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Table of Contents

I. The Benefits and Constraints of Different Network Types and Standards: ................................ 2
A. Network Types ........................................................................................................................ 2
1. LAN ...................................................................................................................................... 2
2. WAN .................................................................................................................................... 3
3. Metropolitan Area Networks ............................................................................................... 3
4. Constraints of Networks in General: ................................................................................... 4
B. Network Standards ................................................................................................................. 4
1. Network Protocol Definition ................................................................................................ 4
2. Examples of Network Protocols .......................................................................................... 4
II. The Impact of Network Topology, Communication and Bandwidth Requirements ................. 4
1. Network topology .................................................................................................................... 4
1.1. Mesh Topology .................................................................................................................. 5
1.2. Star Topology .................................................................................................................... 5
1.3. Bus Topology ..................................................................................................................... 6
1.4. Ring Topology ................................................................................................................... 6
1.5. Tree Topology.....................................................................................................................7
1.6. Hybrid Topology ................................................................................................................7
2. Open System Interconnection (OSI) model .............................................................................7
3. TCP/IP Protocol ...................................................................................................................... 9
4. Communication & Bandwidth................................................................................................10
4.1. Rule of communication ....................................................................................................10
4.2. Impact of Bandwidth Requirement .................................................................................10
III. The Operating Principles of Networking Devices and Server Types ....................................... 11
1. The principles of networking devices ..................................................................................... 11
Bridge ..................................................................................................................................... 11
Repeater ................................................................................................................................. 12
Hub ......................................................................................................................................... 12
Switch ..................................................................................................................................... 12
Router ..................................................................................................................................... 13
Gateway ................................................................................................................................. 13
2. The principles of server types................................................................................................. 14
Dedicated Server: ................................................................................................................... 14
Virtual Private Server ............................................................................................................. 14
Cloud Server ........................................................................................................................... 14
IV. The Inter-Dependence of Workstation Hardware with Relevant Networking Software ........ 14
1. Workstation Hardware Definition .......................................................................................... 14
2. Networking Software Definition ............................................................................................ 14
3. Discussion of Inter-Dependence of Workstation Hardware with Relevant Networking
Software...................................................................................................................................... 14
V. Design a Network System .......................................................................................................... 15
1. User Requirement................................................................................................................... 15
2. Logical Design ........................................................................................................................ 15
3. Physical Design ...................................................................................................................... 16
4. Documentation....................................................................................................................... 16
Configure Servers ................................................................................................................... 16
Configure School Router: .......................................................................................................18
Configure floor switches: ........................................................................................................18
References ...................................................................................................................................... 19

Table of Figures
Figure 1. Example of LAN ............................................................................................................... 2
Figure 2. Example of WAN ............................................................................................................. 3
Figure 3. A MAN based on cable TV (Tanenbaum, 2002) ............................................................. 3
Figure 4. An example of Mesh topology ......................................................................................... 5
Figure 5. An example of Star topology ............................................................................................ 6
Figure 6. An example of Bus topology ............................................................................................ 6
Figure 7. An example of Ring topology ............................................................................................7
Figure 8. Example of Tree topology .................................................................................................7
Figure 9. Layers of TCP/IP (Dye, et al., 2008) ............................................................................... 9
Figure 10. OSI seven-layered network model and TCP/IP (Al-shawi, 2016) ................................10
Figure 11 ......................................................................................................................................... 11
Figure 12. Bridge ............................................................................................................................ 11
Figure 13. Repeater ........................................................................................................................ 12
Figure 14. Hub ............................................................................................................................... 12
Figure 15. Switch ............................................................................................................................ 13
Figure 16. Router ........................................................................................................................... 13
Figure 17. Gateway ......................................................................................................................... 13
I. The Benefits and Constraints of Different Network
Types and Standards:
A. Network Types
 In the field of computer network, network is “A computer network is a group of computer
systems and other computing hardware devices that are linked together through
communication channels to facilitate communication and resource-sharing among a wide range
of users.”
 The most common uses of computer network are:
o File sharing – is one of the most well-known use of computer network. User connect to the
network to share files and to access files share by other users inside the network. User can
also share files to network as a way to store it to access later.
o Resource sharing – not only files but also devices such as like printers, scanners and copiers
can be connected to a computer network to be used communally.
o Save business costs – setting up a network, if done securely, can help to cut down hardware
solution for file storage and also provide business users with communal use of paid
softwares.
 There are various types of network and categorisation is made by examining their scope or scale
in the industry. Examples of the most common types of network are Local Area Network (LAN),
Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), Wide Area Network (WAN), Personal Area Network
(PAN), etc. LAN and WAN were the first and fundamental catagories of area networks; other
types were designed in regarding to these first two network types. (Anon., n.d.)

