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PANJAB UNIVERS ITY CHANDIGARH- 16001 4 (INDIA)

(Estted. under the Pan jab University Act VII of 1947-enacted by the Govt. of India)

FACULTY OF SCIENCE

SYLLABI

FOR

BIOTECHNOLOGY

(ELECTIVE)

Semester System

EXAM INATIONS 2018-2019

1
BIOTECHNOLOGY (ELECTIVE) EXAMINATIONS 2018-2019

st st
B.Sc. 1 Year (1 Semester)

Code

S.No. Theory Practical


Course/Paper
Course No. Mark Course No. Mark
s s

1. Introduction to BIOT-Elect-Sem- 75 BIOT-Elect-Sem- 25


Biotechnology I-T I-P
M. Marks: 100 Time: 3 Hours

st nd
B.Sc. 1 Year (2 Semester)

Code

S.No. Course/Paper Theory Practical

Course No. Marks Course No. Marks

Foundations of BIOT-Elect-Sem- BIOT-Elect-Sem-


1. 75 25
Biotechnology II-T II-/P

M. Marks: 100 Time: 3 Hours

2
B.Sc. 2nd Year (3rd Semester)

Code
S.No. Course/Paper Theory Practical
Course No. Marks Course No. Marks
Introduction to Genetic
1. Engineering and BIOT-Elect-Sem-III-T 75 BIOT-Elect-Sem-III-P 25
Immunotechnology
M. Marks: 100 Time: 3 Hours

B.Sc. 2nd Year (4th Semester)

Code
S.No. Course/Paper Theory Practical
Course No. Marks Course No. Marks
Fundamentals of
1. Molecular Biology BIOT-Elect-Sem-IV-T 75 BIOT-Elect-Sem-IV-/P 25
and Genetics
M. Marks: 100 Time: 3 Hours

B.Sc. 3rd Year (5th Semester)

Code
S.No. Course/Paper Theory Practical
Course No. Marks Course No. Marks
Plant & Animal
1. BIOT-Elect-Sem-V-T 75 BIOT-Elect-Sem-V-/P 25
Biotechnology
M. Marks: 100 Time: 3 Hours

B.Sc. 3rd Year (6th Semester)

Code
S.No. Course/Paper Theory Practical
Course No. Marks Course No. Marks
Environment &
1. Fermentation BIOT-Elect-Sem-VI-T 75 BIOT-Elect-Sem-VI-/P 25
Biotechnology
M. Marks: 100 Time: 3 Hours

3
BIOTECHNOLOGY (ELECTIVE)EXAMINATIONS 2018-2019
st st
B.Sc. 1 Year (1 Semester)

Code

S.No. Theory Practical


Course/Paper

Course No. Marks Course No. Marks

1. Introduction to BIOT-Elect-Sem- 75 BIOT-Elect-Sem- 25


Biotechnology I-T I-P
M. Marks: 100 Time: 3 Hours

Paper: Introduction to Biotechnology Theory: 67 Marks

Code No: BIOT-Elect-Sem-I-T Internal Ass.: 8 Marks

Instructions for paper setters and candidates

• Set nine questions in all from three sections. All questions carry equal

marks.
O Section A will cover Unit I & II
• Set 2 questions from each unit out of which any 2 are to be attempted
O Section – B will cover Unit – III & IV
• Set 2 questions from each unit out of which any 2 are to be attempted

O Section – C will be compulsory and will have 7 – 10 short answer


type (not objective type) questions covering the whole syllabus.

Objective:

In this course, the students will be introduced to the subject of


biotechnology and made aware of the experimental techniques used in
biotechnology along with the various biosafety practices that must be
followed. Since the experimental data needs further verification by
statistical analysis, basics of statistics will also be taught to the
students.

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UNIT- I

General Introduction: Origin and Definition of Biotechnology, History


from Biology to Biotechnology.
Scope and importance: Emergence of Modern Biotechnology and its
promises in agriculture, medicine and environmental sciences, Red, white,
Green and Blue biotechnology.

Biotechnology in India: Various Centres of Biotechnology in India, their


objectives and achievements.

Regulatory issues in Biotechnology: Biosafety in developed & developing


countries; Biosafety levels, Protocols, Benefits and Risks, Risk assessment
and regulatory mechanism. Good Laboratory Practices.

UNIT- II

Structure and function of cell: The basic unit of life.

