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Fuel Processing Technology 139 (2015) 100–107

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Fuel Processing Technology

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/fuproc

Examination of the effects of organic based manganese fuel additive on

combustion and engine performance
Mehmet Çelik a, Hamit Solmaz b,⁎, H. Serdar Yücesu b
Nigde Vocational High School, Nigde University, Nigde, Turkey
Automotive Engineering Department, Faculty of Technology, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The physical and chemical properties of the fuel used in internal combustion engines affect fuel economy and
Received 25 June 2015 emission characteristics. Various additives are added into diesel fuel in order to improve fuel quality, achieve
Received in revised form 22 July 2015 better combustion and reduce exhaust emissions. Acting as catalyzers during combustion, additives expedite
Accepted 3 August 2015
fuel instability reactions and establish positive effects on engine performance. In the present study organic
Available online 11 August 2015
based manganese additive was added into diesel fuel. Combustion, performance and exhaust emission character-
istics of the manganese fuel additives were investigated. The tests were carried out in a single-cylinder diesel en-
Diesel engines gine. Among the fuels supplemented with organic based manganese additive, the best results were obtained
Fuel additives from 12 ppm mixture rate. In comparison with diesel fuel, the maximum power of the D0Mn12 fuel increased
Manganese by 12.48% while the specific fuel consumption was reduced by 8.17%. At fuel load while CO, THC and smoke
Combustion characteristics emissions were determined to remain at the minimum levels in the fuel D0Mn12, NOx emissions reached the
Exhaust emissions maximum level.
Motor performance © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction and chemical properties of the fuel used in internal combustion engines
affect fuel economy and emission characteristics [9]. With the use of
Diesel engines are widely preferred in industrial and agricultural additives, the performance, combustion and emission characteristics
applications and transportation due to the high levels of efficiency and of the fuel may be improved. Conducted studies indicate that additives
reliability they provide [1]. The energy demand increases rapidly due reduce ignition delay and specific fuel consumption while increasing
to the rapid industrialization and the ever increasing number of vehicles the thermal values of the fuel [10]. In diesel engines, proper fuel atom-
in traffic [2]. The limited nature of energy generation, increasing ization enables higher efficiency and significantly reduces exhaust
demand for energy, depletion of fossil fuels, global warming, negative emission generation. Ignition, combustion and pollutant emission
environmental effects and strict emission-related standards brought in generation are affected by atomization properties [11]. Diesel engine
have been urging researchers to involve in studies aimed at improving performance is closely related with the quality of the injected fuel, the
fuel quality and finding alternative and renewable fuels [3–5]. Signifi- air/fuel mixture in the combustion chamber, the atomization, vaporiza-
cant studies are being carried out all around the world in order to tion, density and viscosity of the fuel [12]. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are
limit diesel engine emissions and fuel consumption. Emissions and one of the troublemakers for diesel engines. Especially it is well
fuel consumption have been significantly reduced by virtue of the known that the usage of the biodiesel increases the NOx level because
efforts in engine design. However, it is difficult to attain the required of its oxygen content and higher cetane number. Higher cetane number
emission standards solely through engine design. Alternative methods reduces the ignition delay period and a shorter ignition delay may result
aimed to obtain lower emission levels, better engine performances if the initial combustion products are exposed to high temperatures
and increase fuel durability are tried by mixing different additives with- which enable more NOx formation. However, cetane improving addi-
in diesel fuel. In recent years additive usage has become the focal point tives can be used sometimes for reducing the NOx emissions [13]. Keskin
of the studies in this field [6,7]. Various additives are added into diesel et al. mixed tall oil-based methyl ester with diesel fuel (B60) at the rate
fuel in order to improve fuel quality, achieve better combustion and re- of 60%, and further added 4 μmol/l, 8 μmol/l and 12 μmol/l magnesium
duce exhaust emissions. These additives create a catalytic action in (Mg) and molybdenum (Mo) additives into the fuel. Carbon monoxide
order to enable better combustion of hydrocarbons [8]. The physical (CO) and smoke density emissions were determined to be reduced by
56.42% and 30.43% respectively. It was reported that the reduction of
⁎ Corresponding author.
the CO and smoke emissions was highly related to the oxygen content
E-mail addresses: mehmetcelik@nigde.edu.tr (M. Çelik), hsolmaz@gazi.edu.tr of the biodiesel and the catalyst effect of the metal based fuel additives
(H. Solmaz), yucesu@gazi.edu.tr (H. Serdar Yücesu). [14]. A higher viscosity property of biodiesels is the biggest handicap for

