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Chapter 2 : Cell Structure and Cell Organisation

2.1 Cell Structure and Function


1. Living organisms are made of basic units called cells.
2. Cells are very small and they are different shapes and sizes.
3. We need a microscope to look at them.
4. Each cell is unique because it has its own function.
5. Function of cells is to carry out life processes such as respiration, excretion, growth and division.
6. Generally, a cell is made up of a plasma membrane which contains protoplasm.
7. Protoplasm is made up of cytoplasm and nucleus.
8. Cytoplasm contains many organelles.
9. Organelles are specialised structures which each surrounded by its own membrane and perform
specific functions.
10. Organelles that are found in animal cells include nucleus, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum,
mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, ribosomes, centrioles and vacuoles.
11. Plant cells have chloroplasts in addition to all organelles in animal cells except centrioles.

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Cellular Structure Function
Component
N Plasma membrane Thin, semi-permeable membrane Control substances entering and leaving
O the cell
N
- Cell wall Made up of cellulose and fully permeable Maintain the shape of plant cells.
O
R
G Cytoplasm  Jelly-like substance that contains water  Place where metabolic reaction takes
A and mineral salts. place.
N  Contain organelles  Supplies substances required by
E organelles
L
L
E
S
Nucleus  Spherical with double membrane  Controls and coordinates all cellular
O  Contain nucleolus, chromosomes, activities
R nucleoplasm and nuclear membrane
G
A Ribosomes Exists freely in cytoplasm or on surface of Sites of protein synthesis
N rough endoplasmic reticulum
E
L Rough endoplasmic  Network of folded membranes Transport protein synthesized by
L reticulum forming interconnected tubules ribosomes to other parts of cell
E  Has ribosomes attach on it
S
Smooth  Network of folded membranes  Stimulates the synthesis of lipids
endoplasmic forming interconnected tubules and cholesterol and transport them
reticulum  Does not have ribosomes attach on it within the cell
 Detoxified drugs and poisonous
Mitochondria Rod-shapped with double membrane Produces energy for the chemical
reactions of the cell

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Golgi apparatus Stack of flattened membranes  Receives protein and lipids from
endoplasmic reticulum and modify
them to form specific secretions
such as enzymes and hormones
 Pack the secretions formed into
secretory vesicles and transport
them to plasma membrane to
secreted out
 Formation of lysosomes
Chloroplast Disc-shaped organelle with a double Carry out photosynthesis
membrane
Centrioles Cylindrical structures and found only in Centrioles separate to form spindle fibre
animal cells during cell division

Vacuole Cavities filled with cell sap surrounded by  Contain water, sugar, dissolved
a semi-permeable membrane called minerals and waste products.
tonoplast  Maintain turgidity of cells in plant.
Lysosome Membrane-bound sacs that contain  Digest/break down complex organic
hydrolytic enzymes molecules such as lipids,
polysaccharides, proteins and
nucleic acid
 Eliminate worn out mitichondria
and damaged organelles

Comparison between Structure of an Animal Cell and a Plant Cell


Similarities
Both have plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, rough endoplasmic
reticulum and smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Animal Cell Differences Plant Cell


No fixed shape Shape Fixed shape
Does not have a cell wall Cell wall Has cellulose cell wall
Does not have chloroplast Chloroplasts Has chloroplasts which contain chlorophyll
Usually exists as numerous small Vacuole Usually has a large vacuole
vacuoles
Glycogen granule Food storage Starch granule
Present Centriole Absent

Relationship between density of certain organelle and function of cells


1. Density of organelle may differ according to the function of cell.
2. For example
a) sperm cells have many mitochondria to provide energy for the sperm to swim
b) salivary glands have a lot Golgi apparatus to produce enzymes.
c) flight muscle cells in insects and birds have a high density of mitochondria to enable them to move
their wings during flight
d) Meristems cells of plant shoots and roots are actively dividing cells. Cell division requires energy,
meristem cells have many mitochondria.
e) Mesophyll palisade cells in green plants have a high density of chloroplasts to carry out
photosynthesis.

2.2 Cell Organisation


1. Generally, organisms are divided into two types: unicellular organisms and multicellular organisms.
2. Unicellular organisms are single cell organisms such as Amoeba sp. and Paramecium sp.
3. Each cell is one organism and able to carry out all functions of life independently.
4. Multicellular organisms are larger organisms with more than one cell.

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Unicellular Organisms
1. Unicellular organisms are simple organisms consisting of only one cell each.
2. Amoeba sp. and Paramecium sp. are examples of unicellular organisms called protozoa.

a) Amoeba sp.
1. Amoeba sp. lives in water including water in soil.
2. It has no fixed shape and their shape changes as they move.
3. Cytoplasm divides into two: ectoplasm (outer layer) and
endoplasm (inner layer).

