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This study identified the effectiveness of dual reading kit on the reading performance of

Grade VI pupils of Baliis Elementary School. The research is experimental in nature, so employed

pretest and posttest before and after utilizing dual reading kit to the 22 Grade VI pupils.

Comparative results of pretest and posttest in vocabulary and reading comprehension

revealed significant correlations tested at 0.05 level of significance. Paired samples correlation

obtained computed values of .741 for vocabulary and .719 for reading comprehensions which were

both higher than a=0.05. Similarly, t-test revealed computed values of 8.55 for vocabulary and

7.797 for reading comprehension with computed p value of .000 which were lower than a=0.05

level of significance. Results further implies that dual kit was concomitant to the significant

improvement after the posttest. This leads to reject the null hypothesis.

From the results, the study concluded that dual kit has significant effect in improving the

reading comprehension and vocabulary skill of the Grade 6 pupils, thus, it is recommended to use

continuously, and be used in other grade level, particularly to pupils at frustration level. Also, the

study recommends to enhancement of the dual kit to achieve higher improvement.


For the successful completion of this action research and for the fruitful and meaningful

experiences gained in the duration of the study, the researchers wish to convey their sincerest

appreciation and most profound gratitude to those persons who had been a part of this action


Foremost, the researchers would like to extend their grateful thanks to the God Almighty

for the spiritual guidance, knowledge, wisdom, and showered them with strength and perseverance

in order to accomplish this work.

To their families, for the unconditional love, moral, and financial support.

To the OIC-schools division superintendent, Mrs. Laida L. Mascareñas, for allowing the

researchers to conduct this action research and providing financial assistance.

To the division research section, Mrs. Bernadith R. Lacerna for the untiring support and


To the public schools district supervisor, Dr. Maria Lourdes P. Ricohermoso, for the

motherly advice and guidance.

To the school principals of Baliis Elementary School and Lamesa Elementary School, Mrs.

Ofelia C. Maano and Mr. Julio R. Constantino, for the support and guidance.

To the statisticians, Mr. Paolo Andrew Pantoja and Louielyn Penaredonda, for analyzing

the significance of the test result.

To all teachers of Baliis ES and Lamesa ES, for their effort in helping the researchers.

Context and Rationale

It is frustrating for pupils when they do not understand what they are reading. It is even

more frustrating for teachers to see their pupils struggling on reading. When pupils struggle with

comprehension they often lose their desire to continue to read, that is why teachers should always

be checking for comprehension throughout their pupil’s assigned readings. Reading

comprehension is essential to ensuring learners’ literacy in many subject areas. It is imperative

that a pupil understands as well as retains the information he/she is reading. When a teacher

realizes one or more of their pupils are struggling with comprehension it is crucial that they develop

and implement strategies to help alleviate these frustrations.

The development of adequate reading skills at an early age can have an enormous influence

on the academic achievement of students throughout the course of their educational careers

(National Reading Panel, 2000; Slavin et al., 2009). However, the reverse is also true. Students

may fall behind in school and encounter poor employment and social outcomes later in life if they

are unable to develop their reading skills early in their years of schooling (Good, Simmons &

Kame'enui; 2011; Slavin et al., 2009; Whitehurst & Lonigan, 2011). For this reason, it is

commonly believed that reading challenges should be addressed early to decrease the likelihood

that developmental delays will impact students over the long-term.

Previous research has found that reading skill development is related to both the quantity

of reading (volume of books) and the quality of reading instruction provided to students

(Cunningham & Stanovich, 2010; Kassow, 2011; Topping & Sanders, 2013). Specifically,

research shows that increased reading volume combined with effective reading instruction can lead

to reading skill improvements (Topping, Samuels, & Paul, 2012). Elley (2008) also found that

providing reading instruction and access to more books can improve student reading skills in

developing countries. Without an adequate focus on improving the ability of students to read with

higher levels of comprehension, increased time reading may only be able to moderately improve

the reading skills of students.