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells.

Organisms used as model systems in biotechnology: E.coli, Saccharomyces


cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus musculus,
Arabidopsis thaliana.

Role of viruses and bacteriophages in biotechnology.

Fundamentals of recombinant DNA Technology: Definition, Basic concept


and use of vectors, restriction enzymes and ligases.

UNIT –III

Basic Techniques in Biotechnology

Sterilization techniques used in Biotechnology, Sonication.


Microscopy: Principle, & working of various microscopes (bright field, phase
contrast, fluorescent)
Centrifugation: Theory, Types of centrifugation and their application to
biological systems.
Chromatography: Principles, TLC, Gel permeation, Ion exchange.

Electrophoresis: Principle, types and applications.

UNIT- IV

Role of Computers in Biotechnology: Introduction to Computers, various

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devices, memory and application.

Fundamentals of statistics: Data types, data collection and data


representation, mean, median, mode, measure of dispersion.
Probability definition, addition and multiplication theorem, Baye’s theorem.

Reference Books:

1. Biochemistry by L. Stryer, 5th Edition (2002), W H Freeman and company,


New York.
2. Modern concepts of Biotechnology. (2003) H.D. Kumar.Vikas Publishing
House
3. Biotechnology An introduction. Susan R. Barnum, 2nd Edition,
(2005),Thomas Brooks/Cole.
4. Microbiology by Micheal J. Pelczar , E.C.S. Chan, Noel R. Krieg , (2001) Tata
McGraw-Hill.
5. Microbiology by Lansing M Prescott, (2007), 7thEdition,Tata McGraw−Hill.
6. Principles and techniques of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology by Keith
Wilson and John Walker. 7th Edition Cambridge University Press.

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Paper: Introduction to Biotechnology (Practical) Theory: 22 Marks

Code No: BIOT-Elect-Sem-I-P Internal Ass.: 3 Marks

1. Use of simple and compound microscope, Measurement of cell size by


ocular micrometer.

2. Visualisation of cell structure from Onion peel, structure of various


tissues (Liver, Kidney and lungs), Paramecium, Euglena.

3. Sterilization techniques: Autoclaving, Filter sterilization, Heat


sterilization.

4. Preparation of permanent slide using Microtome.


5. TLC for separation of amino acids/ lipids.

6. Types and parts of centrifuges, Density gradient centrifugation by Ficol


method.

7. Chromosome studies (Mitosis and meiosis) by squash preparation.

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st nd
B.Sc. 1 Year (2 Semester)

Code

S.No. Course/Paper Theory Practical

Course No. Marks Course No. Marks

Foundations of BIOT-Elect-Sem- BIOT-Elect-Sem-


1. 75 25
Biotechnology II-T II-/P

M. Marks: 100 Time: 3 Hours

Paper: Foundations of Biotechnology Theory: 67 Marks

Code No: BIOT-Elect-Sem-II-T Internal Ass.: 8 Marks

Instructions for paper setters and candidates

• Set nine questions in all from three sections. All questions carry equal
marks.
O Section A will cover Unit I & II

• Set 2 questions from each unit out of which any 2 are to be attempted
O Section – B will cover Unit – III & IV

• Set 2 questions from each unit out of which any 2 are to be attempted

O Section – C will be compulsory and will have 7 – 10 short


answer type (not objective type) questions covering the whole
syllabus.

Objective:

The objective of this paper is to impart knowledge about microbes, its


types, basis of classification and uses. The students will also be
taught the structural and functional aspects of cellular
macromolecules and further techniques used in biotechnology.
Further, a unit on enzymes is included to make the students aware of
their importance in industrial biotechnology.

UNIT- I
Microbiology

History of Microbiology.

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Classification of Microbes, current methods of microbial identification,
characteristic features of Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Fungi, Algae,
Protozoa and Viruses.
Nutritional classification of micro-organisms: microbes in extreme
environments the thermophiles and alkalophiles.
Nature of the microbial cell surface: Gram positive and gram negative
bacteria, flagella, pili, cell inclusions, endospore, growth curve,
microbial metabolism and growth, synchronized and continuous
growth.
Products from microorganisms: Primary and Secondary metabolites
and their commercial uses.

