INDEX:
Wind Power Integration With Thermal Power Plant
Contents 
Page Number 
Preface 
3 
Introduction 
57 
Literature Survey 
811 
Theoretical Overview 
1222 
Work Done 
2343 
Conclusion 
44 
Reference 
4547 
Techno India, Salt Lake
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PREFACE:
Wind Power Integration With Thermal Power Plant
The project ‘WIND POWER INTEGRATION WITH THERMAL POWER PLANT’ highlights the incorporation of the use of a non conventional energy resource with a conventional one. Presently in India a greater percentage of the energy demand is fulfilled by the thermal power. This demand is going to increase by several folds in the subsequent years. From this relation it can be correctly estimated that the production of thermal power has to be increased and hence there will a severe crunch in the supply of the conventional fuels in the forthcoming years. Moreover majority of the conventional fuels produce pollutants of various kinds which affect the atmosphere as well as the biotic and the abiotic components of the environment. Therefore it is very much needed that we must enhance the use of renewable sources of energy. However in the initial years it is not possible to replace every conventional source with a non conventional one. Hence integration or partial incorporation of renewable fuels is utmost required. This integration if utilized properly along with the initiative of the respective bodies can easily find a major area of usage in the subsequent years. Through this project we have tried to emphasize the integration of wind power with thermal power. It is not however claimed that integration of a renewable source with a non renewable one will always yield positive and satisfactory results if all the respective fields are considered. But keeping aside very minimum number of fallacies this integration will definitely yield better results in maximum aspects.
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ABSTRACT:
Wind Power Integration With Thermal Power Plant
From the view point of modern energy requirement and the load demand, the limit of generation of power by a thermal power plant is increasing. So if we can integrate one of the renewable energy sources with a thermal plant to a permissible limit, we can reduce the usage of conventional energy sources .To analyze the above problem we initiate a load flow analysis procedure through MI POWER software using Newton Raphson method . As the power output from the wind turbine is much smaller, we need to use several wind turbines for getting the output equal to one generator in thermal power plant. Here after using conventional thermal generators and obtaining the corresponding results we replace some of the generators by wind turbine and then derive the result of the same system through MI POWER. Then we make a comparison of both results and start relating those with the economical advantage. By this we can make an impact in the usage of nonconventional energy sources in integration with conventional resource.
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INTRODUCTION:
Wind Power Integration With Thermal Power Plant
The ever increasing demand of electrical energy all over the world involves scientists and engineers to think about renewable energy sources. It is also now widely recognized that the fossil fuels (i.e. coal, petroleum and natural gas) and other conventional resources may not be either sufficient or suitable to keep pace with ever increasing demand of the electrical energy. The economic and environmental problems in the power generation have received considerable attention. The apparition of the energy crisis and the excessive increase of the consumption have obliged production companies to implant renewable sources. However, this production poses many technical problems for their integration in the electric system.
The economic dispatch is a significant function in the modern energy system. Economic dispatch is the shortterm determination of the optimal output of a number of electricity generation facilities, to meet the system load, at the lowest possible cost, subject to transmission and operational constraints. Also generation of electrical power by coal based steam power plant or nuclear power plants causes pollution, which is likely to be more acute in future due to large generating capacity on one side and greater awareness of the people in this respect. Renewable energy sources like solar, wind, bio energy, hydropower etc are becoming popular day by day because they are plentiful, inexhaustible and nonpolluting. One of the major benefits of wind energy is that, after the initial land and capital costs, there is essentially no cost involved in the production of power from wind energy conversion systems (WECS). Drawbacks of wind power are the unwieldy size, high structural area and quite large finance requirement. Also varying wind speed creates problem in the case of wind mills employed for electric power generation (ac output). Due to this the speed of the wind mill will vary resulting in fluctuating voltage and frequency. In particular, optimal selection of Online units (unit commitment) and optimal output levels of committed units (dispatch procedures) for conventional generation need to be revised. With increasing fuel price and environmental concern the government of all over the world has commissioned research and application on renewable energy and a huge number of wind farms are going to be connected to the existing network in the near future. One of the problems that wind energy will create in electrical power systems is the dependence of the injected power on the wind speed. Other major problem in wind generator output power
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smoothing is setting of the reference output power. But as seen, the amplitude of the wind power variation at current wind power grid penetration and the load variations are not much different. However there are two major aspects of wind power variations which make it complicated to manage than fluctuation in load; the unpredictability and irregularity. Since the total load variations are predictable, it is possible to plan the scheduling of the thermal units to compensate for the load variations. If the sharing of renewable energies in gross domestic energy consumption is to be achieved, efforts should be directed to the power quality related problems when fluctuating power from renewable sources is tapped into the power network. Power system operators are reluctant to accept the fluctuating & largely undispatchable generating resource of renewable in their pool because of their concern about the quality of power. Voltage quality is one of the technical problems to be faced when high amounts of renewable sources are penetrating the power network. Recently voltagesource or currentsource inverters based flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) devices such as static VAR compensator (SVC), static reactive compensator (STATCOM), dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) and unified power flow controller (UPFC) have been use for flexible power flow control, secure loading and damping of power oscillation of grid connected wind wound rotor generator. For the thermal units it is obviously the aggregated impact of the wind power and the total load which is of importance. The load on the thermal units ( i.e. the total load reduced by the wind power generation) will become less predictable and less regular as wind power is introduced in the system. The Economic Dispatch (ED) of electric power generation is one of the most important optimization problems in power system. Its task is to allocate load over the set of dispatch able units so that the required power is generated at the least cost. Since wind power does not consume fossil fuel, hence adoption & variation of high penetration wind power will have notable impact to economic dispatch of power system. Variations in load in a windthermal power system that uses no active strategy for management can be managed in three different ways;
By part load operation of thermal units ,
By starting/stopping thermal units or
By curtailing wind power.
The choice of variation management strategy depends on the properties of the thermal units which are available for management and the duration of the variation. In a power system where
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cost is minimized, the variation management strategy associated with the lowest cost is obviously chosen. If the output of wind power and some large base load unit exceeds demand for an hour, curtailment of wind power (or possibly some combination with part load of the thermal unit) might be the solution associated with the lowest total system cost. If the same situation lasts for half a day, stopping the thermal unit might be preferable from a cost minimizing perspective. To be able to take variation management decisions into account in the dispatch of units, knowledge of the start up and part load properties of the thermal unit is necessary. Induction Generator (I.G) is widely used as wind generator due to its simple, rugged & maintenance free construction. But it has some stability problem.