In acknowledgement of the importance of reading, many developed countries have

established programs to encourage reading and promote the reading skill development of young

students (Slavin et al., 2008; Lonigan & Shanahan, 2009; Slavin et al., 2009). These programs vary

in content and design. Some programs focus on improving the quality of reading instruction

provided by teachers and parents; others attempt to increase the quantity of reading materials

available to children (Lonigan & Shanahan, 2009).

Research has provided evidence on the effectiveness of reading programs that have been

designed and implemented in developing countries (Friedlander & Goldenberg, 2016; Abeberese,

Kumler & Linden, 2014). Much like the programs implemented in developed countries, most of

these programs focus on either increasing reading frequency, improving reading instruction, or

both. For example, Friedlander and Goldenberg (2016) determined that when reading programs

both provided books and delivered effective reading instruction, there was a positive impact on

the reading achievement of students in Rwanda. Abeberese, Kumler, and Linden (2014) found

similar results in the Philippines when students were provided with appropriate reading materials

combined with instruction from well-trained teachers. These findings are important for developing

countries because evidence suggests that poor children are particularly prone to developmental

delays arising from reading challenges (Roskos et al., 2009). If reading programs can reverse the

vicious cycle brought on by early reading difficulties, they may, in turn, offer a mechanism through

which countries can support future educational development.

The background of the research provides evidences that points to the effectiveness of

reading programs using different reading materials in most of the developing countries, including

the Philippines. However, it is paradoxical to note that despite the many reading programs

implemented and the different reading materials, reading problem, especially in terms of

comprehension is a perennial problem in the Philippines, particularly in public elementary schools,

in which there are many struggling readers. With these, several reading intervention programs have

been introduced in the Philippine public schools, believing that this would uplift the poor

conditions of oral reading and comprehension in most of the public schools across country.

For example, the “Every Child is A Reader Program” was introduced as enclosure in

DepEd Order no. 70, s. 2011. According to DepEd, ECARP aims to equip elementary pupils in

public schools with strategic reading and writing skills to make them independent young readers

and writers. The intervention program includes Reading Recovery (RR) which will give students

who are lagging behind in reading and writing a chance to catch up through specialized one-to-

one reading assistance from a teacher trained in RR procedures.

Moreover, in a news report of Mendoza (2012), DepEd Secretary Luistro said that the

ECARP program will also generate a Philippine World List in English, an inventory of frequently

used words in English textbooks, for vocabulary development. The DepEd also recognizes the

importance of reading as a foundation of learning, thus, the department allotted P21 million to

finance the intervention program. Also, ECARP is also part of the ten-point education agenda of

President Benigno Aquino III to ensure that the country’s public schools produce graduates who

are equipped for further learning.

Alongside this, the Department of Education (DepEd) has declared the month of November

as the National Reading Month and has instructed school officials to conduct various activities to

rekindle the interest of school children in reading. Secretary Luistro issued Memorandum No. 244,

s. 2011 stating that the various reading activities are part of DepEd’s move to institutionalize the

national “Every Child a Reader” program.

Among activities lined up are the Read-a-Thon, which aims to discover outstanding readers

in class; the DEAR program, which engages students in 15 to 20 minutes of reading daily; and the

shared reading or readers’ mentoring program, where older students are encouraged to assist

younger readers with reading difficulties. Schools are also urged to hold vocabulary and “A

Paragraph A Day” sessions, where students learn one new word a day and read aloud one or two

paragraphs every day to enhance their speaking skills. The program likewise aims to bring back

the interest of school children in reading instead of them spending too much time on the Internet

and inclination to online activities (Cruz, 2011).

