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Submitted by

PRASANNA VALLI .R (814815105035)

PRASANYA.P (814815105036)
RAJESWARI.R (814815105038)
RAVISELVAN.S (814815105040)

in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree



(A Constituent College of Anna University, Chennai)


MARCH 2019


Certified that this project report “UNINTERRUPTED POWER


bonafide work of “PRASANNA VALLI.R (814815105035), PRASANYA .P

(814815105036), RAJESWARI.R (814815105038), RAVISELVAN.S

(814815105040)” who carried out the project under my supervision.




Assistant Professor, Teaching Fellow,

Department of Electrical and Department of Electrical and

Electronics Engineering, Electronics Engineering,

University College of University College of

Engineering, Ariyalur -621 704. Engineering, Ariyalur -621 704.

Submitted for the University Project Viva Voce examination held on…………….



We would like to express my sincere thanks to the merciful god behind

the successful completion of this project. We would like to thank our Dean In-
charge Dr.N.SUBRAMANIAN M.Pharm., Ph.D., for his timely advice and
valuable guidance in the project work.

We would like to express our sincere gratitude to our Head of the

Department Dr.N.SHOBANADEVI M.E., Ph.D., Department of Electrical and
Electronics Engineering for her valuable guidance in the course of work.

We would like to express our sincere gratitude to our project coordinator

Mrs.V.MALATHY M.E., Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical and
Electronics Engineering for her timely advice.

We acknowledge our sincere gratitude and grateful thanks to our

Supervisor Mr.K.KANAGAVEL M.E., Teaching Fellow, Department of
Electrical and Electronics Engineering for his inspiring guidance given with
creative suggestions and the interest in the success of this project.

We hearty thank all teaching and non-teaching staff members of the

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering for their co-operation in the
completion of our project.

We express our hearty thanks to our parents for their encouragement and
financial support and love throughout this project.

Finally, we thank who directly or indirectly contributed to our project



The objective of the project is to provide the continuous power supply to

the consumer and provide the facility to control the distribution system with

program logic control. Where the system has two major parts according to the

appliance as follows, PLC control unit and an automated power line switching

unit. This proposed system has two types of power lines such as the main

feeders(R, Y, B and N) and an auxiliary feeder. The auxiliary feeder is used to

transmit the power at when the main feeder in maintenance or faulty condition. In

this proposed system, the PLC control unit provides the facility to switch the

feeder by using a serial command without direct contact with a power line and the

automated power line switching unit is used to switch the power supply to the

auxiliary feeder in an automatic manner with SMS alert, at when the main feeder

in a faulty condition.



















3.1.1 Block Diagram 24

3.1.2 Automatic Power Line 25

Switching Unit

3.1.3 Arduino PLC Control 25


3.1.4 Switched-Mode Power 25





4.1.1 Specifications 28

4.1.2 Communication 28






4.5.1 Linear Power Supply 36
4.5.2 Transformer 36
4.5.3 Bridge Rectifier 37
5.1.1 Software Development 46
5.1.2 Softwares 47

5.2 PROTEUS 48
5.2.1 Introduction 48
5.2.2 Embedded C
5.2.3 Proteus ISIS 7 Simulator 50










4.4 Pins Description 35
6.1 Automatic Power Line 56
Switching Unit
6.2 Arduino PLC Control Unit 57



1.8 Embedded System Hardware 10
3.1 Flowchart Representation Of The 23
3.1.1 Block Diagram 24
3.2 Circuit Diagram 26
4.1 Arduino Uno 29
4.2 Global System For Mobile 30
4.3.1 Relay-Module 31
4.3.2 Relay Pin out 31
4.4.1 LCD Display Unit 33
4.4.2 Internal Working Of LCD Unit 34
4.5.2 Transformer 36
4.5.3 Bridge Rectifier 38 Smoothing 39 Power Supply Circuit 40 Switched-Mode Power Supply 41
5.1 Command Window 43
5.2.3 Proteus ISIS 7 Simulator 51
6.1 Automatic Power Line 54
Switching Unit



6.2 Arduino PLC Control Unit Circuit 56
6.3.1 Photograph Of The Hardware 58
6.3.2 Photograph Of The SMS Alert 59
6.3.3 Photograph Of Arduino PLC 59
Control Unit Monitor

PLC Programmable Logic Controller

GSM Global System for Mobile communication

ROM Read Only Memory

RTOS Real Time Operating System

SSTS Solid-State Transfer Switch

SPI Serial Peripheral Interface

DSP Digital Signal Processing

MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging

IDE Integrated development Environment

USB Universal Serial Bus

RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computer

LCD Liquid Crystal Display

LED Light Emitting Diode

VGA Video Graphics Array

IOT Internet of Things

RSSI Received Signal Strength Indicator

ISP Internet Service Provider

ICSP In Circuit Serial Programming

Nowadays electrical consumers meet severe power interrupt due to L-G
fault (70%). Also most commonly fault occurs on R and Y phases due to the
continuous operation. This leads to occur a dielectric loss of insulator. We know
that many commercial loads and small industries productivity depend on
electric power. So, we need to provide continues power supply to each
consumer to grow our country's economic condition. In this proposed approach,
we promote the electricity utilization by implementing an auxiliary feeder with
the help of automatic power line switching unit. This proposed system has a
PLC control unit to provide the facility to control the distribution system with


It has now become a part of our daily life and one cannot think of a world
without electricity. Electricity is now an important part of homes &industries.
Almost whole the devices at homes, business and industries are running because
of power. Power is defined as energy consumed per unit time, energy meaning
the capability to do work. However, we defined power as the energy produced
by various means. This is where the difference between power and electricity
becomes distorted. Electricity is also power as it is produced by electrical
Electric power distribution is the final stage in the delivery of electric
power. it carries electricity from the transmission system for individual
consumers. Distribution substations connect to the transmission system and
lower the transmission voltage to medium voltage ranging between 2KV and
35KV with the use of transformers.
Primary distribution lines carry this medium voltage power to the
distribution transformers located near the consumer’s premises. Distribution
transformer again lowers the voltage to the utilization voltage used by lighting,
industrial equipment or household appliances. Often several customers are
supplied from one transformer through secondary distribution lines.
Commercial and residential customers are connected to the secondary
distribution lines through service drops. Customers demanding a much larger
amount of power may be connected directly to the primary distribution level or
the sub-transmission level.


They are three major kinds of power supplies: un-regulated (also called
brute force), linear regulated, switching. The fourth type of power supply circuit
called the ripple-regulated is a hybrid between the “brute force” and “switching”
designs, and material a subsection to itself.
An unregulated power supply is the most rudimentary type, consisting of
transformers, rectifier, and a low-pass filter. These power supplies typically
exhibit a lot of ripple voltage and other AC “noise” superimposed on the DC
power. If the input voltage varies, the output voltage will vary by a proportional
Linear Regulated
A linear regulated supply is simply a “brute force” power supply followed
by a transistor circuit operating in its “active” or “linear” mode, hence the name
linear regulator. A typical linear regulator is designed to output a fixed voltage
for a wide range of input voltages, and it simply drops any excess voltage drop
result in significant power dissipation in the form of heat. If the input voltage
gets too low, the transistor circuit will lose regulation, meaning that it will fail
to keep the voltage steady. Therefore, you have to keep the input voltage at least
1 to 3V higher than the desired output, depending on the regulator type. Also, to

get rid of all that heat they have to use large heat sinks which make them large,
heavy, and expensive.
A switching regulated power supply is an effort to realize the advantage of
both brute force and linear regulated designs (small, stable output voltage).
Switching power supplies work on the principle of rectifying the incoming AC
power line voltage into DC, re-converting it into high-frequency square-wave
AC through transistor operated as on/off switches, stepping that AC voltage up
or down by using a lightweight transformer’s.


The protective scheme of the double circuit transmission line base on an
artificial natural network (ANN) has been proposed. Optimal coordination of
Automatic Line Switches for Distribution Systems. The author (Nikhil.S)
focuses to implement the main objective of his projects to prevent overloading
of the transmission line using the current sensor. Internet and wireless
communications have also been utilized in parallel with GSM for home
automation. Among the cellular technologies, GSM network is preferred for the
communication between the home appliances and the user due to its widespread
coverage. For the Power, system design analysis is used and MATLAB
programming is used for the software package. Conventional single pole and
three phase’s auto - reclosing techniques applied to Extra High Voltage
transmission lines adopt fixed time interval re-closer techniques. Transmission
and distribution substations are installations where the voltage, phase or other
characteristics of the electrical energy are changed as part of the final
distribution process.
Fault analysis is an essential minimal equipment concern in power system
engineering in order to isolate faults quickly and ensure power supply is
restored at the shortest possible time. Power demand has resulted in higher line

current loads, still bearing in mind that operators are limited by the system and
line capacity. Overlapping the system will lead to overheating of the system
insulation which ultimately results in the system failure. Programmable Logic
Controller (PLC).Aids the improvement in power quality, ensuring a continuous
and reliable supply of power to loads.


