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estimation of degree of fouling in heat exchangers

a Department of Chemical Engineering, Lamerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lamerd, Iran

b Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Deposition of undesired materials on the heat transfer surface is one the most challeng-

Received 30 June 2017 ing problems for application of heat exchangers. Experimental measurements of degree of

Received in revised form 29 fouling are both difﬁcult and time-consuming, and often do not provide accurate results. To

November 2017 overcome these problems, artiﬁcial neural networks (ANN) is employed for predicting the

Accepted 8 December 2017 fouling factor from some easily measured variables of the system. Indeed, fouling factor is

Available online 20 December 2017 estimated as a function of density, velocity and temperature of the ﬂuid, its oxygen content,

hydraulic diameter of the ﬂuid passage, surface temperature, and time. Correlation matrix

Keywords: analyses justiﬁed that the highest interrelation exists between these independent variables

Heat exchanger and fourth roots of fouling factor.

Solid deposition The ANN model was developed and validated using a huge databank including 11,626

Fouling factor experimental datasets for fouling factor in portable fouling research unit (PFRU) and single

Artiﬁcial neural networks tube heat exchangers collecting from six different literatures. The best training algorithm

and the optimum numbers of hidden neuron were determined through minimizing the

computational effort and maximizing some statistical accuracy indices, respectively. It was

concluded that Bayesian regulation backpropagation approach has the best performance

among the considered training algorithms. Moreover, the two-layer perceptron neural net-

work with ten hidden neurons was found as the best ANN topology. This ANN model

predicts the experimental values of fouling factor with overall AARD% = 5.42, MSE = 0.0013,

RMSE = 0.0355, and R2 = 0.977819. The simplicity of the developed ANN model and its small

levels of error for huge experimental databank are some of the key features of our model.

© 2017 Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction heat recovery from the process (Liu et al., 2004; Sheikholeslami and

Ganji, 2016). Heat exchanger is one of the most well-known equip-

Heat transfer is a branch of transport phenomena that dealing with ment in power engineering, petroleum reﬁneries, chemical industries,

energy transportation between material bodies with a temperature dif- food industries and so on tries to transfer thermal energy between

ference as the driving force (Tertsinidou et al., 2016). This is of critical two or more ﬂuids for purpose of heat recovery and energy manage-

importance because better efﬁciency of heat transfer will result more ment (Shah and Sekulic, 2003). Double pipe, spiral, plate frame, shell

and tube are some of the most widely used types of industrial heat

Abbreviations: AAC, average of absolute of coefﬁcients; AARD, absolute average relative deviation; AI, artiﬁcial intelligence; ANN, arti-

ﬁcial neural network; CFB, cascade-forward back-propagation; DO, dissolved oxygen; FRFF, fourth roots of fouling factor; GR, generalized

regression; h, hour; HTRI, heat transfer research incorporated; MLFFN, multi-layer feed forward network; MLP, multi-layer perceptron;

MRE, mean relative error; MSE, mean square error; NARX, nonlinear auto-regressive with exogenous; PCC, Pearson correlation coefﬁcient;

PFRU, portable fouling research unit; RBF, radial basis function; RMSE, root mean square error; V, variable name; V, normalized values.

∗

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: vaferi@iaushiraz.ac.ir (B. Vaferi).

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2017.12.017

0263-8762/© 2017 Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chemical Engineering Research and Design 1 3 0 ( 2 0 1 8 ) 138–153 139

conventional and nuclear power plants and oil and gas reﬁneries are

some of those industries that concern with fouling problem (Bansal and

Nomenclature

Chen, 2006; Bott, 1995; Stoller, 2009; Young et al., 2011). Taborek (1997)

de Equivalent diameter (m) reported that the ﬁrst industrial problem of fouling was observed in

dRf /dt Fouling rate (m2 K/kW h) the USA power industry in 1880 (Taborek, 1997). It seems that the ﬁrst

scientiﬁc research about fouling was done by Orrok in1910 (Orrok, 1910).

E Activation energy (J/mol)

It is obvious that various variables including the geometry of heat

f Transfer function

transfer surface, operating condition of ﬂuid and heat exchanger, and

n Neuron output

time have sever effect on the amount of fouling (Asomaning, 1990, 1997;

N Number of experimental data

Feiz, 2015; Srinivasan, 2008; Sundaram, 1998; Watkinson, 1968). There-

qave Heat ﬂux (kW/m2 ) fore it is difﬁcult to develop an empirical or semi-empirical correlation

Q Volumetric ﬂow rate (m3 /s) for accurate prediction of fouling factor by considering all of these vari-

R2 Regression coefﬁcient ables. Artiﬁcial neural networks (ANN) that are simple, straightforward,

Rf Fouling factor (m2 K/kW) low cost and time-effort artiﬁcial intelligence (AI) paradigms, and often

Rg Gas constant provide promising results for modeling of complicated systems can be

t Time (h) considered for estimating the fouling factor in heat exchangers (Lalot

Tb,ave The average temperature of bulk (◦ C) and Pálsson, 2010; Navvab Kashani et al., 2012; Vaferi et al., 2016).

A few works relating to application of artiﬁcial intelligence method-

Tf Fluid temperature (◦ C)

ologies in various aspects of heat exchangers have been done up to

Ts,ave The average temperature of heat transfer sur-

now (Diaby et al., 2016; Díaz et al., 1999; Gupta et al., 2017; Lalot and

face (◦ C)

Pálsson, 2010; Verma et al., 2017). For prediction of the fouling factor in

Ts,0 Initial temperature of heat transfer surface (◦ C) a cross-ﬂow heat exchanger, Lalot and Palsson used ANN methodology

U0 Heat transfer coefﬁcient at clean condition (Lalot and Pálsson, 2010). Required database for both clean and dirty

(kW/m2 K) heat exchanger is generated by numerical simulation of the process

w Weight coefﬁcient (Lalot and Pálsson, 2010). They considered inlet and outlet tempera-

x Independent variable ture of the cold ﬂuids, the inlet temperature of the hot ﬂuid, mass

