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School of Business Studies (SBS)

WOMEN EMPOWERMENT

Submitted to:
Dr. Pradeep Kumar Aggarwal (Professor) Submitted By:

Kumari Priya

System ID: 2016005220

B. Com (HONS)IntAcc & ACCA

3rd Year, 5th Semester

Roll no: 160243048

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Declaration

I hereby declare that the project work entitled “WOMEN EMPOWERMENT” submitted to
school of business studies, Sharda University, Greater Noida is a record of an original work
done by me under the guidance of Dr. Pradeep Kumar Aggarwal. The results embodied in this
project work have not been submitted to any other university or institution for the award of any
degree or diploma.

Place: Signature of the student:

Date:

Name:

Reg. No. (System ID):

Programme:

Date of Submission:

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Acknowledgement

With the deepest gratitude I wish to thank every person who has supported me helping to
prepare the project.

I would also like to acknowledge and express my gratitude to the following people who had
written the articles and research the topic which it had totally gave me a strong feeling and idea
to do the project.

For generously sharing their wisdom, love, and destiny. My friends are always supported with
their love and bearing my improper behaviour while prepare the file. They had always made
me to think in logical idea and their also helped me in journey to prepare a project.

Thanks to Sharda University where it has been always making to have a practical test and
encouraging the creativity of the students.my sincere to our beloved teacher Mr. Pradeep
Kumar Aggarwal who had always been to clarify my doubts in the project.

And finally to my family who made their efforts to come across to make my education in
university. Their always made my day by providing me with every facility to come to my
destiny in the future times.

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Preface

The present study is hoped that the findings will provide a realistic insight into the women
Empowerment.

This work is divided into six parts. First it talks about introduction & objectives of the study of
women Empowerment.

Second part gives Literature Review, literature on Women Empowerment.

Three part deals with the Research Methodology, research design, and the research instrument
administered.

Fourth one deals with finding & Analysis and Results the profile of the respondents, sampling
procedure, method of analysis.

Fifth one deals with Managerial Implications of the study. This Chapter gives useful
implications of this study to practitioners. Summary & Conclusion of women empowerment,
Bibliography

Chapter six part gives appendix i.e., Questionnaire.

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Table of content

INTRODUCTION 6

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 10

LITERATURE REVIEW 11

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 12

FINDING & ANALYSIS 13

SUMMARY & CONCLUSION 22

BIBLIOGRAPHY 23

APPENDIX

QUESTIONARRIE 25

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Part 1
Introduction:
Women’s empowerment in India is heavily dependent on many different variables that include
geographical location (urban/rural), educational status, social status (caste and class), and age.
Policies on women’s empowerment exist at the national, state, and local (Panchayat) levels in
many sectors, including health, education, economic opportunities, gender-based violence, and
political participation. However, there are significant gaps between policy advancements and
actual practice at the community level.

One key factor for the gap in implementation of laws and policies to address
discrimination, economic disadvantages, and violence against women at the community level
is the largely patriarchal structure that governs the community and households in much of India.
As such, women and girls have restricted mobility, access to education, access to health
facilities, and lower decision-making power, and experience higher rates of violence. Political
participation is also hindered at the Panchayat (local governing bodies) level and at the state
and national levels, despite existing reservations for women.

The impact of the patriarchal structure can be seen in rural and urban India, although
women’s empowerment in rural India is much less visible than in urban areas. This is of
particular concern, since much of India is rural despite the high rate of urbanization and
expansion of cities. Rural women, as opposed to women in urban settings, face inequality at
much higher rates, and in all spheres of life. Urban women and, in particular, urban educated
women enjoy relatively higher access to economic opportunities, health and education, and
experience less domestic violence. Women (both urban and rural) who have some level of
education have higher decision-making power in the household and the community.
Furthermore, the level of women’s education also has a direct implication on maternal
mortality rates, and nutrition and health indicators among children.

Among rural women, there are further divisions that hinder women’s empowerment. The
most notable ones are education levels and caste and class divisions. Women from lower
castes (the scheduled castes, other backward castes, and tribal communities) are particularly
vulnerable to maternal mortality and infant mortality. They are often unable to access health
and educational services, lack decision-making power, and face higher levels of violence.
Among women of lower
caste and class, some level of education has shown to have a positive impact on women’s

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empowerment indicators.