An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function
within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing
constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete device often including
hardware and mechanical parts. Embedded systems control many devices in
common use today.
Ninety-eight percent of all microprocessors are manufactured as
components of embedded systems. Examples of properties of typically
embedded computers, when compared with general-purpose counterparts are
low power consumption, small size, rugged operating ranges, and low per-unit
cost. This comes at the price of limited processing resources, which make them
significantly more difficult to program and to interact with. However, by
building intelligence mechanisms on top of the hardware, taking advantage of
possible existing sensors and the existence of a network of embedded units, one
can both optimally manage available resources at the unit and network levels as
well as provide augmented functions, well beyond those available. For example,
intelligent techniques can be designed to manage power consumption of
embedded systems. Modern embedded systems are often based on
microcontrollers (i.e. CPU's with integrated memory or peripheral interfaces),
but ordinary microprocessors (using external chips for memory and peripheral
interface circuits) are also common, especially in more complex systems. In
either case, the processor(s) used may be typed ranging from general purpose to

those a specialized in certain class of computations or even custom designed for
the application at hand.
A common standard class of dedicated processors is the digital signal
processor (DSP). Since the embedded system is dedicated to specific tasks,
design engineers can optimize it to reduce the size and cost of the product and
increase the reliability and performance. Some embedded systems are mass-
produced, benefiting from economies of scale. Embedded systems range from
portable devices such as digital watches and MP3 players to large stationary
installations like traffic lights, factory controllers, and large complex systems
like hybrid vehicles, MRI, and avionics. Complexity varies from low, with a
single microcontroller chip, to very high with multiple units, peripherals, and
networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure.

One of the very first recognizably modern embedded systems was the
Apollo Guidance Computer, developed by Charles Stark Draper at the MIT
Instrumentation Laboratory. At the project's inception, the Apollo guidance
computer was considered the riskiest item in the Apollo project as it employed
the then newly developed monolithic integrated circuits to reduce the size and
weight. An early mass-produced embedded system was the Automatics D-17
guidance computer for the Minuteman missile, released in 1961. When the
Minuteman II went into production in 1966, the D-17 was replaced with a new
computer that was the first high-volume use of integrated circuits. Since these
early applications in the 1960s, embedded systems have come down in price
and there has been a dramatic rise in processing power and functionality. An
early microprocessor, for example, the Intel 4004, was designed for calculators
and other small systems but still required external memory and support chips.
In 1978 National Engineering Manufacturers Association released a
"standard" for programmable microcontrollers, including almost any computer-

based controllers, such as single board computers, numerical, and event-based
controllers. As the cost of microprocessors and microcontrollers fell it became
feasible to replace expensive knob-based analog components such as
potentiometers and variable capacitors with up/down buttons or knobs read out
by a microprocessor even in consumer products. By the early 1980s, memory,
input and output system components had been integrated into the same chip as
the processor forming a microcontroller. Microcontrollers find applications
where a general-purpose computer would be too costly. A comparatively low-
cost microcontroller may be programmed to fulfill the same role as a large
number of separate components. Although in this context an embedded system
is usually more complex than a traditional solution, most of the complexity is
contained within the microcontroller itself. Very few additional components
may be needed and most of the design effort is in the software. Software
prototype and the test can be quickly compared with the design and construction
of a new circuit not using an embedded processor.

Embedded systems are designed to do some specific task, rather than be a
general-purpose computer for multiple tasks. Some also have real-time
performance constraints that must be met, for reasons such as safety and
usability; others may have low or no performance requirements, allowing the
system hardware to be simplified to reduce costs. Embedded systems are not
always standalone devices. Many embedded systems consist of small parts
within a larger device that serves a more general purpose. For example, the
Gibson Robot Guitar features an embedded system for tuning the strings, but
the overall purpose of the Robot Guitar is, of course, to play music. Similarly,
an embedded system in an automobile provides a specific function as a
subsystem of the car itself. e-con Systems eSOM270 & eSOM300 Computer on
Modules The program instructions written for embedded systems are referred to

as firmware and are stored in read-only memory or flash memory chips. They
run with limited computer hardware resources: little memory, small or non-
existent keyboard or screen.
User Interface
Embedded system text user interface using MicroVGA Embedded systems
range from no user interface at all, in systems dedicated only to one task, to
complex graphical user interfaces that resemble modern computer desktop
operating systems. Simple embedded devices use buttons, LEDs, graphic or
character LCDs (HD44780 LCD for example) with a simple menu system.
More sophisticated devices which use a graphical screen with touch sensing or
screen-edge buttons provide flexibility while minimizing space used: the
meaning of the buttons can change with the screen, and selection involves the
natural behavior of pointing at what is desired. Handheld systems often have a
screen with a "joystick button" for a pointing device.
Some systems provide a user interface remotely with the help of a serial
(e.g. RS-232, USB, I²C, etc.) or network (e.g. Ethernet) connection. This
approach gives several advantages: extends the capabilities of the embedded
system, avoids the cost of a display, simplifies BSP and allows one to build a
rich user interface on the PC. A good example of this is the combination of an
embedded web server running on an embedded device (such as an IP camera) or
a network router. The user interface is displayed in a web browser on a PC
connected to the device, therefore needing no software to be installed.
Processors in Embedded Systems
Embedded processors can be broken into two broad categories. Ordinary
microprocessors (μP) use separate integrated circuits for memory and
peripherals. Microcontrollers (μC) have on-chip peripherals, thus reducing
power consumption, size and cost. In contrast to the personal computer market,
many different basic CPU architectures are used, since software is custom-
developed for an application and is not a commodity product installed by the

end user. Both Von Neumann as well as various degrees of Harvard
architectures are used. RISC ,as well as non-RISC processors, are found. Word
lengths vary from 4-bit to 64-bits and beyond, although the most typical remain
Most architecture comes in a large number of different variants and shapes,
many of which are also manufactured by several different companies.
Numerous microcontrollers have been developed for embedded systems use.
General-purpose microprocessors are also used in embedded systems but
generally, require more support circuitry than microcontrollers.

 Serial Communication Interfaces (SCI): RS-232, RS-422, RS-485, etc.
 Synchronous Serial Communication Interface: I2C, SPI, SSC and ESSI
(Enhanced Synchronous Serial Interface) Universal Serial Bus (USB)
 Multi-Media Cards (SD cards, Compact Flash, etc.)
 Networks: Ethernet, Lon Works, etc. Field buses: CAN-Bus, LIN-Bus,
 Timers: PLL(s), Capture/Compare and Time Processing Units
 Discrete IO: aka General Purpose Input/output (GPIO)
 Analog to Digital/Digital to Analog (ADC/DAC)
 Debugging: JTAG, ISP, ICSP, BDM Port, BITP, and DB9 ports.


An Embedded System is one that has computer hardware with software
embedded in it as one of its important components. An embedded computer is
frequently a computer that is implemented for a particular purpose. In contrast,
an average PC computer usually serves a number of purposes: checking email,
surfing the internet, listening to music, word processing, etc... However,

embedded systems usually only have a single task or a very small number of
related tasks that they are programmed to perform.
An embedded computer system is an electronic system, which includes a
microcomputer. It is configured to perform a specifically dedicated application.
The software is programmed into ROM. This software is not accessible to the
user of the device, and software solves only a limited range of problems .Here
the microcomputer is embedded or hidden inside the system.
Each embedded microcomputer system, accepts inputs, performs
calculations, and generates outputs and runs in “real time.” For Example a
typical automobile now a day contains an average of ten microcontrollers. In
fact, modern houses may contain as many as 150 microcontrollers and on
average a consumer now interacts with microcontrollers up to 300 times a day.
General areas that employ embedded microcomputers encompass every field of
engineering namely: Communications, automotive, military, medical,
consumer, machine control etc...
Characteristics of Embedded Systems
 Speed (bytes/sec)
 Power (watts)
 Size (cm3) and weight (g)
 Accuracy (% error)
 Adaptability
So, an embedded system must perform the operations at a high speed so
that it can be readily used for real-time applications and its power consumption
must be very low and the size of the system should be as for as possible small
and the readings must be accurate with minimum error. The system must be
easily adaptable for different situations.
Software Issues
The important software issues related to the embedded system are
mentioned below.

 Software maintenance is extremely important.
 Verification of proper operation,
 Updates for the software in periodic intervals are very important.
 Fixing the bugs in the software improves its efficiency and also a very
important factor.
 Adding features, New features must be added to the software whenever
they are available
 Extending to new applications, the software must be upgraded such that
its applicability increases for new application areas.
 Change user configurations. This is an important factor to improve the
popularity of the software.