In support of the program, the Bureau of Elementary Education (BEE) developed the

“Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (Phil IRI).” Accordingly, the Phil IRI is an initiative of

the Bureau of Education of Elementary Education to address its thrust to make every Filipino child

a reader. It is anchored on the flagship program of the DepEd “Evert Child a Reader Program”

(ECARP). Its goal is to enable every Filipino child to communicate both in English a Filipino

through effective reading program. The Phil IRI was administered to all public elementary schools

in 2011 up to present to assess the progress and levels of reading ability and comprehension of the

pupils after the intervention programs (Madrid, 2012).

However, the problem in reading is still the same. Reading problem is still rampant,

especially in the elementary and secondary schools in the Division of Marinduque. In fact, in the

recently conducted colloquium, a part of the School Heads Development Program Foundation

Course, the Schools Division Office of Marinduque found out that 93% of the problems that school

heads in both elementary and secondary schools presented concerned oral and reading

comprehension (Division Memorandum No. 4, s. 2017).

With this background, the researchers would like to assess the effectiveness of dual reading

kit as part of the reading program of Baliis Elementary School. The researchers believe that

improvement of reading skill of the pupils lies on the strategies and innovation of the intervention

given by the teachers. Thus, no matter how many reading materials are given and how many

reading programs are created, if the strategies of teaching and implementation of the program are

not proper and if the materials are not suited to the reading needs of the pupils, these are all useless.

This is at stake, hence this pupil will soon graduate and go to high school. Thus, this problem

should be addressed.

Action Research Questions

This study aimed to assess the level of effectiveness of Dual Reading Kit on the Reading

Performance Grade Six pupils of Baliis Elementary School.

Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions:

1. What are the results in the pretest and posttest of Grade VI Pupils in vocabulary skill?
2. What are the results of pretest and posttest of the Grade VI pupils in reading comprehension
3. Is there a significant difference in the mean scores between the pretest and posttest?

Proposed Innovation, Intervention, and Strategy
Pupils have unique ways of learning, so their ability to understand written and printed

words, comprehend text they read vary. Due to the diversity of pupils’ learning background, it is

expected that some of them are fast learners, while others are slow. This observation is also seen

in pupils’ performance in reading. Some pupils can read independently, that is with understanding

manifested through answering literal level of question (what, who, where, and when),

interpretative level of question or can read between the lines (why and how), and applied level of

question (what if question). Conversely, other pupils who have slow reading comprehension can

only read orally but with limited comprehension, that is, they can only answer the literal level of

questions. The worst, some pupils cannot read orally reading. Problems associated to difficulties

in reading are poor development of vocabulary, low reading sight, inability to decode, and

mispronunciation due to poor development of phonemic awareness. These factors also affect the

development of comprehension skill. Consequently, teachers need to address the problems through

reading intervention program using Dual Reading Kit.

While it has been found out that reading programs have impact on reading ability, there are

little evidence of reading programs that improved other academic outcomes such as test scores of

academic subjects (Rutherford-Becker & Vanderwood, 2009; Slavin et al., 2009).

The rationale behind this research is that improved reading skills could improve academic

performance in related subject like English and eventually other subjects taught in English

medium, such English and Science by developing skills such as reading comprehension and critical

thinking. However, the results from the evaluations from the few existing randomized evaluations

of reading programs have found different impacts of reading programs on the academic outcomes

of students, as some studies have found positive impacts while others have found no impact. For

example, Lucas et al. (2014) found that training teachers on how to teach reading, as well as

providing teaching materials, significantly improved student language test scores (in this case,

writing and oral literacy test scores) in Ugandan primary schools. Abeberese, Kumler, and Linden

(2014), however, found that a program providing age-appropriate reading materials and teacher

training to students did not significantly improve the math or social studies test scores of students.

Borkum, He, and Linden (2012) also found that supplying better reading resources,

providing a mini library inside the classroom, and conducting reading activities in Indian schools

did not have any significant impacts on the math and science test scores of students. Due to the

mixed results of these evaluations, additional empirical research is needed to determine whether

reading programs (and what aspects of reading programs) are effective at improving both student

reading skills and learning in academic subjects.

