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U.S.

Department of the Interior Prepared for the Scientific Investigations Map 3292
U.S. Geological Survey National Aeronautics and Space Administration Pamphlet accompanies map

180°
60°
0°-60° DESCRIPTION OF MAP UNITS UNIT UNIT NAME AND DESCRIPTION ADDITIONAL INTERPRETATION
[Note: Unit groups and labels are discussed in pamphlet. Unit definitions include morphologic character, infrared brightness or albedo (where LABEL (coordinates of center(s) of type area(s) CHARACTERISTICS
10
° 15
0° CORRELATION OF MAP UNITS 30
° 30
° diagnostic), nature of stratification (if observed), and typical unit thickness (where top and bottom of unit identified and assuming flat-lying and, where available, counting localities
2 3 (fig. 1 and table 2))
[Cumulative crater-densities for epoch boundaries at 1, 5, or 16 km diameters are from Werner and Tanaka (2011); see table 1 for model absolute-ages for the epoch boundaries. Map unit ages are resolved to nearest epoch; hachured box edges indicate possible, materials; measured or estimated using MOLA elevation data). Additional characteristics include location, complete record of observed superpo-
extended durations. The determinations rely on both stratigraphic relations as documented in the Description of Map Units and crater size-frequency distributions provided in tables 2, 3, and D1 and by other workers as referenced in the Geologic History section. S lNh mNh sition relations with other map units (except with unit AHi, which displays complex age relations with other units), and other secondary and (or) VOLCANIC UNITS—Continued
See Age Determinations section of text for methodology discussion. Determination of ages from crater densities is complicated by the geologic history of the unit of interest, including size-dependent degradation and resurfacing, such that different crater diameter
is local characteristics and associations including morphologies, spectrally based compositional information, and radar-sounding properties. See [Lava flows and pyroclastic deposits forming volcanoes. Flow fields erupted from fissures and centralized vents; may include local pyroclastic
yp
S B ranges (and the associated N(1), N(5), and N(16) values) may provide different age estimates for a given geologic unit; see tables 2 and D1 for examples of formation and resurfacing ages for some localities]
mNh
hi Geologic Summary in pamphlet for further discussion of map units, including references; tables 2 (locality numbers) and 3 and fig. 1 for deposits. Most occurrences are likely basaltic, based on rheologic properties estimated from morphologic measurements. Lava plains display
A O lNh
T 70° R AHi -70° crater-density data; and tables 6 and 7 for comparison with Viking-based, global mapping units] low kilometer-scale surface roughness]
I E
T AHi A Pl
Nhu
eHh Hve Hesperian volcanic edifice unit— Occurs at Tharsis and Elysium rises, Volcanic edifices composed of different com-
S O
an UNIT UNIT NAME AND DESCRIPTION ADDITIONAL INTERPRETATION Shield-like edifices several tens Hadriacus Mons, and Apollinaris Mons binations of lava flows and pyroclastic and
um


mNhm

12

60
mAl

L
Y LABEL (coordinates of center(s) of type area(s) CHARACTERISTICS to hundreds of kilometers across; south flank. Superposes unit eNhm; volcaniclastic deposits. Modified by summit

30
24

°
Hp

I
and, where available, counting localities made up of lobate flows meters gradational with units lHv, lHvf, lHt, lHl, collapse from magma withdrawal and fluvial
V

S
Tholi (fig. 1 and table 2)) to tens of meters thick and tens eHv, and HNt (Hesperian part); over- dissection in places
PHX
nd ia lHl
ca
S Hpe Ca
vi AHi
LOWLAND UNITS to hundreds of kilometers across, lain by unit AHv. Some outcrops have
80° -80°
ia a Und Argentea [Materials occupying northern lowlands (mostly –5,000 to about –4,000 m in surface elevation; low kilometer-scale surface roughness)] as well as dissected layers tens summit calderas tens of kilometers
mpi
Dorsa
AHV lHt nd y ae
of meters thick. As much as few across; some radiating valleys
Ol Hpe
Pr
a
Sc

Apu
Apu lApd o mAl Middle Amazonian lowland unit— Distributed within Vastitas Borealis Ice-rich loess. Periglacial modification kilometers thick. (lat 24.65° N.,

m
Cavi Hp Hummocky to undulating; grades and other northern plains; makes up formed thumbprint terrain long 146.80° E.)

et
he
mAl Hp lNh
Angusti lNh eNhm into fields of knobs. Internally the platforms of nearby pedestal-crater

iR
P L A N U M Nve Noachian volcanic edifice unit— Occurrences include Amphitrites and Volcanic edifices composed of different com-
s

stratified. Tens of meters thick. forms and perhaps whorled, low-re-

upe
ui

Ap
P L A N U M Shield-like edifices several tens Peneus Paterae, Tyrrhenus Mons, binations of lava flows, pyroclastic deposits,
Ten

ale (lat 51.43° N., long 118.45° E.) lief ridge systems (thumbprint terrain,
lApc str

s
270° 90° 270° 90° to hundreds of kilometers across; northern Apollinaris Mons, and southern and volcaniclastic deposits sourced from
Cha s Au unmapped). Superposes units Av, AHv,
R u p es

ma mNh
eAb, lHl, lHt, Hpe, Hve, HNt, eHt, lNh, lobate flow morphologies indis- Tharsis rise. Gradational with units lNv, degraded shields. Domed and fractured by
lApc
Hp AHi eNh
and mNh; underlies unit lApd; relation tinct or absent. As much as few mNh, eNh, and HNt (Noachian part); local intrusions. Tectonically contracted
mNh
eale Prome with unit Apu unclear kilometers thick. (lat –8.11° N., overlain by units HNt (Hesperian part),
Hpu a Bor lNh t he
i Chasma
asm Apu long 174.50° E.) eHv, lHv, Hve, Htu, AHtu, and AHv.
Ch mAl
Ultimu a
B O R E U M m C h asm lHl Late Hesperian lowland unit— Continuous across most of the northern Fluvial/lacustrine/marine and colluvial sedi- Heavily cratered; some outcrops have
eNh Planar to undulating; lobate plains. Embays units lHt, Hto, eHt, eHv, ments sourced from circum-lowland outflow summit depressions tens of kilometers
AHi -80° Nhe
lApd 80° Apu and troughed marginal areas in HNt, lNh, mNhm, and mNh; superposed channels and bounding highland terrains; across; marked by irregular scarps and
A U S T R A L E lNh places. Hundreds of meters to by units AHv, Av, eAb, Apu, mAl, lAv, likely intercalated with and underlain by lava ridges; some radiating valleys
kilometers thick. (lat 21.40° N., and lApd; temporal relation to units Hpe and volcaniclastic rocks. Pervasively modi- APRON UNITS
V

long 118.20° E.; localities 1, 6, and Hpu unclear. Contains hundreds fied and obscured by periglaciation, sedi-


