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0800 – 1100 hrs

Higher 2
Thursday 2nd October 2008
3 hours
Additional materials: MCQ answer sheet for Section A
Writing paper for Section B


There are 20 questions in Section A. Answer all questions.

Record your answer in soft 2B pencil on the MCQ answer sheet.
Each correct answer will score two marks. Marks will not be deducted for a wrong
Any rough working should be done in this booklet.
Total marks for Section A is 40 marks.

There are 9 questions in Section B. Answer all questions.

Begin each new question on a fresh sheet of writing paper.
Write in dark blue or black pen on the writing paper provided. You may use a soft
pencil for any diagrams, graphs or rough working.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part
Total marks for Section B is 100 marks.

Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.

Write your name and tutorial group on all the work you hand in.

Total marks for Section A and B is 140 marks.

A maximum of 2 marks will be deducted for mistakes made in units and
significant figures.

This question paper consists of 16 printed pages



speed of light in free space c = 3.00 x 108 m s-1

permeability of free space µo = 4 π x 10-7 Hm-1
permittivity of free space εo = 8.85 x 10-12 F m-1
= (1/(36 π )) x10-9 Fm-1
elementary charge e = 1.6 x 10-19 C
Planck constant h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s
unified atomic mass constant u = 1.66 x 10-27 kg
rest mass of electron me = 9.11 x 10-31 kg
rest mass of proton mp = 1.67 x 10-27 kg
molar gas constant R = 8.31 J K-1 mol-1
the Avogadro constant NA = 6.02 x 1023 mol-1
the Boltzmann constant k = 1.38 x 10-23 J K-1
gravitational constant, G = 6.67 x 10-11 N m2 kg-2
acceleration of free fall, g = 9.81 m s-2

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uniformly accelerated motion, s = u t + ½ a t2
v2 = u2 + 2 a s
work done on / by a gas, W = p ∆V
hydrostatic pressure P = ρgh
gravitational potential, Gm
φ = −
displacement of particle in s.h.m. x = x0 sin ωt
velocity of particle in s.h.m. v = v0 cos ωt

± ω x0 − x2
resistors in parallel 1/Reff = 1 / R1 + 1 / R2 +…

resistors in series Reff = R1 + R2 +…

electric potential Q
V =
4πε 0 r
alternating current/voltage x = x0 sin ωt
transmission coefficient T = exp(-2kd)

8π 2 m(U − E )
where k =
radioactive decay x = x0 exp(−λt )
decay constant 0.693
λ = t1

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1 The Stefan-Boltzmann law states that R, the total energy radiated by a blackbody per unit surface area
per unit time is given by R = σT4, where σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, and T is the
thermodynamic temperature of the blackbody. What is the base unit of σ?
A kg s-3 K-4 B kg s-3 K4 C kg m2 s-2 K-4 D kg m2 s-2 K4

2 Four students A to D measured and calculated the electronic charge, e. The table shows the results
obtained. Which student obtained a set of results that could be described as accurate but not precise?
Student Electron charge, e / 10-19 C
A 1.62 1.59 1.59 1.61 1.60
B 1.57 1.63 1.64 1.58 1.59
C 1.59 1.60 1.58 1.57 1.57
D 1.58 1.62 1.65 1.59 1.66

3 A ball rolls off the top of a flight of steps. Assuming elastic collisions with the steps, which graph
shows the variation of the resultant vertical force, F acting on it with respect to time, t?


t t


t t

4 A particle starts from rest and moves in a straight line. Its motion is represented by the displacement–
time graph shown below. At which point is its velocity maximum?

C time

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5 A cube of side length 0.100 m and mass 0.150 kg is held at the bottom of a pool of water. When
released, it rises up. Find the value of the drag force in Newton (N) due to water when it is travelling
with constant speed if the density of the water is 1000 kg m−3.
A Zero B 1.47 C 8.34 D 9.81

6 A heavy flagpole PQ is hinged at a vertical wall at end P and held in place by a wire connected to end
Q and a point R on the wall. The weight of the flagpole is W and the tension in the wire is T.

What is the direction of the force exerted by the wall on the flagpole?