In this project at first we have done the load flow analyses of a typical electrical system consisting of 5 thermal generators units. Further we will replace the generators with the wind turbine and do load flow analysis and compare the two system in terms of cost, advantages and disadvantages.
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LITERATURE SURVEY:
Wind Power Integration With Thermal Power Plant
By surveying about the different facts we find the following details on the works done on wind energy conversion system , Weibull PDF, fuzzy logic, wind turbine specification, dynamic economic dispatch:
The reduction in the influence of wind power generations on thermal power plant i.e. the possibility to reduce variations by means of a moderator, such as a storage unit or import/export capacity will help in minimizing the costs and other complications.[1] The proposed models of generations and control system analyze the deviation of power exchange at the western Danish German border, taking into account the fluctuating nature of wind power. [2]
There has been proposed works of celebrated scientists on detailed recommendations and suggestions for complying wind integration studies on power system operation (scheduling and dispatch) and power system (resource) adequacy from which we get notions about the importance of wind power integration [3]. [4] Illustrates the options for the development of large scale wind power integration in Norway. We start this project work after assessing the wind power’s impact on thermal generation unit commitment and dispatch is, therefore, a fundamental issue when integrating more wind power into power systems [5]. The voltage recovery after the network disturbance can be assisted by dynamic slip control & Pitch control in a Wound rotor I.G based Wind power generation system (WPGS) [6].
In solving the electrical power systems economic dispatch (ED) problem, the goal is to find the optimal allocation of output power among the various generators available to serve the system load. With the continuing search for alternatives to conventional energy sources, it is necessary to include wind energy conversion system (WECS) generators in the ED problem. [7] The primary problem associated with the incorporation of wind power into the ED model is the fact that the future wind speed, which is the power source for the WECS, is an unknown at any given time. Several investigations have looked at the prediction of wind speed for use in determining the available wind power. These investigations have been based on such foundations as fuzzy logic [8], neural networks [9], and time series [10]. When the focus is on the ED problem and not
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on wind power forecasting, fuzzy logic or similar theories to develop the wind speed profile will not be used, but a known probability distribution function (PDF) for the wind speed will be assumed, and then, transformed to the corresponding wind power distribution for use in the ED model. This PDF is named as Weibull PDF. The two parameters of Weibull density distribution function were calculated for 3 different locations, a city area, an extremely exposed area in a city centre and an open sea area in Hong Kong. [11]
A squirrel cage induction generator feeds the power to a doublesided pulse width modulated converter system which pumps power to a utility grid or can supply to an autonomous system. The generation system has fuzzy logic control with vector control in the inner loops. A fuzzy controller tracks the generator speed with the wind velocity to extract the maximum power. A second fuzzy controller programs the machine flux for light load efficiency improvement, and a third fuzzy controller gives robust speed control against wind gust and turbine oscillatory torque. The complete control system has been developed, analyzed, and validated by simulation study. Performances have then been evaluated in detail [12].
Since the existing surveys on wind turbine condition monitoring cover the literatures up to 2006, to report the most recent advances in the past three years, with primary focus on gearbox and bearing, rotor and blades, generator and power electronics, as well as systemwise turbine diagnosis. There are several major trends observed through the survey. Due to the variablespeed nature of wind turbine operation and the unsteady load involved, timefrequency analysis tools such as wavelets have been accepted as a key signal processing tool for such application. Acoustic emission has lately gained much more attention in order to detect incipient failures because of the lowspeed operation for wind turbines. There has been an increasing trend of developing model based reasoning algorithms for fault detection and isolation as costeffective approach for wind turbines as relatively complicated system. The impact of unsteady aerodynamic load on the robustness of diagnostic signatures has been notified. Decoupling the wind load from condition monitoring decision making will reduce the associated downtime cost
[13].
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In order to maintain the stability and security of the power system, the uncertainty and intermittency of wind power must be taken into account in economic dispatch (ED) problems. Dynamic economic dispatch (DED), which determines the optimal generation scheme to meet the predicted load demand over a time horizon satisfying the constraint such as ramprate limits of generators between time intervals, is crucial for power system operation [14–16]. A dynamic economic dispatch (DED) model is based on chance constrained programming and an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) has received increased attention in many research fields recently in the area of electric power systems and its potential theoretical studies.[17] Many areas in power systems require solving one or more nonlinear optimization problems. While analytical methods might suffer from slow convergence and the curse of dimensionality, heuristicsbased swarm intelligence can be an efficient alternative. Particle swarm optimization (PSO), part of the swarm intelligence family, is known to effectively solve largescale nonlinear optimization problems. [18]
The economic and environmental problems in the power generation have received considerable attention. The apparition of the energy crisis and the excessive increase of the consumption have obliged production companies to implant renewable sources. However, this production poses many technical problems for their integration in the electric system. Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) is one of the important issues in Power system operation. The goal of ELD is to obtain the optimal allocation of various generating units available to meet the system load. Due to the popularity of renewable resources, it is necessary to include them in ELD problem.[19] The economic dispatch [20, 21] is a significant function in the modern energy system. It consists in programming correctly the electric production in order to reduce the operational cost [22, 23, 24,
25].
In the discussion of Weibull PDF and its importance we have found that the two Weibull parameters of the wind speed distribution function, the shape parameter k (dimensionless) and the scale parameter c (ms ^{−}^{1} ), were computed from the wind speed data for İzmir. Wind data, consisting of hourly wind speed records over a 5year period, 1995–1999, were measured in the Solar/WindMeteorological Station of the Solar Energy Institute at Ege University [26].
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As wind power penetrations increase in current power systems, its impacts to conventional thermal unit should be investigated. Development of better windthermal co ordination economic dispatch is necessary to determine the optimal dispatch scheme that can integrate wind power reliably & efficiently. The paper named in reference [27] proposes coordination of Synchronous Generator (SG) and Induction Generator (IG) by a simulation method that can fully assess the impacts of largescale wind power on system operations from cost, reliability & environmental perspectives.
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THEORITICAL OVERVIEW
OVERVIEW OF LOAD FLOW STUDIES:
Wind Power Integration With Thermal Power Plant
Load flow studies are one of the most important aspects of power system planning and operation. The load flow gives us the sinusoidal steady state of the entire system  voltages, real and reactive power generated and absorbed and line losses. Since the load is a static quantity and it is the power that flows through transmission lines.
Through the load flow studies we can obtain the voltage magnitudes and angles at each bus in the steady state. This is rather important as the magnitudes of the bus voltages are required to be held within a specified limit. Once the bus voltage magnitudes and their angles are computed using the load flow, the real and reactive power flow through each line can be computed. Also based on the difference between power flow in the sending and receiving ends, the losses in a particular line can also be computed. Furthermore, from the line flow we can also determine the over and under load conditions.
Real And Reactive Power Injected in a Bus :
For the formulation of the real and reactive power entering a b us, we need to define the following quantities. Let the voltage at the i ^{t}^{h} bus be denoted by