A

lHl
Late Amazonian apron unit— Covers northwest peripheries of Tharsis Drop moraines left by cold-based glaciers
I

24
30

AHi
10, 11) of superposed pedestal-crater forms, mentary diapirism, and particulate mantling lAa
60

12

Concentrically ribbed, knobby and Olympus Montes. Superposes


S

T A thumbprint terrain, topographically sub-


I dued wrinkle ridges, and narrow grabens lobes extending as much as 500 units Aa, Ave, and AHv. Craters sparse;
T E
70° R -70° northeast of Alba Mons km from shield-like edifices. underlying lobate flows only moderately
A Y
O Meters (or less) to tens-of-meters subdued by distal parts of unit
S O
B
mNh
IMPACT UNIT
AHi
lNh thick. (lat 4.33° N., long 243.07°
Lomonosov eNh
E.)
AHi Amazonian and Hesperian impact Global occurrence. Superposes Upturned, ejected, and brecciated target
mAl O O
Y Y unit—Craters with rims and sur- Noachian units; other unit superposition rocks and sediments, with local areas of
33
0° 30
° 21
0° 15
0° Aa Amazonian apron unit—Lobes Surrounds Olympus Mons and covers Landslide and gravity-spreading deposits
Y rounding blankets; some include relations diverse. High kilometer-scale impact melt. Post-impact mass-wasting and
O bounded by scarps tens to hun- parts of walls and floors of Valles derived from flanks of Olympus Mons and
single to multi-lobed blanket surface roughness; crater floors may be fluvial-lacustrine and eolian infill of craters
dreds of kilometers across, marked Marineris. Superposes units Av, lHt, lHv, walls of Valles Marineris
60° -60° forms, dense secondary crater smooth to rough common
0° 180° by transverse ridges few kilome- eHh, Ht, Htu, lNh, lNv, and Nhu; overlain
chains, and (or) central peak or pit.
ters wide and tens of kilometers by units lAv, lAa, lAvf, AHtu, and young-
SCALE 1:20,000,000 (1 MM = 20.00 KM) AT LAT 90° N. SCALE 1:20,000,000 (1 MM = 20.00 KM) AT LAT 90° S. Blanket thicknesses of meters to
SCALE 1:21,436,227 (1 MM = 21.44 KM) AT LAT 60° N. SCALE 1:21,436,227 (1 MM = 21.44 KM) AT LAT 60° S. long; linear grooves in places. As est part of Ave
a few hundred meters. (lat 23.17°
much as 1,000 m thick. (lat –8.04°
1000 500 0 500 1000 KILOMETERS 1000 500 0 500 1000 KILOMETERS N., long 207.77° E.)
-90° -90°
N., long 281.80° E. and lat 30.17°
90° 90° POLAR UNITS N., long 214.65° E.)
-60° -60°
[Mostly ice, dust, and other fines at polar latitudes; north polar outcrops occur within the northern lowlands and south polar outcrops are within
60° 60°
the southern highlands. Some of the units have a relatively low dielectric constant consistent with water ice and water ice and dust mixtures]
POLAR STEREOGRAPHIC PROJECTION POLAR STEREOGRAPHIC PROJECTION
ANa Amazonian and Noachian apron Occurs in Deuteronilus and Protonilus Ice-rich Amazonian materials derived from
lApc Late Amazonian polar cap unit— Thinly caps parts of Planum Boreum Residual ice (H2O in northern cap and mainly unit—Irregular knobs and mesas Mensae and east of Hellas Planitia. air-fall and mass-wasting erosion and trans-
Hummocky and pitted at meter and Planum Australe. Superposes units CO2 in southern cap) with dust lags trapped
NORTH POLAR REGION SOUTH POLAR REGION (northern cap) to hundreds of Apu and Hpu. Location of unit margin in north polar pits. Margins and surface of
tens of kilometers across and Noachian part gradational with units ported by mass flow and underlying, relict
aprons extending tens of kilome- HNt, lNh, mNh, and eNhm and overlain Noachian highland materials. Modified by
meter (southern cap) scales. Very varies and south polar surface pits unit actively changing due to ice accumula- ters from them. Aprons hundreds by unit AHi. Amazonian part embays thermokarst processes
high albedo except on pit floors. enlarge seasonally and annually tion and ablation of meters thick. (lat –43.22° N., units AHv, lHv, lHvf, lHt, eHv, eHt,
180° 210° 240° 270° 300° 330° 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° Mostly <2 m (northern cap) to <10 long 26.66° E.) HNhu, lNh, mNh, and eNhm; gradational
lApc P L A N U M B O R E U M lApc m (southern cap) thick. (lat 83.00° with HNt (Hesperian part). Aprons
N., long 317.85° E. and lat –86.04° sparsely cratered, locally grooved and
lApd Olympia Undae
Apu Hpu lApc O l y m p i a U n d a e lApd N., long 291.81° E.) pitted, and in places display low-ra-
Apu
Apu dar-dielectric constant
lApd Late Amazonian polar dunes unit— Surrounds Planum Boreum. Superposes Wind-blown sand organized into variety of
Hpe
Mounds with barchan-like, linear, units mAl, lHl, Hpe, and most of Apu. dune forms owing to variable wind activity TRANSITION UNITS
Hpe
and other dune morphologies. Low Includes spectral detections of sulfates, and permafrost development [Materials occupying highland/lowland marginal zones and dissected areas of highland terrain (mostly just above –4,000 to –1,000 m surface
lApd AHi
albedo. Marked by meter-scale including gypsum elevation). Mass-wasting, sedimentary, and possibly volcanic origins likely. Units may include knobs and mesas of highland materials too small
mAl ripples. Mounds typically tens to to map separately]
PHX
mAl
V A S T I T A S Y B O R E A L I S hundreds of meters across and tens
O AHtu Amazonian and Hesperian transi- Occurs along highland/lowland bound- Fine-grained eolian sediments and (or) pyro-
Lomonosov of meters high. (lat 81.21° N., long tion undivided unit—Irregularly ary from Olympus Mons to south- clastic air-fall deposits. Linear ridges and
217.34° E.) shaped plateaus hundreds to more western Elysium Planitia and as one grooves form yardangs
lHt lHl
Y
mAl Apu Amazonian polar undivided unit— Forms Planum Australe and upper part Water ice with minor amounts of dust inter- than one thousand kilometers small outcrop west of Kasei Valles.
O
lHl
Plateaus hundreds of kilometers of Planum Boreum. Superposes units mixed and as lags; local lower sequences across. Locally layered. Hundreds Superposes units Aa, Ave, lHv, lHt, eHv,
60° 60°
across at both poles. Moderate to lHl, Hp, Hpe, Hpu, lNh, mNh, eNh, and made up of frozen dunes with interbedded of meters to ~3,000 m thick. eHt, Htu, HNt, Nve, mNh, and eNh;
mAl high albedo. Meters-thick layers; most of Ap; overlain by unit lApc and, ice layers (lat –2.37° N., long 240.33° E.; interfingers with unit AHv; overlain
lHt
O
lHl
some internal unconformities; except for youngest part, by unit lApd. localities 25, 27, 30) by unit lAv. Marked by dense linear
lHl AHi
AHi Y
local lower, mostly low-albedo Tens-of-meters-thick layers in radar- ridges, grooves, and scarps hundreds of
A C I D A L I A meters wide and tens of kilometers long;
Milankovicˇ mAl
Y
Y
O U T O P I A P L A N I T I A deposits unevenly bedded or grams; modified by systems of spiral
Av ANa O
lHt
crossbedded. Exceeds 1,000 m and aligned troughs includes subdued and pedestal-crater
HNt
HNt Lyot AHi
thickness in places. (lat 80.97° N., forms
ANa Acidalia ae HNt Viking 2
A R C A D I A ens Mie long 0.00° E. and lat –83.15° N.,