7 A small ball of weight W is suspended by a light string. The

tension in the string is T. Two additional forces, F and R
θ T
act on the ball as shown in the diagram.
Which of the following equations is correct if the ball is
in equilibrium? W
A T sin θ = W B T sin θ = F − R C W tan θ = F D T 2 = F2 + W 2

8 What is the force F required to be applied horizontally at the axle of a wheel of weight W and radius r,
in order to raise it over a curb of vertical height h?

Wh C
Wr D
W (2rh − h ) 2

r (r − h) (r − h )

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9 Two identical helical springs are fixed to a body m1 of mass 1 kg. In another configuration, only one of
the springs is fixed to the mass. What is the ratio of the period of oscillation of set up (a) to set up (b)?

A 1:1 B 1:2 C 2 :1 D 2:1

10 A home made rocket is fired and it reaches a height of 100 m. If it has a mass of 50 kg, and has an
efficiency of 65%, what is the energy delivered in kJ from its fuel? (Assume fuel has negligible weight)
A 31.9 B 65.5 C 75.5 D 85.5


In the diagram given, the smaller gear spins in a clockwise direction and drives the larger gear.
Which of the following statements describing the motion of the resulting motion is true?
A The angular velocity of the two gears are equal
B The tangential velocity of the two gears are equal
C The angular velocity of the larger gear is higher.
D The tangential velocity of the larger gear is higher.

12 The minimum speed with which a body of mass m should be projected from the Earth’s surface in order
to reach an infinite distance is about 1.1 x 104 m s-1. [This is called the escape speed.] Estimate the
escape speed in m s-1 for a body of mass 2m.
A 2.2 x 103 B 0.6 x 104 C 1.1 x 104 D 1.6 x 104

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13 The graph below shows that variation of displacement with time for two particles performing simple
harmonic motions with the same frequency and amplitude.

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

What is the phase difference between the motions?

π π π π
6 4 3 2

14 Which effect provides direct experimental evidence that light is transverse, rather than a longitudinal,
wave motion?
A Light can be diffracted.
B Two coherent light waves can be made to interfere.
C The intensity of light from a point source falls off inversely as the square of the distance from the
D Light can be polarized.

15 In a Young’s double-slit experiment using monochromatic light of wavelength 564 nm, the fifth bright
fringe is observed at an angle of 0.32O to the central bright fringe. Calculate the slit separation in

5th bright fringe

Central bright fringe

A 2.8 x 10-6 B 1.0 x 10-4 C 5.0 x 10-4 D 2.5 x 10-3
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16 A water wave P is incident on a wall. A reflected wave Q moves away from the wall. The diagram
illustrates the position of P and Q at time zero.

X, Y and Z represent three separate positions of the resulting stationary wave.

In which order does this stationary wave have these positions, beginning at time zero?
17 The diagram below shows one of the wheels of a car which is about to go over a road hump. The
shock absorber system of the car will be damped critically after the wheel has gone over the hump.

Which graph represents the variation of vertical displacement x of the body of the car with time t after
the wheel has gone over the hump?


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18 A cell is connected in series with a 2 Ω resistor. Its internal resistance is 0.5 Ω. If the current in the
circuit is 3 A, what is the e.m.f. of the cell in V?
A 1.5 B 3.0 C 6.0 D 7.5

19 Which graph represents the I-V characteristic of a semiconductor diode?


20 A uniform electric field is produced between two parallel plates 10 mm apart. The potential difference
between the plates is 100 V. A point charge of 1 µC is transferred along a 10 mm diagonal path from X
to Y.

What is the work done in µJ by the electric field on the charge as the charge moves from X to Y?
A 10 B 25 C 50 D 100

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1 (a) During a laboratory class, Christopher used a pair of vernier callipers to measure the
diameter of a Styrofoam ball. He recorded the ball’s diameter as (5.28 ± 0.01) cm. Looking
up the density table of materials, he found that the density of Styrofoam is 150 kg m-3.
(i) Calculate the mass, in kg, of the Styrofoam ball. [2]

(ii) Calculate the fractional uncertainty in the mass of the Styrofoam ball. [2]
(iii) Hence express the mass of the Styrofoam ball, together with its uncertainty, to an [2]
appropriate number of significant figures.
(b) Christopher then put the Styrofoam ball in a basin of water of density 1000 kg m-3 and
observed that the ball is floating on water.
(i) State the condition which must be satisfied in order for the Styrofoam ball to float [1]
on water.
(ii) Hence calculate the fraction of the Styrofoam ball submerged in water. [2]
(iii) Describe what will happen when the Styrofoam ball is transferred into a basin of [1]
sea water.