 It has Hardware Processor, Timers, Interrupt controller, I/O Devices,
Memories, Ports, etc.
 It has a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS).
RTOS defines the way the system work. Which supervise the application
software. It sets the rules during the execution of the application program. A
small scale embedded system may not need an RTOS

Fig 1.8 Embedded System Hardware

Embedded systems are classified into three:
 Small Scale Embedded Systems
 Medium Scale Embedded Systems
 Sophisticated Embedded Systems
Small Scale Embedded Systems:
Small scale embedded systems are designed with a single 8 or 16-bit
microcontroller which may even be operated with a battery. For developing
embedded software for these types of systems, an editor, assembler, (IDE)
integrated development environment, and cross assembler are the main
programming tools.
Medium Scale Embedded Systems:
Medium scale embedded systems are designed with a single or few 16 or
32-bit microcontrollers, DSPs or RISCs. These systems have both hardware and
software complexities. When developing embedded software for these types of
systems, the following programming tools are available. They are C, C++,
Visual C++, Java, and RTOS, source code engineering tool, debugger,
simulator, and integrated development environment.
Sophisticated Embedded Systems:
Sophisticated embedded systems have huge hardware and software
complexities and may need PLAs, IPs, ASIPs, scalable processors or
configurable processors. They are used for cutting-edge applications that need
hardware and software co-design & components which have to combine in the
final system.
Embedded Systems in Automobiles
 Motor Control System
 Cruise Control System

 Engine or Body Safety
 Robotics in Assembly Line
 Car Entertainment
 Car multimedia
 Mobile and E-Com Access
Embedded systems in Telecommunications
 Mobile computing
 Networking
 Wireless Communications
Embedded Systems in Smart
 Cards Banking
 Telephone Security Systems
Embedded Systems in Missiles and Satellites
 Defense
 Aerospace
 Communication
Embedded Systems in Computer Networking & Peripherals
 Networking Systems
 Image Processing
 Printers
 Networks Cards
 Monitors and Displays
Embedded Systems in Digital Consumer Electronics
 DVDs
 Set-top Boxes
 High Definition TVs
 Digital Cameras
The conventional friction brake system is composed of the following basic
components: the “master cylinder” which is located under the hood is directly

connected to the brake pedal and converts the drivers’ foot pressure into
hydraulic pressure. Steel “brake hoses” connect the master cylinder to the “slave
cylinders” located at each wheel. Brake fluid, specially designed to work in
extreme temperature conditions, fills the system. “Shoes” or “pads” are pushed
by the slave cylinders to contact the “drums” or “rotors,” thus causing drag,
which slows the car. Two major kinds of friction brakes are disc brakes and
drum brakes. Disc brakes use a clamping action to produce friction between the
“rotor” and the “pads” mounted in the “caliper” attached to the suspension
members. Disc brakes work using the same basic principle as the brakes on a
bicycle: as the caliper pinches the wheel with pads on both sides, it slows the
Drum brakes consist of a heavy flat-topped cylinder, which is sandwiched
between the wheel rim and the wheel hub. The inside surface of the drum is
acted upon by the linings of the brake shoes. When the brakes are applied, the
brake shoes are forced into contact with the inside surface of the brake drum to
slow the rotation of the wheels (Limpert1992). Air brakes use standard
hydraulic brake system components such as breaking lines, wheel cylinders and
a slave cylinder similar to a master cylinder to transmit the air-pressure-
produced braking energy to the wheel brakes. Air brakes are used frequently
when greater braking capacity is required. All the above mentioned
conventional brakes have two chief problems one is the wear and tear and other
is the unnecessary excessive temperature in the service is attained. Excessive
heating of brakes can result in fade .it causes temporary changes in the friction
as they get hotter. Normally efficiency is regained when they cool again Brake
pads and linings also wear away faster at higher temperatures.


2.1 Yadav, A. and Swetapadma, A., “Improved first one reach setting of
artificial neural network based directional relay for protection of double
circuit transmission lines” IET Generation, Transmission and
Distribution., vol. 8, Issue 3,pp. 373 388, 2014.
For the Taiwan Power Company (Taipower), the margins of coordination
times. Between the lateral circuit breakers (LCB) of underground 4-way
automatic line switches and the protection equipment of high voltage customers
are often too small. This could lead to sympathy tripping by the feeder circuit
breaker (FCB) of the distribution feeder and create difficulties in protection
coordination between upstream and downstream protection equipment,
identification of faults, and restoration operation. In order to solve the problem,
it is necessary to reexamine the protection coordination between LCBs and
High Voltage customers’ protection equipment, and between LCBs and FCBs,
in order to bring forth new proposals for settings and operations. This paper
applies linear programming to optimize the protection coordination of
protection devices and proposes new time current curves (TCCs) for the over
current (CO) and low-energy over current (LCO) relays used in normally open
distribution systems by performing simulations in the Electrical Transient
Analyzer Program (ETAP) environment. The simulation results show that the
new TCCs solve the coordination problems among high voltage customer,
lateral, feeder, bus-interconnection, and distribution transformer. The new
proposals also satisfy the requirements of Taipower on protection coordination
of the distribution feeder automation system (DFAS). Finally, the authors
believe that the system configuration, operation experience, and relevant
criteria mentioned in this paper may serve as valuable references for other
companies or utilities when building DFAS of their own. Distribution feeder
automation system (DFAS) can improve the operation of the distribution
system. Power interruption and restoration can be performed remotely without
field crew. DFAS can perform rapid fault detection, fault isolation, power
restoration in the upstream region, and provide alternative power supply
suggestion when a fault occurs.
The advantages of DFAS include:
1. Less dispatch and traffic, and more safety for the crew personnel.
2. Faster fault identification and isolation, shorter outage time, and smaller
region of an outage.
3. Longer service time periods of distribution feed lines and equipments.
This study discusses and analyzes the operations of the CO and LCO relays of
the lateral circuit breakers (LCB) in an underground 4-way automatic line
switch. When a fault occurs in the lateral, the relays should trip CBs, isolate the
fault, and keep other customers on the same feeder from the outage. To
accomplish such goals and to benefit the most from system automation, all the
protection equipments in the distribution circuit must be properly coordinated.
Based on Taipower regulations, this study discusses and formulates the problem
of coordination of the power fuse PF-65E, automatic line switch, FCB, Tie CB,
and Main CB. The simulation results reported in this paper demonstrate that
these new relay setting parameters can be implemented practically and can
provide adequate resolution of the coordination problems of a D/S or an S/S in
the distribution systems.

2.2 Ming-Ta Yang and Jyh-Cherng Gu “Optimal Coordination of
Automatic Line Switches for Distribution Systems” IEEE 2012, 5, 1150-
1174; doi:10.3390/en5041150.
Transmission lines are an important factor in the power system.
Transmission and distribution lines have a good contribution to the generating
unit and consumers to obtain the continuity of electric supply. Nowadays in the
transmission lines are ON/OFF is the major and important part of the power
system. And also maintenance of the transmission line is also important part in
the transmission line. In the earlier system for the fault like overloading of the
transmission line AB switches are used. The main disadvantage of old AB
switches is they can only operate manually. It requires manpower and it has less
reliability so, we are introducing an automatic AB switch for the protection of
overhead line against overload fault it is operated by PLC system. This AB
switch can have operated remotely and no manpower required on the fault
location. It is more reliable and efficient than the old AB switches. The electric
power system and advance device have become a very complicated system
because of restructuring and the penetration of distributed generation and
storage. In this system, the automation link is made possible between the
detection and the solution to the problem in a minimum amount of time.
This paper represents the system automatic air break switch which is applied to
the overhead line network. This switch is operated by the PLC automation
system. AB switch is installed on transmission line before the main feeder in the
substation. This switch is very useful to detect and overcome the fault of
overloading on the transmission line. When an overload condition is occur AB
switch automatically raised and it opens the circuit to protect the line. It after 5
seconds it again closes the circuit. If the fault is by pass then it continues the
supply but the fault is not to be overcome then beep the alarm and then we got
to know the occurred fault is savior. This AB switch is very reliable and

increases the flexibility of the line. Due to PLC automatic, it is much easier to
access the system and maintain it.