1. LAN

Figure 1. Example of LAN

 Local Area Network is set up for using within a small geographical area.
 LAN has been well-known for it providing of high connection speed. For example, Ethernet can
reach 10Mbps, Fast Ethernet can reach 100 Mbps and Gigabit Ethernet can even reach
1000Mbps.
 LAN is cost-efficient and easy to set up as it requires only Ethernet cables, a network and not
advanced infrastructure for setting-up.
 However, LAN is limited for using only in the area it is set up for and can’t be extended furthur.
2. WAN

Figure 2. Example of WAN

 Wide Area Network is set up for using in a large geographical area. Most WANs are combination
of multiple LANs connected together.
 There is no limitation of how large of an area that WAN can cover. The biggest WAN is the
internet, which exemplify for the fact that WAN can be used to design all types of intricate
network.
 However, setting up a WAN requires intricate and creative technological solutions. Hence, the
cost to own and maintain a private WAN is extremely expensive and the cost-efficient way to
have a WAN set up is to contact an ISP (internet service provider).

3. Metropolitan Area Networks


 A MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) covers a city. The best-known examples of MANs are the
cable television networks available in many cities. These systems grew from earlier community
antenna systems used in areas with poor over-the-air television reception (Tanenbaum, 2002).

Figure 3. A MAN based on cable TV (Tanenbaum, 2002)


 When the Internet began attracting a mass audience, the cable TV network operators began to
realize that with some changes to the system, they could provide two-way Internet service in
unused parts of the spectrum. At that point, the cable TV system began to morph from simply a
way to distribute television to a metropolitan area network. To a first approximation, a MAN
might look something like the system shown in Fig. 1-9. In this figure we see both television
signals and Internet being fed into the centralized cable headend for subsequent distribution to
people’s homes. (Tanenbaum, 2002)

4. Constraints of Networks in General:


 Security Concerns: If a computer is standalone, the only way for criminals to steal its data is by
having physical access to it. In a network, there are various ways for criminal to extract and steal
data from connected computer such as tricking users to download viruses, malwares, etc.
 Lack of Robustness: Failure to function properly in one connected device may have ripple affect
to break down the whole network.
 Needs An Efficient Handler: As networks are often intricate, experienced and skillful network
adminstrators are needed to maintain them. It is fairly hard to acquire the technical skills and
know-how required to operate and administer a computer network well.

B. Network Standards
1. Network Protocol Definition
Network standards are called protocols. Each protocol consist of rules, procedures and formats
that govern network communications.

2. Examples of Network Protocols


 HTTPS
 TCP-IP
 DNS
 ICMP
 FTP
 SSL
 …

II. The Impact of Network Topology, Communication and


Bandwidth Requirements
1. Network topology
Network topology is the arrangement of different elements (links, nodes, and so on) of a
computer network. Network topology serves as guidance for designing a network architectures and
analysis of network architecture’s advantages and disadvantages. Network topology can be physically
and logically depicted. Physical topology shows the arrangement of network’s physical components,
including the location of the equipment and the installation of the connecting cables. On the other hand,
logical topology illustrate the flow of data in the network, the distance between the nodes, the physical
intersection, the transmission rate, and/or the type of signal may vary between the two networks, etc.

• Types of network topology: , Bus Network, Ring Network, Tree Network, Hybrid Network

1.1. Mesh Topology


Mesh network is recognised as having all networks noded connected without any specific
patterns. This topology promote security and privacy as each connection can carry its own data. Also
this topology is robust to failure of any parts in the systems, partly because of this design make diagnosis
effortless. However, mesh topology can be messy when it need to be extended and configured.