ﬂow rate of cold and hot ﬂuids were the inputs of the artiﬁcial neu-

Subscripts/superscripts ral network, while the fouling factor was an output of the model (Lalot

ave Average and Pálsson, 2010). Romeo and Gareta (2006) improved the amount of

b Bulk power production from an industrial biomass boiler through develop-

ing a hybrid ANN and Fuzzy-Logic methodology for controlling and

cal Calculated

optimizing the fouling factor. Radhakrishnan et al. (2007) designed

e Equivalent

a statistical-based method for prediction of outlet temperature from

exp Experimental

both shell and tube side of shell and tube heat exchangers. Inde-

f Fouling pendent variables classiﬁed into four groups 1—operating variables,

max Maximum value 2—maintenance variables, 3—scheduling variables, and 4—crude prop-

min Minimum value erties (Radhakrishnan et al., 2007). The root means square errors (RMSE)

mix Mixture of 0.93% and 1.83% was reported for prediction of the shell and tube

norm Normalized value outlet temperatures, respectively (Radhakrishnan et al., 2007).

o Overall Aminian and Shahhosseini (2008) obtained mean relative error

s Surface (MRE) of %26.23 for predicting the fouling rate of crude oil pre-heaters

using a four layers feedforward neural network model. The veloc-

Greek symbols ity of crude oil, tube surface temperature, and tube diameter were

employed as independent variables of the ANN model (Aminian and

Density of ﬂuid (kg/m3 )

Shahhosseini, 2008). Fouling threshold in crude oil pre-heaters was

Velocity of the ﬂuid (m/s)

predicted as a function of surface temperature, Reynolds, and Prandtl

ω Mass fraction

numbers using a neuro-based model (Aminian and Shahhosseini,

2009). Garcia proposed a novel supervision strategy to detect, isolate,

and accommodate faults in a closed loop temperature control of a heat

exchangers (Farajollahi et al., 2010; Kern and Kraus, 1972; Shirvan et al.,

exchanger on the basis of a dynamic and static ANN-based modeling

2016). On the other hand portable fouling research unit and single

techniques (Garcia, 2012). Navvab Kashani et al. (2012) proposed an

tube heat exchanger have found high popularity in academic studies

optimized ANN model based on moving window technique with 3-5-1

(Asomaning, 1990, 1997; Feiz, 2015; Srinivasan, 2008; Sundaram, 1998;

conﬁguration for online monitoring and prediction of crude oil foul-

Watkinson, 1968). Optimum design, appropriate control of operating

ing behavior for an industrial shell and tube heat exchangers. Shell

conditions, systematic cleaning and planned maintenance for heat

and tube side input temperatures and tube side crude oil ﬂow rate

exchangers could improve their energy transfer efﬁciency and maxi-

were considered as the independent variables of the proposed model,

mize amount of energy recovery (Hajabdollahi and Hajabdollahi, 2016;

while the output variable was chosen to calculate the fouling factor

Hultmann Ayala et al., 2016; Kim et al., 2016; Rao and Saroj, 2017; Zubair

(Navvab Kashani et al., 2012). Application of local linear wavelet neural

et al., 1997).

network model for prediction of temperature differences on both tube

Fouling is an undesired operating problem that creates by accumu-

and shell side and efﬁciency of heat exchanger has been investigated

lation of solid materials on the heat transfer surface of heat exchangers

by Mohanty and Singru (2014). The normal tap water was the cold ﬂuid,

(Jamialahmadi and Müller-Steinhagen, 2007; Turakhia et al., 1984). Foul-

while the hot ﬂuid was hard water having the hardness within a range

ing factor (Rf ) is a numerical indicator for the amount of solid materials

of 500–550 ppm of NaOH (Mohanty and Singru, 2014). Recently, the

deposited on the heat transfer surface (Turakhia et al., 1984).

multi-layer perceptron neural network with input structure using non-

Fouling which is a major unresolved and long-standing problem in

linear auto-regressive with exogenous (NARX) was employed to predict

various industries directly reduces the performance of heat exchangers

the fouling resistance in shell and tube heat exchanger (Biyanto, 2016).

by adding an unwanted thermal resistance to energy transfer (Buchelli

An artiﬁcial neural network model with thirteen hidden neurons pro-

et al., 2005; Tang et al., 2017; Yeap et al., 2004). Food industry, water

vides the RMSE of 1.38 × 10−5 for prediction of fouling heat resistance

treatment process, pulp and paper manufacturing, ﬁber production,

(Biyanto, 2016).

140 Chemical Engineering Research and Design 1 3 0 ( 2 0 1 8 ) 138–153

1.1. Motivation and novelty of our study conceptual problems (Basheer and Hajmeer, 2000). The multi-

layer perceptron (MLP) neural network which has feed-forward

Fouling formation is an undesirable operating phenomenon that structure is likely the most well-known topology for func-

reduces the amount of energy recovery from heat exchanger networks. tion approximation and regression-based studies (Gibbs et al.,

Therefore, it is necessary to prevent its formation or try to minimize it 2006; Maier et al., 2000; Topçu and Sarıdemir, 2008). The MLP

using appropriate scenarios. Prior to control or minimization of fouling

neural network as it name clearly indicates can have any num-

formation, it’s inevitable to develop a reliable model that could estimate

ber of the layer with speciﬁed number of neurons in each layer.

fouling factor with acceptable accuracy. Our proposed model is simple,

The ﬁrs layer is responsible for receiving the information of

straightforward, and the most generalized approach for the considered

task. There’s developed no empirical, semi-empirical or even intelligent independent variable(s) from external source. It transfers the

model that cover such a wide ranges of experimental data up to now. data to the next layer after performing mathematical manipu-

Our model not only was designed using 11626 experimental datasets, lation according to Eq. (1) on the entry signal(s). This procedure

but it also provides an excellent accuracy for prediction of the dynamic continues as far as the manipulated entry information reach

fouling factor in various conditions. the last layer. The last layer is responsible for calculation of

the output signal(s) of the MLP neural network model.

2. Method The major advantages of MLP neural network over

empirical correlations are cohesiveness and multiple appli-

2.1. Artiﬁcial neural networks cability, well-known ﬂexibility and the strength of their

back-propagation algorithm, requirement of relatively little

Artiﬁcial neural networks are intelligent paradigms that try memory and their rapidity, ability to learn complex relation-

to model various phenomena by simulating the process of ships between input and output patterns, independence from

learning of human beings (Ghaffarian et al., 2014; Rahimi statistical distribution assumptions, ability to increase the

et al., 2015). ANN has widely accepted technique as a promis- number of adjustable parameters (Gholami et al., 2018; Dach

ing tool for solving complex engineering problems in real life et al., 2016; Hagan et al., 1996).

(Vaferi et al., 2015). ANN which is categorized in parallel com-

putational methods constitutes of highly interconnected but 2.2. Training

simple computing elements i.e. artiﬁcial neurons (Yeh, 1998).