2.3 L. Wei, Y. Min, C. LiangLiang, and C. Ping, “The Design of Intelligent

Household Control System Based on Internet and GSM,” in Proc. 2011
Second International Conference on Networking and Distributed
Computing (ICNDC), Beijing, pp.254–256.
This research work investigates the potential of ‘Full Home Control’,
which is the aim of Home Automation Systems in the near future. The analysis
and implementation of the home automation technology using Global System
for Mobile Communication (GSM) modem to control home appliances such as
light, conditional system, and security system via Short Message Service (SMS)
text messages is presented in this paper. The proposed research work is focused
on the functionality of the GSM protocol, which allows the user to control the
target system away from residential using the frequency bandwidths. The
concept of serial communication and AT-commands has been applied to the
development of the smart GSM-based home automation system. Homeowners
will be able to receive feedback status of any home appliances under control
whether switched on or off remotely from their mobile phones. PIC16F887
microcontroller with the integration of GSM provides the smart automated
house system with the desired baud rate of 9600 bps. The proposed prototype of
GSM based home automation system was implemented and tested with a
maximum of four loads and shows the accuracy of>98%.
Recently, the home automation market is a very promising field that is
growing very fast and needs a vast range of developments that can be carried
out in the concept of a smart home. In this project design and implementation of
smart GSM, the house was considered. PIC16F887 microcontroller with the
cooperation of GSM provides the smart automated house system with the

desired baud rate of 9600 bps. The proposed prototype was implemented and
tested with maximum of four loads and shows the accuracy of ≥98%.

2.4 AHN S.P., KIM C.H., AGGARWAL R.K., JOHNS A.T. “An alternative
approach to adaptive single pole autoreclosing in high voltage transmission
systems based on variable dead timecontrol”, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv.,
2001, 16, (4), pp. 676–686.
Many electricity transmission companies across the world and Ghana, in
particular, are continuously looking for ways to utilize modern technologies, in
order to improve reliability of the power supply to consumers. These
transmission companies mainly relay on circuit indicators (FCIs) to assist in
locating specific spots within their transmission lines where power fault had
occurred. In this paper, a smart GSM based fault detection and location system
was used to adequately and accurately indicate and locate the exact spot where
fault had occurred. This will ensure a shorter response time for the technical
crew to rectify these faults and thus help save transformers from damage and
disasters. The system uses a current transformer, a voltage transformer, PIC
16F877 Microcontroller, RS-232 connector, and a GSM modem. The system
automatically detects faults, analyses and classifies these faults and then,
calculates the fault distance from the control room using an impedance-based
algorithm method. Finally, the fault information is transmitted to the control
room. In conclusion, the time required to locate a fault is drastically reduced, as
the system automatically and accurately provides accurate fault location
In conclusion, the proposed system will provide a reduction in the time
required to locate a fault by automatically providing accurate fault location
information especially in the radial 161Kv radial lines from Kumasi to the
northern part of Ghana, Swale. The system will also be useful in the double
circuit 161kV line connecting the Akosombo Generating Plant in Ghana to

Loma substation in Togo, to supply power to both Togo and Benin. It will also
allow operators such as GRID co to correctly detect and locate faulted segments
on their transmission Lines and, therefore, minimize power disruptions’ to
distribution substations and help save expensive transformers.

2.5 H. Tsutada, T. Hirai, H. Kohyarna, H. Ito, and K. Sasaki,

“Development of Synchronous Switching Controller for Gas Circuit
Breakers,” Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exhibition
2002: Asia Pacific. IEEE/PES, Oct. 2002.
Power flow analysis is the backbone of power system analysis and design.
They are necessary for planning, operation, economic scheduling and exchange
of power between utilities. The principal information of power flow analysis is
to find the magnitude and phase angle of the voltage at each bus and the real
and reactive power flowing in each transmission lines. Power flow analysis is
an important tool involving numerical analysis applied to a power system. In
this analysis, iterative techniques are used due to there no known analytical
method to solve the problem. To finish this analysis there are methods of
mathematical calculations which consist of plenty of steps depend on the size of
the system. This process is difficult and takes a lot of times to perform by hand.
The objective of this project is to develop a toolbox for power flow analysis that
will help the analysis become easier. Power flow analysis software package
develops by the author use MATLAB programming. The economic load
dispatch plays an important role in the operation of power system, and several
models by using different techniques have been used to solve these problems.
Several traditional approaches, like lambda-iteration and gradient method are
utilized to find out the optimal solution of non-linear problem. More recently,
the soft computing techniques have received more attention and were used in a
number of successful and practical applications. Index Terms- Power flow,
Gauss-Serial method, Newton Rap son method, Voltage profile.

Power flow or load-flow studies are important for planning future
expansion of power systems as well as in determining the best operation of
existing systems. The principal information obtained from the power flow study
is the magnitude and phase angle of the voltage at each bus, and the real and
reactive power flowing in each line. We have formulated the algorithm and
designed the MATLAB programs for bus admittance matrix, converting polar
form to rectangular form, Gauss-Seidal method and Newton Raphson method
for analyzing the load flow of the IEEE-30 bus systems. The Voltage magnitude
and angles of a 30 bus system were observed for different values of Reactance
loading and the findings have been presented. From the findings, it is concluded
that increasing the reactance loading resulted in an increased voltage regulation.
Gauss-Sidle has simple calculations and is easy to execute, but as the number of
buses increase, a number of iterations increases. On the other hand, in Newton-

Electricity is the most important factor in the industries, according to this
approach we know that the productivity of the industry based on the availability
of electricity. So the objective of the proposed system is to provide continuous
electricity to industries in an effective manner and also ensuring the safety of
the working person who works with the distribution system.
Here, the proposed system has a two feeder to provide the electricity to the
industries such as Main feeder and Auxiliary feeder. At normal operating
condition electricity only flows through the main feeder. The behavior of the
proposed system is monitored with the help of microcontroller (1) and different
types of the relay. And also monitored information is shown in LCD display by
using a display controller. When a fault occurs on the main feeder operation,
which is sensed by the microcontroller (1) then the power supply will be
switched to the auxiliary feeder in an automatic manner for providing a
continuous power supply to the industry with help of switching devices (Solid
State Transfer Switch-SSTS). Then the system sends the fault information in the
form of SMS to the respective person who is the in-charge of the distribution
system with help of GSM technology for clear the fault on the respective feeder
in a frequent manner. In this condition information about the faulty feeder is
shown in LCD display with the help of the LCD controller. The timer is used to
achieve the synchronized switching action in this proposed system. According
to the above-mentioned approach we can provide continuous power supply to
industries and also monitoring of the power system becomes a wide range with
the help of GSM technology.
In the distribution system, manual switching action of the power supply
is an essential one at the maintenance time. In many areas, AB switches are
used to achieve the switching action, which is sometimes leading an electric
shock. And also we know that Remote switching action only possible in local
area control. So, the GSM control unit is introduced in this system to ensure the
safety of the working person from the electric shock who works with the
distribution system and achieve the worldwide control facility. Electricity is the
most important factor in the industries, according to this approach we know that
the productivity of the industry based on the availability of electricity. So the
objective of the proposed system is to provide continuous electricity to
industries in an effective manner and also ensuring the safety of the working
person who works with the distribution system.
Here, the proposed system has a two feeder to provide the electricity to
the industries such as Main feeder and Auxiliary feeder. At normal operating
condition electricity only flows through the main feeder. The behavior of the
proposed system is monitored with the help of microcontroller (1) and different
types of the relay. And also monitored information is shown in LCD display by
using a display controller.
When a fault occurs on the main feeder operation, which is sensed by the
microcontroller (1) then the power supply will be switched to the auxiliary
feeder in an automatic manner for providing a continuous power supply to the
industry with help of switching devices (Solid State Transfer Switch-SSTS).
Then the system sends the fault information in the form of SMS to the
respective person who is the in-charge of the distribution system with help of
GSM technology for clear the fault on the respective feeder in a frequent
manner. In this condition information about the faulty feeder is shown in LCD
display with the help of the LCD controller. The timer is used to achieve the
synchronized switching action in this proposed system. According to the above-
mentioned approach we can provide continuous power supply to industries and
also monitoring of the power system becomes a wide range with help the of
GSM technology.

In the distribution system, manual switching action of the power supply is
an essential one at the maintenance time. In many areas, AB switches are used
to achieve the switching action, which is sometimes leading an electric shock.
And also we know that Remote switching action only possible in local area
control. So, the GSM control unit is introduced in this system to ensure the
safety of the working person from the electric shock who works with the
distribution system and achieve the worldwide control facility.

Fig 3.1 Flowchart Representation of the System

3.1.1 Block Diagram

Fig 3.1.1 Block Diagram

Here each unit of the system will be classified according to the
performance of the part of the system such as automatic power line switching
unit, Arduino PLC control unit and switched-mode power supply. The overall
block diagram of the system shown in the above figure.