Social divisions among urban women also have a similar impact on empowerment
indicators. Upper class and educated women have better access to health, education, and
economic opportunities, whereas lower class, less educated women in urban settings enjoy
these rights significantly less. Due to rapid urbanization and lack of economic opportunities in
other parts of the country, cities also house sprawling slum areas. Slums are informal sprawls,
and most times lack basic services such as clean water, sanitation, and health facilities.
Additionally, slum dwellers mostly work in unorganized and informal sectors, making them
vulnerable to raids by the state, abuse by employers, and other forms of insecurity. Women and
children in slums are among the most vulnerable to violence and abuse, and are deprived of
their basic human rights.

As a result of a vibrant women’s movement in the last 50 years, policies to advance


human rights for women in India are substantial and forward-thinking, such as the Domestic
Violence Act (2005), and the 73rd and 74th Amendments to the Constitution that provide
reservations for women to enter politics at the Panchayat level. There are multiple national and
state level governmental and non-governmental mechanisms such as the Women’s
Commission to advance these policies, and the implementation of these policies is
decentralized to state and district-level authorities and organizations that include local non-
governmental organizations.

The policy/practice gap in India cuts across all sectors and initiatives as a result of
rampant corruption and lack of good governance practices. State-level governments claim a
lack of resources, and the resources they do receive are highly susceptible to corruption.
Financial corruption hinders the government’s ability to invest in social capital, including
initiatives to advance women’s empowerment. Since the 1990’s India has put in place
processes and legislative acts such as the Right to Information Act (2005) for information
disclosure to increase transparency and hold government officials accountable. Mistrust of
political institutions and leaders remains high in the society with corruption and graft
allegations often covering media headlines.

In addition to corruption and inadequate resources for implementation of initiatives at


the community level, women’s empowerment in India is negatively impacted by the pervasive

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discrimination of women in the family and the community. Discrimination against women in
most parts of India (particularly the north) emerges from the social and religious construct of
women’s role and their status. As such, in many parts of India, women are considered to be
less than men, occupying a lower status in the family and community, which consequentially
restricts equal opportunity in women and girls’ access to education, economic possibilities, and
mobility.

Discrimination also limits women’s choices and freedom. These choices are further
dependent on structural factors like caste and class.

Empowerment for women in India requires a crosscutting approach and one which
addresses the diversity of social structures that govern women’s lives. Identity politics in India
is a very critical political instrument, which is both used and abused throughout political and
social institutions. There are numerous social movements fighting for the rights of the
marginalized, such as the Dalit rights movement, the tribal rights movement, etc. These
movements have achieved many gains in assuring representation of the traditionally
marginalized communities into mainstream society. Women’s rights within these movements
are largely unarticulated and thus reinforce inequalities within the very structures from which
they are demanding inclusion. Empowerment approaches for women therefore is not only about
providing services, but also about recognizing their lived realities of multiple layers of
discrimination that hinder their access to services.

Similarly, access to education for girls in some of the northern states like Uttar Pradesh
and Punjab does not only rely on proximity of schools. Access to education is part of a larger
structural concern, including the practice of son preference, which creates inherent
discriminatory practices. Education initiatives therefore cannot rely solely on building
educational infrastructure, but also need to address some of the root causes of discrimination
against women and girls which affect the decisions made by parents.

Women’s security, decision-making power, and mobility are three indicators for
women’s empowerment. In India, and more so for rural and less educated women, these three
indicators are significantly low. Data from the NFHS-3 survey on women’s decision-making
power shows that only about one third of the women interviewed took decisions on their own
regarding household issues and their health. Decision-making power among employed urban

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women was higher than among rural and less educated women. The survey also found that
older married women had more decision-making power than the younger married women.
Younger women and girls experience an additional layer of discrimination as a result of their
age.

Data on women’s mobility in India indicates the lack of choices women have, and that
urban and educated women have more mobility choices than rural women. The data shows that
about half the women interviewed had the freedom to go to the market or a health facility alone.
Seventy-nine percent of urban women from the highest education brackets and only about 40
percent of rural women without education were allowed to go to the market alone.