The artiﬁcial neural network can simply create by placing neu- The process of adjustment of weights and biases of the MLP

rons in some successive and interconnected layers. There exist neural network by a set of experimental data is often referred

two major patterns for connecting the layer of neurons to each as training or learning stage. As mentioned earlier, the neuron

other i.e. feed-forward and recurrent (Gurney, 1997). The pro- is the smallest element of the ANN models. Therefore, for a

cedure for calculation of output signal (n) for artiﬁcial neuron MLP network with given structure, the number of weights and

can be mathematically expressed by Eqs. (1) and (2). biases are known. During the training process, MLP starts with

a random initial value for these parameters, and the training

k

algorithm tries to adjust their values using the provided exper-

sum = wr xr + b (1) imental data (Hassanpour et al., 2018; Yilmaz and Kaynar,

r=1 2011). Indeed, the training algorithm adjusts these parameters

by minimizing the deviation between experimental and pre-

n = f (sum) (2)

dicted values of the dependent variable(s). The performance

of the trained MLP network should then be validated by exper-

wr is the weight and b refers to the bias coefﬁcient of neu-

imental datasets i.e. test subset that were not used during the

ron that added to the product of inputs (xr) and their speciﬁc

training process.

weight coefﬁcients. The operator which is the net output of

Training is an iterative procedure that tries to adjust

each neuron passes through that is called activation or trans-

weights and biases of the MLP network by minimizing an

fer function (f) and has different types such as linear, radial

observed deviation between actual and predicted values by

basis, logarithmic sigmoid and hyperbolic tangent sigmoid. In

the model. It starts with initial values for MLP parameters and

this study Eq. (3) is employed as the transfer function for neu-

their values modiﬁed by increasing the number of iteration i.e.

rons in both input and output layers. Eq. (3) is called tangent

epoch. As soon as the observed deviation reach a pre-speciﬁed

sigmoid transfer or activation function.

value, training ﬁnished and weights and bias found their best

esum − e−sum values.

n = f (sum) = (3)

esum + e−sum

2.3. Data acquisition

This function compact its inputs into [−1 1].

If an artiﬁcial neural network is trained with an ade- By considering both fouling rate correlations and published

quate number of data using a suitable learning algorithm, literature data, it can be simply concluded that the fouling

it can provide acceptable results for relating independent formation depends on some factors including:

and dependent variable(s) even for most complex nonlinear

multi-variable systems (Singh and Singh, 2005; Vaferi et al., - Temperature, velocity and type of operating ﬂuid,

2014b). Conjugate gradient, back propagation, cascade corre- - Geometry and temperature of heat transfer surface,

lation, particle swarm optimization, evolutionary techniques - Geometry of ﬂuid passage,

and genetic algorithms are some of the most well-known - And time (Asomaning, 1990, 1997; Feiz, 2015; Srinivasan,

training algorithms in the ﬁeld of ANN (Amini et al., 2013; 2008; Sundaram, 1998; Watkinson, 1968). A large amount

Nawi et al., 2013). It was reported that some types of ANN of experimental data is necessary for designing an arti-

methodologies are more useful for data modeling and func- ﬁcial intelligence (AI) approach that could relate fouling

tion approximation and others are appropriate for solving factor to its associated independent variables. In this study,

Table 1 – Summary of collected experimental datasets including type of ﬂuids and heat exchangers, ranges of operating conditions, and number of data points (Asomaning, 1990,

1997; Feiz, 2015; Srinivasan, 2008; Sundaram, 1998; Watkinson, 1968).

Type of ﬂuida Type of heat Fluid density Surface Fluid Pipe Fluid velocity D.Ob Time (h) Fouling factor Nc

exchanger (kg/m3 ) temperature (◦ C) temperature (◦ C) diameter (m) (m/s) (ppmw) (m2 K/kW)

10% heavy oil–90% fuel oil PFRU 866.467 170.23–409.2 60–140 0.0144 0.65–0.94 0 0–50 0.000370–0.8160 2786

5% heavy oil–95% fuel oil PFRU 858.664 192.12–372.5 83.7–86.2 0.0144 0.75 0 0.5–49 0.00068–0.6720 529

15% heavy oil–85% fuel oil PFRU 874.414 194.49–341.4 84.4–87 0.0144 0.75 0 0–50 0.0004–0.47538 397

20% heavy oil–80% fuel oil PFRU 882.507 196.64–339.0 84.1–85 0.0144 0.75 0 0–50 0.0004430–0.0468 381

10% heavy oil–90% paraﬂex PFRU 870.571 185.0–369.38 82.3–83.6 0.0144 0.75 0 0.5–47 0.0003–0.6115 228

1% pentane–10% heavy PFRU 863.308 224.2–376.57 86 0.0144 0.75 0 0–6.5 0.0008–0.5528 40

oil–89% fuel oil

3% pentane–10% heavy PFRU 857.058 215.58–365.8 86 0.0144 0.75 0 0–4.67 0.00350–0.56420 29

oil–87% fuel oil

5% pentane–10% heavy PFRU 850.898 212.54–381.2 83.3 0.0144 0.75 0 0–4.5 0.0034–0.6213 28

oil–85% fuel oil

10% heavy oil–90% fuel PFRU 866.769 216.55–375.3 83.5–84 0.0144 0.75 0 0.5–20 0.0046–0.5971 193

oil–1000 ppmw of benzoyl

peroxide

10% heavy oil–90% fuel PFRU 866.657 200.1–373.06 83.8–84.6 0.0144 0.75 0 0.33–20 0.001540–0.5857 181

oil–1000 ppmw of

ethanediol

10% heavy oil–90% fuel PFRU 866.637 220.04–231.6 84.5 0.0144 0.75 0 0–46 0.0013–0.0461 271

oil–1000 ppmw of

Thiophenol.

Syncrude sweet blend (ssb) PFRU 867.896 206.11–358.3 60.35–133.4 0.0147 0.44–0.77 0–91.68 0.17–147.7 0.0001–1.3956 4256

7.15% ATBd –92.85%paraﬂex PFRU 862.519 272 85 0.0159 0.5 1.12603 20 1.607652 1

7.4% ATB–92.6% paraﬂex PFRU 862.788 403 80 0.0159 0.31 0.92994 40 0.747863 1

7.6% ATB–92.4% paraﬂex PFRU 863.003 429 95 0.0159 0.6 0.60329 48 0.132462 1

15% ATB–85% paraﬂex PFRU 871.041 465–640 90–95 0.0159 0.5 0.66–0.89 26–72 0.1894–0.632 3

Light sour blend (LSB) PFRU 845.1 286.3–401.2 206.95–278.2 0.005225 0.75 0 0–46.2 0.0014–0.0801 211

provided by shell Canada

Ltd.