3.1.2 Automatic Power Line Switching Unit
Automatic power line switching unit gets the information from the relay
circuit to monitor the overall performance of the distribution system. It has
following parts such as microcontroller (1), relays, Solid State Transfer Switch,
LCD controller and LCD display. The microcontroller (1) is used to control and
monitor the distribution system and the LCD controller is used to show the
current information about the system. In the proposed system can make
synchronized action according to the knowledge of the microcontroller
3.1.3 Arduino PLC Control Unit
The Arduino PLC control unit has another microcontroller (2) and Solid
State Transfer Switch or relay circuits. The controller (2) is connected with a
personal computer to achieve the required action with respect to the serial
command. The controller is programmed by the AT command code. The
personal computer and Arduino PLC control unit are connected with help the of
USB 2.0 cable for serial communication.
3.1.4 Switched- Mode Power Supply
The switched-mode power supply unit is used for rectification and
provides the required amount of power supply to the all components such as
automatic power line switching unit and GSM control unit, because where all
the components are working with different power range in a form of DC supply.
So the switched- mode power supply is the suitable one, to provide a power
supply to achieve better performance from the automatic power line unit and
GSM control unit.
























~ PD6/AIN0

~ PD3/INT1

~ PB1/OC1A




~ PD6/AIN0

~ PD3/INT1

~ PB1/OC1A










Fig 3.2 Circuit Diagram

There three pins of digital pins are connected with measuring unit
(13,12,11)Four pins of the main controller was connected with switching unit
and GSM also parallel with the controller through RX and TX pins to send the
SMS alert. Here SMPS also connected with the proposed system to provide the
essential power.
 Distribution system fault detection
 Wide range monitoring facility
 Automatic feeder switching



The Arduino UNO is an open-source microcontroller board based on
the Microchip ATmega328P microcontroller and developed by Arduino.cc. The
board is equipped with sets of digital and analog input/output (I/O) pins that
may be interfaced to various expansion boards (shields) and other circuits. The
board has 14 Digital pins, 6 Analog pins, and programmable with the Arduino
IDE (Integrated Development Environment) via a type B USB cable. It can be
powered by a USB cable or by an external 9-volt battery, though it accepts
voltages between 7 and 20 volts. It is also similar to the Arduino Nano and
Leonardo. The hardware reference design is distributed under a Creative
Commons Attribution Share-Alike 2.5 license and is available on the Arduino
website. Layout and production files for some versions of the hardware are also
available. "Uno" means one in Italian and was chosen to mark the release of
Arduino Software (IDE) 1.0. The Uno board and version 1.0 of Arduino
Software (IDE) were the reference versions of Arduino, now evolved to newer
releases. The Uno board is the first in a series of USB Arduino boards, and the
reference model for the Arduino platform. The ATmega328 on the Arduino Uno
comes preprogrammed with a boot loader that allows uploading new code to it
without the use of an external hardware programmer. It communicates using the
original STK500 protocol. The Uno also differs from all preceding boards in
that it does not use the FTDI USB-to-serial driver chip. Instead, it uses the
Atmega16U2 (Atmega8U2 up to version R2) programmed as a USB-to-serial

4.1.1 Specification
 Microcontroller: Microchip ATmega328P
 Operating Voltage: 5 Volt
 Input Voltage: 7 to 20 Volts
 Digital I/O Pins: 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)
 Analog Input Pins: 6
 DC Current per I/O Pin: 20 mA
 DC Current for 3.3V Pin: 50 mA
 Flash Memory: 32 KB of which 0.5 KB used by bootloader
 SRAM: 2 KB
 Clock Speed: 16 MHz
 Length: 68.6 mm
 Width: 53.4 mm
 Weight: 25 g
4.1.2 Communication
The Arduino/Genuino Uno has a number of facilities for communicating
with a computer, another Arduino/Genuino board, or other microcontrollers.
The ATmega328 provides UART TTL (5V) serial communication, which is
available on digital pins 0 (RX) and 1 (TX). An ATmega16U2 on the board
channels this serial communication over USB and appears as a virtual com port
to software on the computer. The 16U2 firmware uses the standard USB COM
drivers, and no external driver is needed. However, on Windows, a .inf file is
required. The Arduino Software (IDE) includes a serial monitor which allows
simple textual data to be sent to and from the board. The RX and TX LEDs on
the board will flash when data is being transmitted via the USB-to-serial chip
and USB connection to the computer (but not for serial communication on pins
0 and 1). A SoftwareSerial library allows serial communication on any of the
Uno's digital pins.

Fig 4.1.2 Arduino UNO
PINS General Pin functions
 LED: There is a built-in LED driven by digital pin 13. When the pin is
HIGH value, the LED is on, when the pin is LOW, it's off.
 VIN: The input voltage to the Arduino/Genuino board when it's using an
external power source (as opposed to 5 volts from the USB connection or
other regulated power supply). You can supply voltage through this pin,
or, if supplying voltage via the power jack, access it through this pin.
 5V: This pin outputs a regulated 5V from the regulator on the board. The
board can be supplied with power either from the DC power jack (7 -
20V), the USB connector (5V), or the VIN pin of the board (7-20V).
Supplying voltage via the 5V or 3.3V pins bypasses the regulator, and
can damage the board.
 3V3: A 3.3 volt supply generated by the onboard regulator. Maximum
current draw is 50 mA.
 GND: Ground pins.
 IOREF: This pin on the Arduino/Genuino board provides the voltage
reference with which the microcontroller operates. A properly configured
shield can read the IOREF pin voltage and select the appropriate power
source or enable voltage translators on the outputs to work with the 5V or

 Reset: Typically used to add a reset button to shields which block the one
on the board.


GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) is a digital mobile
network that is widely used by mobile phone users in Europe and other parts of
the world.GSM uses a variation of time division multiple access (TDMA) and is
the most widely used of the three digital wireless telephony technologies:
TDMA, GSM and code-division multiple access (CDMA).

Fig 4.2 Global System For Mobile Communication

GSM digitizes and compresses data, then sends it down a channel with
two other streams of user data, each in its own time slot. It operates at either the
900 megahertz (MHz) or 1,800 MHz frequency band.GSM, together with other
technologies, is part of the evolution of wireless mobile telecommunications
that includes High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD), General Packet
Radio Service (GPRS), Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE) and
Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS).

A relay is an electrically operated switch that can be turned on or off,
letting the current go through or not, and can be controlled with low voltages,
like the 5 V provided by the Arduino pins. Controlling a relay module with the
Arduino is as simple as controlling any other output as we’ll see later on.

Fig 4.3.1 Relay-module

This relay module has two channels (those blue cubes). There are other
models with one, four and eight channels. This module should be powered with
5V, which is appropriate to use with an Arduino. There are other relay modules
that are powered using 3.3V, which is ideal for ESP32, ESP8266, and other
The following figure shows the relay pinout.

Fig 4.3.2 Relay pinout

 COM: Common pin
 NC (Normally Closed): The normally closed configuration is used when
you want the relay to be closed by default, meaning the current is flowing
unless you send a signal from the Arduino to the relay module to open the
circuit and stop the current.
 NO (Normally Open): The normally open configuration works the other
way around: the relay is always open, so the circuit is broken unless you
send a signal from the Arduino to close the circuit. If you just want to
light up a lamp occasionally, it is better to use a normally-open circuit
 The set at the right consists of VCC and GND to power up the module,
and input 1 (IN1) and input 2 (IN2) to control the bottom and top relays,
The second set of pins consists of GND, VCC, and JD-VCC pins. The JD-
VCC pin powers the electromagnet of the relay.
Note: Notice that the module has a jumper cap connecting the VCC and JD-
VCC pins; the one shown here is blue, but yours may be a different color. The
jumper cap allows you to choose whether the circuit is physically connected to
the Arduino circuit or not, and you can choose to have it on or not. With the
jumper cap on, the VCC and JD-VCC pins are connected. That means the relay
electromagnet is directly powered from the Arduino’s power pin, so the relay
module and the Arduino circuits are not physically isolated from each other
(this is the configuration we’ll use). Without the jumper cap, you need to
provide an independent power source to power up the relay’s electromagnet
through the JD-VCC pin. That configuration physically isolates the relays from
the Arduino with the module’s built-in opto coupler.
The connections between the relay module and the Arduino are really simple:
GND: Goes to ground
IN1: Controls the first relay (it will be connected to an Arduino digital pin)

IN2: Controls the second relay (it should be connected to an Arduino digital pin
if you are using this second relay. Otherwise, you don’t need to connect it)
VCC: Goes to 5V


A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display, electronic visual
display, or video display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid
crystals. Liquid crystals do not emit light directly. LCDs are available to display
arbitrary images (as in a general-purpose computer display) or fixed images
which can be displayed or hidden, such as preset words, digits, and 7-
segment displays as in a digital clock. They use the same basic technology,
except that arbitrary images are made up of a large number of small pixels,
while other displays have larger elements. An LCD is a small low-cost display.
It is easy to interface with a micro-controller because of an embedded controller
(the black blob on the back of the board). This controller is standard across
many displays (HD 44780) which means many micro-controllers (including the
Arduino) have libraries that make displaying messages as easy as a single line
of code.