Mobility restrictions for women are dependent upon how the family and community
view women’s rights. They also, however, are intrinsically dependent on the prevailing levels
of violence against women in the household and the community. Abuse and violence towards
women is predominantly perpetrated within the household, and marital violence is among the
most accepted by both men and women. Wife beating, slapping, rape, dowry related deaths,
feudal violence towards tribal and lower caste women, trafficking, sexual abuse, and street
violence permeate the Indian social fabric, and create one of the most serious obstacles in
achieving women’s empowerment.

The gap in policy and practice in women’s empowerment is most visible when it comes
to the level and kinds of violence women face in India. Despite the policies, laws 6, and
initiatives by civil society institutions, violence against women in India is widespread and the
consequences for perpetrators rarely match the crime. Enforcement of laws and sentencing of
perpetrators are long and arduous processes, and the gaps in these processes are further widened
by corruption.

Another gap in implementing laws and policies on violence against women is the
inaccessibility of information on victims' rights among rural and less educated women.
Additionally, social stigma and the fear of abandonment by the family play a big role in women
and girls’ ability or inability to access laws and policies to address sexual and physical violence.

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Objectives of the study:

The principle of gender equality is enshrined in the Indian Constitution in its Preamble,
Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles. The Constitution not only
grants equality to women, but also empowers the State to adopt measures of positive
discrimination in favor of women.

The goal is to bring about the advancement, development and empowerment of


women. Specifically, the objectives include.

Creating an environment through positive economic and social policies for full
development of women to enable them to realize their full potential.
The de-jure and de-facto enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedom by
women on equal basis with men in all spheres – political, economic, social, cultural and
civil
Equal access to participation and decision making of women in social, political and
economic life of the nation
Equal access to women to health care, quality education at all levels, career and
vocational guidance, employment, equal remuneration, occupational health and safety,
social security and public office etc.
Strengthening legal systems aimed at elimination of all forms of discrimination against
women
Changing societal attitudes and community practices by active participation and
involvement of both men and women.
Mainstreaming a gender perspective in the development process.
Elimination of discrimination and all forms of violence against women and the girl
child; and
Building and strengthening partnerships with civil society, particularly women’s
organizations.

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Part 2
Literature Review:
1.) The study of Rowlands (1995) has explored the meaning of empowerment, in the context
of its root-concept: power
2.) Dreze and Sen (1995) have described women empowerment as ability to define self-
interest and choice, and consider woman as not only able but also entitled to make choices.
3.) Kishor (1997) has conceptualized empowerment in terms of ‘control’ by which women
would be able to access information, take decision and act in their own interest or for their
dependents. She has considered three categories of composite indicators to measure women’s
empowerment. These are ‘direct evidence of empowerment’, ‘source of empowerment’ and
‘the settings for empowerment.
4.) The study of Agarwal (2003) has suggested a technological model for empowering rural
women. Women’s employments through technological improvement and participatory
approach are needed to improve their lives. This would ensure a sustainable future for rural
India. Technology model described how scientific and technical interventions could improve
the quality of life of women in rural areas. This also shows that the following factors are crucial
for women’s empowerment in rural area.
 Proper reorganization of the productive and domestic roles of women
 Improvement of women’s empowerment needs facilities like drinking water, health,
sanitation, nutrition, family planning, education and security
 Gender integrated participatory technology development is required
 Improvement of local women motivator as active “change agent” of technology
through talks and audio-visuals, awareness builds up through demonstration and hands
on the job training in relevant field

This study has explained that technological development model along with education,
employment, reduction of socially traditional attitudes i.e. religion, family structures
etc. are responsible factors of women empowerment.

5.) Jejeebhoy (1995) has considered five dimensions of empowerment for studying nexus
between reproductive behaviour and women’s empowerment in the developing countries.
These are knowledge autonomy, decision-making autonomy, physical autonomy, emotional
autonomy and economic and social autonomy and self-reliance. Reviewing many studies
conducted across the globe she has established that kinship structure in the family, education
of the women and women’s autonomy, which are the indicators of empowerment, reduce the
fertility rate.

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Part 3
Research Methodology:
This part of study defines all the process of data collection. When it comes to data collection,
there are two methods in general used by researcher to collect data, primary and secondary
method. Primary method includes observation method, interview/questionnaire method, and
case study method. Secondary method is the method in which already collected data. The
present study is based on combination of both qualitative and quantitative data. The qualitative
data is collected through the sampling from the common women. Random women are selected
for the sampling purpose. The sample individual is selected from different age group, and from
different location of Greater Noida. The different group of people including student, employee
and unemployed, housewives, etc. are considered as sample for the study.
(a)Sampling: The target group is of different age; different age group people are considered
because to know which age group is effected most. There are four division of age group in the
questionnaire to examine the effect.