1.2. Star Topology


Star networks is recognised as having all network nodes connected to a centralised hub.
Depending on the communication requirements on the network, the hub may be a switch, router, hub,
or central server.

Star network have advantages of simple network setup (as new nodes can be easily added while
still maintain integrity of all the network), centralised management and convinient troubleshooting.
Also, failure of one node brings no damage to the rest of network . However, this topology promote high
dependency on central device: performance of nodes extremely rely on that of central devices and more
note-worthily, failure of central device brings the whole network down.

Figure 4. An example of Mesh topology


Figure 5. An example of Star topology

1.3. Bus Topology


Bus network is recognised as having all network nodes connected to a same single cable. This
topology is effective for small LAN as the cost of set-up is cheap and also, this topology promote
extendability. However, a failure in any node of bus network has a ripple effect to collapse the whole
network and this topology provide limited security for each of its node.

Figure 6. An example of Bus topology

1.4. Ring Topology


Ring topology is recognised as having all each node connected with two other nodes, both formming a
continuous loop. This topology promotes the best performance as data flows in only one direction, which
also make configuration become easy. However, this topology restricts troubleshooting and extendability.
Similarly to bus topology, failure in one node also collapses the whole network.
Figure 7. An example of Ring topology

1.5. Tree Topology


Tree topology is recognised as having star networks grouped into a linear bus backbone cable.
This topology promotes expansion and is best-suited for temporary networks. However, this topology
inherits all limitations of bus topology including the vulnerability to failure of any part of network and the
lack of security.

Figure 8. Example of Tree topology

1.6. Hybrid Topology


Hybrid topology is any type of topology that is mixed by two or more of these above network
topologies.

2. Open System Interconnection (OSI) model


The International Standards Organization (ISO) has defined a model for describing
communications across a network, called the OSI model, shortened for Open Systems Interconnect
(Burgess, 2004).

The principles that were applied to arrive at the seven layers can be briefly summarized as follows:
(Tanenbaum, 2002)
1. A layer should be created where a different abstraction is needed.
2. Each layer should perform a well-defined function.
3. The function of each layer should be chosen with an eye toward defining internationally
standardised protocols.
4. The layer boundaries should be chosen to minimize the information flow across the interfaces.
5. The number of layers should be large enough that distinct functions need not be thrown
together in the same layer out of necessity and small enough that the architecture does not become
unwieldy

There is seven layers in OSI model (Burgess, 2004):

1. Physical layer. This is the sending a signal along a wire, amplifying it if it gets weak, removing
noise etc. If the type of cable changes (we might want to reflect signals off a satellite or use fiber optics)
we need to convert one kind of signal into another. Each type of transmission might have its own accepted
ways of sending data (i.e. protocols).

2. Data link layer. This is a layer of checking which makes sure that what was sent from one end
of a cable to the other actually arrived. This is sometimes called handshaking. The Ethernet protocol is
layer 2, as is Token Ring. This level is labelled by Media Access Control (MAC) addresses.

3. Network layer. This is the layer of software which recognizes structure in the network. It
establishes global identity and handles the delivery of data by manipulating the physical layer. The
network layer needs to know something about addresses – i.e. where the data are going, since data might
flow along many cables and connections to arrive where they are going. Layer 3 is the layer at which IP
addresses enter.

4. Transport layer. The transport layer builds ‘packets’ or ‘datagrams’ so that the network layer
knows what is data and how to get the data to their destination. Because many machines could be talking
on the same network all at the same time, data are broken up into short ‘bursts’. Only one machine can
talk over a cable at a time so we must have sharing. It is easy to share if the signals are sent in short bursts.
This is analogous to the sharing of CPU time by use of time-slices. TCP and UDP protocols are encoded at
this layer.

5. Session layer. This is the part of a host’s operating system which helps a user program to set up
a connection. This is typically done with sockets or the RPC.

6. Presentation layer. How are the data to be sent by the sender and interpreted by the receiver,
so that there is no doubt about their contents? This is the role played by the external data representation
(XDR) in the RPC system.