4. (a) Movement
It moves by extending pseudopodia or ‘false feet’ and anchoring tips on the ground. This
followed by flow of cytoplasm into projected pseudopodia.
(b) Reproduction
Amoeba sp. reproduces asexually by binary fission (environment favourable), when
environment not conducive (such as during drought) to reproduction, Amoeba sp. forms spores.

(c) Feeding
Amoeba sp. engulf food by phagocytosis. It feeds on microscopic organisms such as bacteria
(holozoic organism).

Feeding process (refer to diagram below):


In the presence of food, Amoeba sp. extending its pseudopodia and enclose the food which then
packaged in food vacuole. Food vacuole then fuses with lysosome and food digested by
hydrolytic enzyme called lysozyme. Nutrients then absorbed into cytoplasm.

(d) Gaseous exchange


The exchange of gases, nutrients and waste substances occur through plasma membrane by
diffusion.

(e) Osmoregulation
Amoeba sp. lives in freshwater. Water difffuses into cell by osmosis and fill the contractile
vacuole. Contractile vacuole involved in osmoregulation. It contracts to expel its content from
time to time.

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b) Paramecium sp.
1. Lives in stagnant water
2. Feeds on bacteria
3. It has fixed shape, like a slipper.
4. It has two nucleus, micronucleus (control sexual reproduction) and macronucleus (control all
activities and asexual reproduction).
5. It has contractile vacuoles which are involved in osmoregulation.

Functions:

Oral groove: leads foods to gullet


Contractile vacuole: This removes excess water which
enters the cell by osmosis. Water enters the Paramecium sp.
by osmosis and is collected by the contractile vacuoles.
When full, the vacuole moves to the side of the membrane
and contracts to expel the excess water.
Cillia: Tiny hairs that cover the whole surface

a) Movement
Paramecium sp. Moves by rhythmic beating of water by cilia. This action enables it to move
forward while rotating and spiraling along its axis.

b) Feeding
Cilia around oral groove brush food to gullet and then enter cytoplasm to form food vacuole.
Enzyme added to digest food and nutrient is absorbed. Waste is released through anal pore.
As food is digested, it is moved in a circular path round the cell- this process known as cyclosis.

c) Reproduction
Reproduce by binary fission (asexually), and when environment unfavourable, conjugation
(sexually) takes place.

Conjugation

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Multicellular Organisms
1. Multicellular organisms have more than one cell.
2. Multicellular organisms are more complex and need many different types of cell to carry out life
processes. This is achieved through cell specialization and cell organization.
3. Examples are hydra, spirogyra, ferns, plants, human and animals.

Cell Specialisation
1. Each type of cell is different in size, shape and structure.
2. Each cell is not capable to perform all the life processes.
3. Hence, multicellular organisms need cell specialisation to enable them to perform different
functions.
4. Cell specialization is the process where cells grow, change shape and differentiate to carry out
specific functions.
5. For example, cells may specialised in transport, defence, support or feeding.

Cell Organisation
1. The organisation of cells allows every part of a multicellular organism to perform various functions
efficiently.

Cell  Tissues  Organs  Systems Multicellular organism

Cell Organisation in Animals

Cell
1. Cells are basic units of life in all organisms.
2. Various types of animal cells :
a) Red blood cell – transport oxygen from lungs to cells
b) Nerve cell – send nerve impulses
c) Sperm cell – fertilises egg cell
d) Muscle cell – causes movement

3. Various types of plant cells:


a) Epidermal cells – protect the leaf
b) Palisade mesophyll cells – carry out photosynthesis
c) Phloem cells – transport water and mineral salts
d) Guard cells – control size of stoma for gaseous exchange

Tissue
1. Tissue is defined as a group of similar cells that work together to perform specific function.
2. Four main types of animal tissues:
Epithelial tissue, nervous tissue, muscle tissue and connective tissue.

Types of animal tissue Characteristics and function


a) Epithelial tissue  Consists of one or more layers of cells,
tightly interconnected, with little space
i) Epithelium lining of skin between them.
 Form a continuous layer over body
ii) Epithelium lining of blood capillary surfaces (exp: skin and mouth) and inner
lining of cavities (lining of stomach,

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small intestine, trachea and lungs
 Epithelial cells carry out functions
associated with protection, secretion
and absorption.

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Types of animal tissue Characteristics and function
b) Nervous tissue  Consist nerve cells called neurones
 Send and receive impulses to coordinate
body activities.
 Found in brain and spinal cord
 Examples : afferent neurone, efferent
neurone, interneurone

c) Muscle tissue  Consist muscle cells which can contract


and relax to perform work
Examples : cardiac muscle (wall of heart), smooth  Cause body movement
muscle (wall of digestive tract), skeletal muscle  Three types of muscle tissue: smooth
(attached to bones) muscle, skeletal muscle and cardiac
muscle.

 Smooth muscle (C) constrict blood vessels


to control the blood flow, contraction
produces peristalsis that moves food along
the digestive tract. Smooth muscle control
involuntary movement.

 Cardiac muscle (B) contract to pump


blood out of the heart. Responsible for
involuntary movement.