(b)Sample size: Determining the size of sample that is needed for a particular piece of research.
For this research 40 sample size is taken for the interviews. From this sample size the
calculation of simple percentages for each variable is done.

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Part 4
Finding and Analysis:

30 respondents were taken into consideration for the study. The graph representation shows the
percentage of age group who participated in survey. It shows 56.7 % of people were of 20-30
age group, 26.7 % people were from 30-40 age group,13.3 % people were from 10-20 age
group and rest were from above 40 age group.

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Survey was done in Rural area as it will clearly depict the women condition and status of
women empowerment.

It was found that 66.7 % women were not having bank account, most common answer for not
having bank account was that male counterpart in the family is believed to have control in the
financial decision and only 33.3 % women were holding bank account.

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Only 30 % of women were having educational qualification 10 class or above, rest 70 % have
left studies before 10 Class as studies for them was mostly not important because they believe
women have to work in house after all.

Most of the women in rural area were working as farmer, fruit seller, Gardner, in my survey I
was unable to find any women who was working in technical field or job like doctor, scientist
engineer.

Only 20% of women were holding debit or credit card as they commented that they are not
able to operate card so it seems useless to them.

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48.3 % women were having salary between 5000-20000, and 44.8% were having salary less
than 5000.

All financial decision in family were taken by Male in 73.3 % (53.3% by husband and 20% by
father) of the cases and in23.3% cases only female was independent to take decisions.

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It was good to observe that in rural area sex discrimination was reduced and both girls and
boys were going to school in 66.7% cases but in 20% cases still there was differentiation.

When looking after livestock in family it was found 80 % of the time it was look up by both
male and female and in 16.7% of cases it was only male who look after livestock.

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In 63.3% of cases subsistence food were grown by the members of the household whereas in
36.7% of cases it has to be arrange from other sources such as market.

70% of the time male and female both work together in growing subsistence food.

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43.3% women were having 2 children in family, in 23.3% cases 3 children’s and in 13.3%
cases it was 4 or more.

In most of the cases Men were the head of the family 56.7% to be exact and in 36.7% cases it
was both men and women.

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In 33.3% cases family consist of 5 peoples and 6.7% cases 10 or more peoples were there in
family

66.7% of people were having livestock in family and 33.3% family doesn’t have any
livestock.

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It was found that 56.7 % of women doesn’t have driving license when asked in survey.

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Part 5
Summary and Conclusion:

The primary objective of this project was to assess progress in India toward the twin goals of
gender equality and women’s empowerment. The specific areas investigated included son
preference, education, age at marriage, spousal age differentials, employment, female
household headship, women’s access to resources, gender relations in the household,
women’s participation in decision-making, and spousal violence. In general, the report finds
that gender inequality is persistent in every domain examined, and women are disempowered
both absolutely and relative to men. Further, an examination of indicators for which trend data
are available shows that the progress toward gender equality and women’s empowerment
remains very slow.

In addition to examining progress toward achieving gender equality and women’s


empowerment, the report also examined gender differentials in selected health and nutritional
outcomes and evaluated differences by sex in the relationship of women’s empowerment and
experience of spousal violence with indicators of these selected health and nutrition outcomes.
Finally, the variation in current use of modern contraception by indicators of women’s
empowerment and experience of spousal violence was also explored.

Scope for further research:

Despite attempts to confirm that the findings of this research are both trustworthy and
effective, a number of limitations lies. Originally this survey had a very less number of
respondents. And the study was undertaken in a very small area of state Uttar Pradesh i.e.
greater Noida. It cannot be generalized to the entire district, or implied state to the whole
country. The view of 30 respondents cannot replicate the responds of the entire district or the
state. The economic well-being of the people describes their improvement in technology. So
the area which is more advanced is more likely to involve in the internet than the less or
underdeveloped area.

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Bibliography
> DATA FROM THE 2005-06 NATIONAL FAMILY HEALTH SURVEY (NFHS-3)
AND ITS TWO PREDECESSOR SURVEYS, NFHS-1 (1992-93) AND NFHS-2
(1998-99).