Sour heavy gas oil Single tube 846.504 136.33–258.9 100.13–240.66 0.00871 0.88–7.45 0 0–388.8 0.1680–1.6056 701

10% (1-decane)–90% PFRU 797.762 202.67–220.3 79.5–97 0.0147 0.56 322.101 3.33–49.66 0.002–03090 140

kerosene

10% (4-vinyl-1- PFRU 807.45 208.3–264 76.5–93 0.0147 0.56 314.252 1–47.3 0.0029–0.1577 140

cyclohexene)–90%

kerosene.

10% indene–90% kerosene PFRU 820.37 186–420.33 66.5–94.5 0.0147 0.56 0–293.243 0–49.67 0.0006–0.7596 536

10% one-hexadecene–90% PFRU 802.18 200–284.7 78–96.5 0.0147 0.56 318.437 2–48 0.0007–0.2693 139

kerosene

10% dicyclopentadiene–90% PFRU 819.272 182–292.3 71.5–95.5 0.0147 0.56 0–298.028 0–49.67 0.0034–0.5284 434

kerosene

a

Mass percent compositions of mixtures are presented.

b

Concentration of dissolved oxygen in the ﬂuid.

c

Number of experimental data.

141

d

Atmospheric Tower Bottoms Provided by Syncrude Canada.

142 Chemical Engineering Research and Design 1 3 0 ( 2 0 1 8 ) 138–153

11,626 experimental datasets for fouling factor in a sin- the temperature of heat transfer surface is calculated using

gle tube and portable fouling research unit are collected Eq. (6).

from six different literatures (Asomaning, 1990, 1997; Feiz,

2015; Srinivasan, 2008; Sundaram, 1998; Watkinson, 1968). 1

Ts, ave = Tb, ave + qave × Rf + (6)

Table 1 shows the summary of our collected experimental Uo

databank including independent and dependent variable(s),

here qave and Uo represents the average heat ﬂux and overall

their ranges, and number of available data for each operat-

heat transfer coefﬁcient, respectively (Agbisit et al., 2003).

ing ﬂuids.

Similar to surface temperature, the ﬂuid temperature has also

Our experimental dataset that includes 23 different oper- a complex effect on the fouling resistance. Various behaviors

ating ﬂuids covers surface temperature of 136–640 ◦ C, the including increasing, decreasing and no variation in fouling

ﬂuid temperature of 60–278.2 ◦ C, ﬂuid velocity of 0.31–7.45 m/s, factor with increasing of ﬂuid temperature were reported up

hydraulic diameter of 0.005–0.016 m, the oxygen content of up to now (Asomaning, 1997; Eaton and Lux, 1984; Sundaram,

to 322 ppmw, and time period of up to 389 h (Asomaning, 1990, 1998). Increasing of initial fouling rate with temperature was

1997; Feiz, 2015; Srinivasan, 2008; Sundaram, 1998; Watkinson, often justiﬁed by the degradation and deposition of active

1968). The associated fourth roots of fouling factor are from bulk spices (Sundaram, 1998). On the other hand, increasing

0.0841 to 1.0126 m2 K/kW. Independent variable and its effect the solubility of those materials that are responsible for the

on the fouling factor is tried to be investigated in more detail in formation of foulant and decreasing of viscosity with ﬂuid

the following subsections (Asomaning, 1990, 1997; Feiz, 2015; temperature are the reasons that often provided for expla-

Srinivasan, 2008; Sundaram, 1998; Watkinson, 1968). nation of decreasing of fouling factor with ﬂuid temperature

(Asomaning, 1997; Eaton and Lux, 1984).

2.3.1. Type of operating ﬂuid

Deposition of dissolved, suspended or chemically generated 2.3.4. Hydraulic diameter of the ﬂuid passage

species from ﬂuids onto the heat transfer surface is attributed It is well understood that both ﬂuid velocity and Reynolds

for fouling formation. Therefore, the ﬂuid type is a factor number are functions of ﬂuid passage area. Furthermore, foul-

that has the severe effect on the fouling factor. As it can be ing threshold is related to the Reynolds number (Yang and

seen in Table 1, the collected database considers the effect of Crittenden, 2012). Therefore, hydraulic diameter of the ﬂuid

many ﬂuid mixtures on the extent of fouling in wide ranges of passage is considered as independent variables for calculation

operating conditions. Based on three-parameter correspond- of the fouling factor.

ing state theory, it was ﬁrstly tried to deﬁne all ﬂuids based on

their critical temperature, critical pressure, and acentric fac- 2.3.5. Velocity of the ﬂuid

tor simultaneously (Carruth and Kobayashi, 1972). Since these There are relatively contradictory reports in the literature for

properties were not presented in the considered literatures, inﬂuence of ﬂuid velocity on the fouling resistance (Paterson

and moreover there was no information for calculating them, and Fryer, 1988). For considering the effect of velocity on the

just density at 20 ◦ C is applied as an indicator for type of ﬂuids. fouling factor three main classes were proposed (Asomaning,

In this study, the density of mixtures is calculated by Eq. (4). 1997; Paterson and Fryer, 1988). 1—If the ﬂuid phase is respon-

sible for controlling the fouling reaction, fouling rate may

be dependent on inverse of the ﬂuid velocity, 2—if surface

1

k

ω reaction is controlled fouling reaction, initial fouling rate

i

= (4)

mix i is independent of the ﬂuid velocity, 3—if fouling is con-

i=1

trolled by both mass transfer to the surface and surface

reaction, increasing the ﬂuid velocity increases the fouling

where is density of the pure liquids, and ω is their weight rate (Asomaning, 1997; Paterson and Fryer, 1988). Velocity of

fractions in the mixture. the ﬂuid is obtained by Eq. (7).

4Q

2.3.2. Surface temperature v = (7)

de 2

It has been claimed that the temperature of heat trans-

fer surface may increase, decrease, or has no effect on the 2.3.6. Oxygen content of the ﬂuid

fouling resistance (Awad, 2012; Awad et al., 2007; Epstein, Effect of oxygen on the fouling resistance is greatly dependent

1983, 1987; Haghshenasfard et al., 2015; Müller-Steinhagen, on its amount and type of the operating ﬂuid (Niu et al., 2007).