Ph
lHt M ANa Av Htu Hesperian transition undivided In southern Elysium Planitia along Fine-grained eolian sediments and (or) pyro-

le
lHl
Mensa long 64.91° E.) unit—Irregular plateaus hundreds highland/lowland boundary and within clastic air-fall deposits. Modified by fluvial
lus P rotonilus Me nsae

gr
lHv mNh mAl
oni
Av eAb

a
lNh r Av
eHh eNh ute Amazonian polar unit—Plains- Occurs in vicinity of Cavi Angusti, near Dominantly water ice and minor lithic fines; of kilometers across. Layered. and east of Valles Marineris. Superposes dissection and eolian erosion. Linear ridges
lHl De ANa HNt Ap
P L A N I T I A eHt
forming deposit. Relatively low Planum Australe. Superposes outcrops pits may be thermokarst forms produced in Hundreds of meters to kilometers units Nhu, Nve, mNh, and eNh; gra- and grooves form yardangs. Tectonically
ALBA HNt T E M P E T E R R A mNh ANa thick. (lat –6.41° N., long 156.42° dational with units eHt, Hve, and HNt contracted. Channels mostly inverted.
ANa HNt
lNh radar dielectric constant. As much of units Hp and eNh; mostly post-dated part by magmatism
mNh as 1,000 m thick. (lat –76.62° N., by unit Apu. Extensively and deeply E; lat –6.17° N., long 286.05° E.; (Hesperian part); overlain by units lHt, Altered by acidic weathering in places
ron
Foss
a MONS
P L A N I T I A lHt lHt localities 26, 28) Ht, Hto, AHtu, Aa, and lAv. Includes
he lNh e
mAl long 287.50° E.) pitted by Cavi Angusti

M
eHv
c hydrated sulfate spectral signatures;

on
HNt
A lHvf eHt Av

te
eHh Nilosyrtis Hesperian polar unit—Plains-forming Surrounds Planum Australe. Superposes Water-ice sheets as indicated by dielectric fluted slopes in places. Linear ridges,

s
AHi eHt eHt Hp
e

lHt
eNh Men
deposits marked by narrow units lNh, lNv, mNh, and eNh; grada- constant, perhaps emplaced by cryovolca- anabranching sinuous ridges, and wrin-
Fossa

sae
CHRYSE sinuous, anabranching ridges and tional with unit Hpe; overlain by units nism or from atmospheric precipitation. kle ridges common
lAv Aa lNh lNh

30°
Hve irregular depressions. Relatively Ap and Apu. Bumpy surface at meter Covered by thin, periglacially deformed Late Hesperian transition unit— Occurs along highland/lowland bound- Mass-wasting, fluvial/lacustrine, and possi-
30° lHt
O
Y lHv
eNh
eNh
low radar dielectric constant. scale mantling deposit Plains-forming deposits, relatively ary, near Phlegra Montes, on and along- bly other sedimentary materials and volcanic
A M A Z O N I S lAv Hve Nhu
Valles eNh O Hundreds of meters thick. smooth; includes small knobs and side Valles Marineris and on several rocks in places. Tectonically contracted
ei lNh lHt Hve
Kas
eHv Y

R A (lat –77.78° N., long 332.51° E.;


eHv OY Y ELYSIUM mesas of Noachian and perhaps crater floors, and at Acidalia Mensa
nius

O
lAvf eHh eHh PLANITIA HNt M O
R mNh locality 48)
T E
a Y
lAv lHv lNh MONS younger material. May be tens and southeast of Hesperia Planum.

li
Cassini HNt

ae
Cerau

Viking 1

Ni
w

Hesperian polar undivided unit— to hundreds of meters thick. (lat Superposes units eHt, eHv, eHh, Htu,
rth

Forms base of main lobe of Planum Roughly equal proportions of water ice

ss
eHv lHt Hpu
mNh

Fo
lHt
A Antoniadi 18.13° N., long 117.11° E.; locali- HNt, Nhu, mNh, mNhm, and eNh;
Va