(1) 
Also let us define the self admittance at bus i as 


(2) 
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Wind Power Integration With Thermal Power Plant
Similarly the mutual admittance between the buses i and j can be written as
(3)
Let the power system contains a total number of n buses. The current injected at bus i is given as
(4)
It is to be noted we shall assume the current entering a bus to be positive and that leaving the bus to be negative. As a consequence the power and reactive power entering a bus will also be assumed to be positive. The complex power at bus i is then given by
Note that
(5a)
(5)
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Therefore substituting in (5) we get the real and reactive power as
(6)
(7)
Load Flow By Newton Raphson Method
Load Flow Algorithm:
Let us assume that an n bus power system contains a total n _{p} number of PQ buses while the number of PV (generator) buses be n _{g} such that n = n _{p} + n _{g} + 1. Bus1 is assumed to be the slack bus. We shall further use the mismatch equations of ΔP _{i} and ΔQ _{i} given in equations given below respectively. The approach to NewtonRaphson load flow is similar to that of solving a system of nonlinear equations using the NewtonRaphson method:
The net real power injected in busi is
(8)
the injected power calculated by the load flow program be P _{i}_{,} _{c}_{a}_{l}_{c}
the reactive power injected
(9)
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Wind Power Integration With Thermal Power Plant
(10)
For the load flow problem, this equation is of the for
(11)
where the Jacobian matrix is divided into submatrices as
(12)
It can be seen that the size of the Jacobian matrix is ( n + n _{p} − 1) x ( n + n _{p} −1). The dimensions of the submatrices are as follows:
J _{1}_{1} : (n  1) ´ (n  1), J _{1}_{2} : (n  1) ´ n _{p} , J _{2}_{1} : n _{p} ´ (n  1) and J _{2}_{2} : n _{p} ´ n _{p}
The submatrices are
(13)
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Wind Power Integration With Thermal Power Plant
(14)
(15)
(16)
ADVANTAGES OF NEWTON RAPHSON METHOD IN LOAD FLOW STUDY:
The first advantage of this method is that this method is the best fastest convergences to the root. This feature makes the Newton Raphson method to stand upfront from the other known methods.
The second advantage is that apart from the fast convergences, it also converges on the quadratic root. This advantages show that this method also deals with the higher degree of variable involved.
Next third advantage that in this method, the number of significant digits doubles with each step approximately (near a root). So one can understand clearly that how advantageous this method is. Apart from this important advantage still we have lot of advantages of this method.
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Fourth unique advantage of Newton Raphson method is that this method leads to basically ‘polish’ a root from the other convergence techniques.
Fifth advantage of this method is that it is flexible; it means that it is easier to convert this method to multiple dimensions.
Wind Turbine Overview:
Constructional Features:
Wind turbines are classified as horizontal axis wind turbines or the vertical axis wind turbines depending upon the orientation of the axis of rotation of their rotors. A wind turbine operates by slowing down the wind and extracting a part of its energy in the process. For a horizontal axis wind turbine, the rotor axis is kept horizontal and aligned parallel in the direction of the wind stream. In a vertical axis wind turbine, the rotor axis is vertical and fixed, and remains perpendicular to the wind stream. In general the wind turbines have blades, sails or buckets fixed to the central shaft. The extracted energy causes the shaft to rotate. This rotating shaft is used to drive a pump, to generate electric power. The horizontal axis wind turbine has the following body parts:
1. Blade: Need to be lightweight and possess adequate strength and hence require to be fabricated with aircraft industry techniques. The blades are made of glass fiber reinforced polyester with a suitable structural geometrical shape to create lift as the air flows over them. 2. Nacelle: It houses the generator, the gear box hydraulic system and the yawing mechanism.
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3. Power transmission system: Mechanical power developed in the rotor blades is transmitted
to the generator through the twostage gear box. From the gear box, the transmission shaft rotates the generator with a builtin clutch. The gear box is provided to increase the generator speed to
1500rpm.
4. Generator: Generally the large ones used with the grid connected systems, have induction
generators. They use the reactive power from the grids and feed the generated power to boost the grid supply.
5. Yaw control: Done by two yawing motors, which mesh with a big toothed wheel mounted on
the top of the tower. Yaw control tracks and keeps the rotor axis in the wind direction.
6. Brakes: Braking is done by full feathering. An emergency stop activates the hydraulic disc
brakes fitted to the highspeed shaft of the gear box:
7. Controllers: Wind generators are controlled and monitored by a microprocessorbased control
unit. A controller monitors the parameters in the nacelle besides controlling the operation of the pitch system.
8. Tower: Modern wind turbine generators are installed on tubular towers. Large turbines use
lattice towers designed to withstand gravity loads and wind loads.
The parts of the vertical axis wind turbine that are present extra over blades, tower, generator and gear box are: guy rope, bearing and cross arm. To start the load flow then we have to specify some of the wind generator data. They can be the number of turbines used and the reactive and active power designation. To represent a wind turbine following data are really required to know:
1. Average wind speed: Throughout the year in any particular area if wind turbine is installed
then there will be certain average speed of it depending on the geographical region in which it is situated. In the load flow we have to give a certain available wind speed in the datasheet.
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2. Cutin speed: It is the minimum speed of the wind required to get a output from the plant
below which the output cannot be gettable.
3. Cutout speed: It is the maximum speed above which the turbine blades are not able to
generate the thrust to get output that is the turbine is cut out of the supply.
4. Turbine diameter: The axial thrust or torque depends upon the turbine diameter so we have
to specify it even with the software to find the load flow of a system.
5. Air density: the output of the wind turbine depends very much on the wind density so we
have to specify during the representation of a wind turbine.
6. Poles: There is a specification also for the number of poles for the wind generators to get a
suitable system. 7. Synchronous speed: There is also a mention for the synchronous speed for the wind generators to have a suitable system. Principle:
Wind turbines extract energy from wind stream by converting the kinetic energy of the wind to rotational motion required to operate an electric generator. By virtue of the kinetic energy, the velocity of the flowing wind decreases. It is assumed that the mass of the air which passes through the rotor is only affected and remains separate from the air which does not pass through the rotor. Accordingly, a circular boundary surface is drawn showing the affected air mass and thus boundary is extended upstream as well as downstream. As the free wind (stream) interacts with the turbine rotor, the wind transfers part of its energy into the rotor and the speed of the wind decreases to a minimum leaving a trail of the disturbed wind called wake. The variation in velocity is considered to be smooth from far upstream to far downstream. The kinetic energy of the wind passing through the turbine rotoris KE=MV _{b} ^{2} /2= P _{t}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{l} V _{b} = velocity of wind at the blades and M=the mass flow rate of wind=dAV _{b} d=density of air, A= area of blades KE=dAV _{b} ^{3} /2 The above relation shows that the energy in the wind stream striking the blades increases with velocity as varies with the cube of the velocity at the blades. So, greater wind velocity is required for more kinetic energy of the wind stream.
