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MAPÚA UNIVERSITY

School of Social Science and Education


INTRAMUROS, MANILA

Philippine History Research

“QUEZON CITY”

SUBMITTED BY:

Buado, Gracelle A.
Collado, Alec Niel
Limjoco, Kimberly J.
Vigilia, Scot D.

SS14 – B1

SUBMITTED TO:

Ma’am Florinda Barquilla


PEOPLE

According to the 2015 Census, the population of the city was


2,936,116, making it by the most populous city in the
Philippines. This figure is higher by more than 1.1 million from
Manila, the country's second most populous city, with a
population of over 2.9 million according to the last national
census.

Quezon City was designated as a city in 1939. Just 40 years


later, it was designated as a Highly Urbanized City. It once
served as the capital city from the 1940s through the 1970s but
no longer holds that designation. Quezon City has over one
million more inhabitants than the national capital, Manila.

The majority of inhabitants in Quezon City are Roman


Catholic. About 90% of residents follow this religion. There are also other religions practiced
throughout the city, including but not limited
to Protestant and Islamic faiths. Almost one-
quarter of Metro Manila’s population lives
within Quezon City. The city is very culturally
diverse. The national language is Filipino, but
many people throughout Quezon City speak
English, particularly those in the trade,
government, education and media
industries. The increase in population of the
city has been dramatic considering that it
was only founded / consolidated (and
sparsely populated) in 1939. Quezon City became the biggest city in terms of population in the
Philippines in 1990 when it finally surpassed the number of inhabitants of the densely populated
City of Manila. Quezon City's population continued to increase and went on to become the first
Philippine city (and as of 2017 the only city) to reach 2 million people (in the late 1990s).
ECONOMY
The commercial center of the city is in Cubao, Araneta
Center, owned by the Araneta family, where many shopping
malls can be found. Fiesta Carnival was an enclosed
amusement park carnival located in the heart of the Cubao
Commercial Center, later replaced by a branch of Shopwise, a
local supermarket chain. Meanwhile, the Smart Araneta
Coliseum is a venue for concerts as well as sports events.

Quezon City is home to the Philippines' major broadcasting networks. Television


companies such as ABS-CBN, RPN, GMA Network, INC TV, UNTV, Net 25, PTV, and IBC all have
their headquarters in Quezon City. TV5 also had its headquarters in Quezon City since 1992, but
it moved out to Mandaluyong City in 2013. However, its transmitter in Novaliches is still being
used and operated by the network.

In Novaliches, the Cathay Metal Corporation, the Republic Biscuit Corporation, however
due to economic and population humanity reason the Highway of Quirino going to the District
had been reduced to two lanes from former four lanes and an island in between, the Uniwide
Warehouse Club and Main Office, Man Trucks and Buses, The HATAW Jeepney Assemblers
assembling Four Pedalled Vehicle (Rear Brakes Pedal, Front Brakes Pedal, Clutch Pedal and
Accelerator Pedal used for Drifting).

Tomas Morato and Timog Avenues are the heart of a restaurant and entertainment row
with a wide array of prices, cultures, and flavors while Banawe Avenue is dubbed as the
"Autoparts Capital of the Philippines" and home to clusters of authentic Chinese restaurants
aside from Binondo. The tallest building in the city is a 40-storey Eastwood Parkview located in
Eastwood City.

Quezon City's communication system is powered by the duopoly of PLDT and Globe
Telecom. Cellular networking in the Philippines, particularly the metropolitan areas, is increasing
rapidly together with the low cost of calls and text messaging. Such big companies that control
the cellular networks in Quezon City are Globe Telecom-BayanTel and Smart Communications
(PLDT)-Sun Cellular from Digitel. Digitel's main headquarters is located along Eulogio Rodriguez,
Jr. Avenue (C-5) in Bagumbayan while that of BayanTel stands along Roosevelt Avenue
Eastwood City is a business district developed by
Megaworld Corporation in Bagumbayan, Quezon City.
Citibank Philippines, IBM Philippines, NEC Philippines,
Canon Philippines and Mercury Drug Corporation are some
of the companies headquartered in the cyberpark within
the district.