Becquerel lHvf Plateau-forming deposits. Boreum, including Rupes Tenuis and and lithic fines, possibly emplaced during
P L A N I T I A B I
llis

Pathfinder Hve ties 8, 15) gradational with unit Hve; interfingers


lAa OLYMPUS eHt eNh Decameter-thick layers. Relatively mouth of Chasma Boreale. Moderately lowland flooding events or by eolian activity.
Hto A
A R
eHt
AHv
lHvf
low radar dielectric constant. low radar dielectric constant. Overlain Deeply eroded but armored by impact mate- with unit AHv, overlain by units Hto, lHl,
MONS AHv
AHtu, Aa, mAl, lAv, and younger part
lHv AHtu Nhu A Nepenthe lHvf Locally >1,000 m thick. (lat by units Apu, lApd, and lApc; strati- rial; lower sequence troughed likely due to
I S I D I S s of ANa. Moderate density of wrinkle
Ave
lAvf
L U N A E mNh mNhm
80.28° N., long 302.72° E.) graphic relation to unit lHl uncertain. compaction
re

Ave Pla ridges; dense branching valleys near


s

Hto Hto lNh eNh nu Lower sequences locally cut by polyg-


AHv Ht HNhu S Y R T I S m

s
ASCRAEUS T E R R A Echus Chasma
Va

Ce onal troughs; contains local pedestal

nthe
lNh HNt
rb
llis

eNh
lAv Ht P L A N I T I A Nepe eru

ae
MONS lNh eHv nthe eHt s crater forms Early Hesperian transition unit— Abutting the highland/lowland bound- Mass-wasting, fluvial/lacustrine, and other

Ame
s

Foss
Ht eHh eNh M A J O R mNhm
lHv lNh eHt

HNt Aa AHi E Foss Hesperian polar edifice unit— Forms Scandia Tholi and Sisyphi Cryovolcanic or sedimentary or igneous vol- Plains-forming deposits, undulat- ary, Arcadia and southwestern Amazonis sedimentary materials and possibly volcanic
XANTHE Nhu
L Hpe
ES

AHi mNhm ae
Y ing to moderately rugged; includes Planitiae, and Acidalia Mensa. rocks in places. Tectonically contracted
a

lHt lHt eHv


P L A N U M P L A N U M
lAvf
Shields and cones having summit Tholus. Gradational with units Hp and canic, ice-rich constructs. Highly degraded
NT

hasm

Y
S I scattered low knobs and mesas Superposes units lNh, Nhu, mNh, mNhm,

li s
mNh lHt HNhu HNt Me O
MO

lAa lHv Hto mNh ns U M and flank depressions in polar lHl; overlain by units mAl, Apu, and by mass wasting and (or) sublimation

l
Va
ae A of Noachian highland material. and eNh; gradational with units Htu, HNt
Echus C

AHtu
eNh Ht
Htu
MERIDIANI P L A N I T I e regions. Relatively low radar lApd. Rugged texture
LIBY a rt May be tens to hundreds of meters (Hesperian part), and eHv; overlain by
A MONTES dielectric constant. Hundreds of
eHt
AHi
AHtu PAVONIS eHh Htu M
lAv
Hve lHt Nhu
PLANUM mNhm
meters thick. (lat 75.94° N., long thick. (lat 13.38° N., long 116.70° units Ht, Hto, lHl, lHt, AHv, AHtu, mAl,
0° 0°
MONS lHt
206.23° E. and lat –75.96° N., long E.; localities 2, 16) lAv, and younger part of ANa. Moderate
M

mNh MER B eHh HNt AHtu


lNh eHt
ed

lAvf Y lHv eHh AHi


Schiaparelli 341.69° E.) density of wrinkle ridges
Fo

lNh
Fossae
us

O HNhu Htu
S

Oe
AHi eHv
TERRA
ss

Htu Ht MSL
ae

SI

ctis
Nhe
Nhu mNhm Htu BASIN UNITS Hesperian transition unit—Knobs, Occurs in topographic lows in Xanthe Mixture of sediments and blocks of broken
ae

no
eHt
No
AR

eHt Htu MARGARITIFER eNh Ht


Nhu Htu
[Low-lying deposits (mostly –7,000 m to slightly above –3,000 m surface elevation; low kilometer-scale surface roughness) occurring in and

tri
lAa
TH

La b y r inthu Nhu Htu eNh Nhu lNh Htu Nve mesas, and intervening aprons and and Margaritifer Terrae and north of up, mass-wasted, and collapsed materials

a
s
ARSIA tis
lHt
V A Aa Htu eNh lNh Gale around Hellas, Argyre, and Utopia Planitiae] plains within highland canyons Valles Marineris. Superposes units eHt,
Mang

oc L L Aa
AHtu Ave lNh lNh
OY Hto lNh YO APOLLINARIS
N and chaotic terrain. Hundreds of eHh, eHv, lNh, mNh, Nhu, and eNh; gra-
E S Ht
Scop
mNh
O MONS eAb Early Amazonian basin unit—Plains- Occurs in central Utopia Planitia and Lacustrine and (or) sheet-flood depos-
SYRIA eHh S A B A E A meters thick. (lat 1.75° N., long dational with unit Hto; overlain by units
ala

MONS Y lHt TERRA uli Y


mNh O lNh AHi Hve AHtu forming deposits on basin floor; western Hellas Planitia. Superposes its. Perhaps modified by compaction and
Aa Aa 325.45° E.) Htu, lHt, AHv, and Aa
lNv
Htu
M A
Hto Nhu eNh eNh MER A hummocky and troughed textures. units lHl, lHb, and HNb; gradational thermokarst
eNh PLANUM eNh Nhu
O
R I Htu Huygens eNh eNh Variable daytime IR brightness. with units Av and AHv; superposed by Hto Hesperian transition outflow unit— Covers Chryse Planitia, eastern Lunae Outflow channel fluvial and debris-flow
Va l

