Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 1

98.

99.

100.

101.

102.

Suppose that you have a positive, decreasing function and you approximate the area under it by a Riemann sum with left rectangles. Will the Riemann sum overestimate or underestimate the actual area? [Hint: Make a sketch.]

Suppose that you have a positive, increasing, concave up function and you approximate the area under it by a Riemann sum with midpoint rectangles. Will the Riemann sum overestimate or underestimate the actual area? [Hint: Make a sketch.]

Suppose that you have a positive, increasing, concave down function and you approximate the area under it by a Riemann sum with midpoint rectangles. Will the Riemann sum overestimate or underestimate the actual area? [Hint: Make a sketch.]

A friend says that deﬁnite and indeﬁnite integrals are exactly the same except that one has numbers plugged in. A second friend disagrees, saying that the essential ideas are entirely different. Who is right?

Suppose that you have a positive function and you approximate the area under it using Riemann sums with midpoint rectangles. Explain why, if the function is linear, you will always get the exact area, no matter how many (or few) rectangles you use. [Hint: Make a sketch.]

103. Evaluate

1

1

x 43 e 17x 219

3

x

2

ln 29 6x 3 x 11

p 3 dx

[Hint: No work necessary.]

104. Find a formula for

a

b

c dx.

[Hint: No

calculation necessary—just think of a graph.]

105. Finding

1

1

1

x

2

dx

by the Fundamental

Theorem of Integral Calculus gives an answer of 2, as you should check. However, shouldn’t the area under a positive function be positive? Explain.

106. How will

a

b

f(x) dx

and

b

a

f(x) dx

differ?

[Hint: Assume that they can be evaluated by the Fundamental Theorem of Integral Calculus, and think how they will differ at the “evaluate and subtract” step.]

5.3 DEFINITE INTEGRALS AND AREAS

365

Explorations and Excursions

The following problems extend and augment the material presented in the text.

107. ECONOMICS: Pareto’s Law The economist Vilfredo Pareto estimated that the number of people who have an income between A and B

dollars ( A B

of the form

) is given by a deﬁnite integral

N A ax b dx

B

(b 1)

where a and b are constants. Evaluate this integral. Source: A. Reynolds, Income and Wealth

108. BIOMEDICAL: Poiseuille’s Law According

to Poiseuille’s law, the speed of blood in a

blood vessel is given by

where R is the radius of the blood vessel, r is the distance of the blood from the center of the blood vessel, and p, L, and v are constants determined by the pressure and viscosity of the blood and the length of the vessel. The total blood ﬂow is then given by

p

V 4Lv (R 2 r 2 ),

Total blood flow

0

R

2

p

4Lv (R 2 r 2 )r dr

Find the total blood ﬂow by ﬁnding this integral (p, L, v, and R are constants). Source: E. Batschelet, Introduction to Mathematics for Life Scientists

109– 110. BUSINESS: Capital Value of an Asset

The capital value of an asset (such as an oil well) that produces a continuous stream of income is the sum of the present value of all future earnings from the asset. Therefore, the capital value of an

asset that produces income at the rate of r(t) dollars per year (at a continuous interest rate i) is

Capital

value

0

T

r(t)e it dt

where T is the expected life (in years) of the asset. Source: T. Lee, Income and Value Measurement

109. Use the formula in the preceding instructions to

ﬁnd the capital value (at interest rate

of an oil well that produces income at the

i 0.06)

 constant rate of r(t) 240,000 dollars per year for 10 years.

110. Use the formula in the preceding instructions to

ﬁnd the capital value (at interest rate

of a uranium mine that produces income at

the rate of for 20 years.

i 0.05)

r(t) 560,000t 1/2

dollars per year