2 A C-130 transport aeroplane is flying horizontally at an altitude of 20 m and it flies at a constant

velocity of 50 m s-1. At that instant, a package of emergency food supplies is dropped. Assume air
resistance to be negligible

50 m s −1

20 m

Figure 2
(i) Calculate the time taken for the package to reach the ground. [2]
(ii) Calculate the speed of the package just before hitting the ground. [2]
(iii) Calculate the angle to the horizontal at which the package hits the ground. [2]
(iv) Ignoring the effect due to air resistance sketch (on the same axes) two graphs showing [2]
how the horizontal and vertical velocities vary with time.
(v) If the package was pushed backwards out of the plane at 2 m s-1 relative to the plane, [2]
explain qualitatively how your answer in part (i) and part (ii) would be affected.

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3 A ball, of mass 0.3 kg and velocity 1.0 m s–1, collides elastically and head-on with a second ball, of
mass 0.2 kg and velocity 1.5 m s–1, moving in the opposite direction
(a) (i) State the law of conservation of momentum. [2]
(ii) State the condition for the collision to be considered elastic. [1]
(iii) What do you expect to see in the subsequent motion if the collision is head on. [1]
(b) Find the relative velocity of separation of the two vehicles after the collision [2]
(c) Hence, or otherwise, find the velocity of each ball after the collision. [4]

4 During the National Day parade, the Black Knights performed a series of stunts for the audience.
In one such stunt, an F16 flies horizontally at a speed of 170 m s-1 before flying upwards in a
vertical loop, 1000 m high, as shown in the diagram below.

1000 m

Figure 4
(a) Explain why a body in uniform circular motion must experience a resultant force. [2]
(b) Draw fully labelled free body diagrams of the pilot, of mass 70 kg at; [2]
1. Point A
2. Point B

(c) Show that the normal reaction force on the pilot is greater at Point A. (Assume that the [4]
speed of the plane is constant in the whole loop).
(d) Extra energy is required from the engine to maintain constant speed in the loop. [2]
Suggest two possible reasons.

5 (a) Explain the term simple harmonic motion. [2]

(b) (i) State the defining equation for simple harmonic motion [1]
(ii) Write down a solution to the equation giving the displacement x in terms of the [1]
amplitude of oscillation x0, the angular frequency ω and the time t

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(c) The velocity v of a body of mass m undergoing simple harmonic motion is given by, [1]

v = ±ω x o2 − x 2

Find the kinetic energy of the body in terms of its displacement x, ω and x0
(d) Sketch two separate graphs, to show how the velocity and kinetic energy vary with the [3]
displacement of a body undergoing simple harmonic motion.

6 This question is about the physics of seismic waves.

When an earthquake occurs, two kinds of seismic wave travel from their source through the
body of the earth. Primary or P waves have the greater speed and are longitudinal. The
slower Secondary or S waves are transverse.
(a) The diagram shows a Secondary wave approaching a tall building from underneath. [1]
Copy and indicate, with a double-headed arrow, in which direction you would expect the
building to vibrate when the wave reaches it.

Figure 6.1
(b) The centre of an earthquake produces both longitudinal waves (P waves) and
transverse waves (S waves). The graph below shows the variation with time t of the
distance d moved by the two types of wave.
d / km P wave S wave



0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225
Figure 6.2

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Use Figure 6.2 on the previous page to determine the speed of;

(i) The P waves [1]

(ii) The S waves [1]
(c) The waves from an earthquake close to the Earth’s surface are detected at three
laboratories L1, L2 and L3. The laboratories are at the corners of a triangle so that each
is separated from the others by a distance of 900 km, as shown in the diagram below.
900 km

L1 L2


Figure 6.3
The records of the variation with time of the vibrations produced by the earthquake as
detected at the three laboratories are shown below. All three records were started at the
same time.