AHi lNh lHvf


SINAI
Y lNv
N E TYRRHENA lNh eNh
Thickness <100 m in most places. unit mAl. Marked by wrinkle ridges in Plains deposits in places dissected Planum, and canyons in Xanthe and deposits from catastrophic erosion of high-
lNh
R I H E S P E R I A
le

lNh Ht Gusev
D A E D A L I A Y
S
lNh lNh mNh lNh
(lat 37.44° N., long 111.17° E.; Hellas Planitia
s

lNh O by tens-of-kilometers-wide Margaritifer Terrae. Superposes units land rocks; islands of underlying bedrock
eNh
PLANUM Nve mNh
TYRRHENUS Nhe localities 3, 5, 41) anabranching channel systems. AHv, lHt, eHh, eHv, eHt, lNh, mNh, Nhu, exposed

is
HNhu MONS Relatively bright in nighttime IR and eNh; gradational with unit Ht; over-

ll
Y THAUMASIA Late Hesperian basin unit—Plains- Covers central Hellas Planitia. Ice-rich eolian, lacustrine, and (or) volca-

Va
mNh lNh lHb
Nve P L A N U M O
lHv eHv mNh
Dollfus
mNh
lNh Nve
forming deposits on basin floor. Superposes units eHb, HNb, and lNv; nic air-fall deposits. Margins eroded and
in Maja Valles. Meters to at least lain by unit lHl
us
Cla

lHv

im
mNh
SOLIS
eNh
T E R R A tens of meters thick. (lat 19.33° N.,
Nve lNh
TERRA
pul

AHi Finely layered in places. Hundreds embayed by unit eAb. Complex, rugged back-wasted
rit

’ad
eHh
lNh long 326.45° E.—Mars Pathfinder
as

eHv PLANUM of meters thick. (lat –40.80° N., surface marked by scarps and ridges;
Sco

Nve

Ma
AHi
PLANUM Holden lHv landing site; locality 12)
T E R R A lNh AHi HNhu lNh
HNhu
HNhu eNh O long 64.00° E.; locality 39) largely bounded by marginal scarp
lNh
Nhe
mNh Nhe Nhu
eNhm
Terby AHi P L A N U M Y
HNt Hesperian and Noachian transition Occurs adjacent to Noachian high- Noachian impact breccias, sediments, and
eNh eNh eNhm Hve eHb Early Hesperian basin unit—Plains- Covers eastern margins of Hellas Basin fill of eolian, lacustrine, and (or) vol-
lla

-30° -30° unit—Knobs, mesas, and inter- land materials along highland/lowland volcanic deposits with intervening aprons
Nhe lNh lNh HADRIACUS forming deposit. Several hundred Planitia. Superposes units HNb, lNh, canic origin. Modified by fluvial dissection.
Scy
Fo

mNh Nhe
eHv MONS vening aprons and plains. May be boundary except in lowlands east of of Hesperian mass-wasted materials.
meters thick along contact with lNv, and mNh; gradational with unit Tectonically contracted
ss

eNh eHv
lHv mNh lNh
tens to hundreds of meters thick. Elysium rise and near Acidalia Mensa. Tectonically contracted
ae

HNt mNh mNh unit HNb. (lat –37.95° N., long HNhu; overlain by unit lHb. Marked by
lNh HNb lNh HNt (lat 10.96° N., long 111.71° E.; Noachian part gradational with units
Nhe eHv
mNh 78.84° E.; locality 44) crosscutting systems of wrinkle ridges
lNh YO AHi Nhe Y locality 18) eNh, mNh, mNhm, lNh, Nve, and
Nhe eHv lNh lNh lNh
eNhm
Y
O and local valleys
Nhe N O A C H I S lHb O
Noachian part of ANa. Hesperian part
es

mNh lNh lNv


lNh YO
superposes units lNv, Nve, Nhe, Nhu,
ont

lNh Hesperian and Noachian basin Forms Argyre and western Hellas Basin fill of eolian, lacustrine, and (or)
AHi Nhe eNh HNhu H E L L A S C I M M E R I A
HNb
sM

Newton Nhu eAb ANa


lNh
unit—Low-lying, plains-forming Planitiae. Embays units mNh, mNhm, volcanic origin. Tectonically contracted. mNh, mNhm, and eNh; gradational
ICARIA
mNhm eHb
P R O M E T H E I AHi
deposit. Relatively low daytime and eNhm; gradational with unit lNv; Sinuous ridges in Argyre Planitia interpreted with units eHt, eHh, Htu, Hve, and
ontu

Lohse mNh
eHh
eHv
eHh AHi ANa IR brightness in Hellas Planitia. overlain by units eHb, lHb, and eAb. as inverted fluvial landforms or eskers Amazonian part of ANa; overlain by
Hellesp

