sensor system on the paver must be carefully
calibrated and maintained
Is there a better method for line and grade control?

Stringless Paving

Goals:
• Control of slipform paving spread without stringline
1. X - Y - Z axis control
2. Meet smoothness criteria
• Control of as many as 4 companion machines
1. Placer Spreader (s), Texture / Cure machine (s)
2. Redundancy with back-up in case of failure

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Control System

Laser kept within 500 ft of


paver (1000 ft range)

Control System

Note GPS
Receiver No 1

Laser Receiver
(Tracking)
Mounted on paver

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Control System

GPS Receiver
&
Radio Com Link
Antenna

Control System

(Left to Right)
Computer
Sensor I/O’s
Monitor
Foreground - Keyboard

Control System

Monitor output for operator

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MIT SCAN

Location of Embedded Steel

The precise location of embedded steel (dowels,


tie bars and continuous bars in CRCP) is
generally unknown
In the case of dowel bars, a relatively new device
can be used to accurately the bars
Note: It is still not clear what tolerances are
required, this device helps us to gather data for
future modeling

MIT-Scan

Developed by Magnetic Imaging Tools, GmbH


Based on the principles of pulse induction
Advantages
Works on fresh or hardened concrete
Real-time, automated data analysis
Very accurate
Reliable
Efficient (1-2 min per joint)

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Dowels Placed in Baskets

The current software does not analyze dowels


placed in baskets that are uncut
Good quantitative results can be obtained if the
basket is cut
Approximate results with general calibration
More accurate results with calibration to specific
basket type
For accurately placed bars (placed within typical
placement tolerance) the error is less than +/- 5 mm.

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Dowels Placed in a Basket

Basket not cut Basket cut

Time to Opening and Maturity

Allowing traffic on a pavement is generally based


on reaching a target strength
Cylinders and beams are not intended for use in
determining early opening
What methods are available to determine early age
strengths?

Maturity

Field Monitoring
Laboratory Calibration

550psi
Strength

When the maturity reaches


this value, we can reliably
say that the in-place strength
Maturity is 550psi

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Maturity Concepts

The concrete maturity method is a technique


(ASTM C 1074) that accounts for the effects of
time and temperature on the strength
development of in-place concrete.
Provides a procedure for estimating concrete
strength in relation to time and temperature
Can be used with cylinders or beams
(Compressive strength or flexural strength)

Measuring Devices

How Does it Work?

Prepare at least 15 specimens per mix design


Embed temperature sensors in center of at least
2 specimens
Cure specimens(Moist room, water batch)
Perform compression or flexural tests at pre-
determined intervals (normally 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28
days)

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How Does it Work? (cont)

Record average maturity index at each test age


Plot a best fit curve of avg. strength vs. avg.
maturity index
The resulting curve is the strength-maturity
relationship to be used

Strength-Maturity Relationship
VERIFY DATUM TEM PERATURES
BEFORE USING THIS CHART!
700

600

500
Flexural (psi)

400

300

200

100

TTF=5500
0
0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000
Maturity (°C-Hrs.)

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