0378-3820/© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
M. Çelik et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 139 (2015) 100–107 101

using in engines having advance fuel injection systems such as common Table 2
rail. In order to improve the performance and emission values of tallow Technical specifications of the test engine.

methyl ester Guru et al. added organic-based magnesium additive into Make/model Antor/6LD400
biodiesel. With the addition of 12 μmol/l additive into biodiesel, 40 °C Engine type DI-Diesel engine, natural aspirated, air cooled
viscosity was reduced by 8.33%. Flashpoints of the biodiesel and the Cylinder number 1
Bore × stroke [mm] 86 × 68
fuel supplemented with the additive were determined to be 138 °C
Displacement [cm3] 395
and 132 °C respectively [15]. Keskin et al., on the other hand, examined Compression ratio 18:1
the effects of organic-based metallic fuel additives on diesel engine per- Maximum power [kW] 5.4 @ 3000 rpm
formance and emissions (smoke, CO, nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon Maximum torque [Nm] 19.6 @ 2200 rpm
Combustion chamber geometry ω type
dioxide (CO2)). Each of MnO2 and MgO metal additives was added to
Fuel injection system PF Jerk-type fuel pump
diesel fuel at the rates of 8 μmol/l and 16 μmol/l in order to prepare a Injection nozzle 0.24 [mm] × 4 holes × 160°
test fuel. The lowest boiling point and pour point were obtained with Nozzle opening pressure [bar] 180
the addition of the manganese (Mn) based additive. The addition of Fuel delivery advance angle [°KA] 24 BTDC
the 16 μmol/l Mn based additive to diesel fuel reduced pour point to Valve timings IVO/IVC [°KA] 7.5 BTDC/25.5 ABDC
8 °C and cloud point to 4 °C. The maximum decrease in viscosity was ob-
tained with D-16 Mg [16]. In the study conducted by Caynak et al. it was
reported that the viscosity and cold flow properties of fuel were im-
proved with the use of manganese additive. Manganese addition to was made through the use of an AVL 4000 DiSmoke model partial-
the biodiesel at a ratio of 12 μmol/l resulted a 20.37% decrease in viscos- flow opacimeter. Technical specifications of the gas analyzer and
ity. It was also reported that the flash point of the fuel decreased by 7 °C opacimeter were given in Tables 3 and 4 respectively. The schematic
with manganese addition [17]. A supporting study was performed by figure of the experimental setup is presented in Fig. 1. Uncertainties
Guru et al. In this study Mn, Mg, copper (Cu) and calcium (Ca) metals were given in Table 5.
were synthesized and their solutions were used as diesel fuel additives. During the experimental measurement, the constant variation of the
The cetane number of the pure diesel fuel was increased from 46.22 to data obtained from cylinder pressure sensor due to the instantaneous
48.24 by using the optimum additive dosage. The freezing point was change of cylinder volume, combustion and heat transfer to the cylinder
also reduced about 12.4 °C by using fuel additives [18]. Manganese is wall are the most significant factors acting upon the graphic [20]. In
an attractive material as fuel additive. In another study it was also each cycle 2000 raw in-cylinder pressure data are received at intervals
used as gasoline fuel additive. Geng and Zhang evaluated Methyl- of 0.36 °CA. For the purpose of negating the effect of cyclic differences,
cyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl (MMT) as gasoline additive corrections were made on 50 consecutive cycles and their average
to improve octane rating and knocking resistance of the fuel. Test fuels was calculated for analyses. During a cycle the cylinder pressure corre-
were prepared by doping MMT in a volume of 8, 12 and 18 mg/l to gas- sponding to each °CA in compression and extension time provide quan-
oline. Test results showed that the increasing ratios of the MMT caused titative information on the combustion. These data consist of the energy
an increase in cylinder pressure and peak heat release rates. It was also released during the transformation of the fuel's chemical energy into
reported that CO, NOx and particulate matter (PM) emissions increased heat energy. In-cylinder pressure data were used to calculate heat distri-
with the increase of MMT percentage [19]. bution rates [17–23]. Noise is generated in consequence of the numeric
In this study, organic based manganese additive was added into die- operations conducted with cylinder pressure data in heat dissipation
sel fuel. During the preparation of test fuels 4 ppm (D0Mn4), 8 ppm analysis. In order to reduce these noises, the filtering operation present-
(D0Mn8), 12 ppm (D0Mn12) and 16 ppm (D0Mn16) organic-based ed in Eq. (1) was implemented.
manganese additive was added into diesel fuel (D0). The properties
of the used fuels are presented in Table 1. The tests were carried  
out in a single-cylinder diesel engine. Engine tests were conducted 1 Pi−ðx−1Þ þ 2Pi−ðx−2Þ þ 3Pi−ðx−3Þ þ … þ xPi þ … þ 3Piþðx−3Þ þ
Pi ¼
at 2200 1/min fixed engine speed where the maximum torque is ob- x2 2Piþðx−2Þ þ Piþðx−1Þ
tained and at 5 different loads. By establishing stable operation condi- ð1Þ
tions, the tests were conducted at fixed engine operating temperature.
where Pi functions indicate the cylinder pressure signals and i indicates
2. Experimental setup and procedure the certain crankshaft interval.
Heat dissipation was calculated from Eq. (2) by making certain
In the study a Cussons P8160 engine test mechanism and a single- assumptions and implementing the first law of thermodynamics with
cylinder diesel engine were used. The technical properties of the test single zone combustion model.
engine are presented in Table 2. The indicator system consisted of
a Cussons brand P4100 model combustion analysis device, an AVL dQ net k dV 1 dP
¼ P þ V ð2Þ
brand 3009 model charge amplifier, a water-cooled piezoelectric dt k−1 dt k−1 dt
AVL8QP500c cylinder pressure sensor and National Instruments' USB
6259 data transfer card and an encoder. THC, NOx, CO2 and CO emission The variation of the mixture composition within the cylinder along
measurements from exhaust gases were carried out through an with the temperature and pressure differences in the cylinder causes
EGAS-2M model analytical exhaust gas measurement system pro- cyclic differences. The sudden and rapid heat dissipation that occurs in
duced by the Environnement SA Company. Smoke measurement the whole combustion chamber causes the cyclic differences to increase.