Unit-II

Basic Biochemistry
Suitability of organic compounds for generation of structure, storage of
energy & information.
Structure & Functions of Biomolecules: Carbohydrates – Classification,
characteristics, chemical reactions and functions of monosaccharides,
disaccharides, polysaccharides (structural and storage). Epimers, isomers,
anomers, pyranose and furanose forms, Reducing and non-reducing sugars.
Lipids: Classification and function of lipids.

Fatty acids: General formula, nomenclature and chemical properties.


Structure, function and properties of simple, complex, acylglycerols,
phosphoglycerides, sphingolipids, waxes, terpenes, steroids and
prostaglandins.
Unit-III

Proteins: Classification of proteins according to biological functions


(Enzymes, transport, storage, contractile, structural, defense and
regulatory), Classification, structure and chemical reactions of amino acids,
primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure in proteins.

Enzymes: Classification, nomenclature, general properties, regulation of


enzyme activity. Steady state kinetics.
Applications in industries: Enzymes in food processing, medicine,
diagnostics and production of new compounds
Enzymes as research tools: ELISA methods, immobilized enzymes.

Unit-IV
Electron Microcopy: SEM, TEM, STEM and their applications in biology,
Preparation of samples for electron microscopy.

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Spectrometry: Principles & applications of UV, VIS spectrometry, IR and
Raman spectroscopy.
Hybridization Techniques: Southern blotting, Northern Blotting, Western
blotting.
Radioisotope Techniques: Proportional and scintillation counter and
autoradiography; principles and applications.

Crystallography: X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction and neutron


diffraction.
Reference Books:

1. Molecular Biology of Cells by Watson, J. Alberts, B et al. (2004)


2. The World of the cell by Becker, Smith & Hardin 2007, Pearson
Education.
3. Biology, concept and application by Starr (2006) Pearson Education.
4. Microbiology by Micheal J. Pelczar , E.C.S. Chan, Noel R. Krieg , (2001)
Tata McGraw-Hill
5. Microbiology by Lansing M Prescott, (2007), 7thEdition,Tata McGraw−Hill.
6. Principles of Biochemistry A.L. Lehninger, Nelson & Cox. (2004)
6. Biochemistry by L. Stryer, 5th Edition (2002), W H Freeman and
company, New York.
7. Biochemistry by, Voet, D and Voet, J.G., 4th edition, (2011) Willey.
8. Principles and techniques of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology by Keith
Wilson and John Walker. 7th Edition Cambridge University Press.

PRACTICAL – TECHNIQUES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

1. Isolation of microorganisms from air, water and soil samples by


spread plates, streaking, dilution and pour plating.
2. Personal hygiene-Microbes from hands, tooth –scum and other body
parts.
3. Staining of bacteria (simple and Gram staining),
4. Direct microscopic count and viable cell counting by
5. dilution and pour plating.
6. Testing of quality of milk and water.
6. Estimation of proteins by UV-Spectrophotometer based on Beer-
Lambert’s Laws.
7. Estimation of sugars.
8. Quantitation of DNA/RNA.

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B.Sc. 2nd Year, 3rd Semester

Code
S.No. Course/Paper Theory Practical
Course No. Marks Course No. Marks
Introduction to Genetic
1. Engineering and BIOT-Elect-Sem-III-T 75 BIOT-Elect-Sem-III-P 25
Immunotechnology
M. Marks: 100 Time: 3 Hours

Paper: Introduction to Genetic Engineering and Immunotechnology


Course No.: BIOT-Elect-Sem-III-T
M. Marks: 75
Time: 3 Hours
Instructions for paper setters and candidates
• Set nine questions in all from three sections. All questions carry equal marks.
• Section A will cover Unit I & II
Set 2 questions from each unit out of which any 2 are to be attempted
• Section – B will cover Unit – III & IV
Set 2 questions from each unit out of which any 2 are to be attempted
• Section – C will be compulsory and will have 7 – 10 short answer type (not objective type)
questions covering the whole syllabus.

Objective:
The objective of this paper is to introduce the fundamental concepts of genetic engineering
and its application in producing recombinant proteins and other beneficial products of
commercial values in various microbial systems including E.coli, yeast, fungi etc. This course
will also enhance the students’ understanding of immune response in animals / humans and
pathways which provide resistance against pathogens. Further, the students will learn about
the immune cells, the MHC complex and the role of antigens and antibodies.