Just like any other reading program, teachers of Baliis Elementary School are using

different reading materials that could enhance the reading abilities, oral and comprehension of

their respective pupils. However, unlike other reading programs, teachers are using Dual Reading

Kit. These materials are purposely crafted for pupils who are both struggling readers and

independent readers. The reading materials are designed to be read aloud by pair readers such as a

struggling reader and an independent reader, pair of struggling readers, pair of instructional

readers, and pair of independent readers. Pairing of readers are determined by the teachers. This is

based on the result of Phil IRI test administered at the beginning of the school year.


The intervention program is known as Pair Reading Program. The program used the Dual

Reading Kit which was crafted by the researchers. The term dual connotes three things: 1)

development of two reading skills: vocabulary and reading comprehension; 2) the development of

reading comprehension through oral and silent reading; 3) pair reading during oral and silent


The Dual Reading Kit comes into package or series for Grade 6 pupils, but for the purpose

of this research, the researchers crafted only the materials for the second quarter. This kit contains

the following parts:

 Learning Competencies (based on the Curriculum Guide for Grade 6 English)

 Brief Discussion or Explanation of the skill to be developed

 Models or Examples

 Activities

o Pair Activities / Communicative Activities ( vocabulary words, short conversation,

mini dialogue, short selection with comprehension question)

o Activities for Silent Reading (Comprehension)

 Evaluation of Learning

The vocabulary words are defined and examples are given as well as the

pronunciation. The vocabulary words are used in the short conversation. The short

conversation are intended to read twice by the pupils through switch roles. The comprehension

questions serve as feedback on the short conversation.

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The content of the Dual Reading Kit is based on the learning competencies for Grade 6.

The following are learning competencies for vocabulary development: infer meaning of idiomatic

expressions using context clues, affixes, and roots; infer meaning of figurative language using

context clues, affixes, roots, and other strategies; infer meaning of borrowed words and content

specific terms using context clues, affixes and roots, and other strategies, and infer meaning of

borrowed words and content specific terms using context clues, affixes and roots, and other

strategies. Meanwhile, these are the learning competencies for development of reading

comprehension: noting details, sequencing, inferring, predicting, and summarizing. In addition,

the literary skills are enhanced such as: analyzing poem, elements of poems, elements of short

story, and theme of narrative.

Strategies of Implementation

The following are procedure in using the Dual Reading Kit.

1. The Dual Reading Kit is introduced to the learners. The parts are explained and the

intended purpose.

2. This is used during the English class and during Remedial Reading Program.

3. During English class, the materials is used as supplementary material to the K to 12

module for Grade 6 for the enhancement of specific skill or learning competencies.

4. It is used during Reading Remediation class at noontime and in the afternoon.

5. During its implementation and utilization, teachers supervise the learners.

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Reading Strategies include:

1. Monitoring comprehension (for pupils own monitoring)

Pupils who are good at monitoring their comprehension know when they

understand what they read and when they do not. They have strategies to "fix" problems in

their understanding as the problems arise. Research shows that instruction, even in the early

grades, can help students become better at monitoring their comprehension.

Comprehension monitoring instruction teaches students to:

 Be aware of what they do understand

 Identify what they do not understand

 Use appropriate strategies to resolve problems in comprehension

2. Metacognition

Metacognition can be defined as "thinking about thinking." Good readers use

metacognitive strategies to think about and have control over their reading. Before reading,

they might clarify their purpose for reading and preview the text. During reading, they

might monitor their understanding, adjusting their reading speed to fit the difficulty of the

text and "fixing" any comprehension problems they have. After reading, they check their

understanding of what they read.

 Pupils may use several comprehension monitoring strategies:

o Identify where the difficulty occurs

For instance, "I don't understand the second paragraph on page 76."

o Identify what the difficulty is

For example, "I don't get what the mini dialog that that says, “Arriving in

America was a milestone in my mother's life.”