Fig 4.4.1 LCD display unit

LCDs are used in a wide range of applications including computer

monitors, televisions, instrument panels, aircraft cockpit displays, and
signage.They are common in consumer devices such as video players, gaming

devices, clocks, watches, calculators, and telephones, and have replaced cathode
ray tube (CRT) displays in most applications. They are available in a wider
range of screen sizes than CRT and plasma displays, and since they do not use
phosphors, they do not suffer image burn-in. LCDs are, however, susceptible
to image persistence.

Fig 4.4.2 Internal working of LCD unit

Table 4.4 Pin description

Function Name

1 Ground (0V) Ground

2 Supply voltage; 5V (4.7V – 5.3V) Vcc

3 Contrast adjustment; through a variable resistor VEE

Selects command register when low; and data register when

4 Register Select

5 Low to write to the register, High to read from the register Read/write

6 Sends data to data pins when a high to low pulse is given Enable

7 DB0

8 DB1

9 DB2

10 DB3
8-bit data pins
11 DB4

12 DB5

13 DB6

14 DB7

15 Backlight VCC (5V) Led+

16 Backlight Ground (0V) Led-

The power supply is a reference to a source of electrical power. A device
or system that supplies electrical or other types of energy to an output load or
group of loads is called a power supply unit or PSU. The term is most
commonly applied to electrical energy supplies, less often to mechanical ones,
and rarely to others.
Power supplies for electronic devices can be broadly divided into linear
and switching power supplies. The linear supply is a relatively simple design
that becomes increasingly bulky and heavy for high current devices; voltage
regulation in a linear supply can result in low efficiency. A switched-mode
supply of the same rating as a linear supply will be smaller, is usually more
efficient but will be more complex.
4.5.1 Linear Power supply:
An AC powered linear power supply usually uses a transformer to
convert the voltage from the wall outlet (mains) to a different, usually a lower
voltage. If it is used to produce DC, a rectifier is used. A capacitor is used to
smooth the pulsating current from the rectifier. Some small periodic deviations
from smooth direct current will remain, which is known as ripple. These
pulsations occur at a frequency related to the AC power frequency (for example,
a multiple of 50 or 60 Hz).
4.5.2 Transformer:

Fig 4.5.2 Transformer

Transformers convert AC electricity from one voltage to another with
little loss of power. Transformers work only with AC and this is one of the
reasons why mains electricity is AC. Step-up transformers increase voltage,
step-down transformers reduce voltage. Most power supplies use a step-down
transformer to reduce the dangerously high mains voltage (230V in UK) to a
safer low voltage.
The input coil is called the primary and the output coil is called the
secondary. There is no electrical connection between the two coils; instead, they
are linked by an alternating magnetic field created in the soft-iron core of the
transformer. The two lines in the middle of the circuit symbol represent the
Transformers waste very little power to the power out is (almost) equal to
the power in. Note that as the voltage is stepped down current is stepped up.
The ratio of the number of turns on each coil, called the turn’s ratio, determines
the ratio of the voltages. A step-down transformer has a large number of turns
on it’s primary (input) coil which is connected to the high voltage mains supply,
and a small number of turns on its secondary (output) coil to give a low output
4.5.3 Bridge Rectifier:
A bridge rectifier can be made using four individual diodes, but it is also
available in special packages containing the four diodes required. It is called a
full-wave rectifier because it uses the entire AC wave (both positive and
negative sections). 1.4V is used up in the bridge rectifier because each diode
uses 0.7V when conducting and there are always two diodes conducting, as
shown in the diagram below. Bridge rectifiers are rated by the maximum current
they can pass and the maximum reverse voltage they can withstand (this must
be at least three times the supply RMS voltage so the rectifier can withstand the
peak voltages). Please see the DIODES page for more details, including pictures
of bridge rectifiers.

Fig 4.5.3 Bridge Rectifier
Alternate pairs of diodes conduct, changing over the connections so the
alternating directions of AC are converted to the one direction of DC.
Output: full-wave varying DC: (using the entire AC wave):

4.5.4 Smoothing:
Smoothing is performed by a large value electrolytic capacitor connected
across the DC supply to act as a reservoir, supplying current to the output when
the varying DC voltage from the rectifier is falling. The diagram shows the
unsmoothed varying DC (dotted line) and the smoothed DC (solid line). The
capacitor charges quickly near the peak of the varying DC and then discharges
as it supplies current to the output.

Fig Smoothing
Note that smoothing significantly increases the average DC voltage to
almost the peak value (1.4 × RMS value). For example, 6V RMS AC is
rectified to full wave DC of about 4.6V RMS (1.4V is lost in the bridge
rectifier), with smoothing this increases to almost the peak value giving
1.4 × 4.6 = 6.4V smooth DC.
Smoothing is not perfect due to the capacitor voltage falling a little as it
discharges, giving a small ripple voltage. For many circuits a ripple which is
10% of the supply voltage is satisfactory and the equation below gives the
required value for the smoothing capacitor. A larger capacitor will give fewer
ripples. The capacitor value must be doubled when smoothing half-wave DC.
Smoothing Capacitor for 10% ripple, C=5*10/vs.*f
C = Smoothing capacitance in farads (F)
Io = Output current from the supply in amps (A)
Vs = Supply voltage in volts (V), this is the peak value of the unsmoothed DC
f = Frequency of the AC supply in hertz (Hz), 50Hz in the UK.

Fig Power Supply Circuit
The smooth DC output has a small ripple. It is suitable for most electronic
Voltage regulator ICs are available with fixed (typically 5, 12 and 15V)
or variable output voltages. They are also rated by the maximum current they
can pass. Negative voltage regulators are available, mainly for use in dual
supplies. Most regulators include some automatic protection from excessive
current ('overload protection') and overheating ('thermal protection').
The LM78XX series of three terminal regulators is available with several
fixed output voltages making them useful in a wide range of applications. One
of these is local on-card regulation, eliminating the distribution problems
associated with single point regulation. The voltages available allow these
regulators to be used in logic systems, instrumentation, HiFi, and other solid
states electronic equipment. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage
regulators these devices can be used with external components to obtain
adjustable voltages and current.
Many of the fixed voltage regulator ICs has 3 leads and look like power
transistors, such as the 7805 +5V 1A regulator shown on the right. They include
a hole for attaching a heat sink if necessary.

1. Positive regulator
1. Input pin
2. Ground pin
3. Output pin
It regulates the positive voltage
2. Negative regulator
1. Ground pin
2. Input pin
3. Output pin
It regulates the negative voltage

Fig Switched-Mode Power Supply

The regulated DC output is very smooth with no ripple. It is suitable for
all electronic circuits.

Arduino is an open source, computer hardware and software company,
project, and user community that designs and manufactures microcontroller kits
for building digital devices and interactive objects that can sense and control
objects in the physical world. The project's products are distributed as open-
source hardware and software, which are licensed under the GNU Lesser
General Public License (LGPL) or the GNU General Public License (GPL),
permitting the manufacture of Arduino boards and software distribution by
Arduino boards are available commercially in preassembled form, or as
do-it-yourself kits. Arduino board designs use a variety of microprocessors and
controllers. The boards are equipped with sets of digital and analog input/output
(I/O) pins that may be interfaced to various expansion boards (shields) and other
circuits. The boards feature serial communications interfaces, including
Universal Serial Bus (USB) on some models, which are also used for loading
programs from personal computers.
The microcontrollers are typically programmed using a dialect of features
from the programming languages C and C++. In addition to using traditional
compiler tool chains, the Arduino project provides an integrated development
environment (IDE) based on the Processing language project. The Arduino
project started in 2005 as a program for students at the Interaction Design
Institute Ivrea in Ivrea, Italy, aiming to provide a low-cost and easy way for
novices and professionals to create devices that interact with their environment
using sensors and actuators. Common examples of such devices intended for
beginner hobbyists include simple robots, thermostats, and motion detectors.