 Skeletal muscle (A) responsible for


voluntary movement and contraction of
skeletal muscles produce movements of
various body parts.

d) Connective tissue  Consist of elastic and non-elastic fibres


 Join together body structure, to support,
hold and support the cells in the body.
 Can store and transport material

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System
1. Several organs which work together to carry out a specific function is called system.
Systems in Human Function Systems in Human Function
Circulatory System Transport nutrients, gases Endocrine system Secretes hormone.
and wastes to and from Hormones are
cells, helps fight diseases chemical that play a
and help stabilize body role in regulating
temperature and pH to metabolism, growth,
maintain homeostasis. development and
puberty and also in
Organ : Heart, blood determining mood.
vessels
Organ : pituitary,
thyroid, adrenal gland,
pancreas, ovary
(female only), testes
(male only)

Digestive System Breaks down food in the Nervous System Conduct impulses the
body, into a form that can body, spinal cord and
be absorbed. brain.

Organ : Duodenum, small Organ : Brain, Spinal


intestine, large intestine cord, peripheral
nerves, sense organs

Reproductive System Reproduce offspring Integumentary System Protects the body from
Organ : Organ : Skin damage.
Female -ovaries, uterus,
vagina
Male – Testes, penis

Respiratory System Allow gas exchange Muscular System Initiates heartbeat,


working with skeletal
system in movement
and locomotion

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Organ : Nose, trachea, Organ : Muscle
lungs

Skeletal System Support the body, protect Excretory System Eliminates the waste
internal organ, produce products of
red and white blood cells, metabolism
plays important role in
movement. Organ : Kidneys, skin
and lung
Organ : Bones, tendons,
ligaments, cartilage

Lymphatic System Remove interstitial fluid


(Immune System) from tissues, absorbs and
transport fatty acids and
fats to the circulatory
system, produce immune
cells.

Organ : lymphatic nodes,


lymphatic vessels, spleen,
thymus gland

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Cell Organisation in Plants
Tissues
Types of plant tissue Characteristics and function
a) Meristematic tissues  young and actively dividing cells which have
not undergone differentiation
 located at tips of roots and buds of shoot

b) Permanent tissues  consist of mature cells that have undergone


differentiation or still undergoing
differentiation

i) epidermal tissues  Epidermal tissue forms the outermost layer.


Cuticle on epidermal tissue helps prevent loss
of water through evaporation, protects plant
from mechanical injury and prevent invasion of
disease by microorganism.

ii) ground tissues


- forms bulk of a plant
a) Parenchyma tissue  Parenchyma tissues have thin walls and large
vacuoles, store sugar and starch. Parenchyma
tissue gives support and shape to herbaceous
plants.
b) Collenchyma tissue  Collenchyma tissues have unevenly thickened
cell walls, support non-woody (herbaceous)
plants, young stem and petioles.
c) Sclerenchyma tissue  Sclerenchyma tissues are more rigid, have cell
walls which are thickened by lignin. Most of
the cells are dead and provide support,
strengthens the plant body and give protection
to the plant.

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iii) vascular tissues  Xylem consists of xylem vessels joined
- consists of xylem (transport water together end to end from roots up to shoots.
and minerals) and phloem The cell wall of xylem thickened with lignin to
(transport organic nutrients) which provide mechanical strength to the plant.
are continuous throughout the
plant.  Phloem consists of sieve tubes and companion
cells. Companion cells provide nutrients and
energy to sieve tubes.

Organ
1. Examples of plant organs are leaves, stems, roots, flowers and fruits.

System
1. Two main systems of flowering plants are
(i) root system – consists of all the roots of a plant
(ii) shoot system – consists of organs such as stems, leaves, buds, flowers and fruits

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Regulating the Internal Environment
1. The internal environment of a multicellular organism consists of the interstitial fluid (fills the spaces
between the cells and constantly bathes the cells) and blood plasma.
2. In order to ensure that metabolic process occur at optimal rate, internal environment of cells need to
keep constant and optimal.
3. Homeostasis is the process to regulate physical and chemical factors in the internal environment so that
it is always constant and optimal for the cells to function.
4. a) The physical factors affecting internal environment include temperature, blood pressure and
osmotic pressure.
b) The chemical factors include salt and sugar content and pH.
5. The mechanism that governs homeostasis is called the negative feedback mechanism.

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2.3 The Uniqueness of Cells
1. All the cellular components in a cell work together harmoniously to function efficiently and to ensure its
survival.
2. For example: various cellular components in a cell working together to produce secretion such as
enzymes.

a) Ribosomes receive information from nucleus to build protein


b) The synthesised protein is then transported by endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi
apparatus in small vesicles.
c) The Golgi apparatus modifies the protein into specific secretions such as enzyme.
d) The secretion is packaged in vesicles called secretory vesicles, which are then budded
off from Golgi apparatus.
e) The vesicles are transferred to the plasma membrane to be released out of the cell.

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