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Project Name Job No Sheet No Rev

1.04
Client Prepared By Checked By

Section of Project Date Date

MOVEMENT 2 Apr 19
REFERENCE CALCULATIONS OUTPUT

BS8007 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY


Tbl 5.1
It is proposed to minimise the number of movement joints in the
structures by designing the elements as fully continuous construction
to BS8007 between movement joints. Sufficient reinforcement will be
provided to control cracking of the concrete due to thermal and
shrinkage movements.
Where appropriate, loading due to environmental temperature effects
also will be included in the element design. BS8007 will normally be
used as the basis of the design, however the following documents are
also referred to. These reports will be used where they
supersede/clarify BS8007:
1. Early Age Thermal Crack Control in Concrete, CIRIA Report No 91, 1992.
2. Large Area Pours for Suspended Slabs: A Design Guide, Issue 3,
Reinforcing Links, published by the British Cement Association, 1993.

Four types of restrained movement are considered, namely:

1. Heat of Hydration Effects.


2. Seasonal Temperature Variations.
3. Shrinkage Effects.
4. Differential Temperature Variations.

Normally, only effects 1, 2 and 3 apply. Differential temperature


effects need only be considered where there is a significant
temperature difference across an element e.g., solar gain in roofs, etc.

1. HEAT OF HYDRATION, T1

The basis for Table A.2 of BS 8007 is shown below. The temperature
change T1 is the drop from the hydration peak temperature to ambient
temperature. The placing temperature in the UK is assumed to be
20°C and the ambient temperature is assumed to be 15 °C.
Heat of Hydration v Time (Table A.2)
70

60

The limits for T1


50
are:
Temperature ºC

40 >= 20°C for walls


>=15°C for slabs
30

5
20
8
10

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Time (Days)

However, in Dubai the ambient temperature varies from 13°C in


January to 41°C in August. Therefore, in winter similar conditions to
the UK can be assumed but for summer concreting the Table A.2
values will need to be amended.

Page1 04/02/2019 07:56:18 PC File Ref: 414310343.xls


Project Name Job No Sheet No Rev

1.05
Client Prepared By Checked By

PO Box 52750 A.Nair


Section of Project Date Date
Dubai

United Arab Emirates MOVEMENT 2 Apr 19


REFERENCE CALCULATIONS OUTPUT
1. HEAT OF HYDRATION T1 (contd)

In summer, the concrete is cooled by flaked ice to limit the placing


temperature to lessthan 30°C and CIRIA Report 91 suggests the
following overestimate for the higherplacing temperatures that occur
CIRIA 91 in the Middle East:
Eqn 2 Hq = H20 x 2g(Tq - 20) where g = 0.084
\ Table A.2 Multiplier = H30/H20 = 20.084(30-20) = 1.79, say 1.8

BS8007 However, the above temperature rises are unlikely to be greater than 15%
p 22 over that given in Table A.2 for massive sections Table A.2
\ Use the following (safe) overestimate for Heat of Hydration Effects: Multipliers
for T1
T1 = Table A.2 value x 1.8 for the actual section thickne T 1
= 1.8 x h
£ Table A.2 value x 1.15 using 1000 thickness T1 £ 1.15x1m thk
³ 20°C T1 ³ 20ºC
2. SEASONAL TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS, T2