UNIT-I
Introduction: History and scope of recombinant DNA technology. Gene cloning and need to
clone a gene. DNA Modifying enzyme, Restriction endonucleases, exonucleses, ligases,
polymerase, kinase, alkaline phosphatase, topoisomerases etc.
Purification of DNA from bacterial, plant and animal cells.
Cloning and expression vectors: Cloning vectors for E.coli and yeast, bacteriophages and
cosmids.

UNIT-II
DNA cloning strategies : Preparation of genomic and cDNA libraries, transformation and
transfection, electroporation, screening of gene library and selection of clone.
Introduction to PCR and its applications

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UNIT-III
Immunotechnology
Basic Immunology: Types of immunity – innate, acquired, active and passive.
Cells and tissues of immune system: Lymphoid cells, mononuclear cells, lymphoid organs.
Antigen:- Immunogenicity, chemical composition, immunogen dosage, Haptens, adjuvants.
Antibody structure, function and types-Antibody diversity, Ig Domains.
Ag-Ab interactions – Cross reactions, precipitation and agglutination.
Immunological Techniques: Immunodiffusion, Immunoelectrophoresis.

UNIT-IV

Major Histo-compatibility complex (MHC), MHC restriction, regulation.


Antigen presentation and processing antigen presenting cells, cell mediated subset of T-cells,
Cytotoxic helper and suppressor cells.
Cell mediated and humoral immunity, antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity, natural
killer cells.

References:
1. Immunology by J. Kuby, 6th Edition (2007) W.H. Freeman.
2. Essentials of Immunology by I.Roitt 12th Edition (2011)
3. Immunology : An Introduction – I.R. Tizard 9th Edition (2012), Elsevier
4. A handbook of practical Immunology Eds. G.P. Talwar and S.K.Gupta, 2nd Edition CBS
Publishers & Distributors Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, 2009
5. Principles of Genes manipulation by R.W. Old, Twyman and S.B. Primrose, (2002) 6th
Edition. Blackwell Science.
6. Gene cloning and DNA Analysis –An Introduction by T.A. Brown 6th Edition (2007),
Wiley-Blackwell
7. Gene VIII, B. Lewin, (2004)
8. Lewin’s Genes X by Jocelyn E. Krebs, Eliot.E Granstein, (2011). Jones and Bartlett
publishers
9. Genetics: From Genes to Genomes by Hartwell et al. 4th Edition (2010)
10. Fundamentals of Genetic Engineering (Vol.12) by R.H. Rehm and G. Reed.

PRACTICAL : INTRODUCTION TO GENETIC ENGINEERING AND


IMMUNOTECHNOLOGY
M. Marks: 25

1. Preparation of serum and plasma


2. ELISA
3. To determine the WBC Count.
4. Radial immunodifussion analysis.
5. Agglutination reaction
6. Restriction digestion of DNA
7. Amplification of DNA by PCR
8. Isolation of plasmid from bacteria.

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B.Sc. 2nd Year, 4th Semester

Code
S.No. Course/Paper Theory Practical
Course No. Marks Course No. Marks
Fundamentals of
1. Molecular Biology BIOT-Elect-Sem-IV-T 75 BIOT-Elect-Sem-IV-/P 25
and Genetics
M. Marks: 100 Time: 3 Hours

Paper: Fundamentals of Molecular Biology and Genetics


Course No.: BIOT-Elect-Sem-IV-T
M. Marks: 75
Time: 3 Hours

• Set nine questions in all from three sections. All questions carry equal marks.
• Section A will cover Unit I & II
Set 2 questions from each unit out of which any 2 are to be attempted
• Section – B will cover Unit – III & IV
Set 2 questions from each unit out of which any 2 are to be attempted
• Section – C will be compulsory and will have 7 – 10 short answer type (not objective type)
questions covering the whole syllabus.

Objective:
In this course, the students will learn about the genetic makeup of prokaryotes and
eukaryotes, the DNA structure, its replication, transcription, translation and the mode of
developing recombinants. Additionally, this course will cover the basics of mutations
(induced and spontaneous) and their importance in studying gene function.

UNIT-I
Molecular basis of life
Structure of DNA, evidences, properties, types.
DNA replication both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, DNA polymerases, DNA recombination
molecular mechanism prokaryotic and eukaryotic,

UNIT-II
Structure of Prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes.