> ECONOMIC RESTRUCTURING AND GENDER IN CANADA: FEMINIST


POLICY INITIATIVES
Macdonald, M.

> MEASURING WOMEN'S EMPOWERMENT AS A VARIABLE IN


INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Malhotra, A. Et Al

> INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICT) AND THEIR


IMPACT ON AND USE AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR THE ADVANCEMENT
AND EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN
Marcelle, G.

> WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: PARTICIPATION AND DECISION-MAKING


Marilee, K.

> GENDER EMPOWERMENT AND THE WILLINGNESS OF STATES TO USE


FORCE
Marshall, M.G. And D.R. Marshall

> PROPOSED GLOBAL RESEARCH FRAMEWORK FOR CARE'S STRATEGIC


IMPACT INQUIRY ON WOMEN'S EMPOWERMENT
Martinez, E. And K. Glenzer (CARE USA, Atlanta, 2005)

> MICRO FINANCE AND THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN: A REVIEW OF


THE KEY ISSUES
Mayoux, L.

> WOMEN'S EMPOWERMENT THROUGH SUSTAINABLE MICRO FINANCE:


RETHINKING BEST PRACTICE
Mayoux, L.

> WOMEN, EMPOWERMENT AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT


Mehra, R.

> TRENDS, COUNTERTRENDS, AND GAPS IN WOMEN'S EMPLOYMENT


Mehra, R. And S. Gammage

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> RECASTING INDICES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A GENDER
EMPOWERMENT MEASURE
Mehta, A. Kapur

> MICRO FINANCE AND WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: A CRITICAL


EVALUATION
Menon, S.V.

> WOMEN EMPOWERMENT AND HD IN INDIA, Indian Economic Review, 47(3),


2005)
Mitra, T.K. And G. Sinha

> MEASURING WOMEN'S EMPOWERMENT: PARTICIPATION AND RIGHTS IN


CIVIL, POLITICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND CULTURAL DOMAINS
Moghadam, V.M. And L. Senftova

> ON THE CONCEPT OF 'EMPOWERMENT'


Mohanty, M.

> ASSESSING WOMEN'S EMPOWERMENT: TOWARDS A CONCEPTUAL


FRAMEWORK
Mosedale, S.

> GENDER AND INDICATORS: OVERVIEW REPORT


Moser, A.

> THE CHANGING STATUS OF WOMEN IN INDIA- THE CHALLENGES


AHEAD
Mukherjee, I. And S. Sen

> TOWARDS GENDER-AWARE DATA SYSTEMS: INDIAN EXPERIENCE


Mukherjee, M.

> GENDER EQUALITY AND WELL-BEING OF RURAL WOMEN


Mukherjee, N.

> GENDER EQUALITY AND WOMEN'S SOLIDARITY ACROSS RELIGIOUS,


ETHNIC AND CLASS DIFFERENCE IN THE KENYA CONSTITUTIONAL
REVIEW PROCESS
Mutua, A.

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Part 6
Appendix
Questionnaires:

1. what is the age?


a) 10-20
b) 20-30
c) 30-40
d) above 40

2. Area of the survey?


a) Rural area
b) Urban area

3. Do you have your personal bank accounts?


1. Yes
2. No

4. What is your qualification?

Your answer

5. What is your occupation?

Your answer

6. Whether you have debit card or credit card?


a) Yes
b) No

7. What is your monthly income?


a) below 5000
b) 5000-20000
c) 20000-50000
d) above 50000

8. Who takes all the financial decisions in your home?


a) Husband
b) Father
c) You
d) others

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9. Is any child (or children) of school-age in your household not attending school for any
reason?

a) yes sex differentiate between girl and boy


b) no they is no differentiation
c) Not Applicable (Mark here if there is no school-age child

10. Who looks after the livestock?


a) Females only
b) Males only
c) Both male and female

11. Is any subsistence food grown by members of the household?


a) Yes
b) No

12. Who grows subsistence food?


a) Females only
b) Males only
c) Both males and females
d) Not Applicable (household doesn't grow subsistence food).

13. How many children do you have?


a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4 or more

14. Who is the head of your household?


a) Women
b) Men
c) Joint

15. How many people live in your household?

Your answer

16. Does the household keep the livestock?


a) yes
b) No

17. Do you have driving license


a) Yes

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b) No

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