Table 1
Characteristics of test fuels.

Parameter Method D0 D0Mn4 D0Mn8 D0Mn12 D0Mn16

Viscosity (mm2/s, 40 °C) ASTM D 445 2.5 2.4 2.34 2.25 2.18
Density (kg/m3, 15 °C) ASTM D 1298 0.838 0.833 0.830 0.828 0.827
Flash point (°C) ASTM D 93 64 62 59 58 57
Lower heating value (MJ/kg) ASTM D 2015 41.13 41.19 41.22 41.24 41.25
102 M. Çelik et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 139 (2015) 100–107

Table 3
Technical specifications of exhaust gas analyzers.

Analyzer GRAPHITE 52 M TOPAZE 32 M MIR 2 M

Measuring compound THC (wet) NO–NOx (wet) CO–CO2–O2 (dry)

Measurement principle HFID HCLD NDIR-paramagnetic
Linearity b1% b1% b1%
Measurement rates 0–10/30,000 ppm 0–10/10,000 ppm 0–500/10,000 ppm (CO)
0–1/20% (CO2)
0–5/25% (O2)
Lower detectable limit 0.05 ppm 0.1 ppm b2%
(0–10 ppm range) (0–10 ppm range) (FSO)
Response time (T90 s) b1.5 s b2 s b2 s