mNh Nhe
lNh
AHi lNh P L A N I T I A AHi HNhu
Thickness at least hundreds of Marked by wrinkle ridges and sinuous units eHv, lHt, lHl, lHvf, AHtu, AHv, AHi,
eNh PLANUM mNh
lNh
meters. (lat –33.53° N., long ridges Av, mAl, lAv, and lAvf. Marked by pre-
lNv A R G Y R E HNhu
mNh 59.53° E.; locality 40) dominantly north-south-oriented wrinkle
Nhe
AHi ridges
S I R E N U M lNh HNb Galle
lNh
VOLCANIC UNITS
AHi mNh Y Lowell lNh eNh eNhm T E R R A lNh [Lava flows and pyroclastic deposits forming volcanoes. Flow fields erupted from fissures and centralized vents; may include local pyroclastic HIGHLAND UNITS
lNh lNh O lNh A O N I A P L A N I T I A lNh
mNh
deposits. Most occurrences are likely basaltic, based on rheologic properties estimated from morphologic measurements. Lava plains display [Materials forming densely cratered midland and highland areas (generally ~3,000 m to 5,000 m in surface elevation, down to less than –6,000 m
lNh
mNh T E R R A mNh Wallace low kilometer-scale surface roughness] in Hellas Planitia; high kilometer-scale surface roughness). Dominated by complex admixtures of impact, sedimentary, and volcanic rocks]
mNh eHh
lNv Nve
Peneus
AHi
T E R R A Amphitrites lAv Late Amazonian volcanic unit— Covers Amazonis Planitia, southern Largely unmodified flood lavas, includ-
eNh Patera lNh
Patera mNh Planar deposits containing lobate Elysium Planitia, Marte Vallis, periph- ing lava channels and other morphologies; HNhu Hesperian and Noachian highland Occurs on Meridiani Planum, in some Undifferentiated, friable (likely fine grained)
-60° Y -60°
O lNh scarps that extend hundreds to ery of Olympus Mons, and northeast of sourced from fissures and shields undivided unit—Mound form- highland craters, and east of Hellas sedimentary, volcanic, and impact rocks.
YO eNh
eHh
eNh more than 1,000 km; sinuous Ceraunius Fossae. Superposes units Aa, ing. Light toned in visible images. Planitia. Superposes units eHh, lNh Altered by weathering
mNh MALEA Layered. Hundreds of meters to (except gradational east of Hellas
mNh lNh lNh troughs, ridges, and platy textures Av, AHv, AHtu, AHi, lHv, lHl, lHt, Htu,
lNh
lNh lNh common; low-relief, shield-like eHv, eHt, eHh, HNt, lNh; gradational several kilometers thick. (lat 5.97° Planitia), mNh, eNh, and eNhm;
mNh Nhe edifices rare. Meters to tens of with unit lAvf and youngest parts of N., long 2.33° E.; locality 24) gradational with unit eHb; overlain by
AHi PLANUM lNh
Sisyphi Planum Nhu mNh meters thick. (lat 26.27° N., long units Ave and AHv. Impact craters and units eHv and ANa (Amazonian part).
eNh Apu 192.67° E.; localities 9, 21) tectonic features sparse. Contains local Includes hydrated sulfate spectral
Hp O roughness and albedo variations signatures
lNh Y Hpe
Hp AHi eNh
Cavi lAvf Late Amazonian volcanic field Occurs in central parts of Tharsis rise Largely unmodified lava flows and vents; Nhu Noachian highland undivided unit— Occurs in Valles Marineris walls; in Undifferentiated friable sedimentary, impact,
Ap lNh lNh
unit—Flows each typically tens and at Cerberus Fossae. Superposes vents and flows not differentiated at map Forms canyon walls and some eastern Thaumasia and Malea Plana; and and volcanic materials. Tectonically con-
Angusti Hp
of kilometers long extending units Aa, lHv, eHv, HNt, and most of scale high plains and channel floors. along Kasei, Ares, and Mangala Valles. tracted in places
Apu Apu
from shields and fissure vents as AHv; gradational with unit lAv and Layered. Hundreds of meters to Gradational with units lNh, lNv, mNh,
Apu
much as tens of kilometers across. youngest parts of units Ave and AHv. several kilometers thick in expo- and eNh; overlain by units eHh, eHv,
lApc P L A N U M A U S T R A L E Meters to at least tens of meters Impact craters and tectonic features sures. (lat –25.80° N., long 288.53° eHt, Hp, Htu, Ht, Hto, HNt (Hesperian
180° 210° 240° 270° 300° 330° 0° 30° 60° 90° 120° 150° 180° thick. (lat –2.13° N., long 253.85° E.) sparse E.; locality 37) part), lHv, lHt, AHv, and Aa. Marked in
places by wrinkle ridges and valleys
For clarity, only representative physiographic names SCALE 1:20,000,000 (1 MM = 20.00 KM) AT LAT ±38° Prepared on behalf of the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, Av Amazonian volcanic unit—Rugged, Covers eastern Utopia and northern Lava and perhaps volcaniclastic flows from
are shown on the map. The full list of IAU-approved Solar System Exploration Division, Office of Space Science, National hummocky, and pitted fields of Amazonis Planitiae. Superposes units Elysium Mons and unknown source north- eHh Early Hesperian highland unit— Occurs on plateaus surrounding Tharsis Undifferentiated impact, volcanic, eolian,
nomenclature and descriptions thereof are listed at 2000 1500 1000 500 0 500 1000 1500 2000 KILOMETERS Aeronautics and Space Administration irregular, poorly defined flows lHl and HNt and adjacent parts of unit west of Olympus Mons High plains-forming, relatively rise and in scattered highland lows. fluvial/lacustrine materials. Locally degraded
http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/ ±60° ±60° Edited by J.L. Zigler; cartography by Kathryn Nimz forming plains hundreds to more AHv; gradational with unit eAb; overlain smooth outcrops extending hun- Superposes units lNh, lNv, Nhu, mNh, and (or) deformed
±45° ±45° Manuscript approved for publication March 12, 2014 than 1,000 km across. Tens of by units lAv, mAl, and Aa northwest of dreds of kilometers. May be hun- mNhm, eNh, and eNhm; gradational
±30° ±30°
meters or more thick. (lat 34.82° Olympus Mons. Subdued wrinkle ridges dreds of meters thick. (lat 15.88° with units eHv and HNt (Hesperian part);
±15° ±15°
N., long 135.11° E.; locality 4) N., long 293.44° E.) overlain by units HNhu (in Schiaparelli
0° 0° crater), Hto, lHv, lHvf, lHt, AHv, Aa,
ROBINSON PSEUDOCYLINDRICAL PROJECTION WITH POLE LINE AHv Amazonian and Hesperian volcanic Forms bulk of the Tharsis and Elysium Flood lavas and large lava flows, undifferen- and lAv. Knobby, wrinkle-ridged, and
unit—Stacked, gently sloping rises. Locally, superposes units lHl, Hve, tiated, sourced from regional fissure and vent dissected in places
lobate flows meters to tens of Ht, eHh, eHt, HNt, lNh, mNh, Nhu, and systems. Highly variable ages of individual
meters thick and hundreds of kilo- eNh; gradational or interfingering with flows, although generally younger in central lNh Late Noachian highland unit— Occurs commonly in highland depres- Undifferentiated impact, volcanic, flu-
-180° -90° 0° 90° 180° meters long. Variable daytime IR units lAvf, Ave, eAb, AHtu, lHt, lHvf, lHv, parts of Tharsis rise Mostly plains forming, rugged in sions, as well as sparsely in higher-ele- vial, and basin material. Lightly to heavily
brightness in places. Cumulative and eHv; overlain by units Av, mAl, lAa, places. May be hundreds of meters vation parts of the lowlands. Superposes degraded and (or) deformed
1-lHl thicknesses reach hundreds of and lAv. Low crater density in central thick. (lat –20.74° N., long 354.35° units mNh, mNhm, eNh, and eNhm;
meters to several kilometers. part of Tharsis rise, moderate density E.; localities 13, 34, 35) gradational with units lNv, Nhu and HNt
60° 60°
(lat –22.76° N., long 242.33° E.) elsewhere and ANa (Noachian parts); overlain by
units HNhu, eHv, eHh, eHt, eHb, Hp,
d 2-eHt Utopia EXPLANATION OF MAP SYMBOLS lHv Late Hesperian volcanic unit— Distributed occurrence in Tharsis Flood lavas and large lava flows, undifferen- Ht, Hto, lHl, lHv, lHvf, AHv, Apu, Aa,
l an 3-eAb
low basin [For each feature type, typical morphologies and process origins are indicated. See the "Global Structure Digital Attribute Table" in the Lobate flows, meters to tens of region, southwestern Hesperia Planum, tiated, sourced from regional fissure and vent and lAv. Locally marked by grabens or
-