1998; Ramasamy and Deshannavar, 2014; Shetty et al., 2014; The concentration of dissolved oxygen is often estimated by

Watkinson and Epstein, 1970). Eq. (5) presents an Arrhenius ASTM methods, D 2779-92 and D3827-92.

type equation for relating initial fouling rates on the temper-

ature of heat transfer surface (Epstein, 1987; Haghshenasfard 2.3.7. Time

et al., 2015; Müller-Steinhagen, 1998). Fouling is a time varying phenomenon which has the

well-known sequential events including initiation, transport,

attachment, removal, and ageing (Bohnet, 1987; Epstein, 1983;

(dRf /dt)0 = A1 exp(−E/Rg Ts,0 ) (5)

Muller-Steinhagen et al., 2009). It is obvious that amount of

fouling increases by time, therefore it is considered as an inde-

where Rg shows the gas constant, and E is an activation energy. pendent variable for modeling of the fouling factor.

Therefore, it can be said that the surface temperature has a Thus, operational independent variables for prediction

complex effect on the fouling factor. Wherever it is required, of fouling factor of ﬂuids in PFRU and single tube heat

Chemical Engineering Research and Design 1 3 0 ( 2 0 1 8 ) 138–153 143

Fig. 1 – Architecture of the proposed MLP model including both independent and dependent variable(s).

exchangers using MLP network are density of the ﬂuid, tem- with the independent variables. To doing so the correlation

perature of heat transfer surface, ﬂuid temperature, hydraulic matrix analyses using the Pearson approach are applied for

diameter of the ﬂuid passage, velocity of the ﬂuid, concentra- measuring the strength of relation between transformed foul-

tion of dissolved oxygen in the ﬂuid, and time. ing factor with the independent variables (Ariana et al., 2015).

As shown in Fig. 1, the developed MLP network for esti- Pearson approach provides a value between −1 and +1 for indi-

mation of the fouling factor in PFRU and single tube heat cating both strength and kind of relation between each pair of

exchangers is constituted of three layers. The ﬁrst layer variables. The value of −1 indicates the highest inverse rela-

presents values of the independent variables and the output tionship, +1 indicates the most strength direct relationship,

layer responsible for providing the value of dependent variable while the zero value referred as no relationship between the

i.e. fouling factor. considered variables.

Fouling factor to the power of 0.25 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, and its log-

2.4. Preprocessing on the collected databank arithm, exponential, sinuous and tangent are considered as

the transformations. Values of the correlation coefﬁcients for

Our previous experiences have clearly justiﬁed that perform- various independent–dependent variables and their absolute

ing some sort of normalization or scaling on both independent average value are presented in Table 2. Since the correlation

and dependent variable(s) not only increases the training coefﬁcients for all of the independent variables have non-zero

speed but it also helps the training algorithm overcome the values, their selection is likely veriﬁed. Since it is interested to

saturation of adjusted parameters of the ANN model. There- use the most powerful relationship, it is better to focus on their

fore, in the current study, both independent and dependent absolute average values. It can be simply seen that the fourth

variables have been scaled in the interval [−0.99 0.99] using roots of fouling factor (FRFF) have the highest absolute average

Eq. (8). value of for correlation coefﬁcients amongst the considered

transformations (the bold row). Therefore, this transforma-

V−V tion which provides the most powerful relationship with the

min

V = 0.99 −1 + 2 × (8)

Vmax − Vmin considered independent variables is selected as dependent

variables.

where V represents the numeric value of each independent or Therefore, instead of modeling of raw values of fouling fac-

dependent variables, V shows the normalized values, Vmin and tor, it is better to work with its fourth roots.

Vmax is the minimum and maximum value of each variable,

respectively. 3.2. Selection the topology of the ANN model

3. Results and discussion Appropriate design of ANN model requires a systematic pro-

cedure for ﬁnding the optimum number of hidden layers and

3.1. Selection the best transformation for the most importantly determination the best number of neu-

dependent variable rons in each hidden layer (Vaferi et al., 2014a). Literature has

demonstrated that target variable of 95% of the multi-variable

In this study, it has been tried to transform the fouling fac- system can be accurately estimated by the MLP networks with

tor in such a way that it presents the highest relationship just one hidden layer (Cybenko, 1989). Accordingly, it was

144 Chemical Engineering Research and Design 1 3 0 ( 2 0 1 8 ) 138–153

Table 2 – Finding the best transformation for fouling factor through comparing the Pearson coefﬁcients of independent

variables.

Dependent Fluid Surface Fluid Pipe Fluid Dissolved Time AACa

variable density temperature temperature diameter velocity oxygen

Rf −0.1420 0.1249 −0.0195 −0.3739 0.2704 0.0384 0.3518 0.1889

Rf 0.75 −0.1398 0.3547 0.1630 −0.0451 0.2747 −0.3508 0.0517 0.1971

Rf 0.5 −0.1331 0.3594 0.2027 −0.0768 0.2682 −0.3163 0.0640 0.2029

Rf 0.25 −0.1214 0.2385 −0.1126 −0.2703 0.2474 0.0730 0.3611 0.2035

Rf 0.1 −0.1121 0.2540 −0.1336 −0.2379 0.2273 0.0759 0.3571 0.1997

log Rf −0.1052 0.2599 −0.1461 −0.2147 0.2107 0.0765 0.3509 0.1949

exp Rf −0.1347 0.0760 0.0020 −0.3810 0.2460 0.0194 0.3784 0.1768

sin Rf −0.1429 0.1453 −0.0284 −0.3635 0.2766 0.0465 0.3287 0.1903

tan Rf −0.0157 −0.0043 0.0051 −0.0542 0.0287 −0.0025 0.1156 0.0323

a

Average of absolute of coefﬁcients.

Table 3 – Determination the best topology of the MLP

to estimate the FRFF in PFRU and single tube heat exchangers. network through investigation of various statistical

On the other hand, the optimum number of neurons in hid- accuracy indices over overall dataset.

den layer has tried to be determined by maximization of some

Number of AARD% MSE RSME R2 -value

statistical accuracy indices. The considered statistical indices hidden neurona

are absolute average relative deviation (AARD%), mean square

errors (MSE), root mean square errors (RMSE), and regression 1 15.85 0.0102 0.1010 0.803658

2 10.38 0.0047 0.0684 0.915199

coefﬁcient (R2 -value). The AARD%, MSE, RMSE, and R2 -value

3 9.16 0.0034 0.0580 0.939802

are mathematically expressed by Eqs. (9)–(12), respectively. 4 8.34 0.0031 0.0552 0.945538