In addition, ignition delay that takes place particularly at low engine supplemented with additives penetrates into a wider area. Thus, during
loads and knocking that occur under high loads further increases the combustion it is observed that additives enable the fuel to be better
differences among cycles. For a stable operation of the engine, variance mixed with air [20]. It is reported that the improvements in power
coefficient should not exceed 10%. Indicated average effective pressure and torque result from the catalyzer effect of organic based manganese
variance coefficient was calculated by means of Eq. (3). additive and the improvement of combustion [16]. Examining power
and torque curves in the case of using organic based manganese
additive shows that the best results are obtained by the 12 ppm additive
σ imep rate. While the torque and power outputs improve with the increase of
COVimep ¼  100 ð3Þ
X the organic based manganese rate, after 12 ppm mixture rate the im-
provement decreases.
where σimep indicates the standard deviation of the average effective Figs. from 5 to 9 present the cylinder pressure traces and heat dissi-
pressure values of 50 cycles and X indicates the mean of average effec- pation graphs of diesel fuel (D0) manganese mixtures. Examining the
tive pressure. graphics shows that under all loads the maximum cylinder pressure
The variation of the in-cylinder pressure and the first order deriv- and heat dissipation are generated in the D0Mn12 fuel. Since the low
ative of pressure curve in line with the crank angle can be seen in ambient temperature within the cylinder affects the volatility of the
Fig. 2. Crank angle-dependent pressure increase rate and maximum fuel, under lower loads maximum cylinder pressures are also low.
pressure increase rate can be calculated from the first order derivative Cylinder gas pressure increases in line with increasing loads and with
of cylinder pressure. Also, the crank angle which gives zero pressure in- this increase of load the reduction in the ignition delay is caused by
crease rate curve corresponds to the crank angle where the maximum the additive. High maximum heat dissipation is related with the high
in-cylinder pressure occurs. In the present study, the crank positions number of cetane shortening ignition delay, therefore the early start of
that lead to the maximum in-cylinder pressure were obtained from combustion and the catalyzing effect of the additive [22]. In all test
the first order derivative of in-cylinder pressure. fuels, maximum heat dissipation occurred nearly at the same crank
angle. With the increase of load, heat dissipation moves away from
3. Results and discussions TDC. Earlier heat dissipation obtained with the increase of load may be
considered to be a result of the increase in the in-cylinder temperature
Figs. 3 and 4 present the engine speed-dependent torque and power [23].
variations of diesel fuel (D0) manganese mixtures. The maximum The highest indicated mean effective pressure (imep) value of diesel
engine torque of 24.52 Nm was obtained at 2200 1/min, with the (D0) fuel manganese mixture is obtained from the D0Mn12 fuel. While
D0Mn12 fuel. With the fuels D0, D0Mn4, D0Mn8 and D0Mn16 the the maximum imep was determined to be 7.92 bar with D0Mn12, in D0
maximum torques at 2200 1/min were determined to be respectively it was 7.03 bar, in D0Mn4 it was 7.77 bar, in D0Mn8 it was 7.87 bar and
21.5 Nm, 22.95 Nm, 23.07 Nm and 23.1 Nm. At 2200 1/min, 14.04% in D0Mn16 it was 7.90 bar. The higher the average effective pressure is,
torque increase was achieved with the D0Mn12 fuel in comparison the higher power can be obtained [24].
with the D0 fuel. At 2750 1/min, while the maximum power obtained COVimep values were calculated in order to determine the knocking
with the D0Mn12 fuel was 6.14 kW, which increased the power of D0 area, which is a significant boundary in the determination of the opera-
by 12.98%. On the other hand, again at 2750 1/min D0Mn4 provided a tion range of diesel engine. In order to ensure that internal combustion
6.09% increase, D0Mn8 provided a 5.69% increase and D0Mn16 provid- engines operate smoothly in a stable way COVimep value is required not
ed a 5.43% increase over the maximum power of D0 fuel. to exceed 10% [25,26]. In diesel combustion, generally combustion may
Increases in engine power and torque were achieved with the use of take place in an incomplete manner at low engine loads, which may
organic-based manganese additive. The increases in engine power and cause misfire. When misfire takes place, unburned fuel may stay within
torque are considered to be originating from high combustion efficiency the cylinder together with incomplete combustion products, and a more
and proper atomization, which in turn are related with the decrease in proper combustion may take place with the introduction of new air/fuel
fuel viscosity and density and the increase in lower heating value [4]. mixture with the next cycle. Due to this variations occur in consecutive
In connection with the catalytic cracking effect of these additives, it re- imep values and the engine runs irregularly [27].
sults from the fuel being separated into smaller hydrocarbons [15]. Fuel In Fig. 10 the maximum COVimep at 7.5 Nm is calculated to be 8.93%
in the fuel D0. COVimep value decreases with the increase of the manga-
nese additive rate. Under maximum load COVimep values were calculat-
Table 4
ed to be 4.84%, 4.77%, 4.71%, 4.60% and 4.79% in the fuels D0, D0Mn4,
Technical specifications of opacimeter.
D0Mn8, D0Mn12 and D0Mn16 respectively. With the increase of load,
Analyzer AVL DiSmoke 4000 COVimep values were observed to decrease. With the waste exhaust
Measurement principle Partial flow opacimeter gases retained in the cylinder incomplete combustion takes place, and
Opacity K value the fuel the combustion of which is not completed joins combustion
Measurement range 0–100% Accuracy 0.1% in the next cycle [25]. Since manganese additive acts as catalyzer during
Accuracy 0–99.99 m−1 0.01 m−1
combustion, it is believed that with this additive combustion takes place
M. Çelik et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 139 (2015) 100–107 103