GOVERNMENT
Like other cities in the Philippines, Quezon City is governed by a mayor and vice mayor elected
to three-year terms. The mayor is the executive head and leads the city's departments in
executing the city ordinances and improving public services. The vice mayor heads the legislative
council consisting of 24 members. These councilors represent the six (6) legislative districts of the
city. The council is in charge of formulating and enacting city ordinances.

Quezon City, being a part of the Metro Manila region, has its mayor in the Metro Manila Council
headed by the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA). This council formulates
development plans that seeks to solve the problems and improve the conditions in the
metropolis.

Mayors
President Manuel L. Quezon acted as mayor from October 12 to November 4, 1939, pending the
resignation from another position of his intended appointee, Tomas B. Morato. Since a president
can, under Philippine law, hold multiple portfolios inferior to his office, Quezon took the position
of mayor in a concurrent capacity. However, it is erroneous to view him as the first mayor, as a
president holding a concurrent position is not listed in the roster of incumbents for those offices.

Barangays
Quezon City is made up of 142 barangays (the smallest local government units) which handle
governance in a much smaller area. These barangays are grouped into the aforementioned
legislative districts. Each district, in turn is represented in the House of Representatives.
Public Order and Safety

The national headquarters of General Headquarters of

the Philippine National Police the AFP in Camp Aguinaldo

Peace and order, which includes traffic management of the city is administered by the Quezon
City Department of Public Order and Safety, whose offices are found inside the Quezon City Hall
Complex, is headed by retired QCPD District Director – Police Chief Superintendent Elmo San
Diego.

Emergency management for the city is administered by the Quezon City Disaster Risk Reduction
Management Council headed by Mayor Herbert Bautista and Quezon City Disaster Risk Reduction
& Management Office headed by its administrator; Dr. Noel Lansang. The QCDRRMO will move
out of the DPOS Building once construction of the QCDRRMO Building, near Gate 7 of the City
Hall Complex, is completed 4th Quarter of 2014.

The National Headquarters of the Philippine National Police is located inside Camp Rafael Crame
in Santolan, Quezon City and National Headquarters of the Bureau of Fire Protection is located in
Agham road, Quezon City. Supporting the PNP in administration, rehabilitation and protection of
prisoners within the city is the Quezon City Jail and is run by Officers and Enlisted Personnel of
the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology. The BJMP National Headquarters is located along
Mindanao Avenue in Project 8.

The Quezon City Police District of the National Capital Region Police Office is responsible for law
enforcement in the city. Police structure within Quezon City is centralized and its command
center found inside Camp Karingal, Sikatuna Village, Quezon City. The QCPD Police sectors are
divided to twelve (12) stations.

The Quezon City Fire District is a division of the Bureau of Fire Protection National Capital Region
which provides fire and emergency services to the city. Similarly, there are nineteen (19) fire sub-
stations strategically located within the city. District Headquarters are located inside the Quezon
City Hall Complex.

The Armed Forces of the Philippines' General Headquarters is in Camp Emilio Aguinaldo in
Murphy, Quezon City. The AFP Joint Task Force NCR is also housed inside Camp Aguinaldo.
Several reserve units of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, which include the 1502nd Infantry
Brigade (Ready Reserve), 201st Infantry Battalion (Ready Reserve), 202nd Infantry Battalion
(Ready Reserve) of the Army Reserve Command and the 11th Air Force Group (Reserve) of the
Air Force Reserve Commandare also found in Quezon City and may render assistance to this local
government unit during emergencies. The 105th Technical & Administrative Services Group
(Reserve), specifically the 1st Technical & Administrative Services Unit (Ready Reserve) of the AFP
Reserve Command provide technical assistance to these maneuver units. Collectively, these units
function similar to that of the US National Guard.