5 7.55 0.0024 0.0494 0.956732

N exp

cal 6 6.68 0.0018 0.0425 0.968086

AARD% = exp (9) 7 6.82 0.0020 0.0449 0.964312

N FRFF 8 6.08 0.0015 0.0389 0.973368

i= i

9 6.06 0.0016 0.0399 0.972026

2 10 5.42 0.0013 0.0355 0.977819

1

N

exp

11 5.64 0.0014 0.0380 0.974643

MSE = FRFFi − FRFFical (10) 12 5.37 0.0012 0.0350 0.978464

N

i=1 13 5.12 0.0013 0.0365 0.976616

14 5.01 0.0012 0.0343 0.979311

15 4.54 0.0009 0.0303 0.983902

N

2

16 4.57 0.0009 0.0308 0.983403

exp

FRFF − FRFF cal

17 4.50 0.0009 0.0299 0.984411

i i

18 4.40 0.0009 0.0308 0.983379

i=1

RMSE = (11) 19 4.10 0.0008 0.0278 0.986484

N

20 4.00 0.0008 0.0285 0.985805

a

The best obtained results among 30 various trained network per

N

2

N

each topology.

exp exp cal 2

FRFFi − FRFF − FRFFi − FRFFi

2 i=1 i=1

R =

N

exp

2 It is obvious that the efﬁciency of the MLP network

FRFFi − FRFF improves by increasing the number of hidden neuron up to

i=1 ten, and thereafter a little improvement is observed even by

(12) developing large MLP approach and spending higher compu-

tational effort. Therefore, a single hidden layer feed-forward

where FRFF represents the fourth roots of fouling factor. network containing ten hidden neurons (the bold row) was

FRFFexp and FRFFcal are the fourth roots of experimental and found to be the optimum topology for prediction of FRFF in

predicted fouling factor respectively. FRFF is the average PFRU and single tube heat exchangers. It can be clearly seen

value of fourth roots of the experimental fouling factor. that the selected MLP network provides overall AARD% = 5.42,

MSE = 0.0013, RMSE = 0.0355, and R2 = 0.977819.

3.2.1. Number of hidden neurons It is worthy to note that to eliminate the effect of initial

Table 3 summarizes the results of sensitivity accuracy analy- guess of weights and biases on the performance of the devel-

ses for ﬁnding the best number of hidden neurons. Various oped MLP networks, each topology is trained 30 times and only

MLP network with one to twenty neurons is constructed, the best results were reported.

trained, tested, and their quantitative accuracy was calcu-

lated. The optimum number of hidden neurons is often 3.2.2. Training algorithm

selected by ﬁnding the smallest MLP network that provides Here the focus is concentrated on the ﬁnding of the learn-

an acceptable accuracy. ing algorithm. Various training algorithms were examined

Chemical Engineering Research and Design 1 3 0 ( 2 0 1 8 ) 138–153 145

for estimation the value of fourth roots of fouling factor by

knowing its structure and parameters. Our developed MLP

model has single hidden layer with ten neurons, all neurons

have tangent transfer function. The values of weights and

biases of the MLP model should also be provided to use it for

prediction of the FRFF. Table 5 reports the value of both weight

and bias of the MLP network.

Now, by using the following simple procedure it is pos-

sible to calculate the value of FRFF using the designed MLP

paradigm.

1. Normalize all of the independent variables into inter-

val of [−0.99 0.99] using Eq. (8). It should be arranged as 7 × 1

vector.

Fig. 2 – Procedure of adjusting parameters of the MLP 2. Multiply the ﬁrst seven columns of Table 5 by the

approach by minimization the mean squared errors during obtained normalized variables in the previous stage (Do not

training stage. count the Neuron column.).

3. Add the obtained results in stage 2 to the eighth column

of Table 5.

4. Use Eq. (3) for calculating n for all ten elements of step 3.

and comparisons are made among their computational time 5. Multiply transpose of the results obtained in step 4 by

and accuracy. Indeed it is desired to ﬁnd the algorithm that the ninth column of Table 5.

provides accurate predictive accuracy with low computational 6. Add the value of the last column of Table 5 i.e. 7.3954 to

effort. the result of step 5.

Therefore, the MLP network with optimum conﬁguration 7. Calculate n for the value obtained in step 6 using Eq. (3).

is trained with different training algorithms. Overall AARD%, 8. Map the obtained result in step 7 into experimental

MSE, R2 and computational time per epoch for twelve different ranges of fourth roots of fouling factor i.e. [0.1899 0.879] using

algorithms are presented in Table 4. By considering both accu- Eq. (13).

racy and computational effort it is obvious that the Bayesian

regulation backpropagation provides the relatively best per- (FRFFmax − FRFFmin )

formance (the bold row). Although the Levenberg–Marquardt FRFF = (n + 0.99) × + FRFFmin (13)

2 × 0.99

presents the smallest overall AARD% and MSE and the high-

est value for R2 , but the Bayesian regulation provides relatively 9. Obtained value in step 7 presents the estimated FRFF by

similar accuracy with a lower computational time. Therefore, the proposed MLP approach.

it seems that the Bayesian regulation training algorithm is the It should be mentioned since the parameters of our

most appropriate training algorithm for the considered task. intelligent model are adjusted by experimental data of the

As mentioned earlier, the training stage is an iterative opti- considered system, it can be said that it could provide good

mization procedure. Variation of observed deviation between predictions for interpolation between the ranges of experi-

actual and predicted values of FRFF in term of MSE versus opti- mental data that were previously used for their development.

mization iteration i.e. epoch is presented in Fig. 2. It is obvious Similar to other regression-based models, AI-based models

that the value of MSE decreases continuously and ﬁnally, it have poor accuracy for extrapolation. Ranges of applica-

reaches the desired MSE of 4.4 × 10−3 after 1645 iterations. tions of our AI-based model covers surface temperature of

Table 4 – Comparison the AARD%, MSE, R2 and training speed of various training algorithms over whole datasets.

Training algorithm AARD% MSE R2 -value Training speed

(s/epoch)a

Powell–Beale restarts

Conjugate gradient backpropagation with 8.03 0.0028 0.9504 0.02508

Polak–Ribiere updates

Gradient descent backpropagation 19.67 0.0140 0.7157 0.00801

Gradient descent with adaptive learning rate 15.01 0.0077 0.8576 0.00798

Gradient descent with momentum backpropagation 19.63 0.0138 0.7272 0.00817

Gradient descent with momentum and adaptive 13.26 0.0062 0.8853 0.00830

learning rate backpropagation

Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation 5.42 0.0013 0.9778 0.06636

Scaled conjugate gradient backpropagation 7.61 0.0025 0.9547 0.01305

BFGS quasi-Newton backpropagation 6.25 0.0017 0.9703 0.02641

Bayesian regulation backpropagation 5.59 0.0014 0.9747 0.06205

One-step secant backpropagation 7.88 0.0027 0.9523 0.02604

Resilient backpropagation 10.21 0.0039 0.9293 0.00811

a

Installed memory (RAM) = 2.43 GB, and 2.2 GHz Intel Core i7 central processing unit (CPU).