Fig. 1. The schematic view of the engine test bed. 1. Test engine; 2. DC dynamometer; 3. Laminar flow meter; 4. Air surge tank; 5. Intake air heater; 6. Sensitive scale; 7. Diesel fuel line
pressure transducer; 8. Needle-lift sensor; 9. In-cylinder pressure transducer; 10. Encoder; 11. Needle-lift sensor amplifier; 12. Diesel fuel line pressure sensor amplifier; 13. Data acqui-
sition card; 14. Combustion analyzer; 15. Computer; 16. Heated emission sampling line; 17. Emission sampling trolley; 18. Emission analyzers; 19. Opacimeter; 20. Dicom4000.

faster. COVimep value is observed to increase after the 12 ppm manga- of combustion [31]. Combustion start can also be determined in line
nese additive rate. with the second order derivative of the cylinder pressure, and this
Fig. 11 presents the ignition delay graphic of diesel fuel (D0) manga- point is point zero in consideration of the crank angle [27]. With the
nese mixtures. At all engine loads, the shortest ignition delays were increase in engine load, the ignition delay time shortens. Shortening of
obtained from the fuel D0Mn12. With the increase in load, the ignition ignition delay may be considered to be a result of the ample air motion
delay time shortens. While the ignition delay at maximum torque was within the cylinder, increase of fuel atomization and better mixture of
determined to be 13.01 °CA in D0Mn12, it was determined to be 14.04 air and fuel. Due to the increase of in-cylinder temperature in line
in D0, 13.49 in D0Mn4, 13.30 in D0Mn8 and 13.30 °CA in D0Mn16. with the increase of engine load, ignition delay time shortens because
In diesel engines, the time between the start of injection and the chemical reactions take place at high temperatures [31]. As a conse-
start of combustion is referred to as ignition delay. Ignition delay is quence of high cylinder temperature, fuel may be subjected to better
defined as the time of physical delay and chemical delay [28,29]. thermal decomposition during injection. With the addition of manga-
Along the combustion chamber, the injected fuel is separated into nese into the fuel it is observed that ignition delay is reduced up to
drops and evaporated. Physical delay is the time needed for the fuel to the rate of 12 ppm manganese. Considering that the number of cetanes
become ready for combustion. Since the physical delay period is related
with the evaporation and atomization of fuel drops, it depends on the
injection pressure, injector type, combustion chamber design and fuel
properties. Chemical delay that takes place after physical delay on the
other hand is related with the temperature within the cylinder and
fuel properties [30]. In the heat dissipation graph, since heat is drawn
by the evaporation of fuel heat dissipation becomes negative and the
point where the heat dissipation turns positive is defined as the start

Table 5
Measurement accuracy and uncertainties of calculated results.

Accuracy Uncertainty

Time [s] ±0.5% –

Temperature [°C] ±1 [°C] –
Fuel [g] ±0.1 [g]
Engine speed [1/min] ±1% –
Load [N] ±0.25% –
Torque [Nm] – ±0.25%
Fuel flow rate [g/min] – ±0.72%
Thermal efficiency [%] – ±1.16%
Specific fuel consumption [g/kW-h] – ±1.26%
Fig. 2. Cylinder pressure and pressure rise rate variation with crank angle.
104 M. Çelik et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 139 (2015) 100–107

Fig. 3. Variation of engine power in line with engine speed (full load). Fig. 6. Cylinder pressure and heat dissipation graphics of diesel Mn mixture at 10 nm load.