The Philippine Coast Guard Auxiliary, 106th Coast Guard Auxiliary Squadron, provides water
search and rescue capabilities to disaster response agencies of Quezon City. It is headquartered
at Barangay Quirino 2-C.

SOCIAL STRUCTURE
Cubao Panorama (1963)
Quezon City’s premier commercial district had its
beginnings in 1952 when J. Amado Araneta bought
the 35-hectare property from Radio
Communication of America and transformed a
chunk of it into the bustling commercial hub,
Araneta Center. The one-stop center gave rise to
landmark establishments like the New Frontier
Cinema, Ali Mall, Marikina Shoe Expo, the Araneta
Post Office, Fiesta Carnival, and SM Cubao, among
others.

Lording over these establishments is the towering


dome of the Araneta Coliseum. Built in 1957 and
opened on March 16, 1960, the Araneta Coliseum was the biggest covered coliseum in the
world. It is still one of the largest clear-span domes in the world, with a dome diameter of 108
meters. Some of the most celebrated events that the Araneta Coliseum hosted include the
1960 Elorde-Gomes World Junior Lightweight Fight that saw Flash Elorde taking the title away
from Harold Gomes; the Ali-Frazier World Heavyweight Fight dubbed as the “Thrilla in Manila,”
and the annual Binibining Pilipinas pageant. In 2011, the Aranetas signed a co-branding deal
with telecom company Smart Communications, and the arena was renamed Smart Araneta
Coliseum.

Quezon City Welcome Rotonda (1959)


In the year that Quezon City became the official capital
of the Philippines, a majestic tower was constructed in
the middle of a roundabout to welcome city visitors. The
Welcome Rotonda, situated at the intersection of E.
Rodriguez Sr. Boulevard, Mayon Avenue, Quezon
Avenue, and España Boulevard, was designed by Luciano
V. Aquino and executed in fine marble. The Welcome
Rotonda was an important transportation hub, serving
as a terminal for passenger jeepneys in post-war Manila.
It is also a staging place for political and protest rallies.
One such notorious protester was Amando Ducat Jr.,
who climbed the top of the tower and went on a hunger
strike to object to the candidacies of Chinese-Filipinos in
the 1995 elections. The Welcome Rotonda was renamed
as “Mabuhay Rotonda” in 1995 by Quezon City Mayor Ismael Mathay.

Elliptical Road (1963)


The Elliptical Road is a two-kilometer road that
circumscribes the whole of the Quezon City Memorial
Circle, so named because of its elliptical shape. The
eight-lane road serves as the end point or terminus of
seven major city thoroughfares, namely:
Commonwealth Avenue, Quezon Avenue, North
Avenue, East Avenue, Visayas Avenue, Maharlika
Street, and Kalayaan Avenue. Along the perimeter of
the Elliptical Road are many government buildings like
the Quezon City Hall, Quezon City Hall of Justice,
Philippine Coconut Authority, Department of Agrarian
Reform, Department of Agriculture, PTV 4, as well as
the Ninoy Aquino Parks and Wildlife Center.
Diliman District (1958)
Diliman, an important district located at the
southern part of Quezon City, was named after an
edible medicinal fern (Stenochlaena palustris),
which was said to grow in abundance in the area.
One of its distinguishing landmarks is the Quezon
Memorial, which rises in the middle of the
Quezon Memorial Circle. It is also a major
educational district, home to many important
learning institutions like the University of the
Philippines Diliman, Philippine Science High
School, Quezon City Science High School, School
of the Holy Spirit (formerly Holy Ghost College),
and Polytechnic University of the Philippines
(formerly Philippine College of Commerce), among others.

East of the Diliman area is Katipunan Avenue where Ateneo and Miriam are located, while just
behind UP Diliman are Timog and Tomas Morato Avenue, known for their popular
entertainment and dining strips. Two national TV networks—ABS-CBN and GMA 7—hold offices
in Diliman; important government offices—like the City Hall and head offices of national
government agencies are also in Diliman; hospitals and health institutions—like the Philippine
Heart Center, the East Avenue Medical Center, and the Philippine Mental Health Association—
dot the area. The rest of the area is mostly residential, with neighborhoods like Teachers
Village, UP Village, and Sikatuna Village.