146 Chemical Engineering Research and Design 1 3 0 ( 2 0 1 8 ) 138–153

Table 5 – Weight and bias coefﬁcients of the MLP network with optimum architecture.

Neuron Hidden layer Output layer

a

Weights (wij ) and biases Weights (wij )b and biases

Fluid Surface Fluid Pipe Fluid Dissolved Time biases FRFF bias

density temperature temperature diameter velocity oxygen

1 8.0872 0.080639 1.1016 12.098 8.3053 6.3709 −93.9146 −91.7686 −0.18925 7.3954

2 1.7582 −3.2954 −73.7768 −188.12 −20.8283 −6.6517 −2.6125 37.3008 0.18812

3 0.39939 0.63617 0.17655 1.6465 0.053989 −14.3798 0.14248 −14.242 13.425

4 −322.271 −3.157 4.1162 141.79 −0.51819 −265.799 2.8918 −162.373 0.60495

5 1.9324 5.0129 −4.8214 0.096049 −3.131 1.2677 −2.0302 −4.5345 1.4941

6 8.2421 16.9621 26.2184 16.0646 −21.8827 −24.6458 −6.8502 −30.295 −0.27536

7 27.8163 1.8758 −1.9165 −11.3795 0.77457 16.835 −1.3779 6.8271 0.81019

8 −0.99502 −0.62109 −0.1367 0.89329 −0.27411 14.9374 −0.09553 13.0969 12.9357

9 −0.03482 0.054204 −0.01251 5.2551 −0.09576 −0.53288 −0.12703 −3.4258 −13.9641

10 3.2019 1.074 1.4725 −3.056 1.5461 −2.3056 2.4525 5.2649 2.9302

a

Weight connection from the input layer to hidden layer.

b

Weight connection from the hidden layer to output layer.

Fig. 3 – Performance of the proposed model for prediction values for the testing datasets.

of fourth roots of fouling factor over the training datasets.

ity of 0.31–7.45 m/s, hydraulic diameter of 0.005–0.016 m, the

oxygen content of up to 322 ppmw, and time period of up to

389 h.

with optimum structure tries to be evaluated. Evaluations are

done based on training and testing datasets, research groups,

as well as effect of various independent variables on the fourth

roots of fouling factor.

Our MLP approach was trained by 75% of experimental data

(i.e. 8720 data points), hereafter they called training dataset.

Fig. 5 – Efﬁciency of the designed MLP paradigm for

The remaining 2906 data points were used for evaluation of

prediction of whole dataset of FRFF.

its performance by the data that were not seen by the model

previously, i.e. testing dataset. It should be mentioned that

this division is done in such a way that both training and training, testing as well as the whole of the experimental

testing datasets cover full ranges of experimental databank. datasets, respectively. Concentration the symbols for both

Figs. 3–5 illustrate a comparison between the experimental training and testing groups around the 45◦ line conﬁrms that

datasets of fourth roots of fouling factor and their corre- the optimum MLP network predicted the experimental values

sponding estimated values by the optimum MLP network for of FRFF with acceptable accuracy.

Chemical Engineering Research and Design 1 3 0 ( 2 0 1 8 ) 138–153 147

Fig. 6 – Accuracy of the MLP model for prediction of experimental data of various researchers group (Asomaning, 1990,

1997; Feiz, 2015; Srinivasan, 2008; Sundaram, 1998; Watkinson, 1968).

Fig. 7 – Performance of the designed MLP model for prediction of FRFF various ﬂuids operating ﬂuids (Asomaning, 1990,

1997; Feiz, 2015; Srinivasan, 2008; Sundaram, 1998; Watkinson, 1968).

3.4.2. MLP’s performance over data of research groups ATB, 7.4% ATB, and 7.15% ATB in Paraﬂex, respectively. The low

Predictive accuracy of the proposed intelligence model over numbers of experimental data for these ﬂuids are attributed

experimental data reported by various research groups is to this level of AARDs%.

depicted in Fig. 6. As it can be seen from this ﬁgure, the accu-

racy is calculated in term of AARD%. It is obvious that the 3.4.4. Parametric study

highest AARD% is related to the experimental data reported by The objective of this section is to investigate an effect of vari-

Feiz (2015). It should be mentioned that the small number of ous independent variables on the behavior of the fourth roots

data of this researcher may be attributed to this level of error. of fouling factor from both experimental and modeling point

The most accurate prediction for fourth roots of fouling factor of views. Moreover, some line of reasoning is given for expla-

i.e. AARD = 3.32% is obtained for experiments by Watkinson nation of the observed behaviors.

(1968). Watkinson reported 701 experimental data for fouling

factor in single tube heat exchanger with sour heavy gas oil as

operating ﬂuid. 3.4.4.1. Effect of ﬂuid temperature on fouling factor. Experi-

mental values of fourth roots of fouling factor as a function

of surface temperature and time for various ﬂuid tempera-

3.4.3. MLP’s performance based on operating ﬂuids tures and their associated MLP network predictions for 10%

In Fig. 7, values of observed AARD% for various operating ﬂu- heavy oil in Paraﬂex is presented in Fig. 8. It can be seen that

ids are illustrated. The higher AARD% is related to the 15% the FRFF continuously increases by time, and the rate of this

148 Chemical Engineering Research and Design 1 3 0 ( 2 0 1 8 ) 138–153

Fig. 8 – Both experimental and associated MLP network predictions of FRFF as a function of surface temperature and time

for various ﬂuid temperatures (10% heavy oil in Paraﬂex).

Fig. 9 – Experimental data of FRFF as function of surface temperature and ﬂuid velocity for various times and their related

MLP network results (10% heavy oil in fuel oil).

increasing at early times is sharp and it slowed at the end Promising performance of the developed MLP model for

times. It is obvious that by passing the time and increasing tracking the trend of variation of FRFF and estimation the

amount of deposited materials on the heat exchanger surface individual data points can be seen from Fig. 8.

the magnitude of driving force for mass transfer from bulk We understand that the two dimensional graph is

ﬂuid to the solid surface is decreased. Furthermore, deposi- clearer/simpler than the three dimensional one. On the other

tions at early times may play a role as initial nucleates for other hand, for investigation the effect of speciﬁc independent vari-

deposited materials (Coletti and Hewitt, 2014; Watkinson and able (such as time) on FRFF of heat exchangers and plot their

Epstein, 1970). These two phenomena may be considered as variation a two dimensional graph, all other independent

the main reasons for an explanation of variation of FRFF with variables should be completely similar. Since we have some

time. limitations to provide enough data points on the 2D ﬁgures,

Fig. 8 clearly indicates that the FRFF decreases by increasing we have to present them in 3D mode.

the ﬂuid temperature and decreasing the surface temperature.