Transcription: Initiation, Elongation and Termination in prokaryotes and Eukaryotes


Post transcriptional modifications

UNIT-III
Translation :Initiation, Elongation and Termination in prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

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Post translation modifications : Acetylation, glycosylation and phosphorylation

Prokaryotic gene expression (Lac, His, trp operons, catabolic repression)


Eukaryotic gene expression (transcription factors, enhancers, insulators)

UNIT-IV
Mendelian Laws of inheritance
Chromosomal theory of inheritance
Chromosome structure and organization, chromosomal banding
Structural and numerical aberrations in chromosomes
Gene mapping – linkage
Population genetics

Mutations:- Types, chemical and physical mutagens, induced mutations in plants, animal and
microbes and their importance.
Insertion elements and Transposons.

References:
1. Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology (1994) S.J. Kendrew.
2. Molecular Cell Biology by Lodish et al (2004) Freeman & Co.
3. Molecular Biology of the genes by Watson et al, 5th Ed., (2006) Pearson Edu.
4. Biochemistry by Voet & Voet 2004 John Wiley & Sons Ltd., New York.
5. Genetics A molecular Approach (Peter – J. Russel) 2006
6. Genetics by Peter Snustand and Michael J. Simmons 6th edition (2012)
7. Genetics by Strickberger M.W, 3rd edition

PRACTICAL – FUNDAMENTALS OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND GENETICS

M. Marks: 25

1. Isolation of chromosomal DNA from bacteria


2. Cytological Preparations: Fixation, Dehydration & Staining
3. Agarose gel electrophoresis
4. Chi-Square test for determining the Significance of the data
5. U.V. mutagenesis in bacteria.

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B.Sc. 3rd Year, 5th Semester, Biotechnology (Elective)

Code
S.No. Course/Paper Theory Practical
Course No. Marks Course No. Marks
Plant and Animal
1. BIOT-Elect-Sem-V-T 75 BIOT-Elect-Sem-V-/P 25
Biotechnology
M. Marks: 100 Time: 3 Hours

Paper: Plant and Animal Biotechnology


Course No.: BIOT-Elect-Sem-V-T
M. Marks: 75
Time: 3 Hours
Instructions for paper setters and candidates

 Set nine questions in all in three sections. All questions carry equal marks.
 Section A will cover Unit I & II
Set 2 questions from each unit and any 2 is to be attempted

 Section – B will cover Unit – III & IV


Set 2 questions from each unit and any 2 is to be attempted

 Section – C will be compulsory and will have 7 – 10 short answer type (not objective
type) questions covering the whole syllabus.

Objective:

Since Biotechnology deals with improvement of plants and animals and culturing of
specific cells/ cell lines in laboratory. These require in depth knowledge of various techniques
of culturing of plant and animal cells, formulation of media, respective vectors and their uses
in transformation and probable contaminations and remedies to overcome them.

PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY
UNIT-I
Introduction to in vitro methods : Micropropagation ovule & ovary culture, embryo culture,
endosperm culture, somatic embryogenesis & organogenesis, somaclonal & gametoclonal
variations, haploids & their applications.

Protoplast isolation, methods, testing their viability & regeneration, various methods of
fusion: somatic hybridization & their applications.

15
UNIT-II
Direct and indirect transformation of plants. Tumor formation in plant using Agrobacterium
tumefaciens. Mechanism of T-DNA transfer to plants, plasmid vectors for plant
transformation. Genetic manipulation of plants for virus resistance, pest resistance, herbicide
tolerance, resistance to fungi and bacteria.

ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
UNIT-III
Introduction to animal cell cultures
Requirement (laboratory equipment, media etc. primary and secondary culture cell lines)
Anchorage dependence and contact inhibition.

Contamination & remedial measures


Monolayer and suspension cultures.
Cryopreservation and germplasm storage.
Establishment of gene banks.

UNIT-IV
Cytodifferentation culturing of differentiation cells and retention of properties
Large scale production of animal cell in culture.
Transformation of animal cells. Transgenesis, applications of transgenic animal, Biofarming.
Stem cells : their applications in biology & medicine cloning : Procedure, applications &
problems.