Fig 5.1 Command Window
The origin of the Arduino project started at the Interaction Design Institute
Ivrea (IDII) in Ivrea, Italy. At that time, the students used a BASIC Stamp
microcontroller at a cost of $100, a considerable expense for many students. In
2004, Colombian student Hernando Barragán created the development platform
Wiring as a Master's thesis project at IDII, under the supervision of Massimo
Banzi and Casey Reas, who are known for work on the Processing language.
The project goal was to create simple, low-cost tools for creating digital projects
by non-engineers. The Wiring platform consisted of a printed circuit board

(PCB) with an ATmega168 microcontroller, an IDE based on Processing and
library functions to easily program the microcontroller.
In 2005, Massimo Banzi, with David Mellis, another IDII student, and
David Cuartielles, added support for the cheaper ATmega8 microcontroller to
Wiring. But instead of continuing the work on Wiring, they copied the Wiring
source code and renamed it as a separate project, called Arduino. The initial
Arduino core team consisted of Massimo Banzi, David Cuartielles, Tom Igoe,
Gianluca Martino, and David Mellis, but Barragán was not invited to
participate. Following the completion of the Wiring platform, lighter and less-
expensive versions were distributed in the open-source community.
Adafruit Industries, a New York City supplier of Arduino boards, parts,
and assemblies, estimated in mid-2011 that over 300,000 official Arduinos had
been commercially produced, and in 2013 that 700,000 official boards were in
users' hands.
Arduino is open-source hardware. The hardware reference designs are
distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 2.5 license and
are available on the Arduino website. Layout and production files for some
versions of the hardware are also available. The source code for the IDE is
released under the GNU General Public License, version 2.
Nevertheless, an official Bill of Materials of Arduino boards has never
been released by Arduino staff. Although the hardware and software designs are
freely available under copy left licenses, the developers have requested that the
name Arduino be exclusive to the official product and not be used for derived
works without permission. The official policy document on the use of the
Arduino name emphasizes that the project is open to incorporating work by
others into the official product. Several Arduino-compatible products
commercially released have avoided the project name by using various names
ending in –duino.

An Arduino board consists of an Atmel 8-, 16- or 32-bit AVR
microcontroller (ATmega8, ATmega168, ATmega328, ATmega1280,
ATmega2560), but other makers' microcontrollers have been used since 2015.
The boards use single-row pins or female headers that facilitate connections for
programming and incorporation into other circuits. These may connect with
add-on modules termed shields. Multiple, and possibly stacked shields may be
individually addressable via an I²C serial bus. Most boards include a 5 V linear
regulator and a 16 MHz crystal oscillator or ceramic resonator. Some designs,
such as the LilyPad, run at 8 MHz and dispense with the onboard voltage
regulator due to specific form-factor restrictions. Arduino microcontrollers are
pre-programmed with a boot loader that simplifies uploading of programs to the
on-chip flash memory.
The default boot loader of the Arduino UNO is the optiboot boot loader.
Boards are loaded with program code via a serial connection to another
computer. Some serial Arduino boards contain a level shifter circuit to convert
between RS-232 logic levels and transistor–transistor logic (TTL) level signals.
Current Arduino boards are programmed via Universal Serial Bus (USB),
implemented using USB-to-serial adapter chips such as the FTDI FT232. Some
boards, such as later-model Uno boards, substitute the FTDI chip with a
separate AVR chip containing USB-to-serial firmware, which is
reprogrammable via its own ICSP header. Other variants, such as the Arduino
Mini and the unofficial Boarduino, use a detachable USB-to-serial adapter
board or cable, Bluetooth or other methods, when used with traditional
microcontroller tools instead of the Arduino IDE, standard AVR in-system
programming (ISP) programming is used. An official Arduino Uno R2 with
descriptions of the I/O locations The Arduino board exposes most of the
microcontroller's I/O pins for use by other circuits.
The Diecimila, Duemilanove, and current Uno provide 14 digital I/O pins,
six of which can produce pulse-width modulated signals, and six analog inputs,

which can also be used as six digital I/O pins. These pins are on the top of the
board, via female 0.1-inch (2.54 mm) headers. Several plug-in application
shields are also commercially available. The Arduino Nano, and Arduino-
compatible Bare Bones Board and Boarduino boards may provide male header
pins on the underside of the board that can plug into solderless breadboards.
Many Arduino-compatible and Arduino-derived boards exist.
Some are functionally equivalent to an Arduino and can be used
interchangeably. Many enhance the basic Arduino by adding output drivers,
often for use in school-level education, to simplify making buggies and small
robots. Others are electrically equivalent but change the form factor, sometimes
retaining compatibility with shields, sometimes not. Some variants use different
processors, of varying compatibility.
5.1.1 Software Development
A program for Arduino may be written in any programming language for
a compiler that produces binary machine code for the target processor. Atmel
provides a development environment for their microcontrollers, AVR Studio,
and the newer Atmel Studio. The Arduino project provides the Arduino
integrated development environment (IDE), which is a cross-platform
application written in the programming language Java. It originated from the
IDE for the languages Processing and Wiring. It includes a code editor with
features such as text cutting and pasting, searching and replacing text, automatic
indenting, brace matching, and syntax highlighting, and provides simple one-
click mechanisms to compile and upload programs to an Arduino board.
It also contains a message area, a text console, a toolbar with buttons for
common functions and a hierarchy of operation menus. A program written with
the IDE for Arduino is called a sketch. Sketches are saved on the development
computer as text files with the file extension .ino. Arduino Software (IDE) pre-
1.0 saved sketches with the extension .pde. The Arduino IDE supports the
languages C and C++ using special rules of code structuring. The Arduino IDE

supplies a software library from the Wiring project, which provides many
common input and output procedures. The user-written code only requires two
basic functions, for starting the sketch and the main program loop, that is
compiled and linked with a program stub main() into an executable cyclic
executive program with the GNU toolchain, also included with the IDE
The Arduino IDE employs the program avrdude to convert the executable
code into a text file in the hexadecimal encoding that is loaded into the Arduino
board by a loader program in the board's firmware.
5.1.2 Softwares
A minimal Arduino C/C++ sketch, as seen by the Arduino IDE
programmer, consist of only two functions:
This function is called once when a sketch starts after power-up or reset. It
is used to initialize variables, input and output pin modes, and other libraries
needed in the sketch.
After setup has been called, the function loop is executed repeatedly in the
main program. It controls the board until the board is powered off or is reset.
Most Arduino boards contain a light-emitting diode (LED) and a load resistor
connected between pin 13 and ground, which is a convenient feature for many
tests and program functions

5.2.1 Introduction
The microcontroller can understand a program written in assembly
language, it must be compiled into a language of zeros and ones. Assembly
language and Assembler do not have the same meaning. The first one refers to
the set of rules used for writing program for the microcontroller, while the latter

refers to a program on a personal computer used to translate assembly language
statements into the language of zeros and ones. A compiled program is also
called Machine Code.
In machine code, the same command is represented by a 14-bit array of
zeros and ones understandable by the microcontroller. All assembly language
commands are similarly compiled into the corresponding array of zeros and
ones. A data file used for storing compiled program is called an "executive file",
i.e. "HEX data file". The name comes from the hexadecimal presentation of a
data file and has a suffix of "hex" as well, for example, "probe.hex".
After has been generated, the data file is loaded into the microcontroller
using a programmer. Assembly language programs may be written in any
program for text processing (editor) able to create ASCII data files on a hard
disc or in a specialized work environment such as MPLAB described later.
5.2.2 Embedded C
Looking around, we find ourselves to be surrounded by various types
of embedded system. Be it a digital camera or a mobile phone or a washing
machine, all of them has some kind of processor functioning inside it.
Associated with each processor is the embedded software. If hardware forms the
body of an embedded system, embedded processor acts as the brain, and
embedded software forms its soul. It is the embedded software which primarily
governs the functioning of embedded systems.
During infancy years of microprocessor-based systems, programs were
developed using assemblers and fused into the EPROMs. There used to be no
mechanism to find what the program was doing. LEDs, switches, etc. were used
to check the correct execution of the program. Some ‘very fortunate’ developers
had In-circuit Simulators (ICEs), but they were too costly and were not quite
reliable as well.
Embedded C requires compilers to create files to be downloaded to the
microcontrollers/microprocessors where it needs to run. Embedded compilers

give access to all resources which is not provided in compilers for desktop
computer applications.
Embedded systems are programmed using a different type of languages:
 Machine Code
 Low-level language, i.e., assembly
 A High-level language like C, C++, Java, Ada, etc.
 Application level language like Visual Basic, scripts, Access, etc.
 It is small and reasonably simpler to learn, understand, program and
 C Compilers are available for almost all embedded devices in use today,
and there is a large pool of experienced C programmers.
 Unlike assembly, C has the advantage of processor-independence and is
not specific to any particular microprocessor/ microcontroller or any
 This makes it convenient for a user to develop programs that can run on
2most of the systems.
5.2.3 Proteus ISIS 7 Simulator
Proteus (PROcessor for TExt Easy to USe) is a fully functional,
procedural programming language created in 1998 by Simone Zanella. Proteus
incorporates many functions derived from several other
languages: C, BASIC, Assembly, Clipper/dBase; it is especially versatile in
dealing with strings, having hundreds of dedicated functions; this makes it one
of the richest languages for text manipulation. Proteus owes its name to a Greek
god of the sea (Proteus), who took care of Neptune's crowd and gave responses
he was renowned for being able to transform himself, assuming different
shapes. Transforming data from one form to another is the main usage of this

Proteus was initially created as a multiplatform (DOS, Windows, Unix)
system utility, to manipulate text and binary files and to create CGI scripts. The
language was later focused on Windows, by adding hundreds of specialized
functions for: network and serial communication, database interrogation, system
service creation, console applications, keyboard emulation, ISAPI scripting
(for IIS). Most of these additional functions are only available in the Windows
flavor of the interpreter, even though a Linux version is still available.
Proteus was designed to be practical (easy to use, efficient, complete), readable
and consistent.
Its strongest points are:
 Powerful string manipulation;
 Comprehensibility of Proteus scripts;
 Availability of advanced data structures: arrays, queues (single or
double), stacks, bit maps, sets, AVL trees.
The language can be extended by adding user functions written in Proteus
or DLLs created in C/C++.