la nd on
e
GIS database for additional information on preservation state (fresh, subdued, partly buried, and buried) and width (broad, >10 km; meters thick and tens to hundreds and Orcus Patera. Superposes units systems
6-lNl igh nz 5-eAb 4-Av 8-lHt wrinkle ridges
h io 7-mNh of kilometers long; forms patches eHv, eHh, lNh, Nhu, Nhe, Nve, mNh,
9-lAv n sit 10-lHl narrow, <10 km)]
tra hundreds to more than a thou- eNh, and eNhm; gradational with units mNh Middle Noachian highland unit— Extensive in the equatorial to southern Undifferentiated impact, volcanic, fluvial,
30° 30°
Figure 1. Topography of Mars 12-Hto
Elysium sand kilometers across. Variable lHvf and Hve; overlain by units AHv, Uneven to rolling topography; highlands. Superposes units eNh and and basin materials. Moderately to heavily
13-lNh 14-mNh Y
Contact—Solid where certain, dashed where approximate, concealed, or Outflow channel—Long, wide, sinuous channel floors, often braided with bars
showing (1) numbered locations of 11-lHl region/rise O daytime IR brightness in places. AHtu, ANa (Amazonian part), Aa, lAv, high-relief outcrops that extend eNhm; gradational with units mNhm, degraded
gradational; internal contacts mark where superposition relations identify and islands along the reach; catastrophic flooding, local collapse, and mass Hundreds of meters or more total and lAvf. Largest patch in Syria Planum hundreds to thousands of kilome- Nhu, Nhe, Nve, and HNt and ANa
detailed crater counts for some units 20-mNh
Isidis 15-lHt
16-eHt 19-mNh 18-HNt “y” (younger) and “o” (older) divisions wasting thickness. (lat –18.84° N., long region deeply dissected by troughs ters. Commonly layered in crater (Noachian parts); overlain by units lNh,
(red areas; see table 2 for crater 17-lHv basin
Tharsis 22-mNh
count data and Platz and others 23-mNh
26-Htu 21-lAv X Wrinkle ridge—Ridge, sinuous, crenulated; tectonic contraction Yardangs—Parallel, narrow, linear to curvilinear ridges, some areas showing 256.12° E.; localities 17, 29) and grabens of Noctis Labyrinthus and walls. May be hundreds of meters lNv, HNt (Hesperian part), HNhu, HNb,
region/rise 24-HNhu 27-AHtu
(2013) for detailed discussion of 0° 0° multiple orientations; eolian erosion Noctis Fossae to more than a kilometer thick. eHb, eHv, eHh, eHt, Hp, Ht, Hto, Htu,
results) and (2) extents of informally
30-lAHtu
29-lHv 31-mNh ! Graben—Trough, linear or sinuous, en echelon; tectonic extension (lat –47.17° N., long 349.33° E.; lHl, lHv, lHvf, ANa, AHtu, AHv, Apu, mAl,
25-AHtu 28-Htu ! Pit-crater chain—Linear series of circular to semicircular, isolated to overlap- lHvf Late Hesperian volcanic field unit— Distributed occurrence in Syria Planum, Volcanoes and lava flows
named geographic features (dashed ping pits, typically associated with a trough, collapse associated with localities 7, 14, 19, 20, 22, 23, 31) and lAv. Heavily cratered and marked
32-eNh 33-eNh Channel—Trough, sinuous, floor sloping downhill, dendritic branching or Patches hundreds of kilometers western Tempe Terra, southwest of
lines). (Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter tectonic activity by locally dense valleys, grabens, and
Thaumasia 34-lNh anastomosing; fluvial erosion across of lobate flows typically Ceraunius Fossae, western Elysium
digital elevation model; see pamphlet plateau 36-eNh wrinkle ridges
35-lNh 40-HNb 38-eHv Scarp—Sinuous, crenulated or scalloped; erosional, also tectonic or volcanic ! Rille—Sinuous, steep-sided trough, narrows in down-slope direction; volcanic meters thick and tens of kilometers Mons, and Orcus Patera. Superposes
for description.) 37-Nhu
-30° -30° erosion and possible collapse long emanating from low shields units eHh, HNt, lNh, mNh; gradational eNh Early Noachian highland unit— Covers large parts of equatorial and Undifferentiated impact, volcanic, fluvial,
39-lHb Lobate flow—Lobate flow axis and trend; volcanic flow and fissure vents kilometers to tens or interfingers with units lHv, Hve, and Rugged, very high relief outcrops southern highlands but sparse sur- and basin materials. Heavily degraded; tec-
41-eAb Caldera rim—Ovoid scarp, outlines single or multiple coalesced partial to
42-eHv Hellas fully enclosed depression(s); volcanic collapse, related to effusive and of kilometers across. Hundreds AHv; overlain by unit ANa (Amazonian extending hundreds of kilometers. rounding Argyre basin, in Arabia Terra, tonically deformed in places
44-eHb Crater rim—Circular ridge and (or) scarp, associated inner depression and of meters or more total thickness. part). Locally modified by troughs and Thickness commonly exceeds a and near highland/lowland boundary.
Argyre
basin
outer apron; impact possibly explosive eruptions
Thaumasia 43-eNhm PHX (lat –12.31° N., long 257.63° E.) fissures few kilometers but ill-defined. Gradational with units HNt (Noachian
basin 46-lNv Landing sites—Locations of landed spacecraft. Labels include Viking 1
highlands
45-eNhm
W Ridge—Simple form; erosional or volcanic L (Viking 1 Lander), Viking 2 (Viking 2 Lander), Pathfinder (Mars eHv Early Hesperian volcanic unit— High plains within and near Tharsis Flood lavas, undifferentiated, sourced
(lat –20.74° N., long 354.35° E; part), Nhu, Nhe, Nve, mNhm, and eNhm;
-60°
47-lNv
-60° localities 33, 36) overlain by mNh, lNh, lNv, HNhu, HNt
! Spiral trough—Arcuate, deeper at lower elevations, asymmetrical in cross Pathfinder-Sojourner), MER A (Mars Exploration Rover A–Spirit), MER Planar deposits meters to tens of rise, Syrtis Major and Hesperia Plana, from regional fissure and vent systems. (Hesperian part), eHv, lHv, lHt, Hp, Hto,
48-Hp section, equator-facing steeper slope; ablation due to wind and insolation B (Mars Exploration Rover B–Opportunity), PHX (Phoenix Lander), MSL meters thick and tens to hundreds and Gusev crater. Superposes units Tectonically contracted AHv, AHtu, AHi, Apu. Densely cratered;
(Mars Science Laboratory–Curiosity) of kilometers across; lobate scarps HNt, HNhu, lNv, lNh, Nhu, Nhe, Nve, marked by broad, linear and irregular
common. Variable daytime IR mNh, mNhm, eNh, and eNhm; grada- scarps and ridges
-180° -90° 0° 90° 180° brightness in places. Hundreds of tional with units eHt, eHh, Ht, and Hve;
SCALE 1:70,000,000 meters or more total thickness. overlain by units Hto, lHv, lHt, lHl, AHv, Nhe Noachian highland edifice unit— Occurs in southern highlands mostly lat Mainly undifferentiated, degraded volcanic
(lat –25.34° N., long 279.97° E.; AHtu, lAv, and lAvf. Marked by wrinkle Irregular edifices marked by 30° to 70° S., especially south of Tharsis materials. Heavily degraded and tectonically
localities 38, 42) ridges troughs and peaks. As much as a region. Gradational with units HNt, lNh, modified
-8,208 21,249 METERS few kilometers thick. (lat –34.72° mNh and eNh; overlain by units lNh,
INv Late Noachian volcanic unit—Planar Occurs in Malea and Thaumasia Plana, Degraded lava and volcaniclastic flows. N., long 214.85° E.) lNv, HNt (Hesperian part), eHv, lHv, and
deposits meters to tens of meters Icaria Fossae area, and east of Hellas Tectonically contracted AHv. Densely cratered and marked by
thick and tens to hundreds of kilo- Planitia. Superposes units Nhe, mNh, scarps and ridges
meters across; lobate scarps sparse eNh, and eNhm; gradational with units
and indistinct. Variable daytime lNh, HNb, Nhu, and Nve; overlain by mNhm Middle Noachian highland massif Surrounds Argyre and part of Isidis Ancient, degraded crustal rocks uplifted by
IR brightness in places. Hundreds units eHv, eHh, eHb, lHb, Hp, HNt unit—High-relief massifs tens Planitiae. Gradational with units mNh, large, basin-forming impacts. Dissected by
of meters or more total thickness. (Hesperian part), AHv, and Aa. Includes of kilometers across separated by eNh, and HNt (Noachian part); overlain basin-related fault structures and erosional