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Wind Power Integration With Thermal Power Plant
Through the Bernoulli's equation we can prove that the power output of wind turbine as P=dA(V _{u} +V _{d} )(V _{u} ^{2} V _{d} ^{2} ) V _{u} and V _{d} are the velocities of wind upstream and downstream respectively. For maximum power transfer it can be proved that V _{u} =3V _{d} and the max power output is P _{m}_{a}_{x} =8dAV _{u} ^{3} /27=.593 P _{t}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{l} The factor .593 is called the Bitz limit or power coefficient. Available efficiency is 60% of the Bitz limit which is very low. That is why we cannot rely fully in a system toi generate power from the wind turbine and hence comes the fact of integration with the normal thermal plant by replacing some generators by wind generators.
ECONOMIC LOAD DISPATCH THEORITICAL OVERVIEW
Economic dispatch is the method of determining the most efficient, lowcost and reliable operation of a power system by dispatching the available electricity generation resources to supply the load on the system. The primary objective of economic dispatch is to minimize the total cost of generation while honoring the operational constraints of the available generation resources. In static economic dispatch, the objective is to calculate, for a single period of time, the output power of every generating unit so that all the demands are satisfied at the minimum cost, while satisfying different technical constraints of the network and the generators.
Economic Dispatch emphasizes the process of determination of the output power generated by the unit or units to supply the specified load in a manner that will minimize the total cost of fuel. Each generating unit has a unique production cost defined by its fuel cost coefficients (a, b, c of a+bp+cp2). Economic dispatch is also defined as the coordination of the production costs of all the participating units in supplying the total load. The purpose of economic dispatch is to determine the optimal power generation of the units participating in supplying the load. The sum of the total power generation should equal to the load demand at the station. In a simplified case, the transmission losses are neglected. This makes the task of solution procedure easier. In actual
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practice, the transmission losses are to be considered. The inclusion of transmission losses makes
the task of economic dispatch more complicated. A different solution procedure has to be
employed to arrive at the solution.
The transmission losses can be expressed as the form of Bcoefficients and the generation of
individual plants as follows
P _{L} =[PG _{1}
PG
m ] 1xm [B mn ] mxn [PG 1… PG n ] nx1
If we consider
(18)
the line losses then the economic load dispatch equation will change as
in equation 18 . The Lagrangian multiplier here is of the following form,
Here f _{T} is similar to the fuel cost mentioned before as C _{n} and the term L _{n} is the penalty factor for
n ^{t}^{h} unit which is the inverse of the difference of unity and incremental loss.
By economic load dispatch we can achieve the following:
1. The operation of each unit is done very economically.
2. Idea about the affection of the line losses on the load dispatch equations.
3. Can have an idea of unit commitment i.e. which unit is to run at which time.
4. Can get the idea of penalty factor.
5. Successful maintenance of a power system can be done using the load dispatch results.
The fuel cost function or inputoutput characteristic of the generator maybe obtained from design calculations or from heat rate tests. The fuel cost function of generator that usually used in power
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system operation and control problem is represented with a secondorder polynomial.
Fi(Pi) = ai + biPi + ciP _{i}
2
where ai , bi and ci are nonnegative constants of the i th generating unit. For some generator such as large steam turbine generators, however, the inputoutput characteristic is not always smooth. Large steam turbine generators will have a number of steam admission values that are opened in sequence to obtain everincreasing output of the unit. This kind of unit’s inputoutput curve is shown in Fig. 1. The fuel cost function of this kind of unit can be expressed as
Fi(Pi) = ai + biPi + ciP _{i} ^{2} + ei sin( fi(Pi min− Pi))
The economic dispatch problem assumes that the amount of power to be supplied by a given set
of units is constant for a given interval of time and attempts to minimize the cost of supplying
this energy subject to constraints on the static behavior of the generating units. However, plant
operators, to avoid shortening the life of their equipments, try to keep thermal gradients inside
the turbine within safe limits. This mechanical constraint is usually translated into a limit on the
rate of increase/decrease of the power output. Such ramp rate constraints distinguish the dynamic
economic dispatch from the traditional, static economic dispatch. Since these ramp rates
constraints involve the evolution of the output of the generators, the dynamic economic dispatch
cannot be solved for a single value of the load. Instead it attempts to minimize the cost of
producing a given profile of demand.
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WORK DONE:
At first, we design a standard system which is compatible with a generalized practical power system network. The design however is obtained by utilizing the principles of single line diagram consisting of synchronous generators, busbars, loads, etc. The total no of generators taken is 5, the total no of bus bars is 5, and the total no of transmission lines is 6. The total load demand for the given system is 150 MW. After this we perform economic load dispatch of the above system using MI POWER incorporating Newton Raphson method. The process yields results in a definite number of iterations giving the individual result parameters of each bus and of each generator. After this operation we replace some of the thermal generators with wind turbines so as to achieve our motive. After that we again perform load flow using NewtonRaphson method. The load flow yields results of the individual buses and both of replaced wind turbines and the replaced thermal generators. Then we go for mutual comparison in terms of the result parameters between the first and second result.
System description Load flow simulation of a typical electrical system consisting of 5 thermal generators units feeding the power to four load centre’s with MIpower simulation technique. Though the project asks us to integrate the wind turbines to the thermal generators units, we have to study the load flow of a system consisting of thermal generation before we introduce the wind power along with it. Besides we have to analyze the load scheduling of typical thermal system for the sake of optimal operation. In the load flow analysis we have taken 5 thermal generating units system dispatching the power to 4 load centre shown in the figure below.
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MI POWER SIMULATION:
Figure 1 for depicting the diagram for load flow
generators.
result using only thermal
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Thermal Generators = G _{i} (i=1, 2, 3…) Loads = L _{i} (i=1, 2, 3…) Buses = B _{i} (i=1, 2, 3…)
Figure 2 depicting the diagram obtained after load flow of integrated system with
wind tuebines
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Load Flow Simulation Results:

Date and Time : Tue Nov 17 11:59:53 2015

LOAD FLOW BY NEWTON RAPHSON METHOD
CASE NO : 1
CONTINGENCY : 0 SCHEDULE NO : 0
CONTINGENCY NAME : Base Case
RATING CONSIDERED : NOMINAL

VERSION NUMBER: 8.1 %% First Power System Network Largest Bus Number Used : 5 Actual Number of Buses : 5
Number of 2 Wind. Transformers : 0 Number of 3 Wind. Transformers : 0
Number of Transmission Lines :
Number of Series Capacitors : 0 Number of Circuit Breakers : 0 Number of Shunt Reactors : 0 Number of Shunt Capacitors : 0
Number of Shunt Impedances :
Number of Loads : 4 Number of Load Characteristics : 0
Number of Under Frequency Relay:
Number of Filters : 0 Number of Tie Line Schedules : 0
Number of Convertors : 0 Number of dc Links : 0
7
Number of Series Reactors
:
0
0
Number of Generators
0
:
5
Number of Gen.Capability Curves:
0
Number of Shunt Connected Facts: 0 Power Forced Lines : 
0 

Number of TCSC Connected 
: 
0 
Number of SPS Connected 
: 
0 

Number of UPFC Connected 
: 
0 
Number of Wind Generators 
: 
0 
Number of wtg Curves : 0 Number of wtg Detailed Curves : 0

Load Flow With Newton Raphson Method
:
6
Number of Zones 
: 
1 

Print Option 
: 
3  Both Data and Results Print 

Plot Option 
: 
1  Plotting with p.u. Voltage 
No Frequency Dependent Load Flow, Control Option:
Base MVA
0
: 100.0
Nominal System Frequency (Hz) 
: 
50.0 

Frequency Deviation (Hz) 
: 
0.0 

Flows in MW and MVAr, Option 
: 
0 
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Slack Bus
:
1
Transformer Tap Control Option 
: 
0 

Q Checking Limit (Enabled) 
: 
4 

Real Power Tolerance (p.u.) 
: 
0.00100 

Reactive Power Tolerance (p.u.) 
: 
0.00100 

Maximum Number of Iterations 
: 
15 
Bus Voltage Below Which Load Model is Changed
:
0.75000
Circuit Breaker Resistance (p.u.) 
: 
0.00000 

Circuit Breaker Reactance 
(p.u.) 
: 
0.00010 

Transformer R/X Ratio 
: 
0.05000 

Annual Percentage Interest Charges
Annual Percent Operation & Maintenance Charges :
:
15.000
4.000
Life of Equipment in Years 
: 20.000 

Energy Unit Charge (KWH) 
: 
2.500 Rs 

Loss Load Factor 
: 
0.300 

Cost Per MVAr in Lakhs 
: 5.000 Rs 

ZONE WISE MULTIPLICATION FACTORS
ZONE
P LOAD
Q LOAD
P GEN
Q GEN SH REACT
SH CAP
C LOAD
       
0 1.000 
1.000 
1.000 
1.000 
1.000 
1.000 
1.000 
1 1.000 
1.000 
1.000 
1.000 
1.000 
1.000 
1.000 

BUS DATA
BUS NO. AREA ZONE BUS kV VMIN (p.u.) VMAX (p.u.) 
NAME 

       

1 1 
1 
220.000 0.950 
1.050 
Bus1 

2 1 
1 
220.000 0.950 
1.050 
Bus2 

3 1 
1 
220.000 0.950 
1.050 
Bus3 

4 1 
1 
220.000 0.950 
1.050 
Bus4 

5 1 
1 
220.000 0.950 
1.050 
Bus5 

TRANSMISSION LINE DATA
STA CKT
FROM
FROM
TO
TO
LINE PARAMETER
RATING
KMS
Techno India, Salt Lake
27  P a g e
NODE 
NAME* 
NODE 
NAME* R(p.u.) 
X(p.u.) 
B/2(p.u.) 
MVA 

           

3 
1 
1 
Bus1 
2 
Bus2 
0.00017 
0.00050 0.00000 
3 
1.00 

3 
1 
2 
Bus2 
3 
Bus3 
0.00002 
0.00006 0.00000 
2 
1.00 

3 
1 
4 
Bus4 
5 
Bus5 
0.00008 
0.00025 0.00000 
2 
1.00 

3 
1 
1 
Bus1 
4 
Bus4 
0.00004 
0.00012 0.02387 
7 
1.00 

3 
1 
4 
Bus4 
2 
Bus2 
0.00012 
0.00037 0.00000 
7 
1.00 

3 
1 
4 
Bus4 
3 
Bus3 
0.00012 
0.00037 0.00000 
3 
1.00 

3 
1 
5 
Bus5 
3 
Bus3 
0.00017 
0.00050 0.00000 
3 
1.00 


Total Line Charging Susceptance (in p.u.)
:
0.04774
Total Line Charging MVAr at 1 p.u. Voltage 
: 
4.774 

Number of Lines Opened on Both the Ends 
: 
0 
Total Line charging susceptance of Existing Lines (in p.u.) : 
0.04774 
Total Line Charging MVAr at 1 p.u. Voltage of Existing Lines: 
4.774 