7. Application layer. The program which wants to send data has its own protocol layer, typically a
command language encoding (e.g. GET, PUT in FTP or HTTP).

These layers are not always so clearly distinguished. Today, networking technologies at all levels
are mixing them up: routers and switches are merging layers 2 and 3, and routers that prioritize traffic
need to know what application is being transported, so that the information can be fed into layers 2 and
3 in order to provide guarantees on performance (Burgess, 2004).
3. TCP/IP Protocol
The TCP/IP model defines the four communication functions that protocols perform. TCP/IP is an
open standard, which means that one company does not control it. The rules and implementations of the
TCP/IP model were cooperatively developed by members of the industry using Request for Comments
(RFC) documents (Dye, et al., 2008). This table below shows the four layers of TCP/IP.

Figure 9. Layers of TCP/IP (Dye, et al., 2008)

The TCP/IP model evolved faster than the OSI model and is now more practical in describing
network communication functions. The OSI model describes in detail functions that occur at the upper
layers on the hosts, while networking is largely a function of the lower layers. Figure {} shows comparison
between these two protocol models.
Figure 10. OSI seven-layered network model and TCP/IP (Al-shawi, 2016)

4. Communication & Bandwidth


4.1. Rule of communication
Some of the rules required for communication to occur (Dye, et al., 2008) include the presence
of:

■ Identified sender and receiver: In a communication, sender and receiver need to identify each
other. Particularly in data communication, if sender and/or receiver don’t conform to this rule, data is
delivered to wrong destination and, which trigger confusion and miscommunication within the network/

■ Message Encoding: an agreed-upon method of communicating

■ Message Formatting and Encapsulation: set common ground for communications

■ Message Timing: agreed-upon speed and timing of delivery

If both sides participating in communication fail to assure that these rules are met, content of the
communication is highly at risk of being exposed.

4.2. Impact of Bandwidth Requirement


 Bandwidth is the amount of data that can be communicated in a measured period of time. The
common unit of measurement are Kbit/s, Mbit/s, etc. A network’s bandwidth is impacted by the
design principles of its physical architecture.
 To maintain a network’s reliability, it is necessary to keep track of how much bandwidth each
parts of the network requires for it functionality. In a business network, if bandwidth requirement
isn’t satisfied, productivity will decline.

III. The Operating Principles of Networking Devices and


Server Types
1. The principles of networking devices

Figure 11

Bridge
 Bridge is a second class device in the OSI (Data Link Layer) model. Bridge is used to pair two
networks using the same protocol.
 When a packet from a networked computer goes to another networked computer, the bridge
copies the packet and sends it to the destination network.
 Bridge is transparent, which mean that it is unneccessary for computers belonging to different
networks to know the presence of Bridge to be able to communicate.

Figure 12. Bridge


Repeater
 A repeater is a device at Layer 1 (Physical Layer) in the OSI model. Repeater has the role of
amplifying the physical signal at the input and energising the output signal.

Figure 13. Repeater

Hub

Figure 14. Hub

 Hub is like a multi-port repeater (Hub has 4 to 24 ports). Hub enables signal input from one port
to be taken to all other ports.
 There are two types of Hub: Active Hub and Smart Hub.
o Active Hub is a commonly used hub used to amplify incoming and outgoing signals at the
remaining ports, ensuring the required signal level.
o Smart Hub (Intelligent Hub) functions similarly to Active Hub, but has a built-in chip that
automatically detects errors in the network.

Switch
 Switch is like a Bridge with multiple ports. Unlike Bridge having only two ports to link two networks
together, Switch is capable of connecting more depending on the number of ports.
 Switch stores information about the network through the packets it receives from the network
and uses this information to build the Switch.
 In data communications, the switch usually has two main functions: moving frames from source
to destination, and building switch boards.
 Switch operates at much higher speed than Repeater and provides more functionality such as
the ability to create virtual LANs (VLANs).
Figure 15. Switch

Router
 Router is 3-layer network device in the OSI model. Router connects two or more IP networks
together.
 Routers can be connected to different types of networks, from high-speed local Ethernet to
slow-speed telephone lines.
 However, Router is slower than Bridge because it needs more computing power to figure out
how to route packets, especially when networks are not connected at the same speed.
 Routers are built exclusively on a protocol. Nowadays all commercial routers can handle many
types of protocols. However, the cost is higher.