Relocation of the University of the Philippines to Diliman (1949)


Founded on June 18, 1908, the University of the
Philippines (UP) was originally situated in the city of
Manila with the aim of giving “advanced instruction in
literature, philosophy, the sciences and arts, and to
give professional and technical training” to every
qualified student regardless of “age, sex, nationality,
religious belief, and political affiliation.” The war
inflicted major damage on its buildings in Manila. In
1948, during the term of UP President Bienvenido
Gonzales, much of the state university was moved to
a sprawling new campus in Diliman, Quezon City.
Project Housing (1958)
The problem of congestion in Manila was already
being felt as early as the 1950s. As a solution to
this problem, compounded by the devastation
wrought by the war, the government initiated a
housing program with the objective of diverting
part of Manila’s population (which swelled to two
million in 1958), to new satellite communities.
Most of these communities were located in the
environs of Quezon City, as proximity to Manila
was a major consideration. The result was the
birth of a construction boom known as “project
housing,” led by the Philippine Homesite and
Housing Corporation during the term of Mayor Nicanor Roxas. On 40 hectares of land, more
than a thousand project houses were built, which gave the communities their names like
Project 3, 4, 5, 6, et cetera.

Manila C.O.D. Department Store (1975)


Manila C.O.D. was one of Manila’s leading
department stores that began as a small shop
along Rizal Avenue in busy Sta. Cruz in 1948.
The shop was managed by Alex Rosario who,
because he had insufficient funds to promote
Manila C.O.D. via print advertising, thought
of a crowd-drawing gimmick. In 1957, at the
onset of the holidays, Rosario created an
outdoor animatronic display, complete with
fabulous scenes, light, and music that drove customers to his little store. In due time, Manila
C.O.D. became one of the city’s most popular shopping destinations.

In 1966, the main store of Manila C.O.D was moved to Cubao, the first department store in the
burgeoning Araneta Center. There, the spectacular thematic Christmas displays, with more
complex mechanisms and with realistic fiberglass figures, continued drawing massive crowds
and sales. By the 1990s, shopping preferences changed with the emergence of super malls,
leaving many department stores like Manila C.O.D. with no choice but to cease its operations in
2002. The moving displays were passed on to Greenhills, where they are still displayed outside
the shopping complex every Christmas season.
Camp Murphy/Camp Aguinaldo (1961)
The headquarters of the Armed Forces
of the Philippines was named Camp
Murphy (after Gov. Gen. Frank Murphy)
when it was established in 1935. Part of
the government-bought land on which
the building was built came from the
Ortigas clan. The first residents of the
camp were the Philippine Constabulary.
When the Philippine Army was formed
through the National Defense Act, the
Philippine Constabulary (PC) was designated as the Army Constabulary Division. The Army
Constabulary Division (ACD) was separated from the Philippine Army in 1938 to become the
National Police Force. After the war, Camp Murphy was divided to give way to a new camp—
Camp Crame—which became the headquarters of the Philippine National Police. In 1965, Camp
Murphy was renamed Camp General Emilio Aguinaldo, after the Philippines’ first president.

New Frontier Cinema (ca. 1987)