It seems that by increasing the ﬂuid temperature viscosity and

Reynolds number decreases and solubility of solid materials

3.4.4.2. Effect of time on the fouling factor. Experimental data

for FRFF as a function of surface temperature and ﬂuid velocity

in bulk ﬂuid increases. Therefore an amount of foulants shows

for various times for 10% heavy oil in fuel oil and their related

a decreasing pattern with increasing the ﬂuid temperature.

MLP network results are depicted in Fig. 9. This ﬁgure clearly

Chemical Engineering Research and Design 1 3 0 ( 2 0 1 8 ) 138–153 149

1

Exp. 1000ppmw of Benzoyl Peroxide

Cal. 1000ppmw of Benzoyl Peroxide

Exp. 1000ppmw of Thiophenol

Cal. 1000ppmw of Thiophenol

350

12

300 10

8

6

250 4

2

Surface temperature (

Fig. 10 – Effect of additive on experimental FRFF of 10% heavy oil in fuel oil and associated MLP predictions.

Cal. 1%Pentane + 89% Fuel Oil

Exp. 3%Pentane + 87% Fuel Oil

Cal. 3%Pentane + 87% Fuel Oil

Surface temperature (

Fig. 11 – Experimental data of FRFF and related MLP predictions for various mixture of 10% heavy oil in Pentane and fuel oil

as a function of surface temperature and time.

shows the increasing of fouling factor with time. Moreover, for pattern of variation of the FRFF and estimation of all individual

this case FRFF is increased by increasing surface temperature experimental data points.

and decreasing of ﬂuid velocity.

By increasing the ﬂuid velocity the forces of foulants

removing overcomes to the forces of their deposition/adhesion 3.4.4.4. Effect of ﬂuid type on the fouling factor. Effect of two

to the surface, and amount of fouling decreases. An excellent different blends of pentane – heavy oil – fuel oil on both exper-

agreement between experimental and calculated values by the imental and calculated values of FRFF is illustrated in Fig. 11. It

proposed model can be concluded from Fig. 9. can be seen that by decreasing the pentane content (increas-

ing the fuel oil) of the operating ﬂuid amount of fouling factor

increases. Moreover, by passing the times both cases show an

3.4.4.3. Effect of additive on the fouling factor. Effect of two increasing pattern for FRFF.

different additives i.e. Thiophenol and benzoyl peroxide on Both experimental and MLP network results for FRFF of

experimental FRFF for 10% heavy oil in fuel oil ﬂowing in PFRU various mixtures of heavy oil in fuel oil as a function of sur-

are depicted in Fig. 10, their associated predicted values by the face temperature and time is illustrated in Fig. 12. It is easy

MLP paradigm were also presented in this ﬁgure. It can be seen to observe that the heavy oil content of the operating ﬂuid

that 1000 ppm by weight of Thiophenol has sharply reduced produces a complex behavior in fourth roots of fouling factor.

an amount of fouling in portable fouling research unit heat Surface temperature has a minor effect on 5% of heavy oil in

exchanger. Similar to previous cases, in this case, MLP model fuel oil, while it has gradually decreased the FRFF for 20% of

has also presented an excellent efﬁciency for both following heavy oil in fuel oil.

150 Chemical Engineering Research and Design 1 3 0 ( 2 0 1 8 ) 138–153

Cal. 5% Heavy Oil

Exp. 20% Heavy Oil

Cal. 20% Heavy Oil

350

300

250

o

C)

Fig. 12 – Both experimental and MLP network results for FRFF of various mixtures of heavy oil in fuel oil as a function of

surface temperature and time.

1.5

1.1

0.5

300 0

600

400

200 0

100 200

2

400 4

temperature and time on the FRFF—(simulation results for

ﬂuid temperature of 209 ◦ C, ﬂuid velocity of 6 m/s, hydraulic Fig. 14 – Inﬂuence of simultaneous variation of surface

diameter of 0.015 m, and dissolved oxygen of 84.6 ppmw). temperature and ﬂuid velocity on the FRFF—(simulation

results for ﬂuid temperature of 226 ◦ C, hydraulic diameter

of 0.015 m, dissolved oxygen of 237 ppmw at time = 175 h).

Although type of operating ﬂuid may has a complex effect

on FRFF, it can be seen that the developed MLP model shows Fig. 13 illustrates the simulation results of variation of

promising results even for the most complex situation. the FRFF as function of surface temperature and time. This

result which is obtained by our developed artiﬁcial intelligent

3.4.5. Variation of FRFF by the inﬂuential model clearly conﬁrms that the FRFF continuously increases

parameters—simulation results by increasing time. Complex inﬂuence of surface tempera-

As mentioned earlier, limitations for providing enough data ture on the FRFF can also be understood from this ﬁgure. It is

points on the 2D ﬁgures obligate us to present them in the obvious that by increasing the surface temperature, the FRFF

3D mode. We confess that the coordinates of the data points undergone a ascending continued by descending pattern.

and calculated lines cannot be uniquely located in our three Simulation results for variation of the FRFF as function of

dimensional ﬁgures. Moreover, only the dependence of the ﬂuid velocity and surface temperature is depicted in Fig. 14.

FRFF on some variables can be roughly recognized. Therefore, It can be seen from this ﬁgure that the FRFF is decreased by

simulating the continuous variation of FRFF as function of pair increasing the ﬂuid velocity, while the surface temperature

of independent variables may be helpful for readers to recog- has little effect on the considered variables.

nize the patterns of the dependences of the FRFF on those The results of variation of FRFF for simultaneous changing

variables. This might be a better way to show the behaviors of of ﬂuid velocity and time from modeling point of view in illus-

fouling factor dependence on the inﬂuential parameters given trated in Fig. 15. This ﬁgure clearly conﬁrmed that the FRFF

by the two horizontal ordinates. increased by increasing time and decreasing the ﬂuid velocity.

Chemical Engineering Research and Design 1 3 0 ( 2 0 1 8 ) 138–153 151

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