start of trace L3


Figure 6.4
On each record, one pulse is made by the S wave and the other by the P wave. The
separation of the two pulses is referred to as the S-P time interval. The S-P time
intervals are 68 s, 42 s and 27 s for laboratories L1, L2 and L3 respectively.
(i) Use the formula “speed = distance / time” to write an expression for the distance, [1]
in km, travelled by the P waves, dp, from the source to the L1 station.
(ii) Hence write an expression for the distance travelled by the S waves, ds, from the [1]
source to station L1.
(iii) Given that dp = ds, calculate the time taken for the P waves to travel from the [1]
source to L1.
(iv) Hence determine the distance from the source to L1. [1]
(v) Hence, derive a formula that you can use to determine the distance from the [1]
source to L1, in terms of vP (the speed of the P wave), vS (the speed of the S
wave), and tSP (the S-P time interval).
(vi) Determine the distance from the source to the seismological station for L2 and L3. [1]

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(vii) Copy figure 6.3 and show how you could determine a possible site of the [2]
epicentre of the earthquake. (Label the point E.)
(viii) State one assumption made in this method of calculation. [1]

7 (a) State what is meant by

(i) an electric field of force, [1]
(ii) a gravitational field of force. [1]
(b) Two ions A and B are separated by a distance of 0.80 nm in a vacuum, as shown in
Figure 7.1. A has a charge of +3.2 x 10-19 C and B has a charge of -1.6 x 10-19 C. A
point X is positioned vertically above B, at a distance 0.50 nm. Copy Figure 7.1 and
draw labelled arrows to represent
(i) the electric field EA at the point X due to A only, [1]
(ii) the electric field EB at the point X due to B only. [1]
(iii) the resultant field E at the point X. [1]

Figure 7.1
(c) (i) Sketch on the diagram in (b), lines representing the electric field between the two [4]
ions. Include the field line passing through X.
(ii) Indicate clearly on the diagram in (b), the position of the null point (where electric
field is zero, other than at infinity). [1]
(iii) Explain why the null point exists at this position [1]
(d) (i) Find the magnitude of the electric force that A exerts on B. [2]
(ii) Explain quantitatively why the gravitational force is usually not considered in this [3]
-26 -26
case. The mass of A is 5.81 x 10 kg and mass of B is 3.98 x 10 kg

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(e) Figure 7.2 shows two identical conducting spheres of uniform density. Each sphere has
mass M and carries an overall charge +Q. They are placed in a vacuum with their
centres distance d apart. When the two conductors are brought into this set up, the
charges redistribute as shown in the diagram.

+ +
+ +
+ +
+ +
Figure 7.2

(i) Explain why the electric force FE between them cannot be found using the [1]
equation given below.

FE =
4πε o d 2
(ii) Suggest a condition under which the electric force FE between them may be [1]
approximated by the expression in (e)(i).
(iii) Explain whether the expression below can be used to calculate the gravitational [2]
force between the spheres.

GM 2
FG =

8 (a) In a Young’s double-slit experiment, coherent light from two slits S 1 and S 2 falls on a screen
800 mm beyond the slits. The distance between the centres of the slits is 0.600 mm. There is
a central bright fringe at O and the third bright fringe is formed at P, 2.00 mm away from O.


Figure 8.1
(i) Show that the distance S1P is 800.0018 mm. [1]
(ii) Show that the distance S2P is 800.0033 mm. [1]
(iii) By considering the path difference │S2P – S1P│, hence calculate the wavelength [2]
of light used.

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(b) A spectrometer and diffraction grating were set up to study the Balmer series of the hydrogen
spectrum. The emission spectrum of an element was viewed in the second order and visible
lines were observed. The angular positions of these lines measured against the scale on the
spectrometer are shown in the table.

Angular position of the zero order = 126.4O

Number of rulings per unit length = 450 000 lines per m

Figure 8.2
(i) Calculate the wavelength of the violet line from the angular position given. [2]

(ii) Calculate the maximum number of violet lines possible. [2]

(iii) State one advantage and one disadvantage of using the larger order spectrum [2]
instead of the first order spectrum.

9 (a) State the difference between e.m.f. and potential difference. [2]
(b) How many electrons pass a point in 3 minutes when the current flowing is 3 A? [2]
(c) A 5 V rated battery is connected with a switch in series with a component that has an
effective resistance of 2 Ω. If the battery has an internal resistance of 0.5 Ω,
(i) determine the electromotive force delivered by the battery. [1]
(ii) calculate the terminal potential difference when the switch is closed. [1]
(iii) calculate the power dissipated at the component. [2]
(iv) calculate the power loss in the battery. [2]

End of Paper

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