Fig. 7. Cylinder pressure and heat dissipation graphics of diesel Mn mixture at 12.5 nm
Fig. 4. Variation of engine torque with engine speed (full load).

increased as a consequence of manganese addition, it can be inferred It can be seen from Fig. 12 that under all loads the highest exhaust
that lighter compounds burn earlier and therefore ignition delay gas temperatures were obtained from the use of the fuel D0Mn12.
shortens [32]. Fuels with higher numbers of cetanes generally lead to Under full load, while the exhaust gas temperature of D0Mn12 was
lower ignition delay [33]. Fuel with lower cetane number has higher la- 585 °C, it was 568 °C for D0. Maximum exhaust gas temperatures of
tent heat for volatility and evaporation. Due to this reason, during fuel D0Mn4, D0Mn8 and D0Mn16 on the other hand were calculated to
injection it causes more heat absorption due to longer ignition delay be 566, 570 and 580 °C respectively. The increase in exhaust gas

Fig. 5. Cylinder pressure and heat dissipation graphics of diesel Mn mixture at 7.5 nm load. Fig. 8. Cylinder pressure and heat dissipation graphics of diesel Mn mixture at 15 nm load.
M. Çelik et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 139 (2015) 100–107 105

Fig. 9. Cylinder pressure and heat dissipation graphics of diesel Mn mixture at maximum
Fig. 11. Diesel manganese mixture ignition delay.

temperature may be explained with ignition delay. Long ignition delay By acting as an oxidation catalyzer, the additive causes a decrease in
time would reduce in-cylinder temperature and pressure. This in turn oxidation temperature. It enables the injected fuel to burn better and
may be considered to cause a decrease in exhaust gas temperature particularly balances its evaporation characteristic. This, in turn, affects
[35]. In addition, exhaust gas temperature is based on the lower heating specific fuel consumption positively [22].
value [33]. On the other hand, among the fuels supplemented with Fig. 14 presents the CO emissions of diesel fuel (D0) manganese mix-
manganese the one with 12 ppm mixture rate also increases exhaust ture. It is observed that CO emissions increase in line with the increasing
gas temperature. This increase ceases after a certain percentage of load. At full load CO emission was observed to reduce by 34.07%, 22.53%,
manganese added. 51.76% and 46.14% respectively in the fuels D0Mn4, D0Mn8, D0Mn12
Specific fuel consumption indicates the fuel quantity consumed at and D0Mn16, in comparison to D0. At all loads, the minimum CO emis-
unit time per unit power. It is among the most important parameters sion was found out to be from the fuel D0Mn12. While the CO emission
in the determination of engine performance [36]. improves with the increase of manganese additive rate, after 12 ppm
Fig. 13 presents the engine load-dependent variations of specific this improvement starts to decrease.
consumption of diesel fuel (D0) manganese mixtures. Under all engine Fig. 15 presents the THC emissions of diesel fuel (D0) manganese
load conditions, the minimum specific fuel consumption was obtained mixture. It is observed that THC emissions increase in line with the in-
from the fuel D0Mn12. While D0Mn12 achieved the maximum decrease creasing load. At full load THC emissions of the fuels D0, D0Mn4,
of 13.88% specific fuel consumption in comparison with D0 at 7.5 Nm D0Mn8, D0Mn12 and D0Mn16 were determined to be 643 ppm,
load, under full load the decrease D0Mn12 provided at specific fuel 612 ppm, 629 ppm, 602 ppm and 607 ppm respectively. At full load
consumption was 8.17%. THC emission was observed to reduce by 4.83%, 2.28%, 6.41% and
With the increase of load, the reduction in specific fuel consumption 5.69% respectively in the fuels D0Mn4, D0Mn8, D0Mn12 and D0Mn16,
was observed to decrease somewhat. In diesel engines specific fuel in comparison to D0. At all loads, the minimum THC emission was
consumption is related to fuel injection system, fuel density, viscosity found out to be from the fuel D0Mn12.
and lower heating value [37]. Supplementing the fuel organic-based Fig. 16 presents the NOx emissions of diesel fuel (D0) manganese
manganese additive reduces fuel viscosity and density, and increases mixture. It is observed that NOx emissions increase in line with the in-
cetane number. With the improvement of fuel properties it positively creasing load. At full load, the NOx emissions of the fuels D0, D0Mn4,
affects the atomization and penetration of the fuel within the cylinder, D0Mn8, D0Mn12 and D0Mn16 were determined to be respectively
and also improves the air/fuel mixture [38]. 220 ppm, 327 ppm, 360 ppm, 407 ppm and 364 ppm. Maximum rate