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o Restate the difficult sentence or passage in their own words

"Oh, so the author means that coming to America was a very important

event in her mother's life."

o Look back through the text (dialogue)

o Look forward in the text for information that might help them to resolve the


3. Answering Questions

Questions can be effective because they:

o Give pupils a purpose for reading

o Focus pupils' attention on what they are to learn

o Help pupils to think actively as they read

o Encourage pupils to monitor their comprehension

o Help pupils to review content and relate what they have learned to what

they already know

The Question-Answer Relationship strategy (QAR) encourages students to learn how

to answer questions better. Pupils are asked to indicate whether the information

they used to answer questions about the text was textually explicit information

(information that was directly stated in the text), textually implicit information

(information that was implied in the text), or information entirely from the

student's own background knowledge.

There are four different types of questions:

1."Right There”

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Questions found right in the text that ask students to find the one right

answer located in one place as a word or a sentence in the passage.

Example: Who is Frog's friend? Answer: Toad

2. "Think and Search"

Questions based on the recall of facts that can be found directly in the text.

Answers are typically found in more than one place, thus requiring pupils to

"think" and "search" through the passage to find the answer.

Example: Why was Frog sad? Answer: His friend was leaving.

3. "Author and You"

Questions require pupils to use what they already know, with what they

have learned from reading the text. Pupil's must understand the text and relate

it to their prior knowledge before answering the question.

Example: How do think Frog felt when he found Toad? Answer: I think that

Frog felt happy because he had not seen Toad in a long time. I feel happy when

I get to see my friend who lives far away.

4. "On Your Own"

Questions are answered based on a pupil’s prior knowledge and

experiences. Reading the text may not be helpful to them when answering this

type of question.

Example: How would you feel if your best friend moved away? Answer: I

would feel very sad if my best friend moved away because I would miss her.

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4. Generating questions

By generating questions, pupils become aware of whether they can answer the

questions and if they understand what they are reading. Pupils learn to ask themselves

questions that require them to combine information from different segments of text. For

example, pupils can be taught to ask main idea questions that relate to important

information in a text.

5. Recognizing story structure

In story structure instruction, pupils learn to identify the categories of content

(characters, setting, events, problem, resolution). Often, pupils learn to recognize story

structure through the use of story maps. Instruction in story structure improves students'


6. Summarizing

Summarizing requires pupils to determine what is important in what they are

reading and to put it into their own words. Instruction in summarizing helps pupils:

o Identify or generate main ideas

o Connect the main or central ideas

o Eliminate unnecessary information

o Remember what they read

o Effective comprehension strategy instruction is explicit

Research shows that explicit teaching techniques are particularly effective for

comprehension strategy instruction. In explicit instruction, teachers tell readers why and

when they should use strategies, what strategies to use, and how to apply them. The steps

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of explicit instruction typically include direct explanation, teacher modeling ("thinking

aloud"), guided practice, and application.

5. Direct Explanation

The teacher explains to pupils why the strategy helps comprehension and when to

apply the strategy.

6. Modeling

The teacher models, or demonstrates, how to apply the strategy, usually by

"thinking aloud" while reading the text that the pupils are using.

7. Guided practice

The teacher guides and assists pupils as they learn how and when to apply the


8. Application

The teacher helps pupils practice the strategy until they can apply it independently.

Effective comprehension strategy instruction can be accomplished through cooperative

learning, which involves students working together as partners or in small groups on clearly

defined tasks. Cooperative learning instruction has been used successfully to teach

comprehension strategies. Pupils work together to understand texts, helping each other

learn and apply comprehension strategies. Teachers’ help pupils learn to work in groups.

Teachers also provide modeling of the comprehension strategies.