Fig 5.2.3 Proteus ISIS 7 Simulator

Proteus is design software developed by Lab center Electronics for
electronic circuit simulation, schematic capture, and PCB design. Its simplicity

and user-friendly design made it popular among electronics hobbyists. Proteus
is commonly used for digital simulations such as microcontrollers and
microprocessors. It can simulate LED, LDR, and USB Communication etc...
At first sight, Proteus may appear similar to Basic because of its straight syntax,
but similarities are limited to the surface:
 Proteus has a fully functional, procedural approach;
 Variables are untyped, do not need to be declared, can be local or public
and can be passed by value or by reference;
 All the typical control structures are available (if-then-else; for-next;
while-loop; repeat-until; switch-case);
 New functions can be defined and used as native functions.
Data types supported by Proteus are only three: integer numbers, floating
point numbers, and strings. Access to advanced data structures (files, arrays,
queues, stacks, AVL trees, sets and so on) takes place by using handles, i.e.
integer numbers returned by item creation functions. The type declaration is
unnecessary: variable type is determined by the function applied – Proteus
converts on the fly every variable when needed and holds previous data
renderings, to avoid performance degradation caused by repeated conversions.
There is no need to add parenthesis in expressions to determine the evaluation
order because the language is fully functional (there are no operators).
Proteus includes hundreds of functions for:
 Accessing a file system;
 Sorting data;
 Manipulating dates and strings;
 Interacting with the user (console functions)
 Calculating logical and mathematical expressions.
Proteus supports associative arrays (called sets) and AVL trees, which are
very useful and powerful to quickly sort and lookup values.
Two types of regular expressions are supported:

 Extended (Unix like);
 Basic (Dos like having just the wildcards "?" and "*").
Both types of expressions can be used to parse and compare data.
The functional approach and the extensive library of built-in functions
allow to write very short but powerful scripts; to keep them comprehensible,
medium-length keywords were adopted. The user, besides writing new high-
level functions in Proteus, can add new functions in C/C++ by following the
guidelines and using the templates available in the software development kit;
the new functions can be invoked exactly the same way as the predefined ones,
passing expressions by value or variables by reference.
Proteus is an interpreted language:
Programs are loaded into memory, pre-compiled and run; since the
number of built-in functions is large, execution speed is usually very good and
often comparable to that of compiled programs.
One of the most interesting features of Proteus is the possibility of running
scripts as services or ISAPI scripts. Running a Proteus script as a service,
started as soon as the operating system has finished loading, gives many
 No user needs to login to start the script;
 A service can be run with different privileges so that it cannot be stopped
by a user.
This is very useful to protect critical processes in industrial environments
(data collection, device monitoring), or to avoid that the operator inadvertently
closes a utility (keyboard emulation). The ISAPI version of Proteus can be used
to create scripts run through Internet Information Services and is equipped with
specific functions to cooperate with the web server.
For intellectual property protection Proteus provides:
 Script encryption;

 The digital signature of the scripts, by using the development key (which
is unique);
 The option to enable or disable the execution of a script (or part of it) by
using the key of the customer.
Proteus is appreciated because it is relatively easy to write short, powerful
and comprehensible scripts, a large number of built-in functions, together with
the examples in the manual, keep low the learning curve.

The Proteus 8 software is used to simulate the proposed idea of the
system. Here the proposed system mainly classified according to the
performance of parts in each unit.
 Automatic power line switching unit
 Arduino PLC control unit

Fig 6.1 Simulation diagram for Automatic power line switching unit
In this proposed system have two types of feeders to provide an
uninterrupted power supply to the industries/consumer. At normal operating
condition power supply only flows through the main feeder. When a fault
occurs on the main feeder such time only power supply switched into the
auxiliary feeder. The automatic power line switching unit has a microcontroller
(1) to achieve the continuous monitoring of the distribution system. It gets
parameters about the distribution system from the different types of relay

circuits. And also which is paralleled with GSM control unit to send the SMS to
the respective person at the fault situations.
The above-mentioned Figure 5.1 represents the circuit connection and
performance of the automatic power line switching unit. When there is no fault
in the distribution system such time which system gets positive logic of inputs
from the relay circuits. So the power supplies troughs only on main feeders to
the respective industries/consumer. In this condition, the proposed system
displays on LCD display such as “SYSTEM NORMAL” with help of the LCD
controller. If the fault is detected by the relay circuit on the main feeders
operation, such time the automatic power line switching unit transfers the
electric power to the auxiliary feeder. And also which system sends the fault
alert to the respective person with the help of GSM control unit. The following
figure (3) describes the function automatic power line switching unit when the
fault occurs on both main feeders.
In this condition, which system shows in LCD display “(K) PHASE
FAILURE” and “AUXI FEEDER (K)” with help of the LCD controller. Here
“K” is the variable which varies with respect to the failure phase as follows R, B
and N. Thus the overall function of the automatic switching unit for a
distribution system modal was described in the form of tabulation in Table (1).
According to the below tabulation, here 0s are indicated failure of the feeder
and 1s are indicates normal operating condition of the feeder.

Table 6.1 Automatic power line switching unit


Auxi R ph B ph N Auxi R ph B ph N
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1
0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1
1 1 0 1 1(B) 1 0 1
1 0 1 0 1(R) 0 1 1
1 1 1 0 1(N) 1 1 0


The Arduino PLC control unit is a part of the system, which is capable of
sending and receiving a command and instructions respectively by using USB
2.0 cable. It provides the facility to control the distribution system according to
the requirements of the user. It is very useful to the respective person who
works with the distribution system. This has an individual controller and
switching circuits to implement the required actions. The following diagram (4)
represents the GSM control unit circuit diagram.

Fig 6.2 Arduino PLC control unit circuit diagram

Here the performance of the system is programmed in the controller like
an automatic power line switching unit for each command as per the required in
the Arduino PLC control unit. This module provides a wide of control facility
so we can control the distribution system in an effective manner.
The overall control strategy of the proposed two industries distribution system
described in the form of tabulation with respective comment model in the
following Table (6.2).
Table 6.2 Arduino PLC control unit


#R. power on* Normal Mode

#R. shutdown* Shutdown

#R.mainR1 on* R phase Enable

#R.1Rmain off* R phase Disable

#R.auxiR1 on* Auxiliary (R ph) Enable

#R.1Rauxi off* Auxiliary (R ph) Disable

#R.mainB2 on* B phase Enable

#R.2Bmain off* B phase Disable

#R.auxiB2 on* Auxiliary (B ph) Enable

#R.2Bauxi off* Auxiliary (B ph) Disable

Here hardware is designed for R and Y phases because in India
commonly domestic and commercial loads are connected with these phases. So
this phase’s are met short circuit frequently.

Fig 6.3.1 Photograph of the hardware system

From the above photograph, we can clearly visible the circuit and
operating mechanism when the R phase in a failure condition. Here the R phase
power supply will be switched to Auxiliary feeder. Similarly, the real-time kit
also similar to software simulation result. At this event, the message alert and
the Arduino PLC control units PC screen are shown in the following figures.

Fig 6.3.2 Photograph of the SMS alert
When the distribution operator wants to change the power flow in the
feeders such time the Arduino PLC control unit is a suitable thing to control
distribution system with help of command. The control strategy of computer
display shown in the following figure.

Fig 6.3.3 Photograph of Arduino PLC control unit monitor


This project is designed to achieve an uninterrupted power distribution

system with Arduino PLC control from the conventional distribution system.

Here proposed a methodology of the distribution system ensures the continuous

power supply to the small industries/customer and workers safety who work

with the system. This uninterrupted power distribution system is economical,

simple, efficient, compact, fast and user-friendly. Using GSM technology to

send the fault alert message to the respective person is most suitable, wide

availability, good coverage, and being cost effective. And also proposed

Arduino PLC control strategy is a new thing for a distribution system. In future

we promote the proposed system with Zigbee monitoring facilities.

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