Geologic Map of Mars (lat –55.89° N., long 67.99° E.; some degraded craters; marked by wrin- broad linear troughs and valleys. by units lNh, HNb, HNt (Hesperian part), valleys
localities 46, 47) kle ridges Kilometers thick. (lat –44.48° N., eHh, eHt, eHv, lHt, and lHl. Heavily cra-
long 307.54° E.) tered; dissected by grabens and valleys
1
U.S. Geological Survey Ave Amazonian volcanic edifice—Shield- Forms Olympus, Alba, Ascraeus, Volcanic edifices composed of lava flows in places
2
Earth-Life Science Institute, By Any use of trade, product, or firm names in this publication is for descriptive purposes only
and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government
like edifices hundreds of kilo- Pavonis, and Arsia Montes. Younger and possible volcaniclastic rocks. Deformed
Tokyo Institute of Technology meters across; made up of lobate part superposes units Aa and AHtu; by summit collapse from magma withdrawal eNhm Early Noachian highland massif Forms annulus around most of Hellas Primitive, degraded crustal rocks uplifted by
Kenneth L. Tanaka1, James A. Skinner, Jr.1, James M. Dohm2, Rossman P. Irwin, III3, Eric J. Kolb4,
3 For sale by U.S. Geological Survey, Information Services, Box 25286, Federal Center, Denver,
Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, CO 80225, 1–888–ASK–USGS flows meters to tens of meters gradational with units lAvf, and AHv; and gravity spreading of flanks unit—Forms high-relief massifs Planitia. Gradational with units eNh and large, basin-forming impact. Dissected by
National Air and Space Museum,
Smithsonian Institution
Digital files available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3292/ thick and tens to hundreds of overlain by unit lAa. Deformed by tens of kilometers across separated ANa (Noachian part); overlain by units basin-related fault structures and erosional
Corey M. Fortezzo1, Thomas Platz5, Gregory G. Michael5, and Trent M. Hare1
ISSN 2329-1311 (print)
4
Google Inc.
ISSN 2329-132X (online) Suggested citation: Tanaka, K.L., Skinner, J.A., Jr., Dohm, J.M., Irwin, R.P., III, Kolb, E.J., kilometers across. Edifices several summit calderas tens to >100 km wide by broad linear troughs and val- mNh, lNh, lNv, HNb, HNhu, eHv, Hve, valleys
http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sim3292 Fortezzo, C.M., Platz, T., Michael, G.G., and Hare, T.M., 2014, Geologic map of Mars:
5
Planetary Sciences & Remote Sensing, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 3292, scale 1:20,000,000, pamphlet 43 p., to more than ten kilometers high. and circumferential scarp systems leys. Kilometers thick. (lat –26.00° and lHv. Heavily cratered; dissected by
Freie Universität 2014 Printed on recycled paper http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sim3292. (lat 18.89° N., long 225.86° E.) N., long 63.24° E.; localities 43, 45) valleys in places