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IV. Action Research Methods
A. Participants, Research Design and other Data Sources
A. 1 Participants of the study
The -researcher used the 22 Grade 6 pupils as participants of the study.
It employed total enumeration sampling technique.

A. 2 Research Design

This research utilized quantitative research design. This is best suited in this

type of research since it attempted to describe the reading progress of Grade VI

pupils in English before and after using Dual Reading Kit in improving their

reading skills.

B. Data Gathering Method

Data were gathered using the results of pretest and posttest administered to

the Grade 6 pupils before and after the utilization of Dual Reading Kit.

Results were collated and presented to the statistician for statistical treatment.

C. Data Analysis Plan

Data were gathered, tallied, analyzed, and interpreted. Statistical treatment such

as frequency, mean, and t-test were utilized to find out the significant difference after

using the Dual Reading Kit to establish the effectiveness of the intervention.

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Discussion of Results and Reflections

Table 1. Results of Pretest and Posttest in Vocabulary Skill

Pre-test Post-test
Mean 5.14 6.91
SD 1.39 1.31

It can be gleaned from the table that pupils’ vocabulary skill had increased. The score

obtained in the posttest was quite higher than the pretest with 6.91 against 5.14. Furthermore, the

standard deviation of 1.39 in the pretest and 1.31 in the post test signify a slight better change in

the dispersion of score of the pupils in terms of vocabulary skill.

Findings could be verified from the individual scores of the pretest conducted for

vocabulary where the average score was 8 of 10 that had contributed much to the increase of

posttest. Results implied that through Dual Reading Kit, the pupils became more interested in

learning because they have partners in exploring and enhancing their vocabulary skill.

Table 2. Results of Pretest and Posttest in Vocabulary Skill

Pre-test Post-test
Mean 5.64 8.14
SD 2.5 2.13

Results manifest a higher score of the Grade 6 pupils in the posttest, with 8.14 against 5.64.

The standard deviation 2.5 in the pretest and 1.81 in the posttest indicate that after using the Dual

Reading Kit, there was a better change in the dispersion of scores of the pupils in the reading


Data can be traced from the individual scores of the pupils, where the average score is 9

out of 15, some got 10 to 11 out of 15, which are good indicators that the pupils had improved.

From the data, it could be implied that materials in Dual Reading Kit seemed easy to understand

for them because the selections here are short, with comprehension skills that varies in levels, and

these are supplementary materials to their daily lesson.

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Table 3. Significant Difference
t-test p-value Remarks
Pre-test and Post-test of 8.549 .000 Significant
Vocabulary Skill
Pre-test and Post-test of 7.797 .000 Significant
Vocabulary Skill

Results display a significant difference between the results of pretest and posttest of the

Grade 6 pupils in terms of vocabulary skill when the Dual Reading Kit was utilized to the pupils

where the computer t-value of 8.549 was higher than the level of significance a=0.05 (p-

value=.000). Moreover, it also shows that there was a significant difference between the results of

posttest and pretest in terms of Reading Comprehension of the Grade 6 pupils when Dual Reading

Kit was used where the computed t-value of 7.797, was higher than p-value of .000 and lower than

a=0.05 level of significance.

Findings tell us that Dual Reading Kit has contributed to the increase of scores of the pupils

which connotes that it is effective in improving the vocabulary and reading comprehension skill

of the Grade 6 pupils.

Plans for Dissemination and Utilization

To materialize the findings, researchers will conduct an information dissemination

to promote the program: “Dual Reading Kit” in Santa Cruz South North. With this,

researchers will hold one-day advocacy campaign to promote the program. They will seek

the permission of the School Head and the District. The one-day orientation will be

conducted at Santa Cruz North District Office. The researcher will act as facilitator of the

orientation. Prior to the conduct of the campaign program, researcher will prepare the

materials needed for information dissemination and advocacy campaign that contains facts

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and information about the “Utilization of Dual Reading Kit.” Power point presentation and

video presentation will likewise be prepared as part of the advocacy program.