For a brief, shining moment in the late '60s to
the '80s, Cubao rivaled Avenida Rizal as a
theater strip with its array of movie houses
like Nation Cinerama, Coronet, Remar, Maya,
Ali, Diamond Theater, and Cubao Cinema. But
its crown jewel was the New Frontier Cinema
Theater, which, when opened in 1965, was
heralded as the biggest cinema in the world
with a seating capacity of 3,500 people. New
Frontier Cinema became Araneta Center’s
premiere center, in a time when movie fans
could watch featured films over and over
again.
The rise of home entertainment in the '80s via
VHS or Betamax video rentals affected the
operations of many cinema houses, resulting in their closure. New Frontier suffered the same
fate and was abandoned. After years of languishing in ruins, the old cinema was resurrected
after the Aranetas entered into an agreement with the company that distributes Kia Motors to
restore it back to its full glory under a new name—Kia Theater, a new 2,385-seat performing
arts venue launched in 2015.
HISTORY
Before Quezon City was created, its land was settled by the small individual towns of San
Francisco del Monte, Novaliches, and Balintawak. On August 23, 1896, the Katipunan, led by its
Supremo Andrés Bonifacio, launched the Philippine Revolution against the Spanish Empire at the
house of Melchora Aquino in Pugad Lawin (now known as Balintawak).

In the early 20th century, President


Manuel L. Quezon dreamt of a city that would
become the future capital of the country to
replace Manila. It is believed that his earlier trip in
Mexico City, Mexico influenced his vision.

In 1938, President Quezon created the


People's Homesite Corporation and purchased
15.29 km2 (6 sq mi) from the vast Diliman Estate
of the Tuason family; this piece of land became
known then as Barrio Obrero ("Workers' Village").
The National Assembly of the Philippines passed
Commonwealth Act 502, known as the Charter of
Quezon City, originally proposed as "Balintawak
City; Assemblymen Narciso Ramos and Ramon
Mitra Sr. successfully lobbied the assembly to
name the city after the incumbent president.
President Quezon allowed the bill to lapse into
law without his signature on October 12, 1939,
thus establishing Quezon City.

When Quezon City was created in 1939, the following barrios or sitios: Balingasa,
Balintawak, Galas, Kaingin, Kangkong, La Loma, Malamig, Masambong, Matalahib, San Isidro, San
Jose, Santol, and Tatalon from Caloocan; Cubao, the western half of Diliman, Kamuning, New
Manila, Roxas and San Francisco del Monte from San Juan; Balara, Barangka, the eastern half of
Diliman, Jesus de la Peña and Krus na Ligas from Marikina; Libis, Santolan and Ugong Norte from
Pasig and some barrios from Montalban and San Mateo were to be given to the new capital city.
Instead of opposing them, the six towns willingly gave land to Quezon City in the belief that it
would benefit the country's new capital. However, in 1941, the area within Wack Wack Golf and
Country Club was reverted to Mandaluyong, and Barangka and Jesus de la Peña to Marikina. In
addition, the land of Camp Crame was originally part of San Juan. On 1 January 1942, President
Quezon issued an executive order from the tunnel of Corregidor designating Jorge Vargas Mayor
of Greater Manila, a new political entity comprising, aside from Manila proper, Quezon City,
Kalookan, Pasay, San Juan, Mandaluyong, Makati, and Parañaque. Greater Manila would later be
expanded to include Las Piñas, Malabon, and Navotas.

Imperial Japanese forces occupied Quezon City in 1942 during World War II. In October
of that year, the Japanese authorities divided the City of Greater Manila into twelve districts, two
of which were formed from Quezon City: Balintawak which consisted of San Francisco del Monte,
Galas, and La Loma; and Diliman which consisted of Diliman proper, Cubao, and the University
District. In 1945, combined Filipino and American troops under the United States Army, Philippine
Commonwealth Army, and Philippine Constabulary, with help from recognized guerrilla units,
liberated and recaptured Quezon City in a few months, expelling Imperial Japanese forces. Heavy
fighting occurred near Novaliches, which at that time was in Rizal Province, and New Manila
which was a strongpoint. Toward the end of the Battle of Manila, Pres. Sergio Osmeña dissolved
the Greater Manila Complex, which included the Japanese-created districts of Balintawak and
Diliman which had been formed from the prewar Quezon City.