Total Capacitive Susceptance 
: 
0.00000 p.u.  
0.000 MVAr 

Total Inductive Susceptance 
: 
0.00000 p.u.  
0.000 MVAr 

GENERATOR DATA
Sl.No* 
FROM 
FROM 
REAL 
QMIN 
QMAX 
VSPEC CAP. 
MVA 
STAT 

NODE 
NAME*POWER(MW) 
MVAr 
MVAr 
p.u. 
CURV RATING 

          

1 1 
Bus1 
120.0000 
0.0000 
74.9820 
1.0000 
0 
100.00 
3 

2 2 
Bus2 
55.0000 
0.0000 
83.5160 
1.0000 
0 
100.00 
3 

3 3 
Bus3 
21.0000 
0.0000 
0.0000 
1.0000 
0 
10.00 
3 

4 4 
Bus4 
27.0000 
0.0000 
96.2860 
1.0000 
0 
100.00 
3 

5 5 
Bus5 
15.0000 
0.0000 
0.0000 
1.0000 
0 
10.00 
3 

LOAD DATA
Sl.No. 
FROM 
FROM 
REAL REACTIVE 
COMP COMPENSATING MVAR VALUE CHAR F/V 

* 
NODE 
NAME* 
MW 
MVAr 
MVAr 
MIN 
MAX 
STEP 
NO. 
NO. 
STAT 
Techno India, Salt Lake
28  P a g e
          
1 2 
Bus2 
50.000 
0.000 
0.000 
0.000 
0.000 
0.000 
0 
0 
3 
0 

2 3 
Bus3 
20.000 
0.000 
0.000 
0.000 
0.000 
0.000 
0 
0 
3 
0 

3 4 
Bus4 
50.000 
0.000 
0.000 
0.000 
0.000 
0.000 
0 
0 
3 
0 

4 5 
Bus5 
30.000 
0.000 
0.000 
0.000 
0.000 
0.000 
0 
0 
3 
0 

Total Specified MW Generation
Total Minimum MVAr Limit of Generator
: 238.00000
:
0.00000
TOTAL Maximum MVAr Limit of Generator
: 254.78400
Total Specified MW Load
Total Specified MVAr Load
Total Specified MVAr Compensation

0.00000 Changed to
: 150.00000 Changed to 150.00000
:
0.00000 Changed to
0.00000
:
0.00000
TOTAL (Including Out of Service Units)
Total Specified MW Generation
TOTAL Minimum MVAr Limit of Generator
: 238.00000
:
0.00000
Total Maximum MVAr Limit of Generator
: 254.78400
Total Specified MW Load
Total Specified MVAr Load
Total Specified MVAr Compensation

0.00000 Changed to
: 150.00000 Changed to 150.00000
:
0.00000 Changed to
0.00000
:
0.00000

GENERATOR DATA FOR FREQUENCY DEPENDENT LOAD FLOW
SLNO* 
FROM 
FROM 
PRATE 
PMIN PMAX 
%DROOP 
PARTICI 
BIAS 

NODE 
NAME* 
MW 
MW 
MW 
FACTOR SETTING 

C0 
C1 
C2 

         

1 1 
Bus1 
120.000 
0.0000 120.0000 
4.0000 
0.0000 
0.0000 

0.0000 
0.0000 
0.0000 

2 2 
Bus2 
55.000 
0.0000 
55.0000 
4.0000 
0.0000 
0.0000 

0.0000 
0.0000 
0.0000 

3 3 
Bus3 
21.000 
0.0000 
21.0000 
4.0000 
0.0000 
0.0000 
Techno India, Salt Lake
29  P a g e
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
4 4 
Bus4 
27.000 
0.0000 27.0000 
4.0000 
0.0000 0.0000 

0.0000 
0.0000 0.0000 

5 5 
Bus5 
15.000 
0.0000 
15.0000 
4.0000 
0.0000 0.0000 

0.0000 
0.0000 0.0000 

 

 

Slack bus angle (degrees) : 
0.00 

 

 

Iteration count 0 maxp 0.230000 maxq 0.000000 

 

Iteration count 1 maxp 0.000002 maxq 0.000000 

 

Iteration count 2 maxp 0.000000 maxq 0.000000 Iteration count 3 maxp 0.000000 maxq 0.000000 Iteration count 4 maxp 0.000000 maxq 0.050002 

 

Iteration count 5 maxp 0.000000 maxq 0.000000 

 

 

BUS VOLTAGES AND POWERS 

NODE 
FROM 
VMAG ANGLE 
MW MVAr 
MW 
MVAr 
MVAr 

NO. 
NAME 
p.u. 
DEGREE GEN GEN 
LOAD LOAD 
COMP 

         

1 Bus1 
1.0000 
0.00 
32.001 13.206 
0.000 
0.000 
0.000 < 

2 Bus2 
1.0000 
0.00 
55.000 0.000 
50.000 
0.000 
0.000 

3 Bus3 
1.0000 
0.00 
21.000 0.000 
20.000 
0.000 
0.000 < 

4 Bus4 
1.0000 
0.00 
27.000 8.433 
50.000 
0.000 
0.000 

5 Bus5 
1.0000 
0.00 
15.000 0.000 
30.000 
0.000 
0.000 > 

NUMBER OF BUSES EXCEEDING MINIMUM VOLTAGE LIMIT (@ mark) : 
0 

NUMBER OF BUSES EXCEEDING MAXIMUM VOLTAGE LIMIT (# mark) : 
0 

NUMBER OF GENERATORS EXCEEDING MINIMUM Q LIMIT (< mark) : 
2 

NUMBER OF GENERATORS EXCEEDING MAXIMUM Q LIMIT (> mark) : 
1 
Techno India, Salt Lake
30  P a g e

LINE FLOWS AND LINE LOSSES
SLNO CS 
FROM 
FROM 
TO 
TO 
FORWARD 
LOSS 
% 

NODE 
NAME 
NODE 
NAME 
MW 
MVAr 
MW MVAr LOADING 
          
1 1 
1 
Bus1 
2 
Bus2 
4.643 
1.700 
0.0000 
0.0001 
141.8! 
2 1 
2 
Bus2 
3 
Bus3 
6.687 
1.009 
0.0000 
0.0000 
288.6! 
3 1 
4 
Bus4 
5 
Bus5 
9.095 
0.309 
0.0001 
0.0002 
492.4! 
4 1 
1 
Bus1 
4 
Bus4 
27.358 11.505 
0.0003 4.7727 
438.8! 

