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deformations caused by the loads applied to a structure. It is important to

avoid deformations so large that they may prevent the structure from

fulfilling the purpose for which it was intended. But the analysis of

deformations also helps us to determine stresses. Indeed it is not always

possible to determine the forces in the members of a structure by applying

only the principles of statics. This is because statics is based on the

assumption of undeformable, rigid structures. By considering engineering

structures as deformable and analyzing the deformations in their various

members, it will be possible for us to compute forces that are statically

indeterminate. The distribution of stresses in a given member is statically

indeterminate even when the force in that member is known.

3.1. STRAIN

Consider a rod of length L and uniform cross section, and its deformation δ

under an axial load P. The normal strain ε in the rod is defined as the

deformation per unit length:

If the rod has variable cross-section, the normal strain at any given point Q is

found by considering a small element of rod at Q:

d

lim x 0

x dx

ε as the load increases. These diagrams can be used to distinguish between

brittle and ductile materials. A brittle material ruptures without any

noticeable prior change int he rate of elongation, while a ductile material

yields after a critical stress y (the yield strength) has been reached. The

To introduce to students the basic concept of strain and discuss the relationship between stress and strain in different materials.

AE 311B: STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 4

specimen undergoes a large deformation before rupturing, with a relatively

small increase in the applied load. An example of brittle material with

different properties in tension and compression is concrete.

A. PROPORTIONAL LIMIT

The end point for the relationship between the stress and strain

as postulated by Robert Hooke, stating that stress is proportional to

strain.

The proportional limit is important because all subsequent theory

involving the behavior of elastic bodies is based upon a stress-strain

proportionality. This is also an indication that the proportional limit,

and not the ultimate strength, is the maximum stress to which a

material may be subjected.

B. ELASTIC LIMIT

The stress beyond which the material will not return to its original

shape when unloaded but will retain a permanent deformation called

permanent set.

C. YIELD POINT

Point which there is an appreciable elongation or yielding of the

material without any corresponding increase of load; indeed, the load

may actually decrease while the yielding occurs.

D. ULTIMATE STRESS

Or ultimate strength as it is more commonly called is the highest

ordinate in the stress-strain curve.

E. RUPTURE STRENGTH

Or the stress at failure, is somehow lower than the ultimate

strength in structural steel because the rupture strength is computed

by dividing the rupture load by the original cross-sectional area which

is incorrect.

To introduce to students the basic concept of strain and discuss the relationship between stress and strain in different materials.

AE 311B: STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 5

If the strains caused in a test specimen by the application of a given load

disappear when the load is removed, the material is said to behave

elastically. The largest stress for which this occurs is called the elastic limit of

the material. If the elastic limit is exceeded, the stress and strain decrease in

al linear fashion when the load is removed, and the strain does not return to

zero, indicating that a permanent set or plastic deformation of the material

has taken place.

large number of repeated loadings, even though the stresses remain in the

elastic range. A standard fatigue test determines the number n of successive

loading-and-unloading cycles required to cause the failure of a specimen for

any given maximum stress level σ and plots the resulting σ-n curve. The

value of σ for which failure does not occur, even for an indefinitely large

number of cycles, is known as the endurance limit.

The initial portion of the stress-strain diagram is a straight line. Thus, for

small deformations, the stress is directly proportional to the strain:

E

This relationship is Hooke’s law, and the coefficient E is the modulus of

elasticity of the material. The proportional limit is the largest stress for

which applies.

L

properties of anisotropic materials depend upon direction. Fiber-reinforced

composite materials are made of fibers of a strong, stiff material embedded

in layers of a weaker, softer material.

If a rod of length L and uniform cross section of area A is subjected at its end

to a centric axial load P, the corresponding deformation is

PL

AE

To introduce to students the basic concept of strain and discuss the relationship between stress and strain in different materials.

AE 311B: STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 6

cross sections and possibly of different materials, the deformation δ of the

rod must be expressed as the sum of the deformations of its component

parts:

Pi Li

i Ai Ei

The relation between the shearing stress and shearing strain, assuming

Hooke’s law to apply to shear, is

G

called the modulus of rigidity. The relation between the shearing

deformation and applied shearing forces is then expressed by

VL

s

As G

In which V is the shearing force acting over the seharing area As. Note the

PL

similarity of this result to

AE .

1. A steel rod is 2.2m long and must not stretch more than 1.2mm when an

8.5kN load is applied to it. Knowing that E=200GPa, determine

a) The smallest diameter rod which should be used

b) The corresponding normal stress caused by the load.

750-lb tensile load. Knowing that E=29x106 psi, determine

To introduce to students the basic concept of strain and discuss the relationship between stress and strain in different materials.

AE 311B: STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 7

b) The corresponding normal stress

E=3.3GPa and that the length of the thread increases by 1.1%, determine

a) The diameter of the thread

b) The stress in the thread

axial loads at the positions shown. If E=70GPa, compute the total

deformation of the bar. Assume that the bar is suitably braced to prevent

buckling.

Axial loads are applied at the positions indicated. Find the value of P that will

not exceed a maximum overall deformation of 2mm or a stress in the steel

of 140MPa, in the aluminum of 80MPa, or in the bronze of 120MPa. Assume

that the assembly is suitably braced to prevent buckling and that

Es=200x103MPa, Ea=70x103 MPa, and Eb=83x103 MPa.

steel rod helps support the load of 50kN. Compute the vertical displacement

of the roller at C.

rods whose lower ends are initially at the same level. Determine the ratio of

the areas of the rods so that the slab will remain level after it is attached to

the rods.

8. The rigid bar AB, attached to two vertical rods as shown, is horizontal

before the load P is applied. If the load P=50 kN, determine its vertical

movement.

9. The rigid bars AB and CD shown are supported by pins at A and C and the

two rods. Determine the maximum force P which can be applied as shown if

its vertical movement is limited to 5mm. Neglect the weights of all

members.

ΔT, its elongation is

T T L

To introduce to students the basic concept of strain and discuss the relationship between stress and strain in different materials.

AE 311B: STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 8

Where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion of the material. The

corresponding strain, called thermal strain, is

T T

by fixed supports, stresses develop in the rod as the temperature increases,

because of the reactions at the supports. To determine the magnitude P of

the reactions, the rod is first detached from its support at B.

temperature change. The deformation P caused by the force P is

required to bring it back to its original length, so that it may be re-attached

to the support at B.

temperature of 6oC. Determine the normal stress in the rails when the

temperature reaches 48oC, assuming that the rails

a) Are welded to form a continuous track

b) Are 10m long with 3-mm gaps between them [2.49]

2. A 2.5m long rod is secured between two walls. Assuming the load on the

rod is zero when temperature is 18oC, compute the stress when the

temperature drops to -10oC. The cross-sectional area of the rod is 1000mm2,

α=11.7μm/m.oC, and E=200 GN/m2. Solve with the following assumptions:

a) The walls are rigid.

b) The walls spring together a distance of 0.75mm as the

temperature drops.

3. A rod consisting of two cylindrical portions AB and BC is restrained at

both ends. Portion AB is made of steel (Es=200GPa, αs=11.7μm/m.oC) and

portion BC is made of brass (Eb=105GPa, αb=20.9μm/m.oC). Knowing taht

To introduce to students the basic concept of strain and discuss the relationship between stress and strain in different materials.

AE 311B: STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 9

the rod is initially unstressed, determine the compressive force induced in

ABC when there is a temperature rise of 50oC.[2.53]

To introduce to students the basic concept of strain and discuss the relationship between stress and strain in different materials.

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