After the war, Republic Act No. 333,


which redefined the Caloocan–Quezon City
boundary, was signed by President Elpidio
Quirino on July 17, 1948, declaring Quezon City
to be the national capital, and specifying the
city's area to be 156.60 km2 (60 sq mi). The
barrios of Baesa, Bagbag, Banlat, Kabuyao,
Novaliches Proper, Pasong Putik, Pasong Tamo,
Pugad Lawin, San Bartolome and Talipapa,
which belonged to Novaliches and had a
combined area of about 8,100 hectares, were
taken from Caloocan and ceded to Quezon City.
This caused the territorial division of Caloocan
into two non-contiguous parts, the South
section being the more urbanized part, and the North half being sub-rural. On June 16, 1950, the
Quezon City Charter was revised by Republic Act No. 537, changing the city's boundaries to an
area of 153.59 km2 (59 sq mi). Exactly six years after on June 16, 1956, more revisions to the
city's land area were made by Republic Act No. 1575, which defined its area as 151.06 km2 (58
sq mi). According to the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology and Geoscience
Australia on their study earthquake impact and risk assessment on the Greater Metropolitan
Manila Area, the total area of Quezon City stood at 165.33 km2 (64 sq mi).

On October 1, 1975, Quezon City was the actual site of the "Thrilla in Manila" boxing fight
between Muhammad Ali and Joe Frazier, which took place at the Araneta Coliseum. It was
renamed as the "Philippine Coliseum" for the event.
On November 7, 1975, the promulgation of Presidential Decree No. 824 of President
Ferdinand Marcos established Metro Manila. Quezon City became one of Metro Manila's 17 cities
and municipalities. The next year, Presidential Decree No. 940 transferred the capital back to
Manila on June 24, 1976. On March 31, 1978, President Marcos ordered the transfer of the
remains of President Quezon from Manila North Cemetery to the completed Quezon Memorial
Monument within Elliptical Road. On February 22, 1986, the Quezon City portion of the Epifanio
de los Santos Avenue (between Camp Crame and Camp Aguinaldo) became the venue of the
bloodless People Power Revolution that overthrew Marcos.

On February 23, 1998, Republic Act. No. 8535 was signed by President Fidel Ramos. The
Act provided for the creation of the City of Novaliches comprising the 15 northernmost barangays
of Quezon City. However, in the succeeding plebiscite on October 23, 1999, an overwhelming
majority of Quezon City residents rejected the secession of Novaliches.

Quezon City is the first local government in the Philippines with a computerized real
estate assessment and payment system. The city government developed a database system that
now contains around 400,000 property units with capability to record payments.

• Quezon City as the New Capital City of the Philippines


In 1938, President Quezon made a decision
to push for a new capital city. Manila was getting
crowded, and his military advisors (reportedly) told
him that Manila, being by the bay, was an easy
target for bombing by naval guns in case of attack–
a real possibility in the late 1930s. Military advisers,
however, did not anticipate aerial bombardment.

Quezon supported the idea of a new city at least 15 km (9 mi) away from Manila Bay
(beyond the reach of naval guns). He contacted William E. Parsons, American architect and
planner, who had been the consulting architect for the islands early in the American colonial
period. Parsons came over in the summer of 1939 and helped select the Diliman (Tuason) estate
as the site for the new city. Unfortunately he died later that year, leaving his partner Harry Frost
to take over. Frost collaborated with Juan Arellano, engineer A.D. Williams, and landscape
architect and planner Louis Croft to craft a grand master plan for the new capital.

The plan was approved by the Philippine authorities in 1941. The core of the new city was
to be a 400 ha central green, about the size of New York's Central Park, and defined by North,
South (Timog), East and West Avenues. On one corner of the proposed Diliman Quadrangle was
delineated a 25-hectare elliptical site. This was to contain a large capitol building to house the
Philippine Legislature and ancillary structures for the offices of representatives.

On either side of the giant ellipse were supposed to have been the new Malacañang
Palace on North Avenue (site of the present-day Veterans Memorial Hospital), and the Supreme
Court Complex along East Avenue (now the site of East Avenue Medical Center). The three
branches of government were to be finally and efficiently located in close proximity to each
other.