5 1 
4 
Bus4 
2 
Bus2 
2.929 
0.773 
0.0000 
0.0000 
43.3^ 
6 1 
4 
Bus4 
3 
Bus3 
1.814 
0.605 
0.0000 
0.0000 
54.8$ 
7 1 
5 
Bus5 
3 
Bus3 
5.908 
0.299 
0.0001 
0.0002 
169.7! 

! NUMBER OF LINES LOADED BEYOND 125%
:
5
@ NUMBER OF LINES LOADED BETWEEN 100% AND 125% :
0
# NUMBER OF LINES LOADED BETWEEN 75% AND 100% : 
0 

$ NUMBER OF LINES LOADED BETWEEN 50% AND 75% : 
1 

^ NUMBER OF LINES LOADED BETWEEN 25% AND 50% : 
1 

& NUMBER OF LINES LOADED BETWEEN 
1% AND 25% : 
0 
* NUMBER OF LINES LOADED BETWEEN
0% AND
1% :
0


BUSES BETWEEN WHICH ANGLE DIFFERENCE IS > 30 degrees ARE: ZERO

ISLAND FREQUENCY SLACKBUS
   
CONVERGED(1)
1 50.00000
1
1

Summary of results TOTAL REAL POWER GENERATION (CONVENTIONAL)
:
150.001 MW
TOTAL REAL POWER INJECTION (ve LOAD)
TOTAL REACT. POWER GENERATION (CONVENTIONAL) :
GENERATION p.f.
:
0.000 MW
4.772 MVAr
:
0.999
TOTAL REAL POWER GENERATION (WIND)
:
0.000 MW
Techno India, Salt Lake
31  P a g e
TOTAL REACT. POWER GENERATION (WIND) 
: 
0.000 MVAr 

TOTAL REAL POWER GENERATION (SOLAR) 
: 
0.000 MW 

TOTAL REACT. POWER GENERATION (SOLAR) 
: 
0.000 MVAr 
TOTAL SHUNT REACTOR INJECTION 
: 
0.000 MW 

TOTAL SHUNT REACTOR INJECTION 
: 
0.000 MVAr 

TOTAL SHUNT CAPACIT.INJECTION 
: 
0.000 MW 

TOTAL SHUNT CAPACIT.INJECTION 
: 
0.000 MVAr 
TOTAL TCSC REACTIVE DRAWL 
: 
0.000 MVAr 

TOTAL SPS REACTIVE DRAWL 
: 
0.000 MVAr 
TOTAL UPFC INJECTION
:
0.000 MVAr
TOTAL SHUNT FACTS INJECTION 
: 
0.000 MVAr 
TOTAL SHUNT FACTS DRAWAL 
: 
0.000 MVAr 
TOTAL REAL POWER LOAD
:
150.000 MW
TOTAL REAL POWER DRAWAL (ve gen.) 
: 
0.000 MW 

TOTAL REACTIVE POWER LOAD 
: 
0.000 MVAr 

LOAD p.f. 
: 
1.000 

TOTAL COMPENSATION AT LOADS 
: 
0.000 MVAr 

TOTAL HVDC REACTIVE POWER 
: 
0.000 MVAr 

TOTAL REAL POWER LOSS (AC+DC) 
: 
0.000536 MW ( 0.000536+ 0.000000) 

PERCENTAGE REAL LOSS (AC+DC) 
: 
0.000 
TOTAL REACTIVE POWER LOSS
: 4.772085 MVAr

Zone wise distribution
Description
 
Zone # 1
MW generation 
150.0005 

MVAr generation 
4.7721 

MW wind gen. 
0.0000 
Techno India, Salt Lake
32  P a g e
MVAr wind gen. 
0.0000 
MW solar gen. 
0.0000 
MVAr solar gen. 
0.0000 
MW load 
150.0000 
MVAr load 
0.0000 
MVAr compensation
0.0000
MW loss 0.0005 

MVAr loss 4.7721 

MVAr  inductive 
0.0000 

MVAr  capacitive 
0.0000 

Zone wise export(+ve)/import(ve)
Zone #
1 MW & MVAr
  
1

Area wise distribution
Description
 
Area # 1
MW generation 
150.0005 

MVAr generation 
4.7721 

MW wind gen. 
0.0000 

MVAr wind gen. 
0.0000 
Techno India, Salt Lake
33  P a g e
MW solar gen. 
0.0000 
MVAr solar gen. 
0.0000 
MW load 
150.0000 
MVAr load 
0.0000 
MVAr compensation
0.0000
MW loss 0.0005 

MVAr loss 4.7721 

MVAr  inductive 
0.0000 

MVAr  capacitive 
0.0000 

Date and Time : Tue Nov 17 11:59:53 2015

ANALYSIS OF LOAD FLOW RESULT
From the load flow result it is understood that generator at node 4 will deliver more current to fulfill the same demand as required by other generators.
Thus it implies that the current delivered by the generator at node 4 will contribute more resistive losses and thus there will be more voltage drop and poor regulation.
The individual generator efficiency if considered will be the least for the generator at node 4
Techno India, Salt Lake
34  P a g e
Thus due to more transmission losses there will be additional burden on the supply of fuel and thus fuel cost may increase to meet the same demand.
Thus from the above viewpoint the incremental transmission losses as well as the incremental fuel cost will also increase.
The maximum rated MW generated is 238 MW while the load demand is only
150MW
The generator at bus 1 is delivering the maximum rated active power while the generator at bus 5 generates the least.
From the loadfrequency data it is observed that the droop percentage is same for all the generators.
From the above two points it can be concluded that if load demand is increased by a definite amount then any of generators at buses 1 , 2 , 3 can be overloaded to compensate the demand. However generator at bus 4 can also be overloaded but since its contributing losses are more so its not a good option.
Next we have done the economic load dispatch of the same system and take the values as following:
Quantity 
Unit1 
Unit2 
Unit3 
Unit4 
Unit5 
Pmax(MW) 
85 
80 
70 
10 
10 
Pmin(MW) 
10 
10 
10 
1 
1 
Gamma(Rs.) 
.008 
.009 
.007 
.006 
.005 
Beta(Rs./MW) 
7 
6.3 
6.8 
6.6 
6.7 
Alpha(Rs./MW ^{2} ) 
200 
180 
140 
160 
170 
We simulate it through MIPOWER and get the following results