Work Plan and Timeliness

June July Aug. Sept Oct

2nd 3rd 4th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 1st 2nd 3rd 1st W 1st
Wk Wk Wk Wk Wk Wk Wk Wk Wk Wk to 4th Wk

Presentation of research
proposal to the School Head and
District Supervisor

Administration of the Phil IRI Pre

Test/Reading Assessment

Interpretation of the Results

Analysis and interpretation of

data collected

Presentation of the results and

findings to the school head

Enhancing Dual Reading


Conference with teachers on the

proposed development program
to bridge gap on reading skill

Revision of the proposed

Reading Program and Dual
Reading Materials

Seeking approval for the

implementation of the program
and utilization of the materials for
the program

Start of the Implementation of the


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Evaluation of the result of the

Post Administration of Phil IRI

Test/Post Reading Assessment

Financial Report
Item of Expenditure QTY UNIT UNIT TOTAL
Cost for Research output supplies
Printing and Reproduction of Materials for Research cps 1.50 570.00
Implementation (22 pupils x 5 sets x 25 pages)
Reproduction of Research Paper for Division Research 500 cps 1.50 750.00
Summit (100 pages x 5 copies)
Reproduction of Research Paper for Regional Research 600 cps 1.50 900.00
Summit (120 pages x 5 copies)
Reproduction of Final Paper (130 pages x 5 copies) 650 cps 1.50 975.00
Sliding Folder 10 pcs 12.00 120.00
Binding of Final Output (Researcher (1), School (1), 5 pcs 200.00 1,000.00
Division (1) & Region (2)
Tarpaulin 1 pc 190.00 190.00
Tarpaulin stand 1 pc 200.00 200.00
Cost for Research Dissemination
Division Research Summit 1 Pax 500.00 500.00
Regional Research Summit 1 Pax 4,000.00 4,000.00

VIII. References
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encouraging children to read in school: A randomized evaluation of the Sa Aklat Sisikat
reading program in the Philippines. Journal of Human Resources, 49(3), 611-633.
Borkum, E., He, F., & Linden, L. L. (2012). School libraries and language skills in Indian
primary schools: a randomized evaluation of the Akshara library program (NBER
working paper no. 18183). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Retrieved from: http://www.nber.org/papers/w18183.pdf
Cunningham, A. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (2001). What Reading Does for the Mind. Journal of
Direct Instruction, 1(2), 137–149.

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Friedlander, E. & Goldenberg, C. (2016). Literacy boost in Rwanda: Impact evaluation of a 2-
year randomized control trial. Stanford, CA: Stanford University. Retrieved from
Good, R. H., Simmons, D. C., & Kame'enui, E. J. (2010). The importance and decision-making
utility of a continuum of fluency-based indicators of foundational reading skills for third-
grade high-stakes outcomes. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3), 257-288.
Kassow, D. Z. (2011). Parent-child shared book reading: Quality versus quantity of reading
interactions between parents and young children. Talaris Research Institute, 1(1), 1-9.
Lucas, A. M., McEwan, P. J., Ngware, M., & Oketch, M. (2014). Improving primary school
quality across Countries: Experimental Evidence from Kenya and Uganda. Journal of
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Slavin, R. E., Lake, C., Chambers, B., Cheung, A., & Davis, S. (2009). Effective reading
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Topping, K. J., & Sanders, W. L. (2013). Teacher effectiveness and computer assessment of
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Topping, K. J., Samuels, J., & Paul, T. (2012). Does practice make perfect? Independent reading
quantity, quality and student achievement. Learning and Instruction, 17(3), 253-264.
Whitehurst, G. J., & Lonigan, C. J. (2001). Emergent literacy: Development from pre-readers to
readers. In Neuman, S. B. & Dickinson, D. K. (eds.) Handbook of Early Literacy
Research (pp. 11-29). New York, NY: Guilford Press

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