PRAC TICAL – PLANT AND ANIMAL TISSUE CULTURE PRACTICAL


M. Marks: 25
1. Initiating Plant Tissue culture
2. Growth of plant cells into undifferentiated mass by manipulation of media
3. Embryogenesis in cultured cells
4. Initiation of cell suspension culture
5. Micropropagation: Plant multiplication and rooting
6. Preparation of Hank’s Balanced Salt Solution
7. Preparation of Minimal Essential Growth Medium
8. Isolation of Lymphocytes by Ficoll paque
9. DNA isolation from Blood Sample

16
B.Sc. 3rd Year, 6th Semester, Biotechnology (Elective)

Code
S.No. Course/Paper Theory Practical
Course No. Marks Course No. Marks
Environmental &
1. Fermentation BIOT-Elect-Sem-VI-T 75 BIOT-Elect-Sem-VI-/P 25
Biotechnology

Paper: Plant and Animal Biotechnology


Course No.: BIOT-Elect-Sem-VI-T M. Marks: 75
Time: 3 Hours
Instructions for paper setters and candidates

 Set nine questions in all in three sections. All questions carry equal marks.
 Section A will cover Unit I & II
Set 2 questions from each unit and any 2 is to be attempted
 Section – B will cover Unit – III & IV
Set 2 questions from each unit and any 2 is to be attempted
 Section – C will be compulsory and will have 7 – 10 short answer type (not objective
type) questions covering the whole syllabus.

Objective:

Paper B is designed to understand the types of environmental pollutants, waste,


effluents, fertilizers, pesticides, their causes, removal and various strategies to overcome
waste related problems, involving microbial degradation. How microbes can recycle nutrients
in nature and can be eco friendly. The other aspect in this paper will introduce the use of
microbes for commercialization. They will learn their methods of isolation, improvement and
sustaining for years without change in characters. The objective of this paper is to make them
aware regarding the fermentation technology based upon use of microbes and the production
of good products by upstream and downstream process.

ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
UNIT-I

Introduction to Environment.

Renewable and Non Renewable resources. Conventional Fuels and their Environmental
Impacts.
Modern Fuels and their Environmental Impacts.
Methanogenic bacteria and biogas, microbial hydrogen production, conversion of sugars to
ethanol, The gasohol experiment, solar energy, converters – Hopes from the Photosynthetic
pigments.
Treatment of municipal waste and industrial effluents.

17
UNIT-II

Degradation of pesticides and other toxic chemicals by microorganism.

Biodegradation of organic compounds.


Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin as a Natural Pesticide.

Biological control of other insects swarming the agricultural fields.

Enrichment of ores by microorganisms.


Biofertilizers – Nitrogen fixing microorganism enrich the soil with assimilable nitrogen.

FERMENTATION BIOTECHNOLOGY
UNIT-III

Isolation and screening of microbes of industrial importance.


Strain Improvement : mutations and genetic manipulations.
Metabolites: Primary and secondary metabolic designs (expansion of substrate spectrum,
product yield, redesigning of secondary metabolic pathways.) Preservation of microbes.
Introduction to fermentation processes: Inoculum development for industrial fermentation.
Substrates for fermentation media.
Sterilization: Principles and practices; fermenters and its accessories, fermentation media.
Types of industrial fermentations: Submerged, surface, continuous, bubble, cap bed batch etc.

UNIT-IV

Fermentation equipment : Design of fermenters, tank construction materials, control panels,


antifoams, autoclaving.
Energetic of microbial growth in fermenters : Reaction rates, heat and mass transfer, transport
phenomenon in reactors, macroscopic balances of energy and energy flow.
Upstream and downstream processing of industrial fermentations,
Cell disruptions, centrifugation, flocculation, filtration, ultrafiliteration, untracentrifugation,
gel filtration, chromatographic methods, and two phase aqueous separations.
Immobilization of cells and enzymes.
Hygiene and safety in a fermentation laboratory.
Practical – Environmental & Fermentation Biotechnology M.Marks 25

1. To determine the pH of garden soil by pH meter.


2. To study soil texture, water holding capacity of soil.
3. Qualitative analysis of soil, water etc.
4. Collection & Culturing of Microbes from some polluted spot and see their microbial
activity.
5. Isolation of pesticide degrading organism from soil.

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6. Isolation of Industrially important micro-organisms from soil samples.
7. Maintenance and culture of Saccharomyces cervisae in the laboratory.
8. Staining of S. cervisae.
9. Batch fermentation using shake flask for ethanol production.
10. Demonstration and working of the laboratory scale bioreactor.

**********

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