Date and Time : Fri Jan 15 11:46:04 2016


RESULTS

Techno India, Salt Lake
35  P a g e
GENERATOR NO. GENERATION COST SCHEDULED POWER
RS    
MW 

1 
10070.0000 
10.00000 
2 
9063.0000 
10.00000 
3 
7068.0000 
10.00000 
4 
86.6000 
1.00000 
5 
91.7000 
1.00000 

FINAL TOTAL GENERATION COST :

26379.2988 RS

Conclusions made from the above results up to 100 ^{t}^{h} iteration and the 1000 ^{t}^{h} iteration's result of the load dispatch of the system are as follows:
1. We have seen that the total loss in each of the above iterations is 0, so with our taken
value of the constants we can assure no loss in the system.
2. Value of Lambda is changed from 1 in the first iteration to 100.899 in the 1000 ^{t}^{h}
iteration.
3. The total generation is constant 32 MW with load constant at 150 MW and the delta
power at 118 MW.
4. With the given data the generation cost of the 4 ^{t}^{h} generator is least and that of the 1 ^{s}^{t}
generator is largest.
5. Total generation cost is more affected by the first 3 generators and less by the last two.
6. As most of the generators' cost are much higher so there is the requirement of
maintaining the cost effectiveness of the system.
7. We have to provide a suitable way to have the betterment of the system either by
changing the rating of the generators or by integration with some other power generation
system. Here comes our decision of integrating with wind power the thermal power generation system by replacing two of the thermal generators by wind generators. The diagram of the new system is as follows:
Then we find out the load flow result of the above system by NewtonRaphson method through MIPOWER software by giving the necessary data to the system components and the result of the load flow is as follows:
Techno India, Salt Lake
36  P a g e

Date and Time : Wed Jan 20 12:40:53 2016

LOAD FLOW BY NEWTON RAPHSON METHOD
CASE NO : 1
CONTINGENCY NAME : Base Case
CONTINGENCY : 0 SCHEDULE NO : 0
RATING CONSIDERED : NOMINAL

VERSION NUMBER : 8.1 %% First Power System Network

BUS DATA 

BUS NO. 
AREA ZONE BUS kV VMIN(p.u.) VMAX(p.u.) 
NAME 
      
1 1 
1 
400.000 
0.950 
1.050 
Bus1 
2 1 
1 
400.000 
0.950 
1.050 
Bus2 
3 1 
1 
400.000 
0.950 
1.050 
Bus3 
4 1 
1 
400.000 
0.950 
1.050 
Bus4 
5 1 
1 
400.000 
0.950 
1.050 
Bus5 
Techno India, Salt Lake
37  P a g e

TRANSMISSION LINE DATA
STA CKT 
FROM 
FROM TO 
TO 
LINE PARAMETER 
RATING 
KMS 

NODE 
NAME* NODE 
NAME* R(p.u.) 
X(p.u.) B/2(p.u.) 
MVA 

           

3 
1 
1 
Bus1 
2 Bus2 
0.00005 
0.00015 0.00000 
3 
1.00 

3 
1 
2 
Bus2 
3 Bus3 
0.00001 
0.00002 0.00000 
3 
1.00 

3 
1 
1 
Bus1 
4 Bus4 
0.00001 
0.00004 0.00000 
3 
1.00 

3 
1 
3 
Bus3 
5 Bus5 
0.00005 
0.00015 0.00000 
3 
1.00 

3 
1 
4 
Bus4 
5 Bus5 
0.00003 
0.00007 0.00000 
3 
1.00 

3 
1 
4 
Bus4 
2 Bus2 
0.00004 
0.00011 0.00000 
3 
1.00 

3 
1 
4 
Bus4 
3 Bus3 
0.00004 
0.00011 0.00000 
3 
1.00 

 

 

Total Line Charging Susceptance (in p.u.) 
: 
0.00000 

Total Line Charging MVAr at 1 p.u. Voltage 
: 
0.000 

Number of Lines Opened on Both the Ends 
: 
0 

Total Line Charging susceptance of Existing Lines (in p.u.) : 0.00000 

Total Line Charging MVAr at 1 p.u. Voltage of Existing Lines : 
0.000 

 

Total Capacitive Susceptance : : 0.00000 p.u.  
0.000 MVAr 

Total Inductive Susceptance 0.00000 p.u.  
0.000 MVAr 

 

GENERATOR DATA 

Sl.No* FROM FROM REAL 
QMIN 
QMAX VSPEC CAP. MVA 
STAT 

NODE 
NAME*POWER(MW) 
MVAr 
MVAr 
p.u. 
CURV RATING 

          

1 
1 
Bus1 
150.0000 
0.0000 
1.0000 
1.0000 
0 
100.00 
3 

2 2 
Bus2 
150.0000 
0.0000 
1.0000 
1.0000 
0 
100.00 
3 

3 4 
Bus4 
150.0000 
0.0000 
1.0000 
1.0000 
0 
100.00 
3 
Wind Generator Data:
SL.NO* 
FROM 
FROM 
Model 
No. of 
MVA 
Spec 
PMIN 
PMAX 
NODE 
NAME* No. 
Turbines Rating 
p.f. 
p.u. 
p.u. 
 
 
    
 
  

1 
3 
Bus3 
WT1 
1 
1.1000 
0.9000 0.0000 
1.0000 
QMIN 
QMAX COMP 
No. of 
Syns. 
Gear 
Avg.Wind 
Air 
p.u. 
p.u. STEPS 
Poles 
Speed 
Ratio 
Speed Density 

 
       

0.0000 
1.0000 100 
4 16.8000 90.0000 12.0000 1.0000 

Turbine 
Cut in Cut out PC Set Power 
Mech.Pow Vs Mech. Pow Vs 
Diameter Speed Speed Variable Curve No. Slip Cur No. Wind Speed Cur
      
95.4470 3.0000 20.0000 1 
1 
0 
0 

Induction Machine Data: 

Rs 
Xs 
Rr 
Xr 
Xm 

     

0.0000 0.0000 
0.0000 0.0000 
0.0000 

SL.NO* FROM 
FROM 
Model No. of 
MVA 
Spec 
PMIN 
PMAX 

NODE 
NAME* No. 
Turbines Rating 
p.f. 
p.u. 
p.u. 

 
        

2 
5 
Bus5 
WT1 
1 
1.1000 
0.9000 0.0000 

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