Mean daily maximum and minimum temperatures for a typical year in the UAE
(Dubai 1995) are:
MONTH MAX MIN Using mean of means:
°C °C
Jan 24.8 13.9 Max Daily Temperature (August)
Feb 26.0 15.5 = (41.2 + 30.6)/2 = 35.9 °C
Mar 26.2 17.1
Apr 31.6 19.7 Min Daily Temperature (January)
May 36.6 23.5 = (24.8 + 13.9)/2 = 19.4 °C
Jun 38.7 25.8
Jul 38.5 28.4 \Seasonal Temperature Variation
Aug 41.2 30.6 = 35.9 - 19.4 = 16.5, say 17 °C T2 = 17 °C
Sep 38.4 26.9
Oct 35.9 23.8 Note: Internal design temperature of
Nov 30.4 19.2 buildings is 21 °C. Therefore, it is safe
Dec 24.2 17.2 to use min temperature of 19.4 °C
3. SHRINKAGE EFFECTS
Figures for Relative Humidity (RH) are shown below:
MONTH MAX MIN MEAN
% % % Buildings are usually designed
Jan 87 48 70 to be de-humidified to 50%
Feb 84 41 66 RH. This compares well with
Mar 88 48 71 the minimum mean RH
Apr 76 30 53
May 73 26 50 \Use RH = 50% for Long-Term
Jun 82 33 59 long-term effects RH = 50%
Jul 85 42 66
Aug 76 32 55 \Use RH = 26% (minimum) Short-Term
Sep 82 34 60 for short-term effects (SAF RH = 26%
Oct 83 32 61
Nov 80 39 61
Dec 90 61 77

Page2 04/02/2019 07:56:19 PC File Ref: 414310343.xls


Project Name Job No Sheet No Rev

1.06
Client Prepared By Checked By

PO Box 52750 A.Nair


Section of Project Date Date
Dubai

United Arab Emirates MOVEMENT 2 Apr 19


REFERENCE CALCULATIONS OUTPUT
4. DIFFERENTIAL TEMPERATURE EFFECTS, T4

It is not possible to give explicit guidance on the design for


differential temperatureeffects because these will vary depending on
the location of the individual elementwithin the structure. Areas where
differential temperature effects should be consideredare roofs, cold
stores, etc.
CRACK CONTROL EQUATION
CIRIA 91
Eqn 11 Crackwidth = (fct/fb).(f/2r).(eth + esh - tsc/2)

Tbl 11 where (fct/fb) = 0.67 for short-term effects & 0.52 for long-term effects

eth = e1 + e2 + e4 & en = Kn.Rn.a.Tn for n = 1, 2 & 4

esh = K.R.esh

CRITICAL & MINIMUM STEEL RATIOS

Provide at least the critical steel ratio everywhere to ensure that early thermal cracking
is evenly distributed.

Material Propertie fy = 460 MPa


BCA Reinforcing fcu = 45 MPa
Links 3
Eqn 2 3-day tensile strength, fct = 0.12(fcu)0.7 for 3-day tensile strength
= 0.12 x (45.0)^0.7
\fct = 1.72 MPa
BS8007
A.2 Critical Steel ratio, rcrit = fct/fy = 1.72/460 = 0.37% rcrit = 0.37%

The critical steel ratio is applied to the whole section for sections less
than 500 thick and it is applied to 250 thick surface zones for sections
greater than 500 thick. However, provide the minimum steel ratio of:
BS8110
Tbl 3.27 Min steel ratio, r min = 60.Ac/fy = 60.Ac/460 = 0.13% Ac r min
= 0.13%
CONCRETE PROPERTIES

The aggregate used in the concrete mix will probably be a crushed


sandstone. However, BS8110 does not include properties for
sandstone, therefore derive them by comparing the BS8110 values
with the CIRIA values.
Aggregate Type Coefficient of Thermal Tensile Strain
BS8110 Part 2 Expansion,a (x10-6) Capacity,tsc (x10-6)
Tbl 3.2 BS8110 Limeston 8.0 2 x 90 = 180 **
CIRIA 91 Tbl 1 CIRIA Sandstone 4.3 - 12.1 ~
CIRIA Limestone 1.8 - 11.9 ~ a = 8 x 10-6
CIRIA 91 Tbl 8 CIRIA Crushed Ro ~ 180 tsc = 180 x 10-6

** Designer's Note: BS8110 value already includes tsc/2 factor.

Page3 04/02/2019 07:56:19 PC File Ref: 414310343.xls


UK T 20 40 25 19 17 16.3 15.8 15.4 15.2
Time 0 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Gulf T 30 64 56 29 24 24
Time 0 2 4 8 11 15
15 15
11 12