Figure 16. Router

Gateway
 Gateway enables the connection of two networks using different protocols. Computers in these
protocols can connected to each other thank to Gateway.
 Gateway not only distinguishes between protocols but also can distinguish applications such as
how users move email from one network to another, convert a remote session.

Figure 17. Gateway


2. The principles of server types.
Dedicated Server:
 is a server running on hardware and supporting devices including: HDD, CPU, RAM,
network card, Upgrading or changing the configuration of a particular server requires
changes to the server hardware

Virtual Private Server


 is a server-based form of virtualization that separates from a single server into multiple
virtual servers. Virtual servers have the same features as a dedicated server, but run
resource sharing from the original physical server.

Cloud Server
 is a server that combines many different physical servers and storage systems with
unmatched access speed to help servers run fast, stable, and minimize downtime. Cloud
server is built on cloud computing technology, so it's easy to upgrade each part of the
process without sacrificing server utilisation.

IV. The Inter-Dependence of Workstation Hardware with


Relevant Networking Software
1. Workstation Hardware Definition
In networking , workstation is refered to one of the 3 roles of the computer in the network; the other two
is server and peer (Posey, 2016). To be exact, workstations are computers connected to the network to
have access to resources but do not host resources of their own. By this definition, workstation can be
computer of any hardware type.

2. Networking Software Definition


Network softwares are applications being to set-up, manage and monitor over the network. Unlike
desktop software, which operates only in the scope of the computer it is ran in, the equivalent software
brings more possablities such as ability to read data from and store data into the network or ability to
keep itself up-to-date automatically, etc. (Austin, n.d.).

3. Discussion of Inter-Dependence of Workstation Hardware with


Relevant Networking Software
 Network softwares are necessary for workstations as they provide workstations with various
indispensable functionalities. The most important ones among them are namely protocol driver
software, network requestor, etc. (Burgess, 2004)
 To make the most out of their abilities, network softwares need computers to be connected to
the network. In the thriving world of Internet nowadays, workstations are always connected to
interconnected Ethernet interface (Burgess, 2004).

V. Design a Network System


1. User Requirement
 People: 50 students, 15 teachers, 12 marketing and administration staff, 5 higher managers
including the head of academics and the programme manager, 3 computer network
administrators
 Resources: 50 student lab computers, 35 staff computers, 3 printers
 Infrastructure: 3 floors, all computers and printers are on the ground floor apart from the IT labs
– one lab located on the first floor and another located on the second floor

2. Logical Design
3. Physical Design

4. Documentation
Configure Servers
DNS Server:
Email Server:

Web Server:
Configure School Router:
Encapsulate data:

Enable DHCP and assign set of IPs to IP pools (repeat these steps for other data pools of
Student, Staff, Manager and NetAdmin):

Configure OSPF for support of IP subnetting:

Configure floor switches:


Create VLANs:
Assign VLANs and set up trunk post:

References
Al-shawi, M., 2016. CCDA Study Guide. Indianapolis: Pearson Education, Inc..

Anon., n.d. [Online]


Available at: http://aboutnetworking.weebly.com/types-of-computer-networks-advantages-and-
disadvantages-of-networks.html

Anon., n.d. BTEC National Computing and IT Concepts. s.l.:s.n.

Austin, S. N., n.d. Types of Network Software. [Online]


Available at: https://www.techwalla.com/articles/types-of-network-software
[Accessed 5 March 2019].

Burgess, M., 2004. Principles of Network and System Administration. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley.

Dye, M. A., McDonald, R. & Rufi, A. W., 2008. Network Fundamentals: CCNA Exploration Companion
Guide. Indianapolis: Cisco Press.

Posey, B., 2016. Networking Basics: Part 4 - Workstations and Servers. [Online]
Available at: http://techgenix.com/Networking-Basics-Part4/
[Accessed 5 March 2019].

Tanenbaum, A. S., 2002. Computer Networks. 5th ed. s.l.:Prentice Hall .