Fig. 10. Variation of cyclic differences in diesel fuel–manganese mixture. Fig. 12. Load-dependent variation of exhaust gas temperature.
106 M. Çelik et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 139 (2015) 100–107

Fig. 13. Load-dependent variation of specific fuel consumption. Fig. 15. THC emission graph of diesel fuel manganese mixture.

of increase was found out to be in the D0Mn12 fuel. While NOx emission during combustion, affecting both the pressure and temperature within
increases with the addition of manganese into the fuel up to 12 ppm, the cylinder [40].
after 12 ppm it starts to decrease.
Fig. 17 presents the smoke (smoke density) emissions of diesel fuel 4. Conclusion
(D0) and manganese mixture. It is observed that smoke emissions in-
crease in line with the increasing load. With the increase of manganese In comparison with the fuel D0, the D0Mn12 fuel achieved 12.98%
addition, smoke emissions were observed to decrease. The decrease in higher engine power, 14.04% higher engine torque and 8.17% lower spe-
the emissions is larger under lower loads. In comparison with the D0 cific fuel consumption. Under all loads the maximum cylinder pressure
fuel the fuels D0Mn4, D0Mn8, D0Mn12 and D0Mn16 respectively and heat dissipation are generated in the D0Mn12 fuel. In line with the
provided 14.78%, 17.08%, 17.56% and 15.36% less smoke emission at increase of load, also cylinder gas pressure increased due to the shorten-
7.5 Nm torque. At full load on the other hand the fuels D0Mn4, ing of ignition delay. Under full load while the COVimep value decreases
D0Mn8, D0Mn12 and D0Mn16 generated respectively 4.09%, 7.68%, until 12 ppm additive rate, after this point it starts to increase. Ignition
10.74% and 6.13% less smoke than D0. delay obtained with D0Mn12 under full load is 7.33% less than that of
It is believed that fuel additives reduce smoke emissions. High D0 and also the COVimep value is observed to decrease. Also, while the
density and viscosity of fuel affect its atomization and evaporation CO, HC and smoke density emissions decreased, CO2 and NOx emissions
within the cylinder negatively and degrade combustion quality [39]. increased partially. This is believed to be a consequence of the fuel sup-
Due to the catalytic effect of additives the oxidation temperature of plemented with a certain rate of manganese additive being separated
the smoke particles generated during the combustion process decreases into smaller hydrocarbon particles due to the catalytic cracking effect.
and consequently significant decreases in smoke emissions are With the introduction of manganese additive into the fuel its viscosity,
achieved. With the improvement of fuel viscosity and density achieved density, flashpoint and heating value improve. With the increase in ad-
by means of manganese addition into the fuel, it is observed that also ditive rate also engine performance improved, the best performance
smoke emissions decrease. The changes in emissions took place in the values were obtained from the fuel supplemented with 12 ppm additive
opposite direction after the additive rate of 12 ppm. With the decreases and the performances of fuels supplemented with higher rates of addi-
in CO, THC and smoke emissions and the increase in NOx emission are tive started to deteriorate. Manganese additive used in diesel fuel affects
believed to be outcomes of the catalyzer effect of manganese additive engine performance positively up to a certain degree.

Fig. 14. CO emission graph of diesel fuel manganese mixture. Fig. 16. NOx emission graph of diesel fuel manganese mixture.
M. Çelik et al. / Fuel Processing Technology 